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Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

Melvin Cohn
A summary of the workshop with its laudatory goal "to reveal the foundational concepts in immunology" was recently published in SJI with an invitation to outsiders to comment. In the end a foundational concept is one upon which we can all agree. This requires debate and meaningful experimentation. The goal of this commentary is to provide some of that. Most of immunology is description of an observation (i.e., a fact). However what ties all the facts together as a discipline is theory or conceptualization that give a general context to observation and predicts the next step...
February 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Maria E Stålhammar, Lena Douhan Håkansson, Richard Sindelar
Neutrophil migration and respiratory burst is the prerequisite for efficient first line defense against invading microorganisms. However, migration and respiratory burst can be compromised in adults and especially in newborn infants, where sustained neutrophil accumulation, uncontrolled burst and reduced scavenging of ROS might cause inadvertent tissue damage due to uncontrolled inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of the chemoattractants formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and IL-8 on respiratory burst in neutrophils from term newborn infants and adults...
February 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Dadong Guo, Bing Hu, Hongying Tang, Yuanyuan Sun, Bin Liu, Qingmei Tian, Hongsheng Bi
Uveitis is an autoimmune disease that usually damages the vision function, leading to poor visual quality in patients. As an autoimmune ocular inflammatory disease, the pathogenesis of uveitis is associated with abnormal expression of some proteins and aberrant regulation of multiple signaling pathways. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we induced an experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model in rats. We determined the levels of C3a and membrane attack complex C5b-9 (soluble C5b-9, sC5b-9) in both plasma and aqueous humor, identified the differentially expressed proteins in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and employed bioinformatics algorithms to analyze differentially expressed proteins in EAU rat plasma...
February 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Kun Ma, Pengyu Ma, Huaihai Lu, Shuxiang Liu, Qinying Cao
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of fentanyl anesthetic on T lymphocytes isolated from human umbilical cord bloodin vitro. The percentages of CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and regulatory T (Treg) cells in human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UBMC) treated with fentanyl in vitrowere analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17 secreted by activated CD4(+) T cells were measured by ELISA assays. Expressions of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway proteins were determined by Western blotting...
February 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Carina Malmhäll, Kristina Johansson, Carla Winkler, Sahar Alawieh, Linda Ekerljung, Madeleine Rådinger
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. We and others have previously identified miRNAs with pathological roles in animal models of asthma. To date, few studies have investigated miRNA expression in human asthmatics and miRNA expression in specific cellular subtypes in asthmatics is largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess miR-146a and miR-155 expression in airways- and blood-derived samples, two miRNA candidates which have previously been described to play important roles in inflammatory processes...
February 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Maria J Giuffrida, Nereida Valero, Jesus Mosquera, Anyelo Duran, Francisco Arocha, Betulio Chacín, Luz Marina Espina, Jenifer Gotera, John Bermudez, Alibeth Mavarez, Melchor Alvarez-Mon
This study was aimed to determine the profiles of serum cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5) and chemokines (MCP-1: monocyte chemoattract protein-1 and RANTES: regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) in individuals with an asthmatic versus a non-asthmatic background with bacterial, viral or mixed acute respiratory infection. Asthmatic (n=14) and non- asthmatic (n=29) patients with acute viral, bacterial or mixed (bacterial and viruses) respiratory infection were studied. Patients were also analyzed as individuals with pneumonia or bronchitis...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno
Our understanding of immunity to filarial infection is enigmatic and continues to be passionately debated. The mechanisms whereby filarial nematodes are killed in vivo and how these parasites avoid these mechanisms are poorly understood. Although vaccination studies in permissive animals took off seven decades ago, the exact mechanisms driving protective immunity is extensively being investigated. Currently, little is known regarding the collective functions or counter-regulatory mechanisms of the antibody isotypes in filarial infection with respect to protective immunity...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Mohammad Moafi, Hossein Rezvan, Roya Sherkat, Roya Taleban, Ali Asilian, Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Fariba Jaffary, Marjan Mansourian, Fatemeh Sokhanvari, Nazli Ansari
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) heals spontaneously within several weeks or months, but, in rare cases, CL active lesions last for many years. In the current study, we assessed cell-mediated immunity in non-healing CL through the measurement of three pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-17a, and CXCL-11. For this, 32 patients afflicted with healing or non-healing CL were recruited in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of every patient were treated with three antigens: purified protein derivative (PPD), soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), and Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Kristina Gerlach, Christian Tomuschat, Rainer Finke, Martin Sebastian Staege, Christine Brütting, Jörg Brandt, Berit Jordan, René Schwesig, Angela Rosemeier, Karl-Stefan Delank, Malte Erich Kornhuber, Alexander Emmer
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is incompletely understood. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and their superantigenic envelope protein (env) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. In the present investigation the arthritogenic potential of the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) has been investigated. In the present investigation, the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) was injected into the right knee joint of 15 Lewis rats. Further 9 animals received saline...
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Jia-Bin Sun, Jan Holmgren, Mark S Cragg, Zou Xiang
The Fcγ receptor IIIA (FcγRIIIA) has traditionally been known as a positive regulator of immune responses. Consistent with this, mice deficient in FcγRIIIA are protected from various inflammation-associated pathologies including several autoimmune diseases. In contrast to this accepted dogma, we show here that mice lacking FcγRIIIA developed increased rather than reduced both humoral and cellular immune responses to mucosal (sublingual) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) given together with the strong mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin as well as to parenteral (subcutaneous) immunization with OVA in complete Freund's adjuvant...
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Iago Carballo, Noelia Rabuñal, Lucía Alvela, Luis-Fernando Pérez, Carmen Vidal, Manuela Alonso, Bernardo Sopeña, Francisco Gude, Arturo Gonzalez-Quintela
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is the least studied of immunoglobulin classes. This study sought to investigate the potential relationship between demographic, metabolic, lifestyle and immunologic factors, and serum IgD concentrations in a general adult population. We measured serum IgD concentrations by means of a commercial turbidimetric assay in 413 individuals (median age, 55 years; 45% males), randomly selected from the adult population of a Spanish municipality. Serum IgD concentrations displayed considerable variation in the population, ranging from undetectable (<6...
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Soheil Tavakolpour
I read with interest the recently published article by Wang et al.[1], which has demonstrated the key role of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) molecule in impairment of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells in 43 chronically HBV infected patients. Previously, we discussed the critical role of regulatory responses in induction of chronic HBV (CHB) infection [2]. We also hypothesized that inhibition of these responses could possibly result in seroclearance in CHB patients [3]. This could be done via inhibition of some co-inhibitory molecules, including programmed death-1 (PD-1), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4)...
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Ashish Kumar Vyas
Read with great interest the article by Cavalcanti et al (1). Which describes the levels of chemokine such as MCP-1, RANETS, MIG and IP-10 in children with sepsis community acquired pneumonia and skin abscess. Author has found increased levels of RANETS in all infections mentioned above. Interestingly IP-10 was significantly increased in sepsis groups with low levels of MCP1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Emeline Ragonnaud, Anders Gorm Pedersen, Peter Johannes Holst
Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are in most cases eliminated by intervention of T cells. As many other pathogens, these oncogenic HPVs belong to an ancient and diverse virus family. Therefore, we found it relevant to investigate the potential and limitations of inducing a broad response - either by inducing cross-reactive T cells or by administering a polyvalent vaccine. To test these strategies, we designed 3 ancestral and 2 circulating sequences based on the two domains of the E1 and E2 proteins of papillomaviruses (PVs) that exhibit the highest degree of conservation in comparison to the other PV proteins...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Baran Erman, Ivan Bilic, Tatjana Hirschmugl, Elisabeth Salzer, Heidrun Boztug, Özden Sanal, Deniz Çağdaş Ayvaz, Ilhan Tezcan, Kaan Boztug
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) represent a large group of disorders with an increased susceptibility to infections. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) with marked T-cell lymphopenia. Investigation of the genetic etiology using classical Sanger sequencing is associated with considerable diagnostic delay. We here established a custom-designed, next generation sequencing-based panel to efficiently identify disease-causing genetic defects in PID patients and applied this method in SCID patients of Turkish origin with previously undefined genetic etiology...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Krista Kuuliala, Antti Kuuliala, Mari Hämäläinen, Riitta Koivuniemi, Hannu Kautiainen, Eeva Moilanen, Heikki Repo, Marjatta Leirisalo-Repo
It has been proposed that the Akt kinase pathway provides a regulatory mechanism to limit the inflammatory response. We examined the activation of Akt upon LPS challenge in monocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and correlated it with disease activity. Twelve subjects with recent-onset, DMARD-naïve RA, thirteen patients with chronic, DMARD therapy -nonresponding RA and 27 healthy volunteers provided whole blood samples for phosphospecific flow cytometric measurement of unstimulated and LPS-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 in monocytes, determined in relative fluorescence units (RFU)...
December 19, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Zu-Cheng Yang, Fen Xu, Min Tang, Xia Xiong
The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoter -308 A/G polymorphism plays an important role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies have estimated the association between TNF-α -308 A/G and SLE risk. However, results were inconsistent. A case-control study was carried out to explore the association between TNF-α -308 A/G and the SLE risk in a Chinese Han population. Meta-analysis combining present with previous studies were conducted to further explore the association. Our case-control study included 556 SLE patients along with 570 matched healthy controls...
December 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Somaye Aletaha, Vahid Asgary, Leila Haddad, Maryam Roozbehkia, Reza Ahangari Cohan, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Abbas Mirshafiey
To date, selective blockade of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling have been developed as a new approach for treatment many inflammatory diseases. Since β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) has been known as an anti-inflammatory molecule in several experimental models, we investigated the antagonistic effects of M2000 on TLR2 and TLR4 downstream signaling transduction pathway in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines overexpressing TLR2/CD14 and the TLR4/MD2/CD14 complex, respectively. M2000 effectively inhibited mRNA expression of MyD88 and p65, major subunit of nuclear factor-κB, in HEK293 cells stimulated by Lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a TLR2 agonist) and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 agonist) with no evidence of cytotoxicity...
December 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Hans Jorgen Aarstad, Helene Hersvik Aarstad, Olav Karsten Vintermyr, Kenneth Wilfried Kross, Stein Lybak, John-Helge Heimdal
MCP-1/IL-6 in vitro monocyte secretion upon co-culture with autologous fragment spheroids was studied in relation to patient five- and 10-year overall survival rates in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patients (N=65) diagnosed between 1998 and 2005, nine of whom had an HPV tumor infection. The spheroids were harvested from malignant or benign tissue during primary surgery. Two weeks following surgery, freshly isolated autologous monocytes and benign or malignant spheroids were co-cultured 24 hours in vitro...
December 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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