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Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools

Shelley K Lund, Wendy Quach, Kristy Weissling, Miechelle McKelvey, Aimee Dietz
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who are augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) specialists approach the assessment process for 2 case studies, 1 child with cerebral palsy and 1 with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of the study was to answer the following questions: (a) How do clinicians with expertise approach the AAC assessment process for children with developmental disabilities? (b) Can any initial hypothesis be drawn about how SLPs approach the assessment of children with motor versus social interactive deficits? Method: This study used a phenomenological qualitative design...
January 1, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Kerry Danahy Ebert, Giang Pham
Purpose: Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population-school-age bilingual speakers with primary language impairment-and considers the clinical implications for bilingual assessment. Method: Fifty-one bilingual children with primary language impairment completed narrative language samples and standardized language tests in English and Spanish...
January 1, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Holly L Storkel, Krista Voelmle, Veronica Fierro, Kelsey Flake, Kandace K Fleming, Rebecca Swinburne Romine
Purpose: This study sought to identify an adequate intensity of interactive book reading for new word learning by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and to examine variability in treatment response. Method: An escalation design adapted from nontoxic drug trials (Hunsberger, Rubinstein, Dancey, & Korn, 2005) was used in this Phase I/II preliminary clinical trial. A total of 27 kindergarten children with SLI were randomized to 1 of 4 intensities of interactive book reading: 12, 24, 36, or 48 exposures...
January 1, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Graciela Arias, Jennifer Friberg
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify current practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States for bilingual language assessment and compare them to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) best practice guidelines and mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). Method: The study was modeled to replicate portions of Caesar and Kohler's (2007) study and expanded to include a nationally representative sample...
January 1, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Amy E Barth, Amy Elleman
Purpose: We examined the effectiveness of a multistrategy inference intervention designed to increase inference making and reading comprehension for middle-grade struggling readers. Method: A total of 66 middle-grade struggling readers were randomized to treatment (n = 33) and comparison (n = 33) conditions. Students in the treatment group received explicit instruction in 4 inference strategies (i.e., clarification using text clues; activating and using prior knowledge; understanding character perspectives and author's purpose; answering inferential questions)...
January 1, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Shelley Gray
In this editorial, the Editor of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS) describes important changes coming to LSHSS and all ASHA journals and calls for readers to voice their opinion regarding important topics and formats they would like to see included in future LSHSS volumes.
October 24, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Christina N Meyers-Denman, Elena Plante
Purpose: Dosage has been identified as an important element of treatment that may affect treatment efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dose schedule for treatment of grammatical morphology deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Sixteen 4-to-5-year-old children with SLI participated in a 5-week intervention consisting of equivalent daily Enhanced Conversational Recast treatment (Plante et al., 2014) targeting grammatical morphology...
October 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Lillian K Durán, Daphne Hartzheim, Emily M Lund, Vicki Simonsmeier, Theresa L Kohlmeier
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine what bilingual or home language interventions have been found to be effective for 2- to 6-year-old dual language learners who have language impairment (LI) or are at risk for LI. Method: We conducted ancestral searches and searches of electronic databases, hand-searched article bibliographies, and searched 19 journals for experimental, quasiexperimental, or single-subject studies. Results: The review yielded 26 studies that were coded for quality, frequency and duration of the intervention, number of participants, location of intervention, interventionist, language(s) of intervention, and reported or calculated effect sizes...
September 27, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Carol Westby, Barbara Culatta
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists know much more about children's development of fictional narratives than they do about children's development of personal narratives and the role these personal narratives play in academic success, social-emotional development, and self-regulation. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide clinicians with strategies for assessing and developing children's and adolescents' personal narratives. Method: This tutorial reviews the literature on (a) the development of autobiographical event narratives and life stories, (b) factors that contribute to development of these genres, (c) the importance of these genres for the development of sense of self-identity and self-regulation, (d) deficits in personal narrative genres, and (e) strategies for eliciting and assessing event narratives and life stories...
September 27, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Jessica M Pandolfe, Kacie Wittke, Tammie J Spaulding
Purpose: This study examined if adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) understand driving vocabulary as well as their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: A total of 16 adolescents with SLI and 16 TD comparison adolescents completed a receptive vocabulary task focused on driving terminology derived from statewide driver's manuals. Results: The SLI group understood fewer driving-related terms when compared with the TD comparison group...
September 7, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Mary Alt, Genesis D Arizmendi, Jennifer N DiLallo
Purpose: We examined the relationship between maternal level of education as an index of socioeconomic status (SES) on the narrative story retells of school-aged children who are English language learners (ELLs) to guide interpretation of results. Method: Using data available from the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts database (Miller & Iglesias, 2012), we were able to compare the language samples of 907 ELL students in kindergarten and 2nd grade whose parents had different levels of education...
July 15, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Jason H Davidow, Lisa Zaroogian, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera
Purpose: This clinical focus article highlights the need for future research involving ways to assist children who stutter in the classroom. Method: The 4 most commonly recommended strategies for teachers were found via searches of electronic databases and personal libraries of the authors. The peer-reviewed evidence for each recommendation was subsequently located and detailed. Results: There are varying amounts of evidence for the 4 recommended teacher strategies outside of the classroom, but there are no data for 2 of the strategies, and minimal data for the others, in a classroom setting...
July 15, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird, Nila Joshi, Patricia L Cleave
Purpose: The Expository Scoring Scheme (ESS) is designed to analyze the macrostructure of descriptions of a favorite game or sport. This pilot study examined inter- and intrarater reliability of the ESS and use of the scale to capture developmental change in elementary school children. Method: Twenty-four children in 2 language groups (monolingual English and bilingual French/English) and 2 age groups (7-8 years, 11-12 years) participated (6 in each subgroup). Participants orally explained how to play their favorite game or sport in English...
July 14, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Emily Lund, Jessica Dinsmoor
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the taxonomic vocabulary knowledge and organization of children with cochlear implants to (a) children with normal hearing matched for age, and (b) children matched for vocabulary development. METHOD: Ten children with cochlear implants, 10 age-matched children with normal hearing, and 10 vocabulary-matched children with normal hearing participated in this study. The children completed 2 experimental tasks: a forced-choice taxonomic sorting task, and a naming task requiring the children to use labels at multiple taxonomic levels...
July 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Stephanie A Lai, Paula J Schwanenflugel
PURPOSE: Children from low-socioeconomic status families often perform poorly on standardized vocabulary assessments. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether lexical diversity as measured by D (Malvern, Richards, Chipere, & Durán, 2004) serves as a valid measure of vocabulary in at-risk, low-income, predominantly African American kindergartners. METHOD: Kane's (1992) argument-based approach was used to validate D. Six assumptions were examined...
July 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Samantha L Ricks, Mary Alt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this tutorial is to provide clinicians with a theoretically motivated and evidence-based approach to teaching adjectives to children who struggle with word learning. METHOD: Given that there are almost no treatment studies to guide this topic, we have synthesized findings from experimental and theoretical literature to come up with a principles-based approach to treatment. RESULTS: We provide a sample lesson plan, incorporating our 3 theoretical principles, and describe the materials chosen and methods used during treatment and assessment...
July 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Stacey L Pavelko, Robert E Owens, Marie Ireland, Debbie L Hahs-Vaughn
PURPOSE: This article examines use of language sample analysis (LSA) by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs), including characteristics of language samples, methods of transcription and analysis, barriers to LSA use, and factors affecting LSA use, such as American Speech-Language-Hearing Association certification, number of years' experience, and caseload characteristics. METHOD: School-based SLPs responded to an invitation to complete an electronic survey related to LSA...
July 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Brandi L Newkirk-Turner, Janna B Oetting, Ida J Stockman
PURPOSE: We examined language samples of young children learning African American English (AAE) to determine if and when their use of auxiliaries shows dialect-universal and dialect-specific effects. METHOD: The data were longitudinal language samples obtained from two children, ages 18 to 36 months, and three children, ages 33 to 51 months. Dialect-universal analyses examined age of first form and early uses of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Dialect-specific analyses focused on rates of overt marking by auxiliary type and syntactic construction and for BE by surface form and succeeding element...
July 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Eve Müller, Lynn R Cannon, Courtney Kornblum, Jonna Clark, Michal Powers
PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to provide (a) a detailed description of a school-based intervention designed to teach children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASDs) and other social cognition challenges both the how and the why of conversation and (b) a preliminary evaluation of program outcomes. METHOD: This pilot study involved (a) qualitative and quantitative analysis of video footage of participants' conversational skills at baseline, during intervention, and postintervention; (b) interviews with participants' speech-language pathologist (third author) about individual participant progress; and (c) interviews with instructors responsible for implementing the curriculum regarding overall program effectiveness...
July 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Danielle Encinas, Elena Plante
PURPOSE: There is little to guide clinicians in terms of evidence-based interventions for children with cochlear implants who demonstrate morpheme errors. This feasibility study tested the utility of a treatment targeting grammatical morpheme errors. METHOD: Three children (ages 4-5 years) received Enhanced Conversational Recast treatment, a version of conversational recast treatment that focuses on a single morpheme error at a time, emphasizes attention to clinician input, and uses high linguistic variability with clinician input...
April 1, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
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