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Environmental Health Perspectives

Soisungwan Satarug, David A Vesey, Glenda C Gobe
BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd), a food-chain contaminant, is a significant health hazard. The kidney is one of the primary sites of injury after chronic Cd exposure. Kidney-based risk assessment establishes the urinary Cd threshold at 5.24 μg/g creatinine, and tolerable dietary intake of Cd at 62 μg/day per 70-kg person. However, cohort studies show that dietary Cd intake below a threshold limit and that tolerable levels may increase the risk of death from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Winifred A Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Lindsey Konkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Charles W Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Nate Seltenrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Thomas A Burke, Wayne E Cascio, Daniel L Costa, Kacee Deener, Thomas D Fontaine, Florence A Fulk, Laura E Jackson, Wayne R Munns, Jennifer Orme-Zavaleta, Michael W Slimak, Valerie G Zartarian
From climate change to hydraulic fracturing, and from drinking water safety to wildfires, environmental challenges are changing. The United States has made substantial environmental protection progress based on media-specific and single pollutant risk-based frameworks. However, today’s environmental problems are increasingly complex and new scientific approaches and tools are needed to achieve sustainable solutions to protect the environment and public health. In this article, we present examples of today’s environmental challenges and offer an integrated systems approach to address them...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
David Drummond, Mélissa Baravalle-Einaudi, Guillaume Lezmi, Shamila Vibhushan, Marie-Laure Franco-Montoya, Alice Hadchouel, Jorge Boczkowski, Christophe Delacourt
BACKGROUND: Fetal determinants of airway function, such as in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoke (CS), may create a predisposition to adult airflow obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adulthood. It has been suggested that active smoking in adolescence and preexisting airflow obstruction have synergistic deleterious effects. OBJECTIVE: We used a mouse model to investigate whether there is a synergistic effect of exposure to CS in utero and during adolescence on lung function...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Anne E Nigra, Keeve E Nachman, David C Love, Maria Grau-Perez, Ana Navas-Acien
BACKGROUND: Arsenicals (roxarsone and nitarsone) used in poultry production likely increase inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and roxarsone or nitarsone concentrations in poultry meat. However, the association between poultry intake and exposure to these arsenic species, as reflected in elevated urinary arsenic concentrations, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the association between 24-hr dietary recall of poultry consumption and arsenic exposure in the U...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Keeve E Nachman, David C Love, Patrick A Baron, Anne E Nigra, Manuela Murko, Georg Raber, Kevin A Francesconi, Ana Navas-Acien
BACKGROUND: Use of nitarsone, an arsenic-based poultry drug, may result in dietary exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) and other arsenic species. Nitarsone was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 2015, but its use in other countries may continue. OBJECTIVES: We characterized the impact of nitarsone use on arsenic species in turkey meat and arsenic exposures among turkey consumers, and we estimated cancer risk increases from consuming turkey treated with nitarsone before its 2015 U...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Amine Farias Costa, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Antônio C M Ponce de Leon
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of short-term mortality displacement is essential to accurately estimate the impact of short-term air pollution exposure on public health. OBJECTIVES: We quantified mortality displacement by estimating single-day lag effects and cumulative effects of air pollutants on mortality using distributed lag models. METHODS: We performed a daily time series of nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Yun Jian, Lynne C Messer, Jyotsna S Jagai, Kristen M Rappazzo, Christine L Gray, Shannon C Grabich, Danelle T Lobdell
BACKGROUND: Assessing cumulative effects of the multiple environmental factors influencing mortality remains a challenging task. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the associations between cumulative environmental quality and all-cause and leading cause-specific (heart disease, cancer, and stroke) mortality rates. METHODS: We used the overall Environmental Quality Index (EQI) and its five domain indices (air, water, land, built, and sociodemographic) to represent environmental exposure...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Caroline Duval, Fatima Teixeira-Clerc, Alix F Leblanc, Sothea Touch, Claude Emond, Michèle Guerre-Millo, Sophie Lotersztajn, Robert Barouki, Martine Aggerbeck, Xavier Coumoul
BACKGROUND: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with the progression of chronic liver diseases, yet the contribution of POPs to the development of fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition closely linked to obesity, remains poorly documented. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of subchronic exposure to low doses of the POP 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand, on NAFLD progression in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Oleg Sergeyev, Jane S Burns, Paige L Williams, Mary M Lee, Susan A Korrick, Luidmila Smigulina, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical phases of testicular development may be related to poorer semen parameters. However, few studies have assessed the association between childhood organochlorine (OC) exposure and adult semen parameters. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether peripubertal serum OC concentrations are associated with semen parameters among young Russian men. METHODS: From 2003 through 2005, 516 boys were enrolled at age 8-9 years and followed for up to 10 years...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Qian Ba, Mian Li, Peizhan Chen, Chao Huang, Xiaohua Duan, Lijun Lu, Jingquan Li, Ruiai Chu, Dong Xie, Haiyun Song, Yongning Wu, Hao Ying, Xudong Jia, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Environmental cadmium, with a high average dietary intake, is a severe public health risk. However, the long-term health implications of environmental exposure to cadmium in different life stages remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of early exposure to cadmium, at an environmentally relevant dosage, on adult metabolism and the mechanism of action. METHODS: We established mouse models with low-dose cadmium (LDC) exposure in early life to examine the long-term metabolic consequences...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Amy J Pickering, Benjamin F Arnold, Holly N Dentz, John M Colford, Clair Null
BACKGROUND: The recent global climate agreement in Paris aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development and establishes an international trading mechanism to meet this goal. Currently, carbon offset program implementers are allowed to collect their own monitoring data to determine the number of carbon credits to be awarded. OBJECTIVES: We summarize reasons for mandating independent monitoring of greenhouse gas emission reduction projects...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Stefani L Penn, Saravanan Arunachalam, Matthew Woody, Wendy Heiger-Bernays, Yorghos Tripodis, Jonathan I Levy
BACKGROUND: Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM2...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Abby F Fleisch, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Ana M Mora, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken, Sharon K Sagiv
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. METHODS: We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Hiroshi Awata, Stephen Linder, Laura E Mitchell, George L Delclos
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that biomarker levels of selected metals are higher in Asians than in other U.S. ethnic groups, with important differences within selected Asian subgroups. Much of this difference may be dietary in origin; however, this is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among U.S. Asians. METHODS: We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hr dietary intake recall data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total Dietary Study...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Sandie Ha, Danping Liu, Yeyi Zhu, Sung Soo Kim, Seth Sherman, Pauline Mendola
BACKGROUND: Extreme temperature is associated with adverse birth outcomes but it is unclear whether it increases early delivery risk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the association between ambient temperature and early delivery. METHODS: Medical records from 223,375 singleton deliveries from 12 U.S. sites were linked to local ambient temperature. Exposure to hot (> 90th percentile) or cold (< 10th percentile) using site-specific and window-specific temperature distributions were defined for 3-months preconception, 7-week periods during the first two trimesters, 1 week preceding delivery, and whole pregnancy...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Iain R Lake, Natalia R Jones, Maureen Agnew, Clare M Goodess, Filippo Giorgi, Lynda Hamaoui-Laguel, Mikhail A Semenov, Fabien Solomon, Jonathan Storkey, Robert Vautard, Michelle M Epstein
BACKGROUND: Globally, pollen allergy is a major public health problem, but a fundamental unknown is the likely impact of climate change. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the consequences of climate change upon pollen allergy in humans. OBJECTIVES: We produced quantitative estimates of the potential impact of climate change upon pollen allergy in humans, focusing upon common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Europe. METHODS: A process-based model estimated the change in ragweed's range under climate change...
March 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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