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Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools

Malin Wass, Teresa Y C Ching, Linda Cupples, Hua-Chen Wang, Björn Lyxell, Louise Martin, Laura Button, Miriam Gunnourie, Isabelle Boisvert, Catherine McMahon, Anne Castles
Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between orthographic learning and language, reading, and cognitive skills in 9-year-old children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and to compare their performance to age-matched typically hearing (TH) controls. Method: Eighteen children diagnosed with moderate-to-profound hearing loss who use hearing aids and/or cochlear implants participated. Their performance was compared with 35 age-matched controls with typical hearing...
October 30, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Beatriz de Diego-Lázaro, María Adelaida Restrepo, Allison Lee Sedey, Christine Yoshinaga-Itano
Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify predictors of expressive vocabulary in young Spanish-speaking children who are deaf or hard of hearing living in the United States. Method: This cross-sectional study considered 53 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 34 months of age (M = 24, SD = 6.9). Demographic variables, variables related to the hearing loss, and intervention variables were included in a hierarchical regression analysis to predict expressive vocabulary quotients from the MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Communicative Development Inventories; Jackson-Maldonado et al...
October 30, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Sharynne McLeod, Sarah Masso
Purpose: Diagnostic decision making is influenced by the attributes of assessments. In order to propose time-efficient protocols for screening children's speech, this study aimed to determine whether eliciting imitated responses and analyzing productions in different word positions resulted in different levels of consonant accuracy. Method: Participants were 267 English-speaking preschool-age children in the Sound Start Study whose parents were concerned about their speech...
October 30, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Thomas A Page, Melody Harrison, Mary Pat Moeller, Jacob Oleson, Richard M Arenas, Meredith Spratford
Purpose: To characterize preschool and school services for children who are hard of hearing (CHH), we described service setting, amount, and configuration and analyzed the relationship between service receipt and student hearing levels and language scores. Characteristics of professionals providing services were described and then used to predict level of comfort with skills supporting listening and spoken language. The amount of provider communication with children's audiologists was also investigated...
October 24, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Rita Obeid, Patricia J Brooks
Purpose: We aimed to determine whether individual differences in manual dexterity are associated with specific language skills (nonword repetition, receptive vocabulary, and receptive grammar) after controlling for nonverbal abilities (visual-spatial working memory and intelligence). Method: We assessed manual dexterity using the pegboard task and examined relationships with verbal and nonverbal abilities in a diverse community sample of children (N = 63, mean age = 8;2 [year;months], range: 6;0-10;8) varying in language ability (Comprehensive Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition core language score M = 105, range: 62-126; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003)...
October 24, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Kelly Farquharson, Lisa Boldini
Purpose: Speech sound disorders (SSDs) can have a negative impact on literacy development, social-emotional well-being, and participation across the life span. Despite this, many public schools do not provide appropriate or timely services to this population of children. In large part, this is a result of variation in how state and local agencies interpret "educational performance" as outlined within the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. The purpose of this study was to explore which educational performance factors speech-language pathologists (SLPs) consider when determining eligibility for children with SSDs...
October 24, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Jessica W Trussell, Janna Hasko, Joy Kane, Brittany Amari, Alison Brusehaber
Purpose: Interactive storybook reading (ISR) improves the picture labeling vocabulary of children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). Vocabulary knowledge consistently predicts the later reading achievement of children who are DHH. In this study, ISR was modified to include teaching word meanings along with the vocabulary picture label. Method: A multiple probe across behaviors single-case experimental design was implemented to determine the effects of ISR with word meaning instruction on picture labeling and word meaning knowledge of 6 preschoolers who are DHH and use spoken English...
October 24, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Evelyn P Altenberg, Jenny A Roberts, Hollis S Scarborough
Purpose: The Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough, 1990) is widely used to measure syntax production in young children. The goal of this article is to promote greater clarity and consistency in machine and hand scoring by presenting a revised version of the IPSyn (IPSyn-R) and comparing it with the original IPSyn (IPSyn-O). Method: Longitudinal syntax production in 10 30- and 42-month-old typically developing children drawn from the Child Language Data Exchange System (MacWhinney, 2000) Weismer corpus was examined, using both the IPSyn-O and the IPSyn-R...
October 24, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Karen E Evans, Benjamin Munson, Jan Edwards
Purpose: Some pronunciation patterns that are normal in 1 dialect might represent an error in another dialect (i.e., [koʊl] for cold, which is typical in African American English [AAE] but an error in many other dialects of English). This study examined whether trained speech-language pathologists and untrained listeners accommodate for presumed speaker dialect when rating children's productions of words. This study also explored whether effects of presumed race on perceived speech accuracy are mediated by individuals' knowledge and beliefs about AAE and their implicit attitudes about race...
October 24, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Mary Alt
The purpose of this epilogue is to synthesize the main points of the articles in this issue on statistical learning for clinicians. These points can be used to guide practice.
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Federica Bulgarelli, Amy L Lebkuecher, Daniel J Weiss
Purpose: Over the last 2 decades, research on statistical learning has demonstrated its importance in supporting language development. Notably, most of the research to date has focused on monolingual populations (or has not reported the language background of participants). Several recent studies, however, have begun to focus on the impact of bilingualism on statistical learning. To date, the results have been quite mixed, with a handful of studies finding differences between monolinguals and bilinguals and several other studies reporting no differences...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Joanne A Deocampo, Gretchen N L Smith, William G Kronenberger, David B Pisoni, Christopher M Conway
Purpose: Statistical learning-the ability to learn patterns in environmental input-is increasingly recognized as a foundational mechanism necessary for the successful acquisition of spoken language. Spoken language is a complex, serially presented signal that contains embedded statistical relations among linguistic units, such as phonemes, morphemes, and words, which represent the phonotactic and syntactic rules of language. In this review article, we first review recent work that demonstrates that, in typical language development, individuals who display better nonlinguistic statistical learning abilities also show better performance on different measures of language...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Elena Plante, Rebecca L Gómez
Purpose: Statistical learning research seeks to identify the means by which learners, with little perceived effort, acquire the complexities of language. In the past 50 years, numerous studies have uncovered powerful learning mechanisms that allow for learning within minutes of exposure to novel language input. Method: We consider the value of information from statistical learning studies that show potential for making treatment of language disorders faster and more effective...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Jessica Hall, Amanda J Owen Van Horne, Karla K McGregor, Thomas A Farmer
Purpose: This study examined whether children and adults with developmental language disorder (DLD) could use distributional information in an artificial language to learn about grammatical category membership similarly to their typically developing (TD) peers and whether developmental differences existed within and between DLD and TD groups. Method: Sixteen children ages 7-9 with DLD, 26 age-matched TD children, 17 college students with DLD, and 17 TD college students participated in this task...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Amanda J Owen Van Horne, Maura Curran, Caroline Larson, Marc E Fey
Purpose: In a previous article, we reported that beginning treatment for regular past tense -ed with certain types of verbs led to greater generalization in children with developmental language disorder than beginning treatment with other types of verbs. This article provides updated data from that study, including the addition of data from 3 children, results from naturalistic language samples, and data from a third time point. Method: Twenty 4- to 9-year-old children with developmental language disorder (10 per condition) were randomly assigned to receive language intervention in which the verbs used to teach regular past tense -ed were manipulated...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Sabrina Horvath, Elizabeth McDermott, Kathleen Reilly, Sudha Arunachalam
Purpose: Our goal was to investigate whether preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can begin to learn new word meanings by attending to the linguistic contexts in which they occur, even in the absence of visual or social context. We focused on verbs because of their importance for subsequent language development. Method: Thirty-two children with ASD, ages 2;1-4;5 (years;months), participated in a verb-learning task. In a between-subjects design, they were randomly assigned to hear novel verbs in either transitive or intransitive syntactic frames while watching an unrelated silent animation or playing quietly with a toy...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Sara T Kover
Purpose: In typical development, distributional cues-patterns in input-are related to language acquisition processes. Statistical and implicit learning refer to the utilization of such cues. In children with intellectual disability, much less is known about the extent to which distributional cues are harnessed in mechanisms of language learning. Method: This tutorial presents what is known about the process of language learning in children with language impairments associated with different sources of intellectual disability: Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fragile X syndrome...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Rebecca Treiman
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial on statistical learning and its role in learning to spell and to discuss the implications of the research for educators. Method: The tutorial begins with a discussion of statistical learning and its characteristics. It then discusses research on how statistical learning plays out in learning to spell, how spelling should be taught, and similarities and differences among learners. The focus is on the learning of English, although studies of other alphabetic writing systems are also considered...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Joanne Arciuli
Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to explain how learning to read can be thought of as learning statistical regularities and to demonstrate why this is relevant for theory, modeling, and practice. This tutorial also shows how triangulation of methods and cross-linguistic research can be used to gain insight. Method: The impossibility of conveying explicitly all of the regularities that children need to acquire in a deep orthography, such as English, can be demonstrated by examining lesser-known probabilistic orthographic cues to lexical stress...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Mary Alt
The purpose of this special issue is to introduce speech-language pathologists to the topic of statistical learning and how this is relevant to their practice. In the following articles, the concept of statistical learning will be explained, and readers will find (a) research studies showing how children with special needs can use statistical learning to learn language; (b) tutorials that show why statistical learning is meaningful for special populations; and (c) tutorials that show how statistical learning is involved in language, reading, and spelling...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
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