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Preventive Medicine

Natalia I Heredia, Anna V Wilkinson, Michele R Forman, Israel C Christie, Jian Wang, Carrie R Daniel, Hua Zhao, Melissa L Bondy, Larkin L Strong
Mexican-origin adolescents have a high prevalence of obesity. Research is needed to understand how family context may shape adolescent BMI. This study examined longitudinal associations of family functioning variables with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's modified BMI z-score (BMIaz) in 1175 Mexican-origin adolescents, and explored interactions with acculturation. Adolescents (50% female, aged 11-13 y in 2005-06) were identified from an ongoing cohort study of Mexican-origin adults in Houston, TX, and were assessed three times from 2005-06 to 2010-11...
November 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Mercedes Vanaclocha-Espi, Josefa Ibáñez, Ana Molina-Barceló, Ma José Valverde, Elena Pérez, Andreu Nolasco, Mariola de la Vega, Isabel Diez de la Lastra-Bosch, MaElena Oceja, Josep Alfons Espinàs, Rebeca Font, Francisco Pérez-Riquelme, Eunate Arana-Arri, Isabel Portillo, Dolores Salas
Severe complications (SC) in colonoscopy represent the most important adverse effect of colorectal cancer screening programs (CRCSP). The objective is to evaluate the risk factors for SC in colonoscopy indicated after a positive fecal occult blood test in population-based CRCSP. The SC (n = 161) identified from 48,730 diagnostic colonoscopies performed in a cohort of all the women and men invited from 2000 to 2012 in 6 CRCSP in Spain. A total of 318 controls were selected, matched for age, sex and period when the colonoscopy was performed...
November 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Ricardo Ortega, Gonzalo Grandes, Alvaro Sanchez, Imanol Montoya, Jesús Torcal
Both, cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal obesity are independently associated with developing cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. However, the relationship between both attributes is unclear. We examine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of developing abdominal obesity, and secondarily, other adiposity measures. Retrospective observational study of a cohort of 1284 sedentary patients, who had participated in a clinical trial of physical activity promotion carried out in Spain (2003-2007)...
November 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marjorie A Margolis, Noel T Brewer, Parth D Shah, William A Calo, Melissa B Gilkey
How stories from media and social interactions shape parents' HPV vaccination decisions is poorly understood. We sought to characterize parents' exposure to such stories, as well as associations between story exposure and vaccination behavior. Study participants were 1263 parents of U.S. adolescents who had not yet completed the HPV vaccine series. In 2017, these parents completed an online survey about whether they had heard stories of people who were harmed by HPV vaccine or who got diseases HPV vaccine could have prevented...
November 7, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jennifer M Ohlendorf, Karen Robinson, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal
Early childhood obesity is a persistent health concern with more frequent and significant impact on low-income families. Maternal weight factors impact offspring weight status, but evidence on whether breastfeeding protects against this impact is mixed. This analysis examined a model to predict early childhood obesity risk, simultaneously accounting for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and breastfeeding. The team analyzed 27,016 unique maternal-child dyadic records collected via the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Wisconsin Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) between 2009 and 2011...
November 7, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Xiaopan Li, Mengcen Qian, Genming Zhao, Chen Yang, Pingping Bao, Yichen Chen, Xiaoyan Zhou, Bei Yan, Yingying Wang, Jun Zhang, Qiao Sun
Despite the rising disease burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), CRC screening has not yet been widely introduced as a large organized program in developing countries. To facilitate better delivery of screening in these areas, we investigated the performance of a large community-based CRC screening program implemented in Shanghai Pudong New Area during the period 2013-2016. We conducted a prospective cohort study by following up the screening behavior and results of tested participants in the program. Data from the program reporting system and monthly progress reports were collected...
November 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Allison N Kurti, Janice Y Bunn, Tyler Nighbor, Alex H Cohen, Hypatia Bolívar, Katherine J Tang, Jesse Dallery, Stephen T Higgins
Women of reproductive age and particularly pregnant women underutilize evidence-based smoking cessation services such as counseling and quit lines. Mobile health (mHealth) may constitute an unexplored and innovative avenue for providing smoking cessation support to a population that is otherwise difficult to reach with evidence-based interventions. Female respondents aged 18-44 years (N = 10,023) were drawn from the first wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study (2013-2014)...
November 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Stephanie R Morain, Cassandra K Crifasi
A series of prominent mass shootings in the United States (US) has prompted renewed interest in revising gun policy. One proposal that has gained political traction is raising the minimum age for purchase and possession of guns to 21. While some commentators have suggested that the public mood may be shifting on gun policy, proposals to raise the minimum age have nevertheless provoked controversy. In this manuscript, we examine the ethical acceptability of raising the minimum age of purchase and possession of guns to 21...
November 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Satoyo Ikehara, Hiroyasu Iso, Koutatsu Maruyama, Shigekazu Ukawa, Akiko Tamakoshi
We examined the effect of television viewing and walking on the risk of type 2 diabetes among an Asian population. A total of 25,240 participants (9786 men and 15,454 women) aged 40-79 years, with no history of diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer at the baseline (1988-1990) and who have completed the 5-year follow-up questionnaire were included. During the 5-year follow-up, 778 new cases of type 2 diabetes were reported (397 men and 381 women). Television viewing time was positively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (p for trend = 0...
November 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Erica L Gollub, Morgan Gardner
Firearms account for over half of female intimate partner homicides (IPH) in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Although firearm-related IPH is directly associated with state-level firearm prevalence and inversely associated with specific firearm legislation targeting intimate partner violence perpetrators, these associations may be due to the underlying nature of the perpetrator population rather than the legislation or policy. We explored the impact of firearm legislation on weapon use in IPH in a cross-sectional analysis using NVDRS data via the WISQARS online interactional system, through examination of firearm (F) and non-firearm (NF) age-adjusted mortality rates and firearm: non-firearm (F:NF) rate ratios across victim gender and in states with varying levels of firearm restrictions...
November 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Raymond G Boyle, Cassandra A Stanton, Eva Sharma, Zhiqun Tang
As cigarette smoking rates decline, an important policy question is whether increasing cigarette taxes will continue to encourage smoking cessation. We tested this question following recent tobacco tax increases. Data were from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey, a serial cross-sectional telephone survey conducted statewide, and was limited to past-year cigarette smokers in 2010 (n = 1029) and 2014 (n = 1382). Weighted estimates were calculated of the prevalence of past year smokers, smokers who attempted to quit smoking, and those who successfully quit by demographics, tobacco use, use of evidence-based cessation assistance to quit, and smoker perceptions of the tax increases...
November 5, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Paul Jung, Boris D Lushniak
The practice of preventive medicine remains ill-defined, and the specialty is threatened by a void in the definition of the specialty's practice. The authors propose a cohesive, active identification of skills provided by trained preventive medicine physicians through the credentialing and privileging process. The privileging process should incorporate clinical skills specific to the provider and non-clinical skills based on preventive medicine residency training competency requirements, preventive medicine board certification examination requirements, and the ten essential public health services...
October 30, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marissa L Zwald, Amy A Eyler, Debra Haire-Joshu, Susan L Handy, Jenine K Harris, Sarah Moreland-Russell, Ross C Brownson
Many communities have prioritized policy and built environment changes to promote active transportation (AT). However, limited information exists on the partnerships and processes necessary to develop and implement such policy and environmental changes, particularly among organizations in non-health sectors. Within the transportation sector, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) are increasingly recognized as organizations that can support AT policies. This study examined inter-organizational relationships among MPOs and their partners working to advance AT policies in six U...
October 29, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Tiara C Willie, Trace S Kershaw
The purpose of this research was to assess the association between Gender Inequality Index and prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) among women and men at the state-level. Recently developed 2017 state-level prevalence estimates of IPV among a nationally-representative sample of U.S. non-institutionalized adults between 2010 and 2012 from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey was combined with calculated indexes for state-level gender inequality. Gender Inequality Index, created by the United Nations, reflects gender-based disadvantage in reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation...
October 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
David Thivel, Mark S Tremblay, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Timothy Olds, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Jean-Philippe Chaput
The purpose of this study was to examine whether meeting movement behavior recommendations (i.e., ≥60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per day, ≤2 h of recreational screen time per day, and between 9 and 11 h of nightly sleep), and combinations of these recommendations, are associated with dietary patterns of children. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2011 and 2013 and included 5873 children 9-11 years of age from 12 countries around the world. MVPA and nightly sleep duration were measured using 24-hour waist-worn accelerometry...
October 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Bryant J Webber, John W Kieffer, Brian K White, Anthony W Hawksworth, Paul C F Graf, Heather C Yun
Chemoprophylaxis with intramuscular benzathine penicillin G has been used widely by the U.S. military to prevent epidemics of group A streptococcus infections during basic training. The recent global shortage of benzathine penicillin prompted a detailed analysis of this issue in 2017 by military preventive medicine and infectious disease authorities in San Antonio, Texas, and San Diego, California, USA. This paper explores the history of group A streptococcus and chemoprophylaxis in the U.S. military training environment, current policy and practice, and challenges associated with widespread chemoprophylaxis...
October 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
John D Omura, Eric T Hyde, Kathleen B Watson, Sarah A Sliwa, Janet E Fulton, Susan A Carlson
Children and adolescents can engage in an active lifestyle by walking to school; however, several barriers may limit this behavior. This study estimates the prevalence of walking to school and related barriers as reported by U.S. parents. Data from the 2017 SummerStyles, a Web-based survey conducted on a nationwide sample of U.S. adults, were analyzed in 2017. Parents of children aged 5-18 years (n = 1137) were asked whether their youngest child walked to or from school during a usual school week and what barriers make this difficult...
October 25, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Lindsey Smith, Jenna Panter, David Ogilvie
Characteristics of the environment influence health and may promote physical activity. We explored the associations between neighborhood environmental characteristics grouped within five facets (spaces for physical activity, walkability, disturbance, natural environment, and the sociodemographic environment) and objective ('recorded') and self-reported ('reported') physical activity in adults from UK Biobank. Recorded activity was assessed using wrist-worn accelerometers (2013-2015, n = 65,967) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking, and walking for pleasure was self-reported (2006-2010, n = 337,822)...
October 25, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Hong-Zhen Zhou, Li-Jun Fan, Chuan-An Wu, An-Fei Luo, Chun-Qi Mo, Guan-Hao He, Zeng-Liang Ruan, Jin Jing, Yu Jin, Wei-Qing Chen
Child unintentional injuries are one of the most prominent global health threats and parents may play a vital role in these injuries. This study thus aims to explore the associations of parents teaching safety rules with preschool children's safety behaviors and unintentional injuries. A total of 62,922 children registered at 182 kindergartens in Longhua District of Shenzhen, China during the fall semester of 2016, were included in this cross-sectional study. Their parents were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering information about socio-demographics, parents teaching safety rules to children, child safety behaviors and unintentional injuries...
October 24, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Rachel B Issaka, Patrick Avila, Evans Whitaker, Stephen Bent, Ma Somsouk
Despite clear evidence that colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces mortality, screening, including fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), is underutilized. We conducted a systematic review to determine the evidence of efficacy of interventions to improve FIT completion that could be scaled and utilized in population health management. We systematically searched publication databases for studies evaluating provider- or system-level interventions to improve CRC screening by FIT between 1 January 1996 and 13 December 2017 without language restrictions...
October 24, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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