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Environmental Health Perspectives

Sarah M Hatcher, Sarah M Rhodes, Jill R Stewart, Ellen Silbergeld, Nora Pisanic, Jesper Larsen, Sharon Jiang, Amanda Krosche, Devon Hall, Karen C Carroll, Christopher D Heaney
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households. METHODS: In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Richard K Kwok, Lawrence S Engel, Aubrey K Miller, Aaron Blair, Matthew D Curry, W Braxton Jackson, Patricia A Stewart, Mark R Stenzel, Linda S Birnbaum, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster led to the largest ever marine oil spill. Individuals who worked on the spill were exposed to toxicants and stressors that could lead to adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: The GuLF STUDY was designed to investigate relationships between oil spill exposures and multiple potential physical and mental health effects. METHODS: Participants were recruited by telephone from lists of individuals who worked on the oil spill response and clean-up or received safety training...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Carrie V Breton, Carmen J Marsit, Elaine Faustman, Kari Nadeau, Jaclyn M Goodrich, Dana C Dolinoy, Julie Herbstman, Nina Holland, Janine M LaSalle, Rebecca Schmidt, Paul Yousefi, Frederica Perera, Bonnie R Joubert, Joseph Wiemels, Michele Taylor, Ivana V Yang, Rui Chen, Kinjal M Hew, Deborah M Hussey Freeland, Rachel Miller, Susan K Murphy
BACKGROUND: Characterization of the epigenome is a primary interest for children's environmental health researchers studying the environmental influences on human populations, particularly those studying the role of pregnancy and early-life exposures on later-in-life health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to consider the state of the science in environmental epigenetics research and to focus on DNA methylation and the collective observations of many studies being conducted within the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers, as they relate to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
David T Szabo, Wimal Pathmasiri, Susan Sumner, Linda S Birnbaum
BACKGROUND: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant added to building insulation foams, electronics, and textiles. HBCD is a commercial mixture (CM-HBCD) composed of three main stereoisomers: α-HBCD (10%), β-HBCD (10%), and γ-HBCD (80%). A shift from the dominant stereoisomer γ-HBCD to α-HBCD is detected in humans and wildlife. OBJECTIVES: Considering CM-HBCD has been implicated in neurodevelopment and endocrine disruption, with expected metabolism perturbations, we performed metabolomics on mice serum obtained during a window-of-developmental neurotoxicity to draw correlations between early-life exposures and developmental outcomes and to predict health risks...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Cagri Camsari, Joseph K Folger, Devin McGee, Steven J Bursian, Hongbing Wang, Jason G Knott, George W Smith
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to the heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) is known to increase the risk of chronic diseases. However, to our knowledge, exposure to Cd and Hg beginning at the periconception period has not been studied to date. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of Cd and Hg that were co-administered during early development on indices of chronic diseases in adult male mice. METHODS: Adult female CD1 mice were subcutaneously administered a combination of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and methylmercury (II) chloride (CH3HgCl) (0, 0...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Dries S Martens, Sandra Gouveia, Narjes Madhloum, Bram G Janssen, Michelle Plusquin, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Bertil Forsberg, Malin Nording, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: As part of the lipidome, oxylipins are bioactive lipid compounds originating from oxidation of different fatty acids. Oxylipins could provide a new target in the developmental origins model or the ability of early life exposure to change biology. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association between in utero PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm) exposure and oxylipin profiles in newborns. METHODS: Thirty-seven oxylipins reflecting the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (5-LOX and 12/15-LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways were assayed in 197 cord blood plasma samples from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Karen Vrijens, Ellen Winckelmans, Maria Tsamou, Willy Baeyens, Patrick De Boever, Danyel Jennen, Theo M de Kok, Elly Den Hond, Wouter Lefebvre, Michelle Plusquin, Hans Reynders, Greet Schoeters, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Jos Kleinjans, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed in 98 healthy volunteers (48 men, 50 women). The expression of eight sex-specific candidate biomarker genes (significantly associated with PM10 in the discovery cohort and with a reported link to air pollution-related disease) was measured with qPCR in an independent validation cohort (75 men, 94 women)...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Rémi Béranger, Ronan Garlantézec, Gaïd Le Maner-Idrissi, Agnès Lacroix, Florence Rouget, Jessica Trowbridge, Charline Warembourg, Christine Monfort, Florent Le Gléau, Marylène Jourdin, Luc Multigner, Sylvaine Cordier, Cécile Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Glycol ethers (GE) are widely used organic solvents. Despite the potential neurotoxicity of several families of organic solvents, little is known about the impact of GE on the neurodevelopment of infants and children. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relation between urinary concentrations of GE metabolites in pregnant women and neurocognitive abilities in their 6-year-old children in the PELAGIE mother-child cohort. METHODS: Five GE metabolites were measured in first morning void urine samples of 204 French pregnant women in early pregnancy (< 19 weeks of gestation)...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Steve Hankey, Greg Lindsey, Julian D Marshall
BACKGROUND: Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. OBJECTIVES: Our goals were a) to investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and b) to assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Melinda K Butterworth, Cory W Morin, Andrew C Comrie
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, caused by a mosquito-transmitted virus, is an increasing health concern in the Americas. Meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation can affect disease distribution and abundance through biophysical impacts on the vector and on the virus. Such tightly coupled links may facilitate further spread of dengue fever under a changing climate. In the southeastern United States, the dengue vector is widely established and exists on the current fringe of dengue transmission...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Ya-Ru Yang, Yung-Ming Chen, Szu-Ying Chen, Chang-Chuan Chan
BACKGROUND: Studies on the effect of air pollutions on kidney diseases are still limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the associations between particulate matter (PM) exposures and renal function among adults. METHODS: We recruited 21,656 adults as participants from 2007 to 2009. The Taiwanese Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation was used to derive the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Subjects with an eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Nilima Gandhi, Ken G Drouillard, George B Arhonditsis, Sarah B Gewurtz, Satyendra P Bhavsar
BACKGROUND: The North American Great Lakes are home to > 140 types of fish and are famous for recreational and commercial fishing. However, the presence of toxic substances has resulted in the issuance of fish consumption advisories that are typically based on the most restrictive contaminant. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether these advisories, which typically neglect the existence of a mixture of chemicals and their possible additive adverse effects, are adequately protective of the health of humans consuming fish from the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Mercedes A Bravo, Keita Ebisu, Francesca Dominici, Yun Wang, Roger D Peng, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: Evidence of health risks associated with ambient airborne fine particles in nonurban populations is extremely limited. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the risk of hospitalization associated with short-term exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in urban and nonurban counties with population ≥ 50,000. METHODS: We utilized a database of daily cardiovascular- and respiratory-related hospitalization rates constructed from Medicare National Claims History files (2002-2006), including 28 million Medicare beneficiaries in 708 counties...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Lauren J Donoghue, Thomas I Neufeld, Yin Li, Yukitomo Arao, Laurel A Coons, Kenneth S Korach
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are suspected of altering estrogenic signaling through estrogen receptor (ER) α or β (mERβ1 in mice). Several EDC effects have been reported in animal studies and extrapolated to human studies. Unlike humans, rodents express a novel isoform of ERβ (mERβ2) with a modified ligand-binding domain sequence. EDC activity through this isoform remains uncharacterized. OBJECTIVES: We identified the expression pattern of mERβ2 in mouse tissues and assessed the estrogenic activity of EDCs through mERβ2...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Bram G Janssen, Nelly D Saenen, Harry A Roels, Narjes Madhloum, Wilfried Gyselaers, Wouter Lefebvre, Joris Penders, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Karen Vrijens, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are critical for fetal development and growth. Whether prenatal exposure to fine particle air pollution (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) affects fetal thyroid function and what the impact is on birth weight in normal healthy pregnancies have not been studied yet. OBJECTIVES: We studied the impact of third-trimester PM2.5 exposure on fetal and maternal thyroid hormones and their mediating role on birth weight. METHODS: We measured the levels of free thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in cord blood (n = 499) and maternal blood (n = 431) collected after delivery from mother-child pairs enrolled between February 2010 and June 2014 in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort with catchment area in the province of Limburg, Belgium...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Michael Jerrett, Michelle C Turner, Bernardo S Beckerman, C Arden Pope, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Marc Serre, Dan Crouse, Susan M Gapstur, Daniel Krewski, W Ryan Diver, Patricia F Coogan, George D Thurston, Richard T Burnett
BACKGROUND: Remote sensing (RS) is increasingly used for exposure assessment in epidemiological and burden of disease studies, including those investigating whether chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with mortality. OBJECTIVES: We compared relative risk estimates of mortality from diseases of the circulatory system for PM2.5 modeled from RS with that for PM2.5 modeled using ground-level information. METHODS: We geocoded the baseline residence of 668,629 American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort participants followed from 1982 to 2004 and assigned PM2...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Youssef Oulhote, Frodi Debes, Sonja Vestergaard, Pal Weihe, Philippe Grandjean
BACKGROUND: Exposure to methylmercury was shown to decrease neural stem cell populations, whereas aerobic fitness has beneficial effects on the adult brain that relies on improved neurogenesis in the hippocampus. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between aerobic fitness and neurocognitive outcomes at young adult age, along with the potential moderating effect of prenatal exposure to methylmercury. METHODS: At age 22 years, 262 members of a Faroese birth cohort, established in 1986-1987, underwent a graded exercise test of aerobic fitness to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max)...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Peter J Wagner, Hae-Ryung Park, Zhaoxi Wang, Rory Kirchner, Yongyue Wei, Li Su, Kirstie Stanfield, Tomas R Guilarte, Robert O Wright, David C Christiani, Quan Lu
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) adversely affects neurodevelopment in children. Neural stem cells (NSCs) play an essential role in shaping the developing brain, yet little is known about how Pb perturbs NSC functions and whether such perturbation contributes to impaired neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify Pb-induced transcriptomic changes in NSCs and to link these changes to neurodevelopmental outcomes in children who were exposed to Pb. METHODS: We performed RNA-seq-based transcriptomic profiling in human NSCs treated with 1 μM Pb...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Alexander P Keil, David B Richardson
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have indicated associations between ingestion of inorganic arsenic and ischemic heart disease, nonmalignant respiratory disease, and lung, skin, bladder, and kidney cancers. In contrast, inhaled arsenic has been consistently associated only with lung cancer. Evidence for health effects of inhaled arsenic derives mainly from occupational studies that are subject to unique biases that may attenuate or obscure such associations. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the excess mortality from respiratory cancers, heart disease, and other causes resulting from occupational arsenic exposure while controlling for confounding using the parametric g-formula...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Claire Demoury, Fabienne Marquant, Géraldine Ielsch, Stéphanie Goujon, Christophe Debayle, Laure Faure, Astrid Coste, Olivier Laurent, Jérôme Guillevic, Dominique Laurier, Denis Hémon, Jacqueline Clavel
BACKGROUND: Exposures to high-dose ionizing radiation and high-dose rate ionizing radiation are established risk factors for childhood acute leukemia (AL). The risk of AL following exposure to lower doses due to natural background radiation (NBR) has yet to be conclusively determined. METHODS: AL cases diagnosed over 1990-2009 (9,056 cases) were identified and their municipality of residence at diagnosis collected by the National Registry of Childhood Cancers. The Geocap study, which included the 2,763 cases in 2002-2007 and 30,000 population controls, was used for complementary analyses...
April 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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