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Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997411/historical-tropical-forest-reliance-amongst-the-wanniyalaeto-vedda-of-sri-lanka-an-isotopic-perspective
#1
Patrick Roberts, Thomas H Gillingwater, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Julia Lee-Thorp, Malcolm MacCallum, Michael Petraglia, Oshan Wedage, Uruwaruge Heenbanda, Uruwaruge Wainnya-Laeto
Headland and Bailey (1991) argued in Human Ecology that tropical forests could not support long-term human foraging in the absence of agriculture. Part of their thesis was based on the fact that supposedly isolated 'forest' foragers, such as the Wanniyalaeto (or Vedda) peoples of Sri Lanka, could be demonstrated to be enmeshed within historical trade networks and rely on crops as part of their overall subsistence. Yet, in the same volume and in the years that followed scholars have presented ethnographic and archaeological evidence, including from Sri Lanka, that counter this proposition, demonstrating the occupation and exploitation of tropical rainforest environments back to 38,000 years ago (ka) in this part of the world...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997410/conflict-between-dolphins-and-a-data-scarce-fishery-of-the-european-union
#2
Robin Thomas Ernest Snape, Annette Cameron Broderick, Burak Ali Çiçek, Wayne John Fuller, Nicholas Tregenza, Matthew John Witt, Brendan John Godley
Fisheries depredation by marine mammals is an economic concern worldwide. We combined questionnaires, acoustic monitoring, and participatory experiments to investigate the occurrence of bottlenose dolphins in the fisheries of Northern Cyprus, and the extent of their conflict with set-nets, an economically important metier of Mediterranean fisheries. Dolphins were present in fishing grounds throughout the year and were detected at 28% of sets. Net damage was on average six times greater where dolphins were present, was correlated with dolphin presence, and the associated costs were considerable...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997409/modelling-climate-and-societal-resilience-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-in-the-last-millennium
#3
Elena Xoplaki, Jürg Luterbacher, Sebastian Wagner, Eduardo Zorita, Dominik Fleitmann, Johannes Preiser-Kapeller, Abigail M Sargent, Sam White, Andrea Toreti, John F Haldon, Lee Mordechai, Deniz Bozkurt, Sena Akçer-Ön, Adam Izdebski
This article analyses high-quality hydroclimate proxy records and spatial reconstructions from the Central and Eastern Mediterranean and compares them with two Earth System Model simulations (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-P) for the Crusader period in the Levant (1095-1290 CE), the Mamluk regime in Transjordan (1260-1516 CE) and the Ottoman crisis and Celâlî Rebellion (1580-1610 CE). During the three time intervals, environmental and climatic stress tested the resilience of complex societies. We find that the multidecadal precipitation and drought variations in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean cannot be explained by external forcings (solar variations, tropical volcanism); rather they were driven by internal climate dynamics...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997408/the-social-burden-of-resilience-a-historical-perspective
#4
Adam Izdebski, Lee Mordechai, Sam White
We examine the social burden associated with resilience to environmental shocks in pre-modern societies. We argue that analyses of state-level interventions to mitigate the consequences of catastrophic events tend to isolate these measures from their larger social contexts and thereby overlook the uneven distribution of their burden across different groups. We use three cases of pre-modern societies in the northeastern Mediterranean - the sixth century Roman Empire, the tenth century Byzantine Empire, and the sixteenth century Ottoman Empire...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681679/anticipating-climatic-variability-the-potential-of-ecological-calendars
#5
Karim-Aly S Kassam, Morgan L Ruelle, Cyrus Samimi, Antonio Trabucco, Jianchu Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681678/a-case-study-on-the-persistence-of-swidden-agriculture-in-the-context-of-post-2015-anti-haze-regulation-in-west-kalimantan
#6
Paul Hasan Thung
This case study analyses a ban on the use of fire in a district of West-Kalimantan in response to the 2015 Southeast Asian Haze crisis. Based on stakeholder interviews and participant observation, I address the dilemmas encountered at the district and village level as a result of transnational environmental politics. A stark example of a wider tendency for policies to restrict swidden agriculture, the case study provides insight into the persistence of swidden . Contradictions between different stakeholders' experiences and understandings of local human ecology and haze politics ultimately rendered the ban ineffective...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576675/-brachythecium-rutabulum-a-neglected-medicinal-moss
#7
Jacek Drobnik, Adam Stebel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576674/the-park-is-ruining-our-livelihoods-we-support-the-park-unravelling-the-paradox-of-attitudes-to-protected-areas
#8
Adrian Martin, Rodd Myers, Neil M Dawson
Despite considerable field-based innovation and academic scrutiny, the nexus between conservation approaches, local support for parks and park effectiveness remains quite puzzling. Common approaches to understanding notions of environmental justice are to understand distributional and procedural issues, representation in decision making, and recognition of authorities and claims. We took a different approach and analysed environmental justice claims through institutional, ideational and psychological lenses...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568148/children-and-wild-foods-in-the-context-of-deforestation-in-rural-malawi
#9
H Maseko, Charlie M Shackleton, J Nagoli, D Pullanikkatil
There is growing recognition of the contribution of wild foods to local diets, nutrition, and culture. Yet disaggregation of understanding of wild food use by gender and age is limited. We used a mixed methods approach to determine the types, frequencies, and perceptions of wild foods used and sold by children in four villages in southern Malawi that have different levels of deforestation. Household and individual dietary diversity scores are low at all sites. All households consume one or more wild foods. Across the four sites, children listed 119 wild foods, with a wider variety at the least deforested sites than the most deforested ones...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213178/hiding-in-the-dark-local-ecological-knowledge-about-slow-loris-in-sarawak-sheds-light-on-relationships-between-human-populations-and-wild-animals
#10
Priscillia Miard, K A I Nekaris, Hatta Ramlee
Local ecological knowledge (LEK) increases understanding of certain species and the threats they face, especially little-studied taxa for which data on distribution and conservation are often lacking. We conducted 111 semi-structured interviews in Sarawak, Malaysia, to collect local knowledge about the behavior and distribution of the Philippine slow loris ( Nycticebus menagensis ) from two ethnic groups, the Iban and the Penan. Our study revealed that male Penan respondents, generally hunters, who frequently go into the forest were better at identifying animals from pictures...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213177/new-interest-in-wild-forest-products-in-europe-as-an-expression-of-biocultural-dynamics
#11
K F Wiersum
In Europe, interest in wild forest products is increasing. Such products may be interpreted in a biological sense as deriving from autonomously growing forest species or in a biocultural sense as reflecting dynamics in human living with biodiversity through re-wilding of earlier domesticated species. In this article I elaborate the idea that the new interests reflect biocultural dynamics. First, I identify these dynamics as involving both domestication and re-wilding and characterize these processes as involving biological, environmental, and cultural dimensions...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213176/adapting-agricultural-water-use-to-climate-change-in-a-post-soviet-context-challenges-and-opportunities-in-southeast-kazakhstan
#12
Tristam Barrett, Giuseppe Feola, Marina Khusnitdinova, Viktoria Krylova
The convergence of climate change and post-Soviet socio-economic and institutional transformations has been underexplored so far, as have the consequences of such convergence on crop agriculture in Central Asia. This paper provides a place-based analysis of constraints and opportunities for adaptation to climate change, with a specific focus on water use, in two districts in southeast Kazakhstan. Data were collected by 2 multi-stakeholder participatory workshops, 21 semi-structured in-depth interviews, and secondary statistical data...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170591/new-technological-interventions-in-conservation-conflicts-countering-emotions-and-contested-knowledge
#13
Audrey Verma, René van der Wal, Anke Fischer
New technologies have increasingly featured in environmental conservation conflicts. We examined the deployment of imaging devices such as sonar equipment and cameras to survey the Fal estuary in Cornwall, UK. Due to heavy use of these waters, there have been several disputes coalescing around protected marine features, including the estuary's rare maerl beds. A comparison of two cases, scallop dredging and docks development, showed technical instruments being deployed to produce information about the marine environment as evidence to inform decision-making...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170590/people-patches-and-parasites-the-case-of-trypanosomiasis-in-zimbabwe
#14
Ian Scoones, V Dzingirai, N Anderson, E MacLeod, L Mangwanya, F Matawa, A Murwira, L Nyakupinda, W Shereni, S C Welburn
Understanding the socio-ecology of disease requires careful attention to the role of patches within disease landscapes. Such patches, and the interfaces between different socio-epidemiological systems, we argue, have important implications for disease control. We conducted an interdisciplinary study over three years to investigate the spatial dynamics of human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe. We used a habitat niche model to identify changes in suitable habitat for tsetse fly vectors over time, and this is related to local villagers' understandings of where flies are found...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170589/the-past-ubiquity-and-environment-of-the-lost-earth-buildings-of-scotland
#15
Simon J Parkin, W Paul Adderley
This paper investigates the once ubiquitous vernacular earth-built structures of Scotland and how perceptions of such buildings were shaped and developed through periods of intense cultural and environmental change. We focus upon the past exploitation of traditional resources to construct vernacular architectures and on changes in the perception of the resultant buildings. Historic earth-built structures are today deeply hidden within the landscapes of Scotland, although they were once a common feature of both urban and rural settlements...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170588/the-biophysical-effects-of-neolithic-island-colonization-general-dynamics-and-sociocultural-implications
#16
Thomas P Leppard
Does anthropogenic environmental change constrain long-term sociopolitical outcomes? It is clear that human colonization of islands radically alters their biological and physical systems. Despite considerable contextual variability in local specificities of this alteration, I argue that these processes are to some extent regular, predictable, and have socio-political implications. Reviewing the data for post-colonization ecodynamics, I show that Neolithic colonization of previously insulated habitats drives biotic homogenization...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860672/temporal-vulnerability-and-the-post-disaster-window-of-opportunity-to-woo-a-case-study-of-an-african-american-floodplain-neighborhood-after-hurricane-floyd-in-north-carolina
#17
Daniel H de Vries
After major flooding associated with Hurricane Floyd (1999) in North Carolina, mitigation managers seized upon the "window of opportunity" to woo residents to accept residential buyout offers despite sizable community resistance. I present a theoretical explanation of how post-crisis periods turn into "opportunities" based on a temporal referential theory that complements alternative explanations based on temporal coincidence, panarchy, and shock-doctrine theories. Results from fieldwork conducted from 2002 to 2004 illustrate how several temporal influences compromised collective calibration of "normalcy" in local cultural models, leading to an especially heightened vulnerability to collective surprise...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680192/coexistence-and-conflict-between-the-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-and-humans-on-tioman-island-peninsular-malaysia
#18
Sheema Abdul Aziz, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Xingli Giam, Pierre-Michel Forget, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz
As tropical landscapes become increasingly human-dominated, conflicts between people and wildlife threaten ecological processes. Old World fruit bats such as flying foxes are especially susceptible to extinction risk because there is low interest in their conservation, particularly when they are considered pests. In order to arrest fruit bat declines, there is an urgent need to understand human-bat conflict and its implications. On a tropical island in Peninsular Malaysia, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate coexistence between people and the island flying fox ( Pteropus hypomelanus )...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286358/coping-with-the-double-crisis-lake-chilwa-recession-and-the-great-depression-on-chisi-island-in-colonial-malawi-1930-1935
#19
Joseph Nagoli, Erik Green, Wapulumuka Mulwafu, Linley Chiwona-Karltun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286357/pastoralists-as-optimal-foragers-reoccupation-and-site-selection-in-the-deserts-of-post-soviet-kazakhstan
#20
S Robinson, C Kerven, R Behnke, K Kushenov, E J Milner-Gulland
This study explores the drivers of site selection amongst livestock owners under conditions of increasing animal numbers following a low point in the 1990s. Our major goal was to understand whether livestock owners are acting as 'optimal foragers,' targeting areas of highest forage availability as they colonise previously empty areas. The results presented here suggest that they do not. Initially, distance from home settlement was the dominant determinant of site occupancy, with closer sites occupied earlier regardless of other characteristics...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
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