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Environmental Health Perspectives

Sharon Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Katherine E Boronow, Herbert P Susmann, Krzysztof Z Gajos, Ruthann A Rudel, Kenneth C Arnold, Phil Brown, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Laurie Havas, Julia Green Brody
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Nate Seltenrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Carrie Arnold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Nelly D Saenen, Karen Vrijens, Bram G Janssen, Harry A Roels, Kristof Y Neven, Wim Vanden Berghe, Wilfried Gyselaers, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Patrick De Boever, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) affects human fetal development during pregnancy. Oxidative stress is a putative mechanism by which PM2.5 may exert its effects. Leptin (LEP) is an energy-regulating hormone involved in fetal growth and development. OBJECTIVES: We investigated in placental tissue whether DNA methylation of the LEP promoter is associated with PM2.5 and whether the oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarker 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTp) is involved...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Jingjin Shi, Zhijing Lin, Renjie Chen, Cuicui Wang, Changyuan Yang, Jing Cai, Jingyu Lin, Xiaohui Xu, Jennifer A Ross, Zhuohui Zhao, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Practical approaches to protect individuals from ambient particulate matter (PM) are urgently needed in developing countries. Evidence on the health benefits of wearing particulate-filtering respirators is limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the short-term cardiovascular health effects of wearing respirators in China. METHODS: A randomized crossover trial was performed in 24 healthy young adults in Shanghai, China in 2014. The subjects were randomized into two groups and wore particulate-filtering respirators for 48 hr alternating with a 3-week washout interval...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Aaron W Tustin, Annemarie G Hirsch, Sara G Rasmussen, Joan A Casey, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Brian S Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) produces environmental contaminants and psychosocial stressors. Despite these concerns, few studies have evaluated the health effects of UNGD. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between UNGD activity and symptoms in a cross-sectional study in Pennsylvania. METHODS: We mailed a self-administered questionnaire to 23,700 adult patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Using standardized and validated questionnaire items, we identified respondents with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
J Michael Wright, Amanda Evans, John A Kaufman, Zorimar Rivera-Núñez, Michael G Narotsky
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that women exposed to disinfection by-products (DBPs) have an increased risk of delivering babies with cardiovascular defects (CVDs). OBJECTIVE: We examined nine CVDs in relation to categorical DBP exposures including bromoform, chloroform, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), and summary DBP measures (HAA5, THMBr, THM4, and DBP9)...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Mark F Miller, William H Goodson, Masoud H Manjili, Nicole Kleinstreuer, William H Bisson, Leroy Lowe
BACKGROUND: The current single-chemical-as-carcinogen risk assessment paradigm might underestimate or miss the cumulative effects of exposure to chemical mixtures, as highlighted in recent work from the Halifax Project. This is particularly important for chemical exposures in the low-dose range that may be affecting crucial cancer hallmark mechanisms that serve to enable carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Could ongoing low-dose exposures to a mixture of commonly encountered environmental chemicals produce effects in concert that lead to carcinogenesis? A workshop held at the NIEHS in August 2015 evaluated the scientific support for the low-dose mixture hypothesis of carcinogenesis and developed a research agenda...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Deborah A Cohen, Bing Han, Kelly R Evenson, Catherine Nagel, Thomas L McKenzie, Terry Marsh, Stephanie Williamson, Peter Harnik
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that the design of streets and sidewalks can influence physical activity among residents. Park features also influence park use and park-based physical activity. Although individuals can walk on streets and sidewalks, walking loops in parks offer a setting to walk in nature and to avoid interruptions from traffic. OBJECTIVES: Here we describe the use of walking loops in parks and compare the number of park users and their physical activity in urban neighborhood parks with and without walking loops...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Marta Rava, Ismail Ahmed, Manolis Kogevinas, Nicole Le Moual, Emmanuelle Bouzigon, Ivan Curjuric, Marie-Hélène Dizier, Orianne Dumas, Juan R Gonzalez, Medea Imboden, Amar J Mehta, Pascale Tubert-Bitter, Jan-Paul Zock, Deborah Jarvis, Nicole M Probst-Hensch, Florence Demenais, Rachel Nadif
BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms by which cleaning products and disinfectants-an emerging risk factor-affect respiratory health remain incompletely evaluated. Studying genes by environment interactions (G × E) may help identify new genes related to adult-onset asthma. OBJECTIVES: We identified interactions between genetic polymorphisms of a large set of genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and occupational exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) agents or irritants on adult-onset asthma...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Yun Xie, Stephanie Holmgren, Danica M K Andrews, Mary S Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Evaluating the impact of federally funded research with a broad, methodical, and objective approach is important to ensure that public funds advance the mission of federal agencies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a methodical approach that would yield a broad assessment of National Toxicology Program's (NTP's) effectiveness across multiple sectors and demonstrate the utility of the approach through a case study. METHODS: A conceptual model was developed with defined activities, outputs (products), and outcomes (proximal, intermediate, distal) and applied retrospectively to NTP's research on hexavalent chromium (CrVI)...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Joel A Mathews, Nandini Krishnamoorthy, David Itiro Kasahara, Youngji Cho, Allison Patricia Wurmbrand, Luiza Ribeiro, Dirk Smith, Dale Umetsu, Bruce D Levy, Stephanie Ann Shore
BACKGROUND: Ozone increases IL-33 in the lungs, and obesity augments the pulmonary effects of acute ozone exposure. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the role of IL-33 in the augmented effects of ozone observed in obese mice. METHODS: Lean wildtype and obese db/db mice were pretreated with antibodies blocking the IL-33 receptor, ST2, and then exposed to ozone (2 ppm for 3 hr). Airway responsiveness was assessed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and lung cells harvested for flow cytometry 24 hr later...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Timothy J Wade, Rachael M Jones, Lee S Friedman, Coady Wing, Samuel Dorevitch
BACKGROUND: The burden of illness can be described by addressing both incidence and illness severity attributable to water recreation. Monetized as cost, attributable disease burden estimates can be useful for environmental management decisions. OBJECTIVES: We characterize the disease burden attributable to water recreation using data from two cohort studies using a cost of illness (COI) approach and estimate the largest drivers of the disease burden of water recreation...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Andria M Cimino, Abee L Boyles, Kristina A Thayer, Melissa J Perry
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified detectable levels of neonicotinoids (neonics) in the environment, adverse effects of neonics in many species, including mammals, and pathways through which human exposure to neonics could occur, yet little is known about the human health effects of neonic exposure. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we sought to identify human population studies on the health effects of neonics. METHODS: Studies published in English between 2005 and 2015 were searched using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Md Saidur Rahman, Woo-Sung Kwon, Polash Chandra Karmakar, Sung-Jae Yoon, Buom-Yong Ryu, Myung-Geol Pang
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to offspring reproductive abnormalities. However, exactly how BPA affects offspring fertility remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gestational BPA exposure on sperm function, fertility, and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. METHODS: Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were gavaged with BPA at three different doses (50 μg/kg bw/day, 5 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) on embryonic days 7 to 14...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Stephane A Beaudin, Barbara J Strupp, Myla Strawderman, Donald R Smith
BACKGROUND: Studies in children and adolescents have associated early developmental manganese (Mn) exposure with inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and oppositional behaviors, but causal inferences are precluded by the correlational nature of the data and generally limited control for potential confounders. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether early postnatal oral Mn exposure causes lasting attentional and impulse control deficits in adulthood, and whether continued lifelong Mn exposure exacerbates these effects, using a rat model of environmental Mn exposure...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Geoffrey R Browne, Ian D Rutherfurd
BACKGROUND: Both public health, and the health of the natural environment, are affected by policy decisions made across portfolios as diverse as finance, planning, transport, housing, education, and agriculture. A response to the interdependent character of public health has been the "health in all policies" (HiAP) approach. OBJECTIVES: With reference to parallels between health and environment, this paper argues that lessons from HiAP are useful for creating a new integrated environmental management approach termed "environment in all polices" (EiAP)...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Jason G Su, Meredith A Barrett, Kelly Henderson, Olivier Humblet, Ted Smith, James W Sublett, LaQuandra Nesbitt, Chris Hogg, David Van Sickle, James L Sublett
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological asthma research has relied upon self-reported symptoms or healthcare utilization data, and used the residential address as the primary location for exposure. These data sources can be temporally limited, spatially aggregated, subjective, and burdensome for the patient to collect. OBJECTIVES: First, we aimed to test the feasibility of collecting rescue inhaler use data in space-time using electronic sensors. Second, we aimed to evaluate whether these data have the potential to identify environmental triggers and built environment factors associated with rescue inhaler use and to determine whether these findings would be consistent with the existing literature...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Frederica P Perera
BACKGROUND: Approaches to estimating and addressing the risk to children from fossil fuel combustion have been fragmented, tending to focus either on the toxic air emissions or on climate change. Yet developing children, and especially poor children, now bear a disproportionate burden of disease from both environmental pollution and climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. OBJECTIVE: This commentary summarizes the robust scientific evidence regarding the multiple current and projected health impacts of fossil fuel combustion on the young to make the case for a holistic, child-centered energy and climate policy that addresses the full array of physical and psychosocial stressors resulting from fossil fuel pollution...
February 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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