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Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

Ana Hernández, Paula Arbildi, Cecilia Sóñora, Natalia Del Río, Juan Martin Marques
Tissue transglutaminase is a ubiquitous and multifunctional protein that contribute to several processes such as apoptosis/survival, efferocytosis, inflammation and tissue repairing under physiological and pathological conditions. Several activities can be associated with well established functional domains; in addition, four RNA alternative splice variants have been described, characterized by sequence divergences and residues deletion at the C-terminal domains Tissue transglutaminase is recognized as the central player in the physiopathology of celiac disease mainly through calcium dependent enzymatic activities...
March 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Ephraim Fuchs, Polly Matzinger
In a commentary on our 1996 publication[1], Al-Yassin suggests that we mischaracterized the results of the classical neonatal tolerance experiments of Billingham, Brent, and Medawar (BBM)[2] when we stated that "[BBM} found that rodents injected at birth with hemopoietic cells from a genetically different donor were later able to accept transplants from the same donor". Al-Yassin points out that "BBM could only reliably induce tolerance by giving fetal mice allogeneic cells" and "BBM concluded that neonatal mice were in a 'null' period, during which inoculation with MHC-incompatible cells had no effect, i...
March 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Zhiyun Wang, Zhining Liu, Ling Wang, Junling Wang, Liping Chen, Hua Xie, Huiyun Zhang, Shaoheng He
IL-18 is likely to contribute to asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in asthma. Because the action of IL-18 in the body is regulated by IL-18BP and mast cells and basophils are key cell types involved in asthma, we investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP and IL-18R in basophils and mast cells using flow cytometry and a mouse asthma model. We found that among basophils, approximately 53 and 51% were IL-18+ , 85 and 81% were IL-18BP+ basophils, and 19...
March 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Panagiota Karagianni, Evangelia Zampeli, Haralampos M Moutsopoulos
A patient in whom organs or molecules are affected sequentially by an autoimmune response prompted us to propose a hypothesis that epitope spreading may account for the sequential involvement of different cells. A 27-year old male patient was diagnosed in January 2005 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), since all autoantibodies relevant to autoimmune diseases were negative. He was treated with immunosuppression and spenectomy. In 2014, the patient developed transient blurred vision, dizziness and walking instability and autoimmune chylomicronemia was diagnosed, based on the presence of autoantibodies to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) (1)...
February 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
S S Prakash
Immune class regulation is the response of the immune system to infectious or non-infectious challenges to protect the host. This includes mounting of an appropriate immune response and subsequent resolution once the challenge is overcome. In this letter, I propose that the immune class regulation can be considered as a result of the interactions between factors related to host, stimulus and the context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Kazuhiko Tatemoto, Yuko Nozaki, Ryoko Tsuda, Shinobu Kaneko, Keiko Tomura, Masahiro Furuno, Hiroyuki Ogasawara, Koji Edamura, Hideo Takagi, Hiroyuki Iwamura, Masato Noguchi, Takayuki Naito
Mast cells play a central role in inflammatory and allergic reactions by releasing inflammatory mediators through two main pathways, immunoglobulin E-dependent and -independent activation. In the latter pathway, mast cells are activated by a diverse range of basic molecules (collectively known as basic secretagogues) through Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (MRGPRs). In addition to the known basic secretagogues, here, we discovered several endogenous protein and enzyme fragments (such as chaperonin-10 fragment, etc...
February 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Sanni Kumar, Ena Gupta, Sanket Kaushik, Vijay Kumar Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar Mehta, Anupam Jyoti
Sepsis is a condition caused by infection followed by unregulated inflammatory response which may lead to the organ dysfunction. During such condition, over-production of oxidants is one of the factors which contribute cellular toxicity and ultimately organ failure and mortality. Antioxidants having free radicals scavenging activity exert protective role in various diseases. The present study has been designed to evaluate the levels of oxidative and anti-oxidative activity in sepsis patients and their correlation with the severity of the sepsis...
February 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Ruohan Yu, Changhong Li, Lin Sun, Leilei Jian, Zhenzhen Ma, Jinxia Zhao, Xiangyuan Liu
Hypoxia is a prominent microenvironment feature in a range of disorders including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), infection, and obesity. Hypoxia promotes biological functions of fibroblast-like synoviocytes via regulating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). Dysregulated protein citrullination in RA drives the production of antibodies to citrullinated proteins, a highly specific biomarker of RA. However, the mechanisms promoting citrullination in RA are not yet fully elucidated...
February 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Barbora Konečná, Lucia Lauková, Barbora Vlková
Cell-free self-DNA or RNA may induce an immune response by activating specific sensing receptors. During pregnancy, placental nucleic acids present in the maternal circulation further activate these receptors due to the presence of unmethylated CpG islands. A higher concentration of cell-free fetal DNA is associated with pregnancy complications and a higher risk for fetal rejection. Cell-free fetal DNA originates from placental trophoblasts. It appears in different forms: free, bound to histones in nucleosomes, in neutrophil extracellular traps and in extracellular vesicles...
February 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Ghassan Al-Yassin
I describe here what I believe is a misrepresentation of the classic observations of Billingham, Brent and Medawar on "actively acquired tolerance", by Ridge, Fuchs and Matzinger; I set the record straight by revisiting the original literature and discussing the implications of this misinterpretation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Li-Wei Zhang, Pei-Ru Zhou, Pan Wei, Xin Cong, Li-Ling Wu, Hong Hua
The aberrant expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been reported in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Abnormalities in IL-17 can promote the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and aggravate autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate alterations of IL-17 in pSS patients, and explore the correlation between IL-17 and disease severity. Eight databases are searched for original studies reporting the expression of IL-17 in pSS patients and controls. Eligible reports are included in the pooled analysis, and subgroup evaluations are performed according to different types of controls and IL-17 measurement methods...
February 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Mariana S Almeida, Virginia M B Lorena, Carolina de Araújo Medeiros, Wilson Oliveira Junior, Maria da Glória A M Cavalcanti, Silvia M Martins, Clarice N L de Morais
Immune homeostasis has been suggested to play an important role in the clinical evolution of chronic Chagas disease, however, the immunopathologic factors involved haven't been fully elucidated. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze the frequency of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ cells, classic Th17 cells, alternative Th17 cells and IL-17+ B cells from peripheral blood of chronic cardiac patients after in vitro stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi soluble EPI antigen. Patients were selected and classified according to clinical evaluation of cardiac involvement: mild, B1 (CARD1) (n = 20), and severe, C (CARD2) (n = 11)...
February 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Shaolin He, Chun Wu, Junhui Xiao, Dazhu Li, Ziyan Sun, Ming Li
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages engage in tight and specific interactions that play critical roles in cardiovascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are circular membrane fragments released from the endosomal compartment as exosomes or shed from the surfaces of the membranes of most cell types. Increasing evidence indicates that EVs play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. However, the contribution of EVs, as determine by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-exposed and/or Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2)-transduced ECs in the interaction between vascular ECs and monocytes/ macrophages, which is a key event in atherosclerotic plaque development, has remained elusive...
February 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Junli Yan, Yao Li, Haiping Yang, Li Zhang, Baohui Yang, Mo Wang, Qiu Li
Studies show that the Th17/IL-17A axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Previously, we also showed that IL-17A may play a role in the pathogenesis of primary nephrotic syndrome; however, the underlying mechanism(s) is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of IL-17A inducing podocyte injury in vitro. In this study, the NLRP3 inflammsome activation and the morphology of podocytes were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence .The results showed that podocytes persistently expressed IL-17A receptor, and that NLRP3 inflammasome in these cells was activated upon exposure to IL-17A...
February 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Paulina M Budzyńska, Minna K Kyläniemi, Olli Lassila, Kalle-Pekka Nera, Jukka Alinikula
Differentiation of B cells into antibody secreting cells (ASCs), plasmablasts and plasma cells, is regulated by a network of transcription factors. Within this network factors including PAX5 and BCL6 prevent ASC differentiation and maintain the B cell phenotype. In contrast, BLIMP-1 and high IRF4 expression promote plasma cell differentiation. BLIMP-1 is thought to induce immunoglobulin secretion whereas IRF4 is needed for the survival of ASCs. The role of IRF4 in the regulation of antibody secretion has remained controversial...
February 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Saliha Esenboga, Deniz Çagdas, Tuba T Ozgur, Pınar Gur Çetinkaya, Lutfiye M Turkdemir, Ozden Sanal, Mirjam VanDer Burg, İlhan Tezcan
INTRODUCTION: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary immunodeficiency disorder resulting from BTK gene mutations. There are many studies in the literature suggesting contradictory ideas about phenotype- genotype correlation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the mutations and clinical findings of patients with XLA in Turkey, to determine long-term complications related to the disease and to analyze the phenotype-genotype correlation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients with XLA diagnosed between 1985-2016 in Pediatric Immunology Department of Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital were investigated...
February 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Katerina Bakela, Myrsini Dimakopoulou, Panagiota Batsou, Nikos Manidakis, Irene Athanassakis
Taking into consideration the multiparametric nature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the severity and variability of symptoms and the lack of effective therapeutic approaches, the present study took advantage of the recently described role of soluble major histocompatibility complex class II (sMHCII) molecules in maintaining tolerance to the organism and attempted to apply sMHCII proteins as a treatment to murine SLE experimental models in vitro as well as in vivo. After breaking tolerance to DNA in vitro, which was accompanied by development of specific anti-dsDNA antibodies, syngeneic or allogeneic sMHCII molecules, purified from healthy mouse serum, could significantly reduce the specific antibody levels and drive the system towards immunosuppression, as assessed by specific marker analysis on T cells and cytokine production by flow cytometry and ELISA respectively...
February 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Mouldy Sioud
The therapeutic use of the immune system to specifically attack tumors has been a longstanding vision among tumour immunologists. Recently the use of checkpoint inhibitors to turn-off immunosuppressive signals has proven to be effective in enhancing T-cell reactivity against patient-specific neoantigens, resulting from somatic mutations. Several of the identified T-cell epitopes share similarity with common bacterial and viral antigens, suggesting the involvement of pre-existing antimicrobial memory T cells in rapid and durable tumour regression seen in some patients...
January 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Jailza Lima Rodrigues Oliveira, Mauro Martins Teixeira, José Roberto Lambertucci, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo Antunes, Mariângela Carneiro, Deborah Negrão-Corrêa
In the murine model, it was demonstrated that pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are essential to the formation and modulation of Schistosoma-induced granulomatous inflammation. However, the relationship of these immune mediators and disease severity is hard to be established in naturally infected individuals. The current study evaluates the association between plasma concentrations of MIF, sTNF-R1, CCL3, CCL7 and CCL24 and schistosomiasis morbidity in Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients with a low parasite burden...
January 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Takashi Ishii, Yuichi Niikura, Keigo Kurata, Masashi Muroi, Ken-Ichi Tanamoto, Takahide Nagase, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Naomi Yamashita
House dust mites (HDMs) are a common source of allergens that trigger both allergen-specific and innate immune responses in humans. Here we examined the effect of allergen concentration and the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of sensitization to house dust mite allergens in an HDM-extract-induced asthma mouse model. Intranasal administration of HDM extract induced an immunoglobulin E response and eosinophilic inflammation in a dose-dependent manner from 2.5 to 30 μg/dose. In TLR4-knockout mice, the infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lung was decreased compared with that in wild-type mice in the early phase of inflammation (total of three doses)...
January 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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