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Annals of Clinical Biochemistry

Andrew Duncan, Calum Yacoubian, Robert Beetham, Anthony Catchpole, David Bullock
BACKGROUND: US and European guidelines suggest the use of calculated non-caeruloplasmin bound copper (free copper index) for the diagnosis and management of Wilson's Disease. However, there is concern that the required analytical measurements of caeruloplasmin and copper may not be sufficiently robust at the concentrations usually found. METHODS: Aliquots of six plasma specimens were sent to laboratories participating in the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme for copper and caeruloplasmin...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Emmanuel Richard, Jean-Marc Blouin, Jerome Harambat, Brigitte Llanas, Stephane Bouchet, Cecile Acquaviva, Renaud De la Faille
We report the case of a 78-year-old patient with late diagnosis of hyperoxaluria type III (PH3). He developed renal failure after nephrectomy for clear cell papillary renal carcinoma and complained of recurrent urolithiasis for some 30 years whose etiology was never identified. Biochemical laboratory investigations of urine and urolithiasis composition revealed marked hyperoxaluria but normal levels of urinary glyceric and glycolic acid as well as stones of idiopathic calcium-oxalate appearance. Furthermore, the dietary survey showed excessive consumption of food supplements containing massive amounts of oxalate precursors...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Seyyed Mohammad Reza Kazemi-Bajestani, Maryam Tayefi, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Ali Reza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mohsen Moohebati, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Parizade, Habib-Allah Esmaeili, Gordon Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined by a clustering of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and is associated with a heightened inflammatory state. A raised serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a marker of inflammation, is also known to associate with CV risk. We have investigated the relationship between the presence of MetS and serum hs-CRP concentration in a large representative Persian population cohort without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: The MASHAD study population cohort comprised 9 778 subjects, who were recruited from the city of Mashhad, Iran, between 2007 and 2008...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Richard X Davey
BACKGROUND: The misnamed 'vitamin' D is actually the hormone calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyhydroxyvitamin D). It has a central regulatory role in calcium metabolism, and more widely in the immune system. The prohormone calcifediol (25 hydroxyvitamin D) is more easily measured in the laboratory and is the analyte used in reference interval formulation. Being highly lipid soluble, both calcifediol and calcitriol travel in the bloodstream on carriage proteins, principally on vitamin D binding protein, DBP...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Elif Azarsız, Neslihan Karaca, Erturk Levent, Necil Kutukculer, Eser Sozmen
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare clinically symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disorder which manifests a wide variability of symptoms, complications. Atherosclerosis in CVID patients have not been investigated yet contrary to other severe clinical complications. We aimed to investigate the chitotriosidase enzyme's role as an inflammation and atherosclerosis marker in pediatric CVID patients. METHODS: CVID patients (n =24) and healthy controls (n = 23) evaluated for chitotriosidase activity with other inflammation markers (hsCRP, myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A, ferritin), lipid profile and echocardiographic findings (carotid artery intima media thickness - cIMT, brachial artery flow-mediated vazodilatation - FMD%)...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Masafumi Koga, Rie Matsumoto
BACKGROUNDS: The effect of alcohol consumption on glycemic control indicators is not well known. In this study, we studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the plasma glucose and glycemic control indicators in non-diabetic men. METHODS: The study enrolled 300 non-diabetic men who received a complete medical checkup [age: 52.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index (BMI): 24.4 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)]. The subjects were divided into four groups by the amount of alcohol consumed, and the plasma glucose, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels of the groups were compared...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Jaimini Cegla, Ben Jones, James Howard, Richard Kay, Colin S Creaser, Stephen R Bloom, Tricia Tan
BACKGROUND: One of the main challenges in the measurement of glucagon is the premise that it is unstable in human plasma. Traditionally, protease inhibitors have been used to prevent its degradation, however, their use is controversial. Here we investigated the optimal method of sample collection for glucagon, with measurement by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and two commercially available immunoassays. METHODS: Blood from healthy fasting volunteers (n=10) was processed under a variety of pre-analytical condition including collection in EDTA vs lithium heparin tubes and the addition of aprotinin and/or a DPPIV inhibitor...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Yingying Peng, James Uprichard Uprichard
Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red cells necessary to meet the body's physiological requirements is insufficient. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and the anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) are the two most common causes of anaemia worldwide; iron homeostasis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. An understanding of how iron studies can be used to distinguish between these diseases is therefore essential, not only for diagnosis but also in guiding management. This review will primarily focus on IDA and ACD; however iron overload in anaemia will also be briefly discussed...
October 3, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Arun Sankaralingam, Annette Thomas, David James, Anthony S Wierzbicki
BACKGROUND: Ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning remains a rare but important presentation to acute toxicology units. Guidelines recommended that Ethylene Glycol should be available as an 'urgent' test within 4 hours but these are difficult to deliver in practice. This study assessed a semi-quantitative enzymatic spectrophotometric assay for EG compatible with automated platforms. METHODS: The EG method was assessed in 21 samples from patients with an increased anion gap and metabolic acidosis not due to EG ingestion, and 7 samples known to contain EG...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Mette Fogh Møller, Tove Rask Søndergaard, Helle Tanderup Kristensen, Anna-Marie Bloch Münster
BACKGROUND: Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential pre-analytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. METHODS: In this study we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 × g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 × g...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Xiguang Sang, Zhiyong Wang, Tao Qin, Yonggang Li
BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence indicate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly related to accelerated bone fracture repair, but the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. Fracture repair process relies greatly on the formation of new blood vessels in fracture site and angiogenic factors have been confirmed to be essential for the initiation and maintenance of the fracture healing. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was demonstrated to be a critical regulator of angiogenic-osteogenic coupling during bone development and regeneration...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Sanja Mandic, Juergen Kratzsch, Dario Mandic, Zeljko Debeljak, Iva Lukic, Vesna Horvat, Alexander Gaudl, Vatroslav Seric
In this study we present a case of falsely elevated oestradiol (E2) concentration, determined by two immunoassays, in a breast cancer patient receiving exemestane therapy. The positive bias of immunochemical measurements was revealed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) which showed undetectable E2 concentration. The discrepancy is expected to be a consequence of the structural resemblance of E2 and exemestane sharing the same steroidal backbone. Inaccurate laboratory findings in therapy monitoring, as in this case, may lead to unnecessary changes of therapy...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Claire L Meek
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy disorder which is generally managed with diet, exercise, metformin or insulin treatment and which usually resolves after delivery of the infant. Identifying and treating GDM improves maternal and fetal outcomes, and allows for health promotion to reduce the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. However, there remains considerable controversy about the optimal method of identification and diagnosis of women with GDM. The NICE-2015 diagnostic criteria (75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 0 hr ⩾5...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
H Fabián Pelusa, Eleonora Pezzarini, Cecilia Basiglio, Jorge Musuruana, Mariela Bearzotti, María José Svetaz, Stella Maris Daniele, Hebe Bottai, Sandra M M Arriaga
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis, fetal losses and thrombocytopenia associated to antiphospholipid (APL) antibodies (Abs). They are directed to phospholipids, such as cardiolipins (a-cardiolipin, ACA) and lupus anticoagulant (LA), or to complexes formed by phospholipids and protein cofactors, such as β2 glycoprotein 1 (a-β2GP1) and annexin V (a-annexin V). These auto Abs may be considered as a family of Abs involved in thrombotic events and APL activity...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Joy Ardill, Brian T Johnston, David R McCance, Martin Eatock
A fifty two year old lady presented with a history of occasional, severe abdominal cramps, post-prandial diarrhoea and weight loss. After routine GI investigations she was diagnosed with IBS. Over six months she developed occasional facial flushing prompting assessment of neuroendocrine tumour markers. Urinary 5HIAA, 5HT, chromogranin A (CGA) and Neurokinin A (NKA) were significantly elevated. Scans showed extensive hepatic metastases but no location of a primary tumour.Somatostatin analogue therapy (SST) was commenced but despite increasing doses, symptoms increased and biomarkers rose dramatically...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Yuji Hirowatari, Daisuke Manita, Keiko Kamachi, Akira Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits are associated with obesity which is a risk factor to coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective is to estimate the change of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and other lipoprotein classes by calorie-restriction with obesity index and Framingham risk score (FRS). METHODS: Sixty women (56+9 years) were recruited. Their caloric-intakes were reduced during 6-month period, and the calorie from fat was not more than 30%. Lipoprotein profiles were estimated at baseline and after 6-month period of calorie-restriction...
September 16, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Lorrae Marriott, Michael Zinaman, Keith R Abrams, Michael J Crowther, Sarah Johnson
BACKGROUND: Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a marker of early pregnancy. This study sought to determine the possibility of being able to distinguish between healthy and failing pregnancies by utilising patient-associated risk factors and daily urinary hCG levels. METHODS: Data were from a study that collected daily early morning urine samples from women trying to conceive (n=1,505); 250 of whom became pregnant. Data from 129 women who became pregnant (including 44 miscarriages) were included in these analyses...
September 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Søren Feddersen, Lars Bastholt, Susanne Møller Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of serum thyroglobulin (TG) in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) may be compromised by the presence of endogenous anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb). To prevent interference by TGAb several groups have developed real-time PCR (RT-PCR) based assays for quantification of blood TG mRNA levels. For accurate quantification of TG mRNA in blood preanalytical factors must be recognized and controlled. In this study we evaluate the effect of different blood RNA stabilizing systems - the Tempus(T) (M) Blood RNA system and the PAXgene(T) (M) Blood RNA system - and storage time on RNA yield and quality, and TG mRNA stability...
September 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Yan Chao, Zemin Wan, Xiaobin Wu, Feng Qiu, Xinzhong Wu, Yunxiu Wang, Peifeng Ke, Jianhua Xu, Junhua Zhuang, Xianzhang Huang
Haemoglobinopathies may interfere with the hemoglobin A1 c (HbA1 c) measurement, leading to incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. It is essential that HbA1 c assays are capable of identifying haemoglobinopathies. We report two cases of haemoglobin New York (HbNY) discovered through HbA1 c analysis using capillary electrophoresis (Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing [C2FP], Sebia). We used these samples to evaluate the ability of three other HbA1 c assays to identify this variant: ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; Variant II Turbo [VII-T], Bio-Rad); boronate affinity HPLC (Ultra(2), Trinity Biotech); and immunoassay (cobas c501 Tina-quant Generation 3, Roche Diagnostics)...
September 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Lijuan Wang, Hong Lv, Guojun Zhang
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate a fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassay and compared it with a quantitative RNA assay and anti-HCV assay to verify the utility of this automated Ag assay as an alternative method for hepatitis C diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 229 serum samples previously tested for anti-HCV concentrations by the Architect Anti-HCV assay, were selected for HCV RNA testing by real time RT-PCR kit (Shanghai ZJ Bio-Tec Co., Ltd) and 125 specimens were tested for HCV Ag by the Architect HCV core Antigen kit...
September 9, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
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