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Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

Min Liu, Xiaoqi Zhao, Yunfeng Ma, Yan Zhou, Ming Deng, Yonggang Ma
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles as a negative regulator of immune responses to microbial antigens. C-Maf has been suggested as an essential transcriptional factor for IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. However, it remains unclear whether c-Maf participates in IL-10 expression in B cells. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Maf in the transcriptional regulation of IL-10 in regulatory B cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism...
July 4, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Melvin Cohn
The peptide (P) ligand seen by the TCR is presented by an MHC-encoded restricting element (R). Peptide is viewed from two perspectives, that of the TCR and that of R. The TCR looks at P using an anti-P site that is somatically generated and selected, whereas R looks at P using a binding site that is germline generated and selected. The two segments of P, the one viewed by the TCR, the other viewed by R divide P into two repertoires, Ptcr and Pr that are recognized independently but function cooperatively. The consequences of this for an understanding of TCR specificity and signaling as well as the role of differential processing are analyzed...
June 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Maryam Nourizadeh, Leila Shakerian, Stephan Borte, Mohammadreza Fazlollahi, Mohsen Badalzadeh, Massoud Houshmand, Zahra Alizadeh, Hossein Dalili, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Mostafa Moin, Lennart Hammarström, Zahra Pourpak
T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and κ-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) are recently used for detection of T or B cell lymphopenia in neonates based on region-specific cutoff levels. Here, we report cutoffs for TREC and KREC copies useful for newborn screening and/or diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) in Iran. DNA was extracted from a single 3.2 mm punch of dried blood spots collected from 2160 anonymized newborns referred to two major referral health centers between 2014 and 2016...
June 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Naoto Yoshino, Ryosuke Takeshita, Hanae Kawamura, Kazuyuki Murakami, Yutaka Sasaki, Ikumi Sugiyama, Yasuyuki Sadzuka, Masahiro Kagabu, Toru Sugiyama, Yasushi Muraki, Shigehiro Sato
Cyclic lipopeptides such as surfactin and polymyxin have potent mucosal adjuvant properties. Cyclic lipopeptides are tensioactive compounds but the relationship between adjuvanticity and surface activity is unknown. Here, we show that the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of surfactant and particle size of the surfactant-protein complex are important determinants of cyclic lipopeptide adjuvanticity. We found that the diameter of cyclic lipopeptide-ovalbumin (OVA) complex particles was significantly larger than that in the solutions of OVA alone at cyclic lipopeptide concentrations above the cmc...
June 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Deepali Thaper, Vijay Prabha
Microorganisms execute an enthralling range of adjustments in order to survive in the host. Among the various strategies employed by microorganisms to surmount the host immune response, the phenomenon of molecular mimicry empowers the microorganisms to manoeuvre host physiology and cellular functions for their own advantage by mimicking the host proteins and initiating autoimmunity. This phenomena, by and large, has been studied in context of autoimmune diseases, however, its implications have also been reported in infertility...
June 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Sergey Nikulshin, Linda Kundzina, Iveta Tolstikova, Dagne Gravele, Tatjana Prokofjeva, Dace Gardovska
Age and gender-related variability of main lymphocyte subsets (T, B and NK cell absolute counts and percentages from Ly; T4, T8 and DN cell absolute counts and percentages from lymphocytes and from T cells; T4:T8 and T:B ratios) was studied in a large cohort of pediatric patients (2 days - 17 years) at yearly intervals. 4128 6-color TBNK tests performed on BD FACSCanto II flow cytometer were assessed; patients with immune deficiencies and tumors were not included. The study revealed significant age and gender-related changes in all subsets...
June 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Nathaniel R West, Benjamin M J Owens, Ahmed N Hegazy
The field of stromal immunology has risen to prominence in the last decade, fueled by accumulating evidence that non-hematopoietic mesenchymal cells are not simply involved in modulating tissue structure, but actively contribute to immune processes. In addition to regulating tissue integrity during homeostasis, stromal cells are sensitive sensors of inflammatory stimuli produced downstream of tissue injury or infection, and respond by producing a wide variety of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion factors that contribute to immunity and tissue repair...
June 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Reetta Vanhanen, Anni Tuulasvaara, Joonatan Mattila, Tommi Pätilä, T Petteri Arstila
Thymic commitment of human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells begins at the double positive (DP) CD4+ CD8+ stage. In the current study we show that interleukin-2 promotes the development of FOXP3+ thymocytes and enhances their survival at the DP phase. IL-2 increases the frequency of FOXP3+ cells and promotes the Treg phenotype after TCR-mediated positive selection at the most mature DP stage. However, it has no effect on FOXP3+ cells at the earlier maturation steps before positive selection. DP FOXP3+ are highly susceptible to cell death but IL-2 promotes their survival...
June 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Simon Foged Haugaard, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen, Anne Troldborg, Hans Kirkegaard, Steffen Thiel, Anne-Mette Hvas
The lectin pathway (LP) of the complement system may initiate inflammatory reactions when body tissue is altered. We aimed to investigate levels of the LP proteins in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and to compare these with healthy individuals. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify whether duration of targeted temperature management influenced LP protein levels, and we further examined whether LP proteins were associated with 30-day mortality. We included 82 patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
June 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Karl A Brokstad, Marita Fredriksen, Fan Zhou, Brith Bergum, Johan G Brun, Rebecca J Cox, Kathrine Skarstein
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by exocrine gland dysfunction, mainly causing sicca symptoms. B cells have a prominent role in SS, and the T follicular helper (TFH ) cells provide B cells with survival- and specialization signals in germinal centers. Here we investigate peripheral TFH cells in pSS. Sixteen pSS patients and healthy controls were enrolled in the study, with thirteen women and three men in each group. Whole blood was collected and separated into PBMC and plasma, followed by cryopreservation...
June 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
H Bareke, J Akbuga
Cancer immunotherapy is a strong candidate for the long-awaited new edition to standard cancer therapies. For an effective immunotherapy, it is imperative to delineate the players of antitumour immune response. As an important innate immune system effector mechanism, complement is highly likely to play a substantial role in cancer immunity. Studies suggest that there may be two different "states of complement" that show opposing effects on cancer cells; a complement profile that has antitumour effects with low expression of membrane-bound complement regulator proteins (mCRPs), lytic membrane attack complex (MAC) concentration and moderate C5a concentration, and a complement profile that has protumour effects with high expression of mCRPs, sublytic MAC and high concentrations of C5a...
May 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
A R Koskinen, Z-Z Cheng, M C Pickering, K Kairemo, T Meri, H T Cook, S Meri, T S Jokiranta
Factor H is an important regulator of complement activation in plasma and on cell surfaces in both humans and mice. If FH function is compromised, inappropriate complement activation on self-surfaces can have disastrous effects as seen in the kidney diseases atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and C3 glomerulopathy. As FH constructs have been proposed to be used in treatment for these diseases, we studied the distribution of exogenous FH fragments in mice. Full-length mFH, mFH1-5 and mFH18-20 fragments were radiolabelled, and their distribution was examined in WT, FH-/- and FH-/- C3-/- mice in vivo...
April 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
R Arays, P Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
L Guo, R Kapur, R Aslam, K Hunt, Y Hou, A Zufferey, E R Speck, M T Rondina, A H Lazarus, H Ni, J W Semple
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by increased peripheral immune platelet destruction and megakaryocyte defects in the bone marrow. Although ITP was originally thought to be primarily due to antibody-mediated autoimmunity, it is now clear that T cells also play a significant role in the disease. However, the exact interplay between platelet destruction, megakaryocyte dysfunction and the elements of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ITP remains incompletely defined...
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Q-R Li, W-P Ni, N-J Lei, J-Y Yang, X-Y Xuan, P-P Liu, G-M Gong, F Yan, Y-S Feng, R Zhao, Y Du
The thymus of a myasthenia gravis (MG) patient is often accompanied by and effected with follicular hyperplasia. Inflammatory cytokines in thymus induce the formation of germinal centres (GC). MG thymic inflammatory cytokines are predominantly secreted by stromal cells. Our previous studies revealed that the expression level of the Fra1 protein, which is a Fos member of the activator protein 1 transcription factors (AP-1), was higher in the MG thymus compared with that of the normal thymus. Based on that, we demonstrated that Fra1 was mainly expressed in medulla thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and that the rate of Fra1 positive mTECs in the MG thymus was higher than normal...
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
M Koucký, K Malíčková, H Kopřivová, T Cindrová-Davies, H Hrbáčková, A Černý, P Šimják, A Pařízek, T Zima
Chronic inflammation has been implicated as the underlying mechanism responsible for the pathophysiology of preterm labour. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a central role in the innate immune response and is thus an important component of the first line of defense. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum concentrations of MBL correlated with the incidence of preterm birth and low birthweight in a cohort of women with signs of threatened preterm birth. A cohort of 60 patients who presented with regular contractions and/or short cervix (group A) between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation and 20 healthy controls (group B) who had no pregnancy complications and delivered at term were recruited into a prospective study...
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
J Sun, T Liu, Y Yan, K Huo, W Zhang, H Liu, Z Shi
CD4 + Th1-CXCR3 signalling pathway may play a key role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to explore Th1/Th2 cytokines ratio differences in patients in different stages of COPD and to confirm the hypothesis that elastin exposure might serve as an antigen to initiate the stimulation of CD4 + Th1-CXCR3 immune inflammation pathway. Patients of COPD in different stages and normal individuals were enrolled. Ten millilitres of peripheral blood was drawn from patients. The concentration of CXCR3, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-13 in plasma was detected by ELISA...
July 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Y Wei, S Chen, M Wang, A Cheng
The tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIMs) comprise a large family of proteins with over 70 members in humans. Recent studies have shown that TRIMs play unexpected roles in the antiviral immune responses to infections by HIV, MLV, EMCV, AIV and other viruses. There are two mechanisms used by TRIMs in the inhibition of virus infections: (1) TRIMs target the produced viruses for ubiquitination, which induces proteasome-dependent degradation, or they interact with host proteins to inhibit viral infection in various periods of the viral life cycle...
June 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
E J Steele, R A Lindley
In our view, Melvin Cohn (Scand J Immunol. 2018;87:e12640) has set out the logical guidelines towards a resolution of the very real enigma of the selectability of vertebrate germline Ig V repertoires under the current evolutionary paradigm…" A somatically derived repertoire scrambles this (germline VL + VH) substrate so that its specificities are lost, making it un-selectable in the germline. Consequently, evolution faced an incompatibility." It is argued here in Reply that a reverse transcriptase-based soma-to-germline process (S->G) targeting germline V segment arrays goes some considerable way to resolving fundamental contradictions on the origin, maintenance and then real-time adaptive diversification of these limited sets of V segments encoded within various V repertoire arrays...
June 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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