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Annals of Clinical Biochemistry

Jason Kc Mak
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January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Eriko Mori, Makoto Kurano, Akiko Tobita, Hironori Shimosaka, Yutaka Yatomi
Background Squamous cell carcinoma antigen is used as a tumour marker and is routinely measured in clinical laboratories. We validated two different immunoassays and found three cases in which the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations deviated greatly between the two immunoassays. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these deviations. Methods The squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations were determined using the ARCHITECT SCC (CLIA method) and the ST AIA-PACK SCC (FEIA method)...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Mary Stapleton, Niamh Daly, Ruth O'Kelly, Michael J Turner
Background The inhibition of glycolysis prior to glucose measurement is an important consideration when interpreting glucose tolerance tests. This is particularly important in gestational diabetes mellitus where prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential. A study was planned to investigate the effect of preservatives and temperature on glycolysis. Methods Blood samples for glucose were obtained from consented females. Lithium heparin and fluoride-EDTA samples transported rapidly in ice slurry to the laboratory were analysed for glucose concentration and then held either in ice slurry or at room temperature for varying time intervals...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Julian H Barth, Ahai Luvai, Nuthar Jassam, Wycliffe Mbagaya, Eric Stephen Kilpatrick, Deepa Narayanan, Shirley Spoors
: Introduction Reference intervals are dependent on the reference population, the analytical methods and the way the data is handled statistically. Individual method related differences have been studied but the comparative differences in reference intervals have not. METHODS: We studied a reference population of healthy adult subjects and measured free thyroxine and TSH by the four most commonly used analytical platforms used in the UK. Subjects were excluded if they were >65 years or had positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Hiroyuki Teraura, Kazuhiko Kotani, Takaomi Minami, Taro Takeshima, Osamu Shimooki, Eiji Kajii
Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Yutaka Suehiro, Yibo Zhang, Shinichi Hashimoto, Taro Takami, Shingo Higaki, Yoshitaro Shindo, Nobuaki Suzuki, Shoichi Hazama, Masaaki Oka, Hiroaki Nagano, Isao Sakaida, Takahiro Yamasaki
BACKGROUND: As TWIST1 methylation is specific to colorectal neoplasia, detection of TWIST1 methylation from faeces samples might be useful for colorectal neoplasia screening. However, because the content of human DNA in faeces is very small, it is very difficult to detect TWIST1 methylation by conventional bisulphite-based methylation assays. Therefore, we developed a new methylation assay without bisulphite treatment, the combined restriction digital PCR (CORD) assay, and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in combination with and without the faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT) for colorectal neoplasia detection from faeces samples...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Anna M Milan, Andrew Hughes, Andrew Stuart Davison, Jean M Devine, Jeannette L Usher, Sarah Curtis, Milad Khedr, James A Gallagher, L Ranganath
Background Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare, debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting tyrosine metabolism. Deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase leads to increased homogentisic acid (HGA) which is deposited as ochronotic pigment. Clinical sequelae include severe early onset osteoarthritis, increased renal and prostate stone formation and cardiac complications. Treatment has been largely based on analgaesia and arthroplasty. The National AKU Centre in Liverpool has been using 2mg nitisinone (NTBC) off-license for all patients in the United Kingdom with AKU and monitoring the tyrosine metabolite profiles...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Nadia El-Farhan, D Aled Rees, Carol Evans
Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced in response to stress. It is essential for maintaining health and well-being; and leads to significant morbidity when deficient or present in excess. It is lipophillic and is transported bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin; a small fraction (~10%) of total serum cortisol is unbound and biologically active. Serum cortisol assays measure total cortisol and their results can be misleading in patients with altered serum protein concentrations. Automated immunoassays are used to measure cortisol but lack specificity and show significant interassay differences...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Anna Louise Barton, Angela Mallard, Anthea Patterson, Nicola Thomas, Stephen Dickinson, Hugh Gallagher
INTRODUCTION: The ASSIST-CKD project is a national quality improvement programme, aiming to decrease the number of patients presenting late to renal services by enabling laboratories to review up to five years of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) results graphically, and report deteriorating patients to their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To assess the impact of the project on the laboratory, and of patient reporting on GP management and the local renal service...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Jane M Armer, Diane Giles, Ian Lancaster, Kathryn Brownbill
Background TSH is used as the first line test of thyroid function. Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics recommend that Siemens Centaur reagents must be protected from light in the assay information and on reagent packaging. We have compared the effect of light exposure on results using Siemens TSH-3Ultra and FSH reagents. The TSH reagent includes fluoroscein thiocyanate (FITC) whereas the FSH reagent does not. Methods Three levels of quality controls were analysed using SiemensTSH-3Ultra and FSH reagent packs that had been kept protected from light or exposed to light at 6 hour intervals for 48 hours and then at 96 hours...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Pete Ayling, Robert Patrick Hill, Nuthar Jassam, Anders Kallner, Zahra Khatami
BACKGROUND A logical consequence of the introduction of robotics and high capacity analysers has seen a consolidation to larger units. This requires new structures and quality systems to ensure that laboratories deliver consistent and comparable results. METHODS A spreadsheet program was designed to accommodate results from up to 12 different Instruments/laboratories and present IQC data i.e. Levey-Jennings and Youden plots and comprehensive numerical tables of the performance of each item. Input of data was made possible by a "data loader" by which IQC data from the individual instruments could be transferred to the spreadsheet program on line...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Michal Wen Sheue Ong, Rashim Salota, Tracy Reeman, Lapsley Marta, Lydia Jones
The most commonly used techniques to measure vitamin D are automated immunoassays which are known to be affected by interferences, especially from immunoglobulins present in the patient's serum. We present a case of a patient with myeloma in whom interference with the vitamin D assay was identified. An eighty-three year old female, known to have IgG myeloma was found to have a high concentration of 25-OH vitamin D on a routine test without any signs of vitamin D toxicity. She was not taking vitamin D supplements or any other multivitamin preparation and had minimal sun exposure...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Emmanuel Richard, Jean-Marc Blouin, Jérome Harambat, Brigitte Llanas, Stéphane Bouchet, Cécile Acquaviva, Renaud de la Faille
We report the case of a 78-year-old patient with late diagnosis of hyperoxaluria type III (PH3). He developed renal failure after nephrectomy for clear cell papillary renal carcinoma and complained of recurrent urolithiasis for some 30 years, whose aetiology was never identified. Biochemical laboratory investigations of urine and urolithiasis composition revealed marked hyperoxaluria but normal concentrations of urinary glyceric and glycolic acid as well as stones of idiopathic calcium-oxalate appearance. Furthermore, the dietary survey showed excessive consumption of food supplements containing massive amounts of oxalate precursors...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Alison Kelly, Rajeev Srivastava, Ellie Dow, D Fraser Davidson
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial malignancy diagnosed in childhood. Clinical presentation is variable, and metastatic disease is common at diagnosis. Analyses of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites are commonly requested as a first-line investigation when clinical suspicion exists. Levodopa (L-Dopa) therapy is utilised as a treatment for a number of disorders in childhood, including Dopa-responsive dystonia. Neuroblastoma may mimic some of the clinical features of this disorder. L-Dopa can interfere with analysis of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites, and complicate interpretation of results...
December 12, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
John Michael Wadsworth, Anna M Milan, James Anson, Andrew Stuart Davison
BACKGROUND: Azole based antifungals are the first line therapy for some of the most common mycoses and are now also being used prophylactically to protect immunocompromised patients. However due to variability in both their metabolism and bioavailability, therapeutic drug monitoring is essential to avoid toxicity but still gain maximum efficacy. METHODS: Following protein precipitation with acetonitrile, 20 µL of extract was injected onto a 2.1x50mm Waters Atlantis dC18 3 µm column...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Yuan-Lan Huang, Zhi-Jun Han, Zhi-De Hu
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been reported to be associated with outcomes of acute cerebral infarction. However, their prognostic value in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of RDW and NLR in SAH patients. METHODS: Medical records of adult SAH patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) were extracted from Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II, version 2...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Yumiko Akamine, Yuka Sugawara-Kikuchi, Tsukasa Uno, Tetsuo Shimizu, Masatomo Miura
BACKGROUND: This study developed a novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of clozapine and its active metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine, in human plasma and investigated the effects of various factors, including genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ABCG2, on the steady-state plasma trough concentrations (C0) of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Forty-five patients had been receiving fixed doses of clozapine for at least 4 weeks...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Lamis Beshir, Babiker Kaballo, Donald Young
Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is widely used as a chemical in hair dyes and in combination with Henna. This dye is used to paint the body for decorative reasons, to speed the processing time of henna and intensify the results. PPD is quite used in the Middle East, North Africa and areas like India. Several reports have been published of fatal ingestion of hair dye containing para-phenylenediamine. Here we describe the case of a 14 year-old girl who ingested the compound but whose prompt treatment prevented her death...
December 5, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Andrew J Chadburn, Elizabeth Garman, Raad Abbas, Anu Modupe, Clare Ford, Osmond L Thomas, Sanjiv Chugh, Shreeram Deshpande, Rousseau Gama
BACKGROUND: In acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia, plasma glucose cannot reliably distinguish between stress hyperglycaemia and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. We, therefore, investigated the diagnostic reliability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in acute illness by prospectively evaluating the effect of the systemic inflammatory response (SIR), as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA1c. METHODS: HbA1c and serum CRP concentrations were compared before and two days after elective knee or hip surgery in 30 patients without diabetes...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Yukari Kajiura, Jung Hwan Lew, Takahisa Ikuta, Yasufumi Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi Kido, Toshihiko Nagata, Koji Naruishi
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble form of interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and calprotectin levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) are useful bio-marker to evaluate the periodontitis. METHODS: At first, cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 34 periodontitis patients were enrolled and the GCF samples were collected from healthy and inflamed sites of periodontal pockets in each patient...
November 3, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
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