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Preventive Medicine

Marissa L Zwald, Tala H I Fakhouri, Cheryl D Fryar, Geoffrey Whitfield, Lara J Akinbami
Active transportation (AT), or walking or bicycling for transportation, represents one way individuals can achieve recommended physical activity (PA) levels. This study describes AT prevalence and temporal trends, and examines associations between AT levels and measured CVD risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density [HDL] cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity) among U.S. adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2016 data (analyzed in 2017) were used to conduct overall trend analyses of reported AT in a typical week [none (0-9 min/week); low (10-149 min/week); or high (≥150 min/week)]...
September 15, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Diann E Gaalema, Adam M Leventhal, Jeffrey S Priest, Stephen T Higgins
While smoking prevalence in the U.S. and other industrialized countries has decreased substantially, this change has been unevenly distributed, with dramatic decreases in certain subpopulations but little change or even increases in others. Accordingly, considerable attention has been fruitfully devoted to identifying important risk factors for smoking (e.g., mental illness, other substance use disorders). However, there has been little research on the intersection of these risk factors. As risk factors rarely occur in isolation, it is important to examine risk-factor profiles as is commonly done in studying other chronic conditions (e...
September 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Monica L Kasting, Shannon M Christy, Steven K Sutton, Paige Lake, Teri L Malo, Richard G Roetzheim, Tommy Schechtman, Gregory D Zimet, Barbara J Walkosz, Daniel Salmon, Jessica A Kahn, Anna R Giuliano, Susan T Vadaparampil
HPV vaccination rates in Florida are low. To increase rates, the CDC recommends clinics adhere to components of their evidence-based quality improvement program, AFIX (Assessment, Feedback, Incentives, and eXchange of information). We explored factors associated with engaging in HPV-specific AFIX-related activities. In 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 770 pediatric and family medicine physicians in Florida and assessed vaccination practices, clinic characteristics, and HPV-related knowledge...
September 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Zhongyan Tian, Yuqian Li, Zhenxing Mao, Songcheng Yu, Yanhua Wang, Xiaotian Liu, Runqi Tu, Haiqing Zhang, Xinling Qian, Xia Zhang, Lulu Zhang, Jingzhi Zhao, Lei Yin, Chongjian Wang
The study aimed to explore the relationship between visceral fat index (VFI) and dyslipidemia and evaluate the efficiency of VFI as a marker for identifying dyslipidemia in Chinese rural adults. The cross-sectional study recruited 35,832 aged 18-79 years eligible participants from The Henan Rural Cohort Study. VFI was measured by bioelectrical impendence methods and classified into sex-specific quartiles. Fasting blood samples were collected. Logistic regression models with VFI as a categorical variable and restricted cubic spline regression models with VFI as a continuous variable were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
September 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Fumiya Tanji, Yasutake Tomata, Shu Zhang, Tatsui Otsuka, Ichiro Tsuji
It has already been established that severe psychological distress is a major risk factor for completed suicide. However, the impact (population attributable fraction; PAF) of moderate psychological distress on completed suicide has not been clarified. The present study investigated the association between various severities of psychological distress and completed suicide. We analyzed follow-up data covering a 7.3-year period (2006-2014) for 43,473 adults (aged ≥ 40 years) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study...
September 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Vuokko Haapasalo, Hein de Vries, Corneel Vandelanotte, Richard R Rosenkranz, Mitch J Duncan
Research into associations between lifestyle behaviours and health has largely focused on morbidity, mortality and disease prevention. Greater focus is needed to examine relationships between lifestyle behaviours and positive health outcomes such as well-being. This study aims to examine the associations between multiple lifestyle behaviours and excellent well-being. Participants (n = 6788) were adults in the member database of the 10,000 Steps Australia project who were asked to participate in an online survey in November-December 2016...
September 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marius Renninger, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Ulf Ekelund, Laila A Hopstock, Lone Jørgensen, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Inger Njølstad, Henrik Schirmer, Tom Wilsgaard, Bente Morseth
Physical activity and overweight are associated with myocardial infarction (MI). However, their joint association with MI remains unclear. Our objective was to examine the independent and joint association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), body mass index (BMI) and MI. This prospective cohort study included 16,572 men and women (47.5% women) aged 20-54 years who took part in the second Tromsø Study. At baseline in 1979-80 LTPA was assessed by questionnaire. Data on MI was collected and adjudicated through hospital and causes of death registries between 1979 and 2013...
September 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Triantafyllos Pliakas, Matt Egan, Janice Gibbons, Charlotte Ashton, Jan Hart, Karen Lock
Excessive alcohol consumption leads to negative health and social impacts at individual and population levels. Interventions that aim to limit the density of alcohol retail premises (including cumulative impact policies (CIPs)) have been associated with decreases in alcohol-related crime and alcohol-related hospital admissions. We evaluated the quantitative impact of introducing a new alcohol licensing policy that included a comprehensive Cumulative Impact Policy (CIP) enforced in seven Cumulative Impact Zones (CIZs) in one English Local Authority in 2013...
September 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Brian A Lynch, Lila J Finney Rutten, Patrick M Wilson, Seema Kumar, Sean Phelan, Robert M Jacobson, Chun Fan, Amenah Agunwamba
Adverse family experiences (AFEs) are associated with childhood obesity. We evaluated whether certain positive contextual factors reduce the risk of obesity and overweight among children exposed to AFEs in a nationally representative sample. Using data derived from the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-12 (N = 43,864), we calculated the distribution of positive contextual factors (very good/excellent maternal mental health, neighborhood and school safety, and child resilience) and AFEs across weight status...
September 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Benedikt Fischer, Wayne Jones, Thepikaa Varatharajan, Monica Malta, Paul Kurdyak
Canada is experiencing an ongoing opioid-related public health crisis, including persistently rising opioid (e.g., poisoning) mortality. Previous research has documented marked correlations between population-levels of opioid dispensing and deaths. We examined possible correlations between annual population-level dispensing of specific opioid formulations and related poisoning deaths in Ontario (Canada), for the period 2005-2016. Annual coroner statistics-based numbers of poisoning deaths associated with six main opioid formulations (codeine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, and oxycodone) for Ontario were converted into annual death rates (per 100,000 population)...
September 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Michael Lebenbaum, Gregory S Zaric, Amardeep Thind, Sisira Sarma
Very few studies have examined trends in multimorbidity over time and even fewer have examined trends over time across different body mass index (BMI) groups. Given general decline in death rates but increased cardiovascular risk factors among individuals with obesity, the trend in the association between obesity and multimorbidity is hypothesized to be increasing over time. The data for our study came from the 1996-97 National Population Health Survey and the 2005-06 and 2012-13 Canadian Community Health Surveys (N = 277,366 across all 3 surveys)...
September 5, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Quyen M Ngo, Philip T Veliz, Yasamin Kusunoki, Sara F Stein, Carol J Boyd
The purpose of this research is to investigate peer-to-peer sexual violence victimization and perpetration among male and female adolescents in a large, racially and economically diverse, community-based sample. Using cross-sectional data over a four-year period (2009-2013) from a regional sample of middle school and high school students in southeastern Michigan, we examined the prevalence and correlates of peer-to-peer sexual violence victimization and perpetration among adolescents. 33.9% of males and 53...
September 5, 2018: Preventive Medicine
S B Austin, N Tefft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Miao Jiang, Danny R Hughes, Wenyi Wang
The study aim was to assess the effect of receiving an Annual Wellness Visit (AWV) between 2011 and 2013 on the annual rate of eight preventive services recommended for the Medicare population following the AWV. We used retrospective Medicare claims from 2009 to 2014 for a 5% national sample of fee-for-service beneficiaries in the United States. Propensity score-adjusted logistic regressions were performed to estimate the log odds of the probability of receiving the preventive services between beneficiaries who received AWVs during 2011-13 and those who did not during the same period...
August 31, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Ovidiu Tatar, Erika Thompson, Anila Naz, Samara Perez, Gilla K Shapiro, Kristina Wade, Gregory Zimet, Vladimir Gilca, Monika Janda, Jessica Kahn, Ellen Daley, Zeev Rosberger
Primary screening for cervical cancer is transitioning from the longstanding Pap smear towards implementation of an HPV-DNA test, which is more sensitive than Pap cytology in detecting high-risk lesions and offers greater protection against invasive cervical carcinomas. Based on these results, many countries are recommending and implementing HPV testing-based screening programs. Understanding what factors (e.g., knowledge, attitudes) will impact on HPV test acceptability by women is crucial for ensuring adequate public health practices to optimize cervical screening uptake...
August 31, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Tashuna Albritton, Ivie Eweka, Jean Fleuriscar, Jacqueline Fleuriscar, Adenike Adeyemi-Jones, Brianna Dillon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Laura J Finan, Lei Zhang, Mallie J Paschall, Melina Bersamin
The goal of this study was to examine associations between the number of school-based health services (SBHS) provided and the cognitive precursors to adolescents' reproductive health, including birth control self-efficacy, motivation to use birth control, attitudes toward birth control, and contraception knowledge. Further, this study examined whether these associations varied by adolescents' age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and race/ethnicity. Data were drawn from two waves of Add Health, a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative sample of U...
August 30, 2018: Preventive Medicine
LáShauntá M Glover, Jennie Z Ma, Anshula Kesh, Lindsay K Tompkins, Joy L Hart, Delvon T Mattingly, Kandi Walker, Rose Marie Robertson, Tom Payne, Mario Sims
There is little research examining the social patterning of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use. This study investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, and employment status) and current and former ENDS use. Data were collected from 2561 participants from the American Heart Association Tobacco Regulatory and Addiction Center (A-TRAC) online survey. Participants were 18-64 years old and reported demographic, SES, and ENDS use. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR 95% confidence interval-CI) of participants' current and former (vs...
August 29, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Hanan El Marroun, Qiana L Brown, Ingunn Olea Lund, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Amy M Loree, Devika Chawla, Yukiko Washio
The objective of the current narrative literature review is to provide an epidemiological, developmental and clinical overview on cannabis use during pregnancy. Cannabis use in pregnancy poses major health concerns for pregnant mothers and their developing children. Although studies on the short- and long-term consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure are increasing, findings have been inconsistent or difficult to interpret due to methodological issues. Thus, consolidating these findings into clinical recommendations based on the mixed studies in the literature remains a challenge...
August 29, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Ann Goding Sauer, Stacey A Fedewa, Jihye Kim, Ahmedin Jemal, J Lee Westmaas
In the United States, disparities in smoking prevalence and cessation by socioeconomic status are well documented, but there is limited research on reasons why and none conducted in a national sample assessing multiple potential mechanisms. We identified smoking and cessation-related behavioral and environmental variables associated with both educational attainment and quitting success. We used a structural equation model of cross-sectional data from respondents ≥25 years from the United States 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement-Current Population Survey...
August 29, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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