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Environmental Health Perspectives

Cheng Peng, Martijn den Dekker, Andres Cardenas, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Heike Gibson, Golareh Agha, Maria H Harris, Brent A Coull, Joel Schwartz, Augusto A Litonjua, Dawn L DeMeo, Marie-France Hivert, Matthew W Gilman, Sharon K Sagiv, Yvonne de Kluizenaar, Janine F Felix, Vincent W Jaddoe, Emily Oken, Liesbeth Duijts, Diane R Gold, Andrea A Baccarelli
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic variability is hypothesized as a regulatory pathway through which prenatal exposures may influence child development and health. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the associations of residential proximity to roadways at birth and epigenome-wide DNA methylation. We also assessed associations of differential methylation with child cognitive outcomes. METHODS: We estimated residential proximity to roadways at birth using a geographic information system (GIS) and cord blood methylation using Illumina's HumanMethylation450-array in 482 mother-child pairs in Project Viva...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Krittika Krishnan, Nitish Mittal, Lindsay M Thompson, Mariana Rodriguez-Santiago, Christine L Duvauchelle, David Crews, Andrea C Gore
BACKGROUND: Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during gestation influences development of the F1 generation offspring and can result in disease and dysfunction in adulthood. Limited evidence suggests consequences on the F2 generation, exposed as germ cells within the F1 fetus. These F2s provide a unique window into the programming effects of EDCs. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed intergenerational effects of EDC exposure on adult physiology and behavior in Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Kimberly Berger, Brenda Eskenazi, Katherine Kogut, Kimberly Parra, Robert H Lustig, Louise C Greenspan, Nina Holland, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Kim G Harley
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in many consumer products, may impact the timing of puberty. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the association of prenatal exposure to high-molecular-weight phthalates and BPA with pubertal timing in boys and girls participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: We quantified urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites and BPA at two time points during pregnancy among participating mothers ([Formula: see text]) and conducted clinical Tanner staging of puberty on their children every 9 months between 9 and 13 y of age...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Ronit Nirel, Sara D Adar, Uri Dayan, Bella Vakulenko-Lagun, Michal Golovner, Ilan Levy, Zvi Alon, Alon Peretz
BACKGROUND: Subclinical cardiovascular changes have been associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures within hours. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to look for additional evidence of effects associated with sub-daily PM exposure, this information is still limited because most studies of clinical events have lacked data on the onset time of symptoms to assess rapid increased risk. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate associations between sub-daily exposures to PM and acute cardiac events using telemedicine data...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Linda S Birnbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Warren M Casey, Xiaoqing Chang, David G Allen, Patricia C Ceger, Neepa Y Choksi, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Barbara A Wetmore, Stephen S Ferguson, Michael J DeVito, Catherine S Sprankle, Nicole C Kleinstreuer
BACKGROUND: To effectively incorporate in vitro data into regulatory use, confidence must be established in the quantitative extrapolation of in vitro activity to relevant end points in animals or humans. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate and optimize in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approaches using in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) activity to predict estrogenic effects measured in rodent uterotrophic studies. METHODS: We evaluated three pharmacokinetic (PK) models with varying complexities to extrapolate in vitro to in vivo dosimetry for a group of 29 ER agonists, using data from validated in vitro [U...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Maxime Woringer, Nadège Martiny, Souleymane Porgho, Brice W Bicaba, Avner Bar-Hen, Judith E Mueller
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis causes a high burden of disease in the African meningitis belt, with regular seasonal hyperendemicity and sporadic short, but intense, localized epidemics during the late dry season occurring at a small spatial scale [i.e., below the district level, in individual health centers (HCs)]. In addition, epidemic waves with larger geographic extent occur every 7-10 y. Although atmospheric dust load is thought to be an essential factor for hyperendemicity, its role for localized epidemics remains hypothetic...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Geniece M Lehmann, Judy S LaKind, Matthew H Davis, Erin P Hines, Satori A Marchitti, Cecilia Alcala, Matthew Lorber
BACKGROUND: Human health risk assessment methods have advanced in recent years to more accurately estimate risks associated with exposure during childhood. However, predicting risks related to infant exposures to environmental chemicals in breast milk and formula remains challenging. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to compile available information on infant exposures to environmental chemicals in breast milk and formula, describe methods to characterize infant exposure and potential for health risk in the context of a risk assessment, and identify research needed to improve risk analyses based on this type of exposure and health risk information...
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Todd J Zurlinden, Brad Reisfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Philip J Landrigan, Richard Fuller, Howard Hu, Jack Caravanos, Maureen L Cropper, David Hanrahan, Karti Sandilya, Thomas C Chiles, Pushpam Kumar, William A Suk
Pollution is a major, overlooked, global health threat that was responsible in 2015 for an estimated 9 million deaths and great economic losses. To end neglect of pollution and advance prevention of pollution-related disease, we formed the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health. Despite recent gains in understanding of pollution and its health effects, this Commission noted that large gaps in knowledge remain. To close these gaps and guide prevention, the Commission made research recommendations and proposed creation of a Global Observatory on Pollution and Health...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Deirdre K Tucker, Schantel Hayes Bouknight, Sukhdev S Brar, Grace E Kissling, Suzanne E Fenton
BACKGROUND: Continued efforts to phase out bisphenol A (BPA) from consumer products have been met with the challenges of finding safer alternatives. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether early-life exposure to BPA and its related analogues, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS), could affect female pubertal mammary gland development and long-term mammary health in mice. METHODS: Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to vehicle, BPA (0...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Weiye Wang, Sayoko Moroi, Kelly Bakulski, Bhramar Mukherjee, Marc G Weisskopf, Debra Schaumberg, David Sparrow, Pantel S Vokonas, Howard Hu, Sung Kyun Park
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the etiology of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The association between risk of POAG and lead exposure, which is an environmental source of oxidative stress, has not been fully investigated yet. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the association between bone lead—a biomarker of cumulative lead dose (tibia lead) or an endogenous source of stored lead (patella lead)—and incident POAG. METHODS: We examined a prospective cohort of 634 POAG-free men [mean baseline age=66...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Gwen W Collman, Brian R Berridge, Janet E Hall, Rick Woychik, Darryl C Zeldin, Linda S Birnbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Silvia Alemany, Natàlia Vilor-Tejedor, Raquel García-Esteban, Mariona Bustamante, Payam Dadvand, Mikel Esnaola, Marion Mortamais, Joan Forns, Barend L van Drooge, Mar Álvarez-Pedrerol, Joan O Grimalt, Ioar Rivas, Xavier Querol, Jesus Pujol, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution is emerging as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impaired brain development. Individual differences in vulnerability to air pollution may involve the ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E ( APOE ) gene, the primary genetic risk factor for AD. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed whether the association between traffic air pollution and neurodevelopmental outcomes is modified by APOE ε4 status in children. METHODS: Data on parent-reported behavior problems (total difficulties scores, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), teacher-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom scores, cognitive performance trajectories (computerized tests of inattentiveness and working memory repeated 2-4 times during January 2012-March 2013), and APOE genotypes were obtained for 1,667 children age 7-11 y attending 39 schools in or near Barcelona...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Huyen T K Le, Ralph Buehler, Steve Hankey
BACKGROUND: Walking and bicycling are health-promoting and environmentally friendly alternatives to the automobile. Previous studies that explore correlates of active travel and the built environment are for a single metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and results often vary among MSAs. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to model the relationship between the built environment and active travel for 20 MSAs spanning the continental United States. METHODS: We sourced and processed pedestrian and bicycle traffic counts for 20 U...
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Xue Feng Hu, Kavita Singh, Hing Man Chan
BACKGROUND: Body burden of mercury has been linked to hypertension in populations exposed to high mercury levels. OBJECTIVES: We summarized, extracted, and pooled the results of published studies that investigated mercury biomarkers and hypertension or blood pressure (BP) measurements to examine this potential relationship. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and TOXLINE and selected studies according to a priori defined inclusion criteria...
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Éric Lavigne, Richard T Burnett, David M Stieb, Greg J Evans, Krystal J Godri Pollitt, Hong Chen, David van Rijswijk, Scott Weichenthal
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) has been associated with preterm delivery and low birth weight (LBW), but few studies have examined possible effect modification by oxidative potential. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate if regional differences in the oxidative potential of PM2.5 modify the relationship between PM2.5 and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 196,171 singleton births that occurred in 31 cities in the province of Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2012...
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Nate Seltenrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Lindsey Konkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Menghang Xia, Ruili Huang, Qiang Shi, Windy A Boyd, Jinghua Zhao, Nuo Sun, Julie R Rice, Paul E Dunlap, Amber J Hackstadt, Matt F Bridge, Marjolein V Smith, Sheng Dai, Wei Zheng, Pei-Hsuan Chu, David Gerhold, Kristine L Witt, Michael DeVito, Jonathan H Freedman, Christopher P Austin, Keith A Houck, Russell S Thomas, Richard S Paules, Raymond R Tice, Anton Simeonov
BACKGROUND: A central challenge in toxicity testing is the large number of chemicals in commerce that lack toxicological assessment. In response, the Tox21 program is re-focusing toxicity testing from animal studies to less expensive and higher throughput in vitro methods using target/pathway-specific, mechanism-driven assays. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to use an in-depth mechanistic study approach to prioritize and characterize the chemicals affecting mitochondrial function...
July 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
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