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Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232101/lessons-learned-after-three-years-of-legalized-recreational-marijuana-the-colorado-experience
#1
Tista S Ghosh, Daniel I Vigil, Ali Maffey, Rickey Tolliver, Mike Van Dyke, Leonardo Kattari, Heather Krug, Jack K Reed, Larry Wolk
In November 2012 Colorado voters approved legalized recreational marijuana. On January 1, 2014 Colorado became the first state to allow legal sales of non-medical marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Since that time, the state has been monitoring potential impacts on population health. In this paper we present lessons learned in the first three years following legal sales of recreational marijuana. These lessons pertain to health behaviors and health outcomes, as well as to health policy issues. Our intent is to share these lessons with other states as they face the prospect of recreational marijuana legalization...
February 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232100/adult-obesity-management-in-primary-care-2008-2013
#2
Stephanie L Fitzpatrick, Victor J Stevens
In the U.S., the occurrence of weight counseling in primary care for patients with obesity decreased by 10% between 1995 and 1996 and 2007-2008. There have been several national recommendations and policies to improve obesity management since 2008. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of body mass index (BMI) screening, obesity diagnosis, and weight management counseling in the U.S. from 2008 to 2013. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey visit-level data for adults 18 and over with a primary care visit during survey years 2008-2009, 2010-2011, and 2012-2013 was included in the analyses using SAS v9...
February 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232099/the-association-between-social-cohesion-in-the-neighborhood-and-bmi-an-examination-of-gendered-differences-among-urban-dwelling-canadians
#3
Sara J T Guilcher, Vered Kaufman-Shriqui, Jongnam Hwang, Patricia O'Campo, Flora I Matheson, Richard H Glazier, Gillian L Booth
Overweight and obesity are major global public health concerns. Obesity is multifactorial in origin and influenced by genetics, psychosocial factors, eating and physical activity behaviors, as well as the environment. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of social cohesion on gender differences in body mass index (BMI) for urban-dwelling Canadians. Cross-sectional data were used from the Neighborhood Effects on Health and Well-being Study (NEHW) in Toronto, Canada (n=2300). Our main outcome, BMI, was calculated from self-reported height and weight (weight (kg)/height (m)(2))...
February 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232098/what-do-we-know-about-brief-interventions-for-physical-activity-that-could-be-delivered-in-primary-care-consultations-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#4
REVIEW
Laura Lamming, Sally Pears, Dan Mason, Katie Morton, Maaike Bijker, Stephen Sutton, Wendy Hardeman
This systematic review of reviews aims to investigate how brief interventions (BIs) are defined, whether they increase physical activity, which factors influence their effectiveness, who they are effective for, and whether they are feasible and acceptable. We searched CINAHL, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, DARE, HTA database, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network from their inception until May 2015 to identify systematic reviews of the effectiveness of BIs aimed at promoting physical activity in adults, reporting a physical activity outcome and at least one BI that could be delivered in a primary care setting...
February 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223189/the-unrealised-potential-of-bike-share-schemes-to-influence-population-physical-activity-levels-a-narrative-review
#5
Adrian Bauman, Melanie Crane, Bradley Alan Drayton, Sylvia Titze
The recent proliferation of bike share schemes (BSS, also known as public bicycle use programs) in many cities has focused attention on their potential for reducing motorised traffic congestion, improving air quality and reducing car use. Since 2005, hundreds of bike share schemes have been implemented in many cities, with bike share usage patterns monitored in many of them. This paper assesses the development of BSS and provides a rationale for their potential health benefits. The key research question, as yet unanswered, is whether BSS themselves can contribute to improving population health, particularly through increasing population cycling, which would increase population levels of health-enhancing physical activity...
February 18, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219784/social-and-clinically-relevant-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-asian-americans-adults-nhanes-2011-2014
#6
Sandra E Echeverria, Mehnaz Mustafa, Sir Ram Pentakota, Soyeon Kim, Katherine Hastings, Chioma Amadi, Latha Palaniappan
Little evidence exists examining cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans and how social determinants such as nativity status and education pattern risk in the United States (U.S.) context. We used the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which purposely oversampled Asian Americans from 2011 to 2014, and examined prevalence of Type II diabetes, smoking and obesity for Asian Americans (n=1363) and non-Latino Whites (n=4121). We classified Asian Americans as U.S. or foreign-born and by years in the U...
February 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219783/are-we-reducing-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-improving-the-quality-of-life-through-preventive-health-care-results-of-a-population-based-study-in-south-australia
#7
David Alejandro González-Chica, Eleonora Dal Grande, Jacqueline Bowden, Michael Musker, Phillipa Hay, Nigel Stocks
This study investigated the achievement of lifestyle recommendations and use of preventive medication in people who 1) are obese, 2) or have metabolic risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and/or diabetes), 3) or have cardiovascular disease (CVD), 4) or are healthy, and the impact this preventive health care had on their 'Health-Related Quality of Life' (HRQoL). Cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 with 2379 South Australian adults (57.1±14years; 51.7% females). Physical (PCS) and mental components scores (MCS) of HRQoL were assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire...
February 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216381/the-role-of-smoking-in-social-networks-on-smoking-cessation-and-relapse-among-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#8
David J Blok, Sake J de Vlas, Pepijn van Empelen, Frank J van Lenthe
Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study, longitudinal data of 4623 adults participating in the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social sciences (LISS) panel were collected in March 2013 with a follow-up in 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of smokers in social networks, and (1) smoking cessation (n=762) and (2) smoking relapse (n=1905)...
February 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216380/a-population-based-analysis-of-predictors-of-influenza-vaccination-uptake-in-pregnant-women-the-effect-of-gestational-and-calendar-time
#9
Luz Maria Vilca, Aman Verma, David Buckeridge, Magda Campins
Pregnant women are vaccinated against influenza less frequently than other high-risk groups. To design effective vaccination strategies, we must understand how decisions regarding vaccination may vary by trimester and over vaccination campaigns. We used a Cox model indexed by calendar time to estimate the effect of gestational trimester and other factors on vaccination uptake in a large cohort of pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain) during 2008-09 to 2012-13 influenza vaccination campaigns. We analyzed 247,316 pregnancies...
February 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216379/association-between-muscle-strengthening-physical-activities-and-mortality-among-american-adults-with-mobility-limitations
#10
Paul D Loprinzi, Ovuokerie Addoh, Joshua R Mann
Compared to aerobic-based physical activity, less research has evaluated the effects of muscle-strengthening physical activity (MSPA) on mortality. Additionally, limited research has evaluated this among adults with mobility limitations, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 2003-2006 NHANES, with follow-up through 2011, were used (analyzed in 2016). MSPA was assessed via self-report, with all-cause, CVD-specific, and cancer-specific mortality assessed as the outcome variables. Analyses were limited to adults with mobility limitations (N=1411), assessed via a validated questionnaire...
February 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216378/gender-differences-in-adverse-childhood-experiences-collective-violence-and-the-risk-for-addictive-behaviors-among-university-students-in-tunisia
#11
Sana El Mhamdi, Andrine Lemieux, Ines Bouanene, Arwa Ben Salah, Motohiro Nakajima, Kamel Ben Salem, Mustafa al'Absi
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been linked to a variety of addictive behaviors. The recent adaptation of the ACE measure by the World Health Organization (WHO) allows for the assessment of the negative role of additional adverse experiences, such as extra-familial violence. To date, the relationship between extra-familial violence and addictive behaviors has not been assessed. We report the contribution of ACEs, including the new scales for extra-familial violence, on the risk for mental health problems and addictive behaviors by gender in a sample of young adults in Tunisia...
February 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216377/neighborhood-walkability-and-hospital-treatment-costs-a-first-assessment
#12
Yan Yu, Rachel Davey, Tom Cochrane, Vincent Learnihan, Ivan C Hanigan, Nasser Bagheri
Health system expenditure is a global concern, with hospital cost a major component. Built environment has been found to affect physical activity and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was a first assessment of the relationship between neighborhood walkability and hospital treatment costs. For 88 neighborhoods in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), 2011-2013, a total of 30,690 hospital admissions for the treatment of four diagnostic groups (cancers, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases) were extracted from the ACT admitted patient care database and analyzed in relation to the Walk Score® index as a measure of walkability...
February 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216376/association-between-socioeconomic-and-physical-built-neighborhoods-and-disability-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Ana Lúcia Danielewicz, Juliana Cristine Dos Anjos, João Luiz Bastos, Alexandra Crispim Boing, Antonio Fernando Boing
The aim of this systematic review was to assess the association between the characteristics of the socioeconomic and physical/built neighborhood and disability in basic activities of daily living (ADL) and/or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Six databases were searched. Fourteen from the 1811 identified studies were included. Neighborhoods with socioeconomic disadvantage were associated with ADL/IADL disabilities in 7 out of the 11 studies with this objective. Worst features of the physical/built neighborhood were associated with disabilities in only 3 of the 7 studies that investigated this...
February 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214544/can-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-help-with-the-optimization-of-health-messaging-for-lifestyle-behavior-change-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Maxine E Whelan, Paul S Morgan, Lauren B Sherar, Mark W Orme, Dale W Esliger
Unhealthy behaviors, including smoking, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles, are global risk factors for non-communicable diseases and premature death. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a unique approach to optimize health messages by examining how the brain responds to information relating to health. Our aim was to systematically review fMRI studies that have investigated variations in brain activation in response to health messages relating to (i) smoking; (ii) alcohol consumption; (iii) physical activity; (iv) diet; and (v) sedentary behavior...
February 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212816/social-science-s-curious-war-with-pop-culture-and-how-it-was-lost-the-media-violence-debate-and-the-risks-it-holds-for-social-science
#15
REVIEW
Christopher J Ferguson, Eugene Beresin
For nearly half a century, psychologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists have studied the potential impact of media violence on aggression and societal violence, particularly among youth. Despite hundreds of studies, scholars have failed to find consensus on potential effects. Nonetheless, professional organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Psychological Association have released policy statements conclusively linking violent media to societal concerns. In reaction, some scholars have accused these professional groups of distorting evidence and failing to inform the public of the inconsistent nature of studies in this field...
February 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209518/evidence-based-policies-on-school-nutrition-and-physical-education-associations-with-state-level-collaboration-obesity-and-socio-economic-indicators
#16
Jennifer E Pelletier, Melissa N Laska, Richard MacLehose, Toben F Nelson, Marilyn S Nanney
Despite calls for more cross-sector collaboration on obesity prevention, little is known about the role of collaborative partnerships, or groups of organizations from different sectors working together toward a shared goal, in state policy activities. This study examined associations between competitive food/beverage and physical education policies and state-level collaboration and state characteristics (obesity, socioeconomic indicators, public health funding levels) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, USA, in 2012...
February 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193490/physical-activity-and-academic-achievement-across-the-curriculum-results-from-a-3-year-cluster-randomized-trial
#17
Joseph E Donnelly, Charles H Hillman, Jerry L Greene, David M Hansen, Cheryl A Gibson, Debra K Sullivan, John Poggio, Matthew S Mayo, Kate Lambourne, Amanda N Szabo-Reed, Stephen D Herrmann, Jeffery J Honas, Mark R Scudder, Jessica L Betts, Katherine Henley, Suzanne L Hunt, Richard A Washburn
We compared changes in academic achievement across 3years between children in elementary schools receiving the Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention (A+PAAC), in which classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic lessons using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a non-intervention control. Elementary schools in eastern Kansas (n=17) were cluster randomized to A+PAAC (N=9, target ≥100min/week) or control (N=8). Academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) in a sample of children (A+PAAC=316, Control=268) in grades 2 and 3 at baseline (Fall 2011) and repeated each spring across 3years...
February 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192095/cigarette-smoking-and-adverse-health-outcomes-among-adults-receiving-federal-housing-assistance
#18
Veronica E Helms, Brian A King, Peter J Ashley
Cigarette smoking is higher among low-income adults and individuals who reside in federally assisted housing are particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. This study assessed smoking-related behaviors and health outcomes among U.S. adults who received federal housing assistance during 2006-2012. National Health Interview Survey data linked with administrative data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development were analyzed; 5218 HUD-assisted adults were assessed...
February 9, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189810/effect-of-an-intervention-on-observed-sun-protection-by-vacationers-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-at-north-american-resorts
#19
David B Buller, Peter A Andersen, Barbara J Walkosz, Michael D Scott, Larry Beck, Gary R Cutter
During vacations, many individuals receive high-risk sun exposure that is associated with skin cancer. Vacationers in outdoor recreation venues (pretest n=4347; posttest n=3986) at warm-weather destination resorts in North America (n=41) were enrolled in a pair-matched, group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled quasi-experimental design in 2012-14. Print, audiovisual, and online messages based on Transportation Theory and Diffusion of Innovation Theory and promoting advanced sun protection (e.g., use of clothing, hats, shade and pre-application/reapplication of sunscreen and reliable cues to high UV) were delivered through resort channels...
February 9, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189809/are-primary-care-physician-practices-related-to-health-behaviors-likely-to-reduce-social-inequalities-in-health
#20
Jean-Laurent Thebault, Virginie Ringa, Géraldine Bloy, Isabelle Pendola-Luchel, Sylvain Paquet, Henri Panjo, Raphaëlle Delpech, Sophie Bucher, Fanny Casanova, Hector Falcoff, Laurent Rigal
Our objective was to examine patients' health behaviors and the related practices of their primary-care physicians to determine whether physicians' actions might help to reduce the social inequalities in health behaviors among their patients. Fifty-two general practitioners, who were also medical school instructors in the Parisian area, volunteered to participate. A sample of 70 patients (stratified by sex) aged 40-70years was randomly chosen from each physician's patient panel and asked to complete a questionnaire about their social position and health behaviors: tobacco and alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and participation in breast and cervical cancer screening...
February 9, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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