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Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817184/the-influence-of-cytomegalovirus-on-expression-of-hla-g-and-its-ligand-kir2dl4-by-human-peripheral-blood-leucocyte-subsets
#1
Zaid Albayati, Ahmed Alyami, Suliman Alomar, Derek Middleton, Laura Bonnett, Sobia Aleem, Brian F Flanagan, Stephen E Christmas
HLA-G is a non-classical class I HLA antigen, normally expressed in high levels only on extravillous cytotrophoblast. It has immunosuppressive properties in pregnancy and has also been found to be upregulated on leucocytes in viral infection. In this study, proportions of all leucocyte subsets expressing HLA-G were found to be low in healthy subjects positive or negative for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Significantly greater proportions of CD4+CD69+ and CD56+ T cells expressed HLA-G compared to other T cells. However, following stimulation with CMV antigens or intact CMV, proportions of CD4+, CD8+, CD69+ and CD56+ T cells, and also B cells expressing HLA-G were significantly increased in CMV+ subjects...
August 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805315/a-comparison-of-clinical-and-immunologic-phenotypes-in-familial-and-sporadic-forms-of-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#2
Amir Valizadeh, Reza Yazdani, Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disease and its prevalence varies significantly among different population. Minority of CVID patients present a familial aggregation suggesting a higher probability of heritable genetic defects. A total of 235 registered CVID patients were evaluated in this cohort study. Familial and sporadic patients were stratified and demographic information, clinical records, laboratory and molecular data were compared among these two groups of patients...
August 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805301/the-lymphocytes-stimulation-induced-dna-release-a-phenomenon-similar-to-netosis
#3
Yermis Carolina Rocha, Mauricio Rojas, Gloria Vásquez, Juan López
The release of DNA into the extracellular milieu by neutrophil during a process called NETosis has been postulated as an additional source of autoantigens; a process believed to be important in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune disease, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, it is not established if the B and T cells undergo the release of DNA to the extracellular milleu, in response to different stimuli. In this study, it was observed that, the treatment of B and T cells with PMA, ionomycin, and the serum from patients with SLE induced the extracellular DNA presence in B and T cells...
August 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799233/stochastics-of-cellular-differentiation-explained-by-epigenetics-the-case-of-t-cell-differentiation-and-functional-plasticity
#4
REVIEW
Jaydeep Bhat, Johannes Helmuth, Guranda Chitadze, Léonce Kouakanou, Christian Peters, Martin Vingron, Ole Ammerpohl, Dieter Kabelitz
Epigenetic marks including histone modifications and DNA methylation are associated to the regulation of gene expression and activity. In addition, an increasing number of non-coding RNAs with regulatory activity on gene expression have been identified. Alongside, technological advancements allow for the analysis of these mechanisms with high resolution - up to the single-cell level. For instance, the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) simultaneously probes for chromatin accessibility and nucleosome positioning...
August 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736829/clonal-analysis-of-regulatory-t-cell-defect-in-patients-with-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1-suggests-intrathymic-impairment
#5
Tuisku-Tuulia Koivula, Sini M Laakso, Heikki J Niemi, Eliisa Kekäläinen, Pia Laine, Lars Paulin, Petri Auvinen, T Petteri Arstila
Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene disrupt thymic T cell development and negative selection, leading to the recessively inherited polyendocrine autoimmune disease APS-1 (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1). The patients also have a functional defect in the FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell population, but its origin is unclear. Here we have used T cell receptor sequencing to analyze the clonal relationship of major CD4(+) T cell subsets in 3 patients and 3 healthy controls. The naive regulatory T cells showed little overlap with helper T cell subsets, supporting divergence in the thymus...
July 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727155/mucosal-associated-invariant-mait-cells-are-deficient-in-systemic-sclerosis
#6
Arsène Mekinian, Thibaut Mahevas, Mohamad Mohty, Vincent Jachiet, Sébastien Rivière, Olivier Fain, Béatrice Gaugler
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by fibrosis of the skin and other organs, vascular impairment and deficient immune responses. Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT) cells have been involved in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of MAIT cells in the blood of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to compare their distribution in the different types of SSc. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples from SSc patients and healthy controls were examined by flow cytometer to analyze the frequencies of MAIT and γδ T cells...
July 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708284/cd20-specific-immunoligands-engaging-nkg2d-enhance-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-lysis-of-lymphoma-cells
#7
Matthias Peipp, Daniela Wesch, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Sebastian Lutz, Anja Muskulus, Jan G J van de Winkel, Paul W H I Parren, Renate Burger, Andreas Humpe, Dieter Kabelitz, Martin Gramatzki, Christian Kellner
Human γδ T cells are innate-like T cells which are able to kill a broad range of tumor cells and thus may have potential for cancer immunotherapy. The activating receptor natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) plays a key role in regulating immune responses driven by γδ T cells. Here, we explored whether recombinant immunoligands consisting of a CD20 single-chain fragment variable (scFv) linked to a NKG2D ligand, either MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) or UL16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2), could be employed to engage γδ T cells for tumor cell killing...
July 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810080/non-specific-aberrant-expression-of-t-follicular-helper-and-regulatory-cells-with-age
#8
LETTER
Ashish Kumar Vyas, Ritu Khosla, Nirupma Trehanpati
We read with great interest the article by Guo et al. [1], which showed that increased percentage of circulating T follicular helper (cTFh) and circulating T follicular regulatory (cTFr) (cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients could be correlated with its pathogenesis. The role of TFh cells has been described in different types of cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma [2], breast cancer [3], and has also emerged as a key factor in the pathogenesis of viral related diseases such as HBV [4]...
July 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675263/specific-and-cross-reactive-plasmablast-response-in-humans-after-primary-and-secondary-immunization-with-vi-capsular-polysaccharide-typhoid-vaccine
#9
Sari H Pakkanen, Jussi M Kantele, Lars Rombo, Anu Kantele
Secondary immunization with polysaccharide vaccines may imply a risk of hyporesponsiveness. Despite the wide use of typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine, its potential tendency to hyporesponsiveness has been inadequately addressed. While previous studies have explored serum antibody responses, we applied a more sensitive approach, a single-cell assay for circulating plasmablasts, to compare primary and secondary responses. Twelve subjects received primary and booster doses of the Vi vaccine (Typherix(®)) at 30-37-month intervals...
July 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671723/giving-context-to-nonself-marker-theories-of-immune-responsiveness
#10
REVIEW
Melvin Cohn
In 2001, long ago by modern standards, Matzinger changed the emphasis of her Danger Theory from one that downplayed the Self-Nonself discrimination to one that concerned itself with the regulation of effector class. This gave her theory a measure of validity that the other Nonself-marker theorists have yet to confront. However precision and clarity are still lacking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 30, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671713/complement-c5a-induced-changes-in-neutrophil-morphology-during-inflammation
#11
Stephanie Denk, Ronald P Taylor, Rebecca Wiegner, Erika M Cook, Margaret A Lindorfer, Katharina Pfeiffer, Stephan Paschke, Tim Eiseler, Manfred Weiss, Eberhard Barth, John D Lambris, Miriam Kalbitz, Tobias Martin, Holger Barth, David A C Messerer, Florian Gebhard, Markus S Huber-Lang
The complement and neutrophil defense systems, as major components of innate immunity, are activated during inflammation and infection. For neutrophil migration to the inflamed region, we hypothesized that the complement activation product C5a induces significant changes in cellular morphology before chemotaxis. Exposure of human neutrophils to C5a, dose- and time-dependently resulted in a rapid C5a receptor-1 (C5aR1)-dependent shape-change, indicated by enhanced flow cytometric forward-scatter area values...
June 30, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675455/lps-induced-ex-vivo-cytokine-production-is-not-augmented-in-patients-with-von-hippel-lindau-disease
#12
LETTER
Dorien Kiers, Henri Jlm Timmers, Jelle Gerretsen, Peter Pickkers, Matthijs Kox
Patients with Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHLd) have a monoallelic germ line mutation in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. The Von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) facilitates degradation of the transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor(HIF)-1α[1]. When a second hit affects the only well-functioning VHL gene left, HIF-1α is no longer degraded and its transcriptional activity can contribute to the development of highly vascularized benign and malignant tumors in VHLd [1]. This article is protected by copyright...
June 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675453/new-dancing-couple-pd-l1-and-microrna
#13
REVIEW
Anna Grenda, Paweł Krawczyk
Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cause of cancer death in the world. A great challenge in treating NSCLC is the discovery of advanced, molecular tools to diagnose the disease in early stages as well as the development of immunotherapy. MicroRNAs are regulatory molecules (~20 nt in length) with the ability to regulate the expression of genes. The recently described PD-1 and PD-L1 molecules have great importance for potential use in immunotherapy of many cancers. These molecules are associated with immune checkpoints and provide an opportunity for the treatment of advanced NSCLC patients with synthetic monoclonal antibodies...
June 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605050/the-abl-1-kinase-is-dispensable-for-nk-cell-inhibitory-signaling-and-is-not-involved-in-murine-nk-cell-education
#14
S Ganesan, T L Thanh, N Kadri, B J Chambers, S Meinke, P Brodin, E Vivier, D M Wetzel, A J Koleske, P Höglund
Natural killer (NK) cell responsiveness in the mouse is determined in an education process guided by inhibitory Ly49 and NKG2A receptors binding to MHC class I molecules. It has been proposed that inhibitory signaling in human NK cells involves Abl-1 (c-Abl)-mediated phosphorylation of Crk, lowering NK cell function via disruption of a signaling complex including C3G and c-Cbl, suggesting that NK cell education might involve c-Abl. Mice deficient in c-Abl expression specifically in murine NK cells displayed normal inhibitory and activating receptor repertoires...
June 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561325/assays-for-infliximab-drug-levels-and-antibodies-a-matter-of-scales-and-categories
#15
L Bader, S M Solberg, S H Kaada, N Bolstad, D J Warren, S Gavasso, C G Gjesdal, C A Vedeler
Immunogenicity is a frequent cause of secondary non-response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. Drug level measurement and detection of anti-drug antibodies has been shown to be cost-effective and clinically relevant, and a large number of assays are available for these purposes. It is, however, difficult to compare assays and translate results into clinical meaningful information due to different methodological approaches and a lack of assay standardization. We have analyzed infliximab drug levels and anti-drug antibodies in 107 patient samples using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA), immunofluorometric assays (IFMA), and reporter gene assays (RGA) for drug and for antibody...
May 31, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547744/bacterial-fmlp-modulates-both-ros-and-chemotaxis
#16
LETTER
Ritesh Kumar Tiwari
I have recently read an article entitled," Bacterial N-formyl Peptides Reduce PMA- and E.coli-induced Neutrophil Respiratory Burst in Term Neonates and Adults" by Stålhammar et al. published in the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology[1]. The paper nicely showed that fMLP at higher doses (>1nM) reduces the amount of ROS generated thus it may alter the course of immunopathology or clearance of infection. I would like to make a contribution to the above findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
May 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561280/anti-fc%C3%AE-riib-cd32-antibodies-differentially-modulate-murine-fviii-specific-recall-response-in%C3%A2-vitro
#17
N Vollack, J Friese, S Bergmann, M S Cragg, A Tiede, S Werwitzke
Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) for IgG regulate adaptive immune responses by modulating activating and inhibitory signalling pathways within immune cells. Data from a haemophilia A mouse model demonstrate that genetic deletion or blockade of the inhibitory FcγR (CD32) suppresses the formation of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in vitro. Mechanisms preventing the FVIII-specific recall response, however, remain unclear. Here, the potential role of CD32 inhibition was studied by differentially modulating receptor activity with selected anti-CD32 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543378/case-report-renal-transplantation-in-patients-with-pre-existing-hypogammaglobulinemia
#18
K P Lund, H Bruunsgaard, H V Marquart, S S Sørensen
Hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) is well-characterized as a common phenomenon after kidney transplantation. However, no reports of pre-existing HGG from kidney transplantation seem to be available. We have reviewed three patients who developed HGG prior to kidney transplantation, and all three were treated successfully with immunoglobulin replacement therapy before and after kidney transplantation. The kidney grafts were functioning at follow-up 1.5-8 years (mean: 3.6 years) after transplantation, and there were no diagnosed episodes of clinical rejections and no severe infection complications post-transplantation...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513991/immunoprotective-effect-of-chitosan-particles-on-hymenolepis-nana-infected-mice
#19
M Abdel-Latif, G El-Shahawi, S M Aboelhadid, H Abdel-Tawab
Hymenolepis nana is the most commonly known intestinal cestode infecting mainly human. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of chitosan particles (CSP) to enhance the immune system against H. nana infection. Determination of worm burden, egg output, histopathological changes, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione), goblet (GCs) and mucosal mast cells (MMCs) counts in intestinal ileum was performed. In addition, levels of intestinal mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-9, stem cell factor (SCF), type I and II interferons (IFN)-α/ γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, mucin 2 (MUC2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOs) were investigated using real-time PCR...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513984/spd-l1-expression-is-associated-with-immunosuppression-and-infectious-complications-in-patients-with-acute-pancreatitis
#20
Y Chen, M Li, J Liu, T Pan, T Zhou, Z Liu, R Tan, X Wang, L Tian, E Chen, H Qu
Acute pancreatitis (AP) with infectious complications has high mortality because of early-stage immunosuppression. The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is an important host immunosuppression mechanism. Soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) expression regulates co-inhibitory signals in malignancies or autoimmune disorders; however, its effects in AP are unknown. Here, we evaluated whether serum sPD-L1 is involved in immune dysfunction and assessed its relationship with infectious complications in early AP...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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