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Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176062/acacetin-regulated-the-reciprocal-differentiation-of-th17-cells-and-treg-cells-and-mitigated-the-symptoms-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-mice
#1
Lin Liu, Junxia Yang, Beibei Zu, Jinya Wang, Sheng Kang, Lin Zhao, Weiwei Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The immune-regulative effect of acacetin on the development of autoimmune arthritis remains unexplored. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of acacetin on the treatment of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice and clarify its underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a type II collagen (CII)-induced autoimmune arthritis model, acacetin significantly repressed the incidence of CIA, prevented the pathological alteration, and reduced CII-specific IgG and IgG1 levels...
August 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176060/regulation-of-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-immune-cells
#2
REVIEW
Xuchen Qian, Zhitao Yang, Enqiang Mao, Erzhen Chen
Metabolic reprogramming plays a critical role in the important cellular metabolic alterations that occur during the activation of immune cells to enable them to adapt to the extracellular environment. Here, we review recent studies on how substrate availability and metabolites mediate the signalling pathways that regulate fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in different immune cells and how FAS determines cellular fate and function. The major regulators sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and liver X receptors, the key enzyme ATP citrate lyase and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signalling axis play important roles in de novo FAS during a variety of biological events, including cellular proliferation and differentiation and the development of organelles and intracellular membrane components in immune cells...
August 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175850/development-of-tuberculosis-vaccines-in-clinical-trials-current-status
#3
REVIEW
P Méndez-Samperio
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important infectious disease worldwide. Currently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the only TB vaccine licensed for human use. This TB vaccine is effective in protecting children against severe military TB but offers variable protective efficacy in adults. Therefore, new vaccines against TB are needed to overcome this serious disease. At present, around 14 TB vaccine candidates are in different phases of clinical trials. These TB vaccines in clinical evaluation can be classified into two groups including preventive pre- and post-exposure vaccines: subunit vaccines (attenuated viral vectors or adjuvanted fusion proteins), and whole-cell vaccines (genetically attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
August 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30152873/b-lymphocyte-subsets-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-an-initial-diagnosis-of-transient-hypogammaglobulinemia-of-infancy
#4
Fehime K Eroğlu, Fatima Aerts Kaya, Deniz Çağdaş Ayvaz, Tuba Turul Özgür, Togay Yılmaz, İlhan Tezcan, Özden Sanal
PURPOSE: Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI) is a common immunodeficiency, but definitive diagnosis can only be made retrospectively. While the pathogenesis is still unknown, abnormalities have been reported in the B cell compartment. In this study, we analysed the B cell subsets of patients with an initial THI diagnosis (n = 20) and compared them with those of healthy age-matched Turkish children (n = 72). METHODS: Flow cytometric analyses of the B subsets were performed by staining with anti-CD27-PE, anti-CD19-PerCP, anti-IgD-FITC and anti-IgM-APC antibodies...
August 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29964328/tcr-pmhc-interactions-two-peptide-repertoires-one-signal
#5
M Cohn
The peptide (P) ligand seen by the TCR is presented by an MHC-encoded restricting element (R). Peptide is viewed from two perspectives, that of the TCR and that of R. The TCR looks at P using an anti-P site that is somatically generated and selected, whereas R looks at P using a binding site that is germline generated and selected. The two segments of P, the one viewed by the TCR, the other viewed by R divide P into two repertoires, Ptcr and Pr that are recognized independently but function cooperatively. The consequences of this for an understanding of TCR specificity and signalling as well as the role of differential processing are analysed...
June 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943473/newborn-screening-using-trec-krec-assay-for-severe-t-and-b-cell-lymphopenia-in-iran
#6
Maryam Nourizadeh, Leila Shakerian, Stephan Borte, Mohammadreza Fazlollahi, Mohsen Badalzadeh, Massoud Houshmand, Zahra Alizadeh, Hossein Dalili, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Mostafa Moin, Lennart Hammarström, Zahra Pourpak
T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and κ-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) are recently used for detection of T or B cell lymphopenia in neonates based on region-specific cutoff levels. Here, we report cutoffs for TREC and KREC copies useful for newborn screening and/or diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) in Iran. DNA was extracted from a single 3.2 mm punch of dried blood spots collected from 2160 anonymized newborns referred to two major referral health centers between 2014 and 2016...
June 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935085/critical-micelle-concentration-and-particle-size-determine-adjuvanticity-of-cyclic-lipopeptides
#7
Naoto Yoshino, Ryosuke Takeshita, Hanae Kawamura, Kazuyuki Murakami, Yutaka Sasaki, Ikumi Sugiyama, Yasuyuki Sadzuka, Masahiro Kagabu, Toru Sugiyama, Yasushi Muraki, Shigehiro Sato
Cyclic lipopeptides such as surfactin and polymyxin have potent mucosal adjuvant properties. Cyclic lipopeptides are tensioactive compounds but the relationship between adjuvanticity and surface activity is unknown. Here, we show that the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of surfactant and particle size of the surfactant-protein complex are important determinants of cyclic lipopeptide adjuvanticity. We found that the diameter of cyclic lipopeptide-ovalbumin (OVA) complex particles was significantly larger than that in the solutions of OVA alone at cyclic lipopeptide concentrations above the cmc...
June 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935034/molecular-mimicry-an-explanation-for-autoimmune-diseases-and-infertility
#8
REVIEW
Deepali Thaper, Vijay Prabha
Microorganisms execute an enthralling range of adjustments in order to survive in the host. Among the various strategies employed by microorganisms to surmount the host immune response, the phenomenon of molecular mimicry empowers the microorganisms to manoeuvre host physiology and cellular functions for their own advantage by mimicking the host proteins and initiating autoimmunity. This phenomena, by and large, has been studied in context of autoimmune diseases, however, its implications have also been reported in infertility...
June 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935030/significant-age-and-gender-related-variations-of-main-lymphocyte-subsets-in-pediatric-patients-latvian-data
#9
Sergey Nikulshin, Linda Kundzina, Iveta Tolstikova, Dagne Gravele, Tatjana Prokofjeva, Dace Gardovska
Age and gender-related variability of main lymphocyte subsets (T, B and NK cell absolute counts and percentages from Ly; T4, T8 and DN cell absolute counts and percentages from lymphocytes and from T cells; T4:T8 and T:B ratios) was studied in a large cohort of pediatric patients (2 days - 17 years) at yearly intervals. 4128 6-color TBNK tests performed on BD FACSCanto II flow cytometer were assessed; patients with immune deficiencies and tumors were not included. The study revealed significant age and gender-related changes in all subsets...
June 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048003/the-yin-yang-of-the-interaction-between-myelomonocytic-cells-and-nk-cells
#10
REVIEW
Martina Molgora, Domenico Supino, Domenico Mavilio, Angela Santoni, Lorenzo Moretta, Alberto Mantovani, Cecilia Garlanda
NK cells are innate lymphoid cells, which play a key role in the immune response to cancer and pathogens and participate in the shaping of adaptive immunity. NK cells engage in a complex bidirectional interaction with myelomonocytic cells. In particular, macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils promote differentiation and effector function of NK cells and, on the other hand, myelomonocytic cells express triggers of checkpoint blockade (eg PD-L1) and other immunosuppressive molecules, which negatively regulate NK cell function...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048002/the-d-vitamin-metabolite-1-25-oh-2-d-in-serum-is-associated-with-disease-activity-and-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibodies-in-active-and-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#11
Mette Herly, Kristian Stengaard-Pedersen, Peter Vestergaard, Mikkel Østergaard, Peter Junker, Merete L Hetland, Kim Hørslev-Petersen, Torkell Ellingsen
RATIONALE: Sufficient levels of vitamin D seem to be essential for proper immune function, and low levels might be associated to disease activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Most studies investigate only 25OHD and not the physiologically active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25(OH)2 D. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between serum level of vitamin D metabolites and disease activity parameters in 160 inflammatory active and treatment naïve early RA patients. Serum level of vitamin D metabolites (25OHD2 , 25OHD3 and 1,25(OH)2 D) was measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry and radio-immunoassays at baseline...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047999/increased-m1-macrophages-in-young-mir-15a-16-mice-with-tumour-grafts-or-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis
#12
Xiaoqin Jia, Xiangyu Hu, Sen Han, Xin Miao, Hao Liu, Xiaomin Li, Zhijie Lin, Zhengbing Wang, Weijuan Gong
M1 macrophages are involved in inflammation by producing proinflammatory cytokines, whereas M2 macrophages are associated with wound healing and tissue regeneration by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines. MicroRNAs are involved in macrophage polarization. To evaluate whether miR-15a/16 is involved in macrophage polarization under tumour or inflammation microenvironments, we observed the growth of transplanted hepatic cancer (H22) cells or severity of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in 8-week-old miR-15a/16 knockout (KO) mice...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974486/transcription-factor-c-maf-is-essential-for-il-10-gene-expression-in-b-cells
#13
Min Liu, Xiaoqi Zhao, Yunfeng Ma, Yan Zhou, Ming Deng, Yonggang Ma
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles as a negative regulator of immune responses to microbial antigens. c-Maf has been suggested as an essential transcriptional factor for IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. However, it remains unclear whether c-Maf participates in IL-10 expression in B cells. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Maf in the transcriptional regulation of IL-10 in regulatory B cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926972/the-oncostatin-m-stromal-cell-axis-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Nathaniel R West, Benjamin M J Owens, Ahmed N Hegazy
The field of stromal immunology has risen to prominence in the last decade, fuelled by accumulating evidence that nonhaematopoietic mesenchymal cells are not simply involved in modulating tissue structure, but actively contribute to immune processes. In addition to regulating tissue integrity during homoeostasis, stromal cells are sensitive sensors of inflammatory stimuli produced downstream of tissue injury or infection, and respond by producing a wide variety of chemokines, cytokines and adhesion factors that contribute to immunity and tissue repair...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542175/does-the-danger-model-shed-any-light-on-central-tolerance-a-response-to-al-yassin
#15
LETTER
E J Fuchs, P Matzinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476657/medawar-s-actively-acquired-tolerance-and-the-danger-model-setting-the-record-straight
#16
G Al-Yassin
I describe here what I believe is a misrepresentation of the classic observations of Billingham, Brent and Medawar on "actively acquired tolerance," by Ridge, Fuchs and Matzinger; I set the record straight by revisiting the original literature and discussing the implications of this misinterpretation.
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939403/glatiramer-acetate-specific-antibody-titres-in-patients-with-relapsing-%C3%A2-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-and-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856074/a-case-of-pembrolizumab-induced-localized-organizing-pneumonia
#18
LETTER
R Arays, P Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855061/antiplatelet-antibody-induced-thrombocytopenia-does-not-correlate-with-megakaryocyte-abnormalities-in-murine-immune-thrombocytopenia
#19
L Guo, R Kapur, R Aslam, K Hunt, Y Hou, A Zufferey, E R Speck, M T Rondina, A H Lazarus, H Ni, J W Semple
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by increased peripheral immune platelet destruction and megakaryocyte defects in the bone marrow. Although ITP was originally thought to be primarily due to antibody-mediated autoimmunity, it is now clear that T cells also play a significant role in the disease. However, the exact interplay between platelet destruction, megakaryocyte dysfunction and the elements of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ITP remains incompletely defined...
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807388/the-overexpression-of-fra1-disorders-the-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-by-mtec-of-myasthenia-gravis-thymus
#20
Q-R Li, W-P Ni, N-J Lei, J-Y Yang, X-Y Xuan, P-P Liu, G-M Gong, F Yan, Y-S Feng, R Zhao, Y Du
The thymus of a myasthenia gravis (MG) patient is often accompanied by and effected with follicular hyperplasia. Inflammatory cytokines in thymus induce the formation of germinal centres (GC). MG thymic inflammatory cytokines are predominantly secreted by stromal cells. Our previous studies revealed that the expression level of the Fra1 protein, which is a Fos member of the activator protein 1 transcription factors (AP-1), was higher in the MG thymus compared with that of the normal thymus. Based on that, we demonstrated that Fra1 was mainly expressed in medulla thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and that the rate of Fra1 positive mTECs in the MG thymus was higher than normal...
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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