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Monographs in Oral Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993274/erosive-tooth-wear-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Thiago S Carvalho, Adrian Lussi, Thomas Jaeggi, Dein L Gambon
Erosive tooth wear in children is a common condition. Besides the anatomical differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, additional histological differences may influence their susceptibility to dissolution. Considering laboratory studies alone, it is not clear whether deciduous teeth are more liable to erosive wear than permanent teeth. However, results from epidemiological studies imply that the primary dentition is less wear resistant than permanent teeth, possibly due to the overlapping of erosion with mechanical forces (like attrition or abrasion)...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993273/restorative-therapy-of-erosive-lesions
#2
REVIEW
Anne Peutzfeldt, Thomas Jaeggi, Adrian Lussi
When substance loss caused by erosive tooth wear reaches a certain degree, oral rehabilitation becomes necessary. Until some 20 years ago, the severely eroded dentition could only be rehabilitated by the provision of extensive crown and bridge work or removable overdentures. As a result of the improvements in resin composite restorative materials, and in adhesive techniques, it has become possible to rehabilitate eroded dentitions in a less invasive manner. However, even today advanced erosive destruction requires the placement of more extensive restorations such as overlays and crowns...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993272/alternatives-to-fluoride-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-dental-erosion
#3
REVIEW
Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Ana Carolina Magalhães, Annette Wiegand
In recent years, different agents have been discussed as potential alternatives to fluoride in the prevention of dental erosion. These agents are intended to form acid-resistant layers on the surface, to induce repair of eroded lesions by mineral precipitation or to prevent the enzymatic degradation of demineralised collagen. The application of adhesives and/or fissure sealants is considered to be an effective alternative to fluoride, but requires professional application and, depending on the product used, a re-sealing of the surface every several months...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993271/the-role-of-fluoride-in-erosion-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Marie-Charlotte Huysmans, Alix Young, Carolina Ganss
The role of fluoride in erosion therapy has long been questioned. However, recent research has yielded positive results. In this chapter, an overview of the literature is provided regarding the application of fluorides in the prevention and treatment of erosion and erosive wear. The results are presented and discussed for different fluoride sources such as monovalent and polyvalent fluorides, and for different vehicles such as toothpastes, solutions and rinses, as well as varnishes and gels. It is concluded that fluoride applications are very likely to be of use in the preventive treatment of erosive wear...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993270/risk-assessment-and-causal-preventive-measures
#5
REVIEW
Adrian Lussi, Elmar Hellwig
A prerequisite for preventive measures is to diagnose erosive tooth wear and to evaluate the different etiological factors in order to identify persons at risk. No diagnostic device is available for the assessment of erosive defects. Thus, they can only be detected clinically. Consequently, erosion not diagnosed at an early stage may render timely preventive measures difficult. In order to assess the risk factors, patients should record their dietary intake for a distinct period of time. Then a dentist can determine the erosive potential of the diet...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993269/the-role-of-oral-hygiene-does-toothbrushing-harm
#6
REVIEW
Annette Wiegand, Nadine Schlueter
Although toothbrushing is considered a prerequisite for maintaining good oral health, it also has the potential to have an impact on tooth wear, particularly with regard to dental erosion. Experimental studies have demonstrated that tooth abrasion can be influenced by a number of factors, including not only the physical properties of the toothpaste and toothbrush used but also patient-related factors such as toothbrushing frequency and force of brushing. While abrasion resulting from routine oral hygiene can be considered as physiological wear over time, intensive brushing might further harm eroded surfaces by removing the demineralised enamel surface layer...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993268/the-pellicle-and-erosion
#7
REVIEW
Matthias Hannig, Christian Hannig
All tooth surfaces exposed to the oral environment are naturally coated by the acquired salivary pellicle. The pellicle is composed of adsorbed macromolecular components from saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, blood, bacteria, mucosa and diet. The pellicle (formed in situ/in vivo) functions as a semipermeable network of adsorbed salivary macromolecules and provides partial protection against acidic challenges; however, it cannot completely prevent demineralization of the tooth surface. The physiological pellicle reduces calcium and phosphate release from the enamel, and much less from the dentinal surface...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993267/the-potential-of-saliva-in-protecting-against-dental-erosion
#8
REVIEW
Anderson T Hara, Domenick T Zero
Saliva is the most relevant biological factor for the prevention of dental erosion. It starts acting even before the acid attack, with an increase of the salivary flow rate as a response to the acidic stimuli. This creates a more favorable scenario, improving the buffering system of saliva and effectively diluting and clearing acids that come in contact with dental surfaces during the erosive challenge. Saliva plays a role in the formation of the acquired dental pellicle, a perm-selective membrane that prevents the contact of the acid with the tooth surfaces...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993266/intrinsic-causes-of-erosion
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca Moazzez, David Bartlett
Gastric juice entering the mouth causes dental erosion. Common causes for the migration of gastric juice through the lower and upper oesophageal sphincters are reflux disease, laryngopharyngeal reflux, eating disorders, chronic alcoholism and pregnancy. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common condition affecting up to 65% of the Western population at some point in their lifetime. A typical clinical sign of acidic gastric juice entering the mouth is palatal dental erosion. As the condition becomes more chronic it becomes more widespread...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993265/understanding-the-chemistry-of-dental-erosion
#10
REVIEW
R Peter Shellis, John D B Featherstone, Adrian Lussi
Dental erosion is caused by repeated short episodes of exposure to acids. Dental minerals are calcium-deficient, carbonated hydroxyapatites containing impurity ions such as Na(+), Mg(2+) and Cl(-). The rate of dissolution, which is crucial to the progression of erosion, is influenced by solubility and also by other factors. After outlining principles of solubility and acid dissolution, this chapter describes the factors related to the dental tissues on the one hand and to the erosive solution on the other. The impurities in the dental mineral introduce crystal strain and increase solubility, so dentine mineral is more soluble than enamel mineral and both are more soluble than hydroxyapatite...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993264/oral-hygiene-products-medications-and-drugs-hidden-aetiological-factors-for-dental-erosion
#11
REVIEW
Elmar Hellwig, Adrian Lussi
Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds and favours the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993263/erosion-in-relation-to-nutrition-and-the-environment
#12
REVIEW
Michele E Barbour, Adrian Lussi
When considering the erosive potential of a food or drink, a number of factors must be taken into account. pH is arguably the single most important parameter in determining the rate of erosive tissue dissolution. There is no clear-cut critical pH for erosion as there is for caries. At low pH, it is possible that other factors are sufficiently protective to prevent erosion, but equally erosion can progress in acid of a relatively high pH in the absence of mitigating factors. Calcium and phosphate concentration, in combination with pH, determine the degree of saturation with respect to tooth minerals...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993262/methods-for-assessment-of-dental-erosion
#13
REVIEW
Thomas Attin, Florian Just Wegehaupt
Various assessment techniques have been applied to evaluate the loss of dental hard tissue and the surface-softened zone in enamel induced by erosive challenges. In this chapter, the most frequently adopted techniques for analyzing the erosively altered dental hard tissues are reviewed, such as profilometry, measuring microscope techniques, microradiography, scanning electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, nano- and microhardness tests and iodide permeability test. Moreover, methods for chemical analysis of minerals dissolved from dental hard tissue are discussed...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993261/dentine-hypersensitivity
#14
REVIEW
Nicola West, Joon Seong, Maria Davies
Dentine hypersensitivity is a common oral pain condition affecting many individuals. The aetiology is multifactorial; however, over recent years the importance of erosion has become more evident. For dentine hypersensitivity to occur, the lesion must first be localised on the tooth surface and then initiated to exposed dentine tubules which are patent to the pulp. The short, sharp pain symptom is thought to be derived from the hydrodynamic pain theory and, although transient, is arresting, affecting quality of life...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993260/the-histological-features-and-physical-properties-of-eroded-dental-hard-tissues
#15
REVIEW
Carolina Ganss, Adrian Lussi, Nadine Schlueter
Erosive demineralisation causes characteristic histological features. In enamel, mineral is dissolved from the surface, resulting in a roughened structure similar to an etching pattern. If the acid impact continues, the initial surface mineral loss turns into bulk tissue loss and with time a visible defect can develop. The microhardness of the remaining surface is reduced, increasing the susceptibility to physical wear. The histology of eroded dentine is much more complex because the mineral component of the tissue is dissolved by acids whereas the organic part is remaining...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993259/prevalence-of-erosive-tooth-wear-in-risk-groups
#16
REVIEW
Nadine Schlueter, Anne Bjørg Tveit
Individuals have different risks for developing erosive lesions depending on background, behavioural, dietary and medical variables. It is anticipated that people with regular impact of gastric juice, i.e. patients with eating disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have a specially high risk of developing dental erosions; the same could be true for those with special diets, regular consumption of acidic beverages, medicine and drug intake and occupational exposure to acids. Eating disorders are associated with an increased occurrence, severity and risk for dental erosion, even though not all bulimic patients show a pathological level of tooth wear...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993258/prevalence-incidence-and-distribution-of-erosion
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Jaeggi, Adrian Lussi
There is evidence that the presence of erosion is growing steadily. Due to different scoring systems, samples and examiners, it is difficult to compare the different studies. Preschool children from 2 to 5 years showed erosion on deciduous teeth in 1 to 79% of the subjects. Schoolchildren (aged from 5 to 9 years) already had erosive lesions on permanent teeth in 14% of the cases. In the adolescent group (aged between 9 and 20 years), 7 to 100% of the persons examined showed signs of erosion. Incidence data (the increase in the number of subjects presenting signs of dental erosion) was evaluated in four of these studies and presented average annual values between 3...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993257/challenges-in-assessing-erosive-tooth-wear
#18
REVIEW
Vasileios Margaritis, June Nunn
Indices for assessing erosive wear are expected to deliver more than is expected of an ideal index: simple with defined scoring criteria so that it is reproducible, reflective of the aetiology of the condition and accurately categorizing shape, area and depth of affect, both at a point in time (prevalence) and longitudinally (incidence/increment). In addition, the differential diagnosis of erosive wear is complex, as it usually co-exists with other types of tooth wear. Therefore, a valid recording of erosive wear at an individual as well as at a population level without a thorough history with respect to general health, diet and habits is a challenge...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993256/the-interactions-between-attrition-abrasion-and-erosion-in-tooth-wear
#19
REVIEW
R Peter Shellis, Martin Addy
Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24993255/diagnosis-of-erosive-tooth-wear
#20
REVIEW
Carolina Ganss, Adrian Lussi
The clinical diagnosis 'erosion' is made from characteristic deviations from the original anatomical tooth morphology, thus distinguishing acid-induced tissue loss from other forms of wear. Primary pathognomonic features are shallow concavities on smooth surfaces occurring coronal from the enamel-cementum junction. Problems from diagnosing occlusal surfaces and exposed dentine are discussed. Indices for recording erosive wear include morphological as well as quantitative criteria. Currently, various indices are used, each having their virtues and flaws, making the comparison of prevalence studies difficult...
2014: Monographs in Oral Science
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