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Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213178/hiding-in-the-dark-local-ecological-knowledge-about-slow-loris-in-sarawak-sheds-light-on-relationships-between-human-populations-and-wild-animals
#1
Priscillia Miard, K A I Nekaris, Hatta Ramlee
Local ecological knowledge (LEK) increases understanding of certain species and the threats they face, especially little-studied taxa for which data on distribution and conservation are often lacking. We conducted 111 semi-structured interviews in Sarawak, Malaysia, to collect local knowledge about the behavior and distribution of the Philippine slow loris (Nycticebus menagensis) from two ethnic groups, the Iban and the Penan. Our study revealed that male Penan respondents, generally hunters, who frequently go into the forest were better at identifying animals from pictures...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213177/new-interest-in-wild-forest-products-in-europe-as-an-expression-of-biocultural-dynamics
#2
K F Wiersum
In Europe, interest in wild forest products is increasing. Such products may be interpreted in a biological sense as deriving from autonomously growing forest species or in a biocultural sense as reflecting dynamics in human living with biodiversity through re-wilding of earlier domesticated species. In this article I elaborate the idea that the new interests reflect biocultural dynamics. First, I identify these dynamics as involving both domestication and re-wilding and characterize these processes as involving biological, environmental, and cultural dimensions...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213176/adapting-agricultural-water-use-to-climate-change-in-a-post-soviet-context-challenges-and-opportunities-in-southeast-kazakhstan
#3
Tristam Barrett, Giuseppe Feola, Marina Khusnitdinova, Viktoria Krylova
The convergence of climate change and post-Soviet socio-economic and institutional transformations has been underexplored so far, as have the consequences of such convergence on crop agriculture in Central Asia. This paper provides a place-based analysis of constraints and opportunities for adaptation to climate change, with a specific focus on water use, in two districts in southeast Kazakhstan. Data were collected by 2 multi-stakeholder participatory workshops, 21 semi-structured in-depth interviews, and secondary statistical data...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170591/new-technological-interventions-in-conservation-conflicts-countering-emotions-and-contested-knowledge
#4
Audrey Verma, René van der Wal, Anke Fischer
New technologies have increasingly featured in environmental conservation conflicts. We examined the deployment of imaging devices such as sonar equipment and cameras to survey the Fal estuary in Cornwall, UK. Due to heavy use of these waters, there have been several disputes coalescing around protected marine features, including the estuary's rare maerl beds. A comparison of two cases, scallop dredging and docks development, showed technical instruments being deployed to produce information about the marine environment as evidence to inform decision-making...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170590/people-patches-and-parasites-the-case-of-trypanosomiasis-in-zimbabwe
#5
Ian Scoones, V Dzingirai, N Anderson, E MacLeod, L Mangwanya, F Matawa, A Murwira, L Nyakupinda, W Shereni, S C Welburn
Understanding the socio-ecology of disease requires careful attention to the role of patches within disease landscapes. Such patches, and the interfaces between different socio-epidemiological systems, we argue, have important implications for disease control. We conducted an interdisciplinary study over three years to investigate the spatial dynamics of human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe. We used a habitat niche model to identify changes in suitable habitat for tsetse fly vectors over time, and this is related to local villagers' understandings of where flies are found...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170589/the-past-ubiquity-and-environment-of-the-lost-earth-buildings-of-scotland
#6
Simon J Parkin, W Paul Adderley
This paper investigates the once ubiquitous vernacular earth-built structures of Scotland and how perceptions of such buildings were shaped and developed through periods of intense cultural and environmental change. We focus upon the past exploitation of traditional resources to construct vernacular architectures and on changes in the perception of the resultant buildings. Historic earth-built structures are today deeply hidden within the landscapes of Scotland, although they were once a common feature of both urban and rural settlements...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170588/the-biophysical-effects-of-neolithic-island-colonization-general-dynamics-and-sociocultural-implications
#7
Thomas P Leppard
Does anthropogenic environmental change constrain long-term sociopolitical outcomes? It is clear that human colonization of islands radically alters their biological and physical systems. Despite considerable contextual variability in local specificities of this alteration, I argue that these processes are to some extent regular, predictable, and have socio-political implications. Reviewing the data for post-colonization ecodynamics, I show that Neolithic colonization of previously insulated habitats drives biotic homogenization...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860672/temporal-vulnerability-and-the-post-disaster-window-of-opportunity-to-woo-a-case-study-of-an-african-american-floodplain-neighborhood-after-hurricane-floyd-in-north-carolina
#8
Daniel H de Vries
After major flooding associated with Hurricane Floyd (1999) in North Carolina, mitigation managers seized upon the "window of opportunity" to woo residents to accept residential buyout offers despite sizable community resistance. I present a theoretical explanation of how post-crisis periods turn into "opportunities" based on a temporal referential theory that complements alternative explanations based on temporal coincidence, panarchy, and shock-doctrine theories. Results from fieldwork conducted from 2002 to 2004 illustrate how several temporal influences compromised collective calibration of "normalcy" in local cultural models, leading to an especially heightened vulnerability to collective surprise...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680192/coexistence-and-conflict-between-the-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-and-humans-on-tioman-island-peninsular-malaysia
#9
Sheema Abdul Aziz, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Xingli Giam, Pierre-Michel Forget, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz
As tropical landscapes become increasingly human-dominated, conflicts between people and wildlife threaten ecological processes. Old World fruit bats such as flying foxes are especially susceptible to extinction risk because there is low interest in their conservation, particularly when they are considered pests. In order to arrest fruit bat declines, there is an urgent need to understand human-bat conflict and its implications. On a tropical island in Peninsular Malaysia, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate coexistence between people and the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus)...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286358/coping-with-the-double-crisis-lake-chilwa-recession-and-the-great-depression-on-chisi-island-in-colonial-malawi-1930-1935
#10
Joseph Nagoli, Erik Green, Wapulumuka Mulwafu, Linley Chiwona-Karltun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286357/pastoralists-as-optimal-foragers-reoccupation-and-site-selection-in-the-deserts-of-post-soviet-kazakhstan
#11
S Robinson, C Kerven, R Behnke, K Kushenov, E J Milner-Gulland
This study explores the drivers of site selection amongst livestock owners under conditions of increasing animal numbers following a low point in the 1990s. Our major goal was to understand whether livestock owners are acting as 'optimal foragers,' targeting areas of highest forage availability as they colonise previously empty areas. The results presented here suggest that they do not. Initially, distance from home settlement was the dominant determinant of site occupancy, with closer sites occupied earlier regardless of other characteristics...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439146/domestic-and-international-climate-migration-from-rural-mexico
#12
Raphael J Nawrotzki, Daniel M Runfola, Lori M Hunter, Fernando Riosmena
Evidence is increasing that climate change and variability may influence human migration patterns. However, there is less agreement regarding the type of migration streams most strongly impacted. This study tests whether climate change more strongly impacted international compared to domestic migration from rural Mexico during 1986-99. We employ eight temperature and precipitation-based climate change indices linked to detailed migration histories obtained from the Mexican Migration Project. Results from multilevel discrete-time event-history models challenge the assumption that climate-related migration will be predominantly short distance and domestic, but instead show that climate change more strongly impacted international moves from rural Mexico...
December 2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018023/camels-and-climate-resilience-adaptation-in-northern-kenya
#13
Elizabeth E Watson, Hassan H Kochore, Bulle Hallo Dabasso
In the drylands of Africa, pastoralists have been facing new challenges, including those related to environmental shocks and stresses. In northern Kenya, under conditions of reduced rainfall and more frequent droughts, one response has been for pastoralists to focus increasingly on camel herding. Camels have started to be kept at higher altitudes and by people who rarely kept camels before. The development has been understood as a climate change adaptation strategy and as a means to improve climate resilience...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881891/smaller-saami-herding-groups-cooperate-more-in-a-public-goods-experiment
#14
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Marius Warg Næss, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Ruth Mace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881890/co-management-as-a-catalyst-pathways-to-post-colonial-forestry-in-the-klamath-basin-california
#15
Sibyl Diver
Co-management frameworks are intended to facilitate sustainable resource management and more equitable power sharing between state agencies and Indigenous communities. However, there is significant debate about who benefits from co-management in practice. This article addresses two competing perspectives in the literature, which alternately portrays co-management as an instrument for co-optation or for transformation. Through a case study of co-management negotiations involving the Karuk Tribe and the U.S. Forest Service in the Klamath Basin of Northern California, this study examines how Indigenous communities use co-management to build greater equity in environmental decision-making, despite its limitations...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642218/vanishing-knowledge-of-plant-species-in-the-wadi-allaqi-desert-area-of-egypt
#16
Hanaa A Kandal, Hoda A Yacoub, Menno P Gerkema, Jac A A Swart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445430/cooperation-in-an-uncertain-world-for-the-maasai-of-east-africa-need-based-transfers-outperform-account-keeping-in-volatile-environments
#17
Athena Aktipis, Rolando de Aguiar, Anna Flaherty, Padmini Iyer, Dennis Sonkoi, Lee Cronk
Using an agent-based model to study risk-pooling in herder dyads using rules derived from Maasai osotua ("umbilical cord") relationships, Aktipis et al. (2011) found that osotua transfers led to more risk-pooling and better herd survival than both no transfers and transfers that occurred at frequencies tied to those seen in the osotua simulations. Here we expand this approach by comparing osotua-style transfers to another type of livestock transfer among Maasai known as esile ("debt"). In osotua, one asks if in need, and one gives in response to such requests if doing so will not threaten one's own survival...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445429/leadership-social-capital-and-coastal-community-resource-governance-the-case-of-the-destructive-seaweed-harvest-in-west-bali
#18
Carol Warren
This paper concerns resource governance in a remote Balinese coastal community, which faces severe environmental challenges due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. It explores some of the issues raised in 'social capital' debates regarding leadership and public participation toward sustainable natural resource governance. Given the strength of Balinese customary law and the high degree of participation required in the ritual-social domain, Bali represents a model context for examining these issues...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445428/strategic-customary-village-leadership-in-the-context-of-marine-conservation-and-development-in-southeast-maluku-indonesia
#19
Dirk J Steenbergen
This article critically examines engagements of village leaders in an NGO-facilitated participatory conservation program in eastern Indonesia. It explores how the program's implementation strengthened leadership legitimacy of a dominant customary social group. Customary leaders ensured distribution according to particular norms, and in organizing village governance upheld specific interests and claims over natural resources. Villagers outside of the customary group remained marginalized in village governance, despite being important stakeholders...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445427/capturing-the-elite-in-marine-conservation-in-northeast-kalimantan
#20
Rini Kusumawati, Leontine Visser
This article takes the existence of power networks of local elites as a social fact of fundamental importance and the starting point for the study of patronage in the governance of the coastal waters of East Kalimantan. We address the question of how to capture the elites for project implementation, rather than assuming the inevitability of elite capture of project funds. We analyze the multiple-scale networks of local power holders (punggawa) and the collaboration and friction between the political-economic interests and historical values of local actors and the scientific motivations of international environmental organizations...
2016: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
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