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Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools

Evelyn P Altenberg, Jenny A Roberts, Hollis S Scarborough
Purpose: The Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough, 1990) is widely used to measure syntax production in young children. The goal of this article is to promote greater clarity and consistency in machine and hand scoring by presenting a revised version of the IPSyn (IPSyn-R) and comparing it with the original IPSyn (IPSyn-O). Method: Longitudinal syntax production in 10 30- and 42-month-old typically developing children drawn from the Child Language Data Exchange System (MacWhinney, 2000) Weismer corpus was examined, using both the IPSyn-O and the IPSyn-R...
July 4, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Karen E Evans, Benjamin Munson, Jan Edwards
Purpose: Some pronunciation patterns that are normal in 1 dialect might represent an error in another dialect (i.e., [koʊl] for cold, which is typical in African American English [AAE] but an error in many other dialects of English). This study examined whether trained speech-language pathologists and untrained listeners accommodate for presumed speaker dialect when rating children's productions of words. This study also explored whether effects of presumed race on perceived speech accuracy are mediated by individuals' knowledge and beliefs about AAE and their implicit attitudes about race...
July 2, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Audrey Lucero
Purpose: This exploratory study investigates the development of oral narrative retell proficiency among Spanish-English emergent bilingual children longitudinally from kindergarten to second grade in Spanish and English as they learned literacy in the 2 languages concurrently. Method: Oral narrative retell assessments were conducted with children who spoke Spanish at home and were enrolled in a dual language immersion program (N = 12) in the spring of kindergarten and second grade...
May 25, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Trina D Spencer, Douglas B Petersen
Purpose: Despite literature showing a correlation between oral language and written language ability, there is little evidence documenting a causal connection between oral and written language skills. The current study examines the extent to which oral language instruction using narratives impacts students' writing skills. Method: Following multiple baseline design conventions to minimize threats to internal validity, 3 groups of 1st-grade students were exposed to staggered baseline, intervention, and maintenance conditions...
May 23, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Ashley M Adams, Arthur M Glenberg, Ma Adelaida Restrepo
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an English-only version and a Spanish-support version of an embodied reading comprehension intervention (Moved by Reading) consisting of 3 stages (physical manipulation, imagined manipulation, and transfer) for Spanish-English dual language learners. Method: Sixty-one dual language learners in Arizona were randomly assigned to 4 groups (Spanish-support control, Spanish-support intervention, English-only control, and English-only intervention)...
May 22, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Giang Pham, Timothy Tipton
Purpose: Sequential bilingual children in the United States often speak 2 languages that have different social statuses (minority-majority) and separate contexts for learning (home-school). Thus, distinct factors may support the development of each language. This study examined which child internal and external factors were related to vocabulary skills in a minority language versus English. Method: Participants included 69 children, aged 5-8 years, who lived in Southern California, spoke Vietnamese as the home language, and received school instruction in English...
May 22, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Megan-Brette Hamilton, Henry Angulo-Jiménez, Christine Taylo, Laura S DeThorne
Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus piece is to increase familiarity with Philippine English (PE) and highlight clinical implications for working with nonmainstream dialect speakers. Method: The clinical focus draws on descriptive case study data from 2 Filipino kindergarten boys who live in the United States. Multiple ethnographic data sources were subjected to contrastive analyses regarding nonmainstream features in the children's speech that might be consistent with PE...
May 9, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Jennifer P Lundine, Stacy M Harnish, Rebecca J McCauley, Deena Schwen Blackett, Alexandra Zezinka, Wei Chen, Robert A Fox
Purpose: Summarizing expository passages is a critical academic skill that is understudied in language research. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of verbal summaries produced by adolescents for 3 different discourse types and to determine whether a composite measure of cognitive skill or a test of expressive syntax predicted their performance. Method: Fifty adolescents listened to, and then verbally summarized, 1 narrative and 2 expository lectures (compare-contrast and cause-effect)...
May 3, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Nancy Quick, Karen Erickson
Purpose: Spelling is a critical component of literacy and language arts that can negatively influence other aspects of written composition. This clinical focus article describes a spelling error classification system that can be used to identify underlying linguistic deficits that contribute to students' spelling errors. The system is designed to take advantage of the linguistic expertise of speech-language pathologists to efficiently assess student errors in written compositions that are generated as a component of everyday classroom instruction...
May 3, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Bonnie D Singer, Anthony S Bashir
Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to present 5 guiding principles for the development of interventions for children with limited verbal working memory abilities. Method: Summarizing and synthesizing previously reported theories and empirical data, we present a framework intended to guide working memory interventions. Results: Existing research and theory support a comprehensive, multidimensional treatment model that considers the knowledge and abilities of the student and the language-learning demands they face in the various contexts of a school day...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Sandra Gillam, Sarai Holbrook, Jamie Mecham, Daylene Weller
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the current state of interventions for improving working memory (WM) capacity language and academic skills and to provide suggestions for speech-language pathologists working with students who have WM capacity limitations. Method: Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized comparison studies investigating the role of WM interventions for improving WM capacity language and academic skills are reviewed...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Lisa M D Archibald
Purpose: This article considers how the language performance of school-age children with language impairments, such as developmental language disorder, is influenced by the reciprocal relationship of existing linguistic knowledge and working memory resources and the resultant implications for assessment. Method: A viewpoint is provided by reviewing working memory theory, empirical evidence of the reciprocal relationship between working memory and existing language knowledge, and critically evaluating available standardized and nonstandardized tools designed to assess working memory or linguistic skills...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Beula M Magimairaj, Naveen K Nagaraj
Purpose: Our goal is to present the relationships between working memory (WM) and auditory processing abilities in school-age children. Review and Discussion: We begin with an overview of auditory processing, the conceptualization of auditory processing disorder, and the assessment of auditory processing abilities in children. Next, we describe a model of WM and a model of auditory processing followed by their comparison. Evidence for the relationships between WM and auditory processing abilities in school-age children follows...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Katie E Squires
Purpose: Reading requires the ability to decode and comprehend. Impairments in working memory (WM) are often implicated in students who are poor decoders. It is unclear whether this is a domain-specific issue or a task-specific issue. Therefore, this study examined how auditory-verbal (AV) WM, visual-spatial (VS) WM, and cognitive load affected the decoding skills of students identified as poor readers. Method: Twenty-five 2nd-grade and 23 fifth-grade students completed 3 different measures requiring various levels of cognitive demand for each domain of WM, and their decoding skills were assessed with word identification and word attack measures...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
H Lee Swanson, Jennifer Kong, Stefania Petcu
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine those components of working memory (WM) that play a significant role in predicting math growth in children who are English language learners (N = 157) with serious math difficulties (MD). Method: A battery of tests was administered in English and Spanish that assessed computation, reading, vocabulary, inhibition, and components of WM in Grade 1 children with follow-up testing in Grades 2 and 3. Results: The results indicated that growth in the executive component of WM was related to growth in math performance...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Genesis D Arizmendi, Mary Alt, Shelley Gray, Tiffany P Hogan, Samuel Green, Nelson Cowan
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in performance between monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual second graders (aged 7-9 years old) on executive function tasks assessing inhibition, shifting, and updating to contribute more evidence to the ongoing debate about a potential bilingual executive function advantage. Method: One hundred sixty-seven monolingual English-speaking children and 80 Spanish-English bilingual children were administered 7 tasks on a touchscreen computer in the context of a pirate game...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Eryn J Adams, Anh T Nguyen, Nelson Cowan
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review and discuss theories of working memory with special attention to their relevance to language processing. Method: We begin with an overview of the concept of working memory itself and review some of the major theories. Then, we show how theories of working memory can be organized according to their stances on 3 major issues that distinguish them: modularity (on a continuum from domain-general to very modular), attention (on a continuum from automatic to completely attention demanding), and purpose (on a continuum from idiographic, or concerned with individual differences, to nomothetic, or concerned with group norms)...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Ronald B Gillam
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to introduce the LSHSS Clinical Forum: Working Memory in School-Age Children. All the articles in this clinical forum concern the nature of working memory and its relationship to language and academic skills. Method: The introduction provides a basic overview of working memory and its importance for explicit and implicit learning and highlights the topics of the 8 articles that comprise the clinical forum. Conclusion: The articles in this clinical forum provide readers with important information about the current state of our understanding of working memory and its importance for understanding the language and academic skills of school-age children developing typically and those with language and learning difficulties...
July 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Ling-Yu Guo, Sarita Eisenberg, Nan Bernstein Ratner, Brian MacWhinney
Purpose: In this letter, the authors respond to Pavelko and Owens' (2017) newly advanced set of procedures for language sample analysis: Sampling Utterances and Grammatical Analysis Revised (SUGAR). Method: The authors contrast some of the new guidelines for transcription, morpheme segmentation, and language sample elicitation in SUGAR with traditional conventions for language sample analysis (LSA). They address the potential impact of the new guidelines on some of the target measures in SUGAR-mean length of utterances in morphemes (MLUm), words per sentence (WPS), and clauses per sentence (CPS)-and provide their suggestions...
April 18, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Maryane Gomez, Patricia McCabe, Kathy Jakielski, Alison Purcell
Purpose: A Phase I pilot study was designed to collect preliminary evidence on the use of the Kaufman Speech to Language Protocol (K-SLP; Kaufman, 2014) to treat children with childhood apraxia of speech. We hypothesized that the K-SLP approach would result in more accurate speech production in targeted words, whereas untrained (control) words and speech sounds would remain unchanged. Method: A single-case multiple-baseline across behaviors experimental design was used to see if experimental feasibility could be demonstrated...
April 5, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
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