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Preventive Medicine

Nicholas J Bishop, Kaipeng Wang
Both food insecurity and comorbidity have been identified as precursors to functional limitation in older adults, yet whether food insecurity modifies the progression from chronic disease to disability has not been assessed. We examined 5986 respondents age 50 and older drawn from the 2012-2014 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and 2013 Health Care and Nutrition Study (HCNS). Mobility limitations reported in 2014 and change in mobility limitations from 2012 to 2014 were regressed on measures of food insecurity, number of chronic conditions, and their interaction terms using Poisson regression...
July 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Hugh Byrne, Brian Caulfield, Giuseppe De Vito
Many chronic diseases and illnesses are caused by the lifestyle, including the physical activity habits, of an individual. As such, consistent high levels of exercise should be encouraged across the lifespan, to limit the risk of developing one of these conditions and allowing for healthy aging to occur. Exercise prescriptions that encourage high completion and adherence rates in an independent manner and improve health related outcomes should be provided to individuals. To date, no review has identified optimal prescriptions of exercise to achieve this in sedentary middle-aged adults and this is important, given the higher risk of developing illnesses in this population as they age...
July 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Katelyn K Jetelina, Stefany Olague, Jordan G Wondrack
The purpose of this project was to assess the magnitude of the relationship between violence against women and cancer; to identify the exposures and cancers for which this relationship was particularly robust; to identify the effect of violence exposure on cancer screening. We conducted a meta-analysis of 36 studies to determine the relationship between violence against women and cancer outcomes, including screening, in 2017. Results from this review provide evidence of a significant, positive relationship between violence and cancer diagnoses, particularly for cervical cancer...
July 5, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Patti E Gravitt, Rebecca Landy, Mark Schiffman
Current US guidelines recommend against cervical screening beyond age 65 in women who have had adequate negative screening. In anticipation of the next round of evidence review and guideline updates, we provide a critical review of the evidence supporting the exiting recommendation in the US, highlighting both practice changes and new insights into the epidemiology and natural history of HPV and cervical cancer. Current recommendations are based, by necessity, on cytology alone, and will be limited in generalizability to evolving screening strategies with co-testing and primary HPV testing...
July 5, 2018: Preventive Medicine
V Jordan Greenbaum, Kanani Titchen, Ingrid Walker-Descartes, Anastasia Feifer, Corey J Rood, Hiu-Fai Fong
As a major public health issue, human trafficking (HT) affects individuals, families, communities, and societies around the world. A public health approach to combating HT has been advocated. Such an approach seeks to prevent HT by engaging diverse stakeholder groups in addressing risk factors at multiple levels. As a key stakeholder group, health care professionals (HCPs) play a critical role in HT prevention. Herein, we use the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Social-Ecological Model as a framework to present potential HT prevention strategies for health care professionals...
July 5, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Marije Oosterhoff, Hans Bosma, Onno C P van Schayck, Silvia M A A Evers, Carmen D Dirksen, Manuela A Joore
Current guidelines for economic evaluations do not provide specific recommendations for the evaluation of school-based lifestyle interventions. This study examined and discussed the key aspects in the design of economic evaluations on school-based interventions targeting weight-related behaviours among 4-12 year olds. The PubMed and CRD databases (NHS EED) were searched. Grey literature was identified from reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. Full economic evaluations on school-based interventions targeting physical activity, sedentariness, or diet were selected...
June 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Anh B Nguyen, Xiaoquan Zhao, Leah Hoffman, Aura Lee Morse, Janine Delahanty
Little is known about nicotine and addiction beliefs held by those who are foreign-born in the US and how these beliefs are associated with acculturation and race/ethnicity. This study attempts to address these research gaps. Data were analyzed from two cycles of the Health Information National Trends Survey, HINTS-FDA 2015 (n = 3738) and HINTS-FDA 2017 (n = 1736). HINTS-FDA is a tobacco-focused, cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of US non-institutionalized civilian adults aged 18 years or older...
June 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
M Maza, M Melendez, R Masch, K Alfaro, A Chacon, E Gonzalez, M Soler, G Conzuelo-Rodriguez, J C Gage, T A Alonzo, P E Castle, J C Felix, M Cremer
In a cross-sectional study carried out in El Salvador between February 2016 and July 2017, self-sampling and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing was found to be highly acceptable among 2019 women who had not attended a cervical cancer screening in at least 3 years. Within this population, HPV positivity rates differed according to age, marital status, number of children, and lifetime sexual partners. The proportion of women who tested HPV positive or who were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe diagnoses (CIN2+) was similar to the general population of the area...
June 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
H Kirkegaard, M Bliddal, H Støvring, K M Rasmussen, E P Gunderson, L Køber, T I A Sørensen, E A Nohr
In this study, we examined how any, full, and partial breastfeeding durations were associated with maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and how prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference 7 years postpartum influenced these associations. A total of 63,260 women with live-born singleton infants in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002) were included. Interviews during pregnancy and 6 and 18 months postpartum provided information on prepregnancy weight, height, and the duration of full and partial breastfeeding...
June 25, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Martin C Mahoney, Deborah O Erwin, Annamaria Masucci Twarozek, Frances G Saad-Harfouche, Elisa M Rodriguez, Xiaoxi Sun, Willie Underwood, Chester Fox
We examined the use of automated voice recognition (AVR) messages targeting smokers from primary care practices located in underserved urban and rural communities to promote smoking cessation. We partnered with urban and rural primary care medical offices (n = 7) interested in offering this service to patients. Current smokers, 18 years and older, who had completed an office visit within the previous 12 months, from these sites were used to create a smoker's registry. Smokers were recruited within an eight county region of western New York State between June 2012 and August 2013...
June 25, 2018: Preventive Medicine
David B Abrams, Allison M Glasser, Andrea C Villanti, Jennifer L Pearson, Shyanika Rose, Raymond S Niaura
Tobacco control has made strides in prevention and cessation, but deaths will not decline rapidly without massive behavior change. Currently, inhaled smoke from combusting tobacco is chiefly responsible for prematurely killing 7.2 million people worldwide and 530,000 in the United States annually. An array of noncombustible nicotine products (NNPs) has emerged and has disrupted the marketplace. Saving lives more speedily will require societal acceptance of locating a "sweet spot" within a three-dimensional framework where NNPs are simultaneously: 1...
June 23, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Neal L Benowitz, Jack E Henningfield
Nicotine addiction is the proximate cause of disease and death from cigarette smoking. In 1994, we proposed reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addicting levels to reduce the risk of youth becoming addicted smokers and promoting quitting in established smokers. In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provided the authority to FDA to reduce nicotine levels as appropriate to benefit public health. Over the past 15 years, considerable research has determined that nicotine reduction is feasible and safe, resulting in reduced nicotine dependence with little evidence of compensatory over-smoking...
June 23, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Viji Diane Kannan, Peter J Veazie
Political orientation (Republican/Democrat and conservative/liberal) and political environment (geo-spatial political party affiliated voting patterns) are both associated with various health outcomes, including mortality. Modern disease etiology in the U.S. suggests that many of our health outcomes derive from behaviors and lifestyle choices. Thus, we examine the associations of political orientation and political environment with health behaviors. We used the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) data, which is a nationally representative U...
June 22, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Alfonso Leiva, Andreu Estela, Miquel Bennasar-Veny, Antoni Aguiló, Joan Llobera, Aina Yáñez
Tobacco smoking is a major preventable cause of death, and a significant public health problem worldwide. Most smokers begin in adolescence, age at which they are more susceptible to nicotine addiction. The prevalence of smoking in adolescence is considerable. Therefore, it would be convenient to incorporate smoking prevention programs in the school environment. It is necessary to provide evidence of its effectiveness. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a teacher-delivered school-based intervention on the initiation of smoking in adolescents (ITACA smoking prevention education program)...
June 22, 2018: Preventive Medicine
A K Lofters, M Vahabi, T Pyshnov, R Kupets, S J T Guilcher
The best ways to communicate effectively to under-screened women about cervical cancer screening are unknown. Segmentation techniques create homogeneous segments of women in the population that are different from one another, and help to determine on whom communication efforts should be focused and how messaging should be tailored. We used segmentation techniques to better understand the demographics, attitudes and behaviours of women eligible for cervical screening. We developed a brief online questionnaire that consisted of demographic characteristics, attitudes toward health, and cervical screening behaviour...
June 22, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Benjamin W Chaffee, Jing Cheng
Youth initiation with one tobacco product is associated with risk of using additional tobacco types. How use of one product potentially encourages use of others could result from changing tobacco-related perceptions. This study aimed to evaluate how tobacco product initiation correlates with changes in susceptibility (curiosity and willingness) and perceived harm of other tobacco products. For each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah, and smokeless tobacco, youth (ages 12-16; N = 8005) rated perceived harm, curiosity, and willingness to try in Waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (United States, 2013-2015)...
June 15, 2018: Preventive Medicine
K K Davison, N Kitos, A Aftosmes-Tobio, T Ash, A Agaronov, M Sepulveda, J Haines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Emily Behar, Rita Bagnulo, Phillip O Coffin
Naloxone access through established healthcare settings is critical to responding to the opioid crisis. We conducted a systematic review to assess the acceptability and feasibility of prescribing naloxone to patients in primary care. We queried PubMed, EmBase and CINAHL for US-based, peer-reviewed, full-length, original articles relating to acceptability or feasibility of prescribing naloxone in primary care. Searches yielded 270 unduplicated articles; one analyst reviewed all titles and abstracts. Two analysts independently reviewed eligible articles for study design, study outcome, and acceptability and/or feasibility...
June 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Donna Hubbard McCree, Tanja Walker, Elizabeth DiNenno, Brooke Hoots, Eduardo Valverde, M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Janet Heitgerd, JoAna Stallworth, Benny Ferro, Alberto Santana, Emilio German, Norma Harris
From 2010 to 2015, young (13-24 years) Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experienced the largest increase (18%) in numbers of HIV diagnoses among all racial/ethnic groups. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assembled a team of scientists and public health analysts to develop a programmatic approach for addressing the increasing HIV diagnosis among Hispanic/Latino MSM. The team used a data driven review process, i.e., comprehensive review of surveillance, epidemiologic, and programmatic data, to explore key questions from the literature on factors associated with HIV diagnoses among Hispanic/Latino MSM and to inform the approach...
June 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jennifer B Unger, Robert Urman, Tess Boley Cruz, Anuja Majmundar, Jessica Barrington-Trimis, Mary Ann Pentz, Rob McConnell
Tobacco-related content appears on social media in the form of advertising and messages by individuals. However, little is known about associations between posting social media messages and tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults. Self-reports of tobacco product use were obtained from the Children's Health Study of young adults in Southern California. Among the 1486 respondents in the most recent wave of the cohort (2016-2017), 284 provided tobacco product use data and their Twitter user names to access publicly available Twitter account data (mean age = 20...
June 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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