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Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431967/family-centered-prevention-ameliorates-the-association-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-prediabetes-status-in-young-black-adults
#1
Gene H Brody, Tianyi Yu, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller
Individuals exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are vulnerable to various health problems later in life. This study was designed to determine whether participation in an efficacious program to enhance supportive parenting would ameliorate the association between ACEs and prediabetes status at age 25. Rural African American parents and their 11-year-old children (N=390) participated in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program or a control condition. Each youth at age 25 provided a total ACEs score and a blood sample from which overnight fasting glucose was assayed...
April 18, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414066/factors-associated-with-maintenance-of-body-mass-index-in-the-jackson-heart-study-a-prospective-cohort-study-secondary-analysis
#2
Brandon J Auerbach, Ronit Katz, Katherine Tucker, Edward J Boyko, Adam Drewnowski, Alain Bertoni, Patricia Dubbert, DeMarc A Hickson, Adolfo Correa, Bessie A Young
The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of diet quality, physical activity, and environmental factors with body mass index (BMI) maintenance in African American adults. We analyzed data from 4041 participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort study based in Jackson, Mississippi. Exposures were baseline American Heart Association diet quality score, American Heart Association physical activity categories, the built environment, the food environment, and neighborhood safety. The outcome was weight maintenance or loss (no BMI increase ≥1...
April 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414065/effects-of-depression-screening-on-diagnosing-and-treating-mood-disorders-among-older-adults-in-office-based-primary-care-outpatient-settings-an-instrumental-variable-analysis
#3
Taeho Greg Rhee, Benjamin D Capistrant, Jon C Schommer, Ronald S Hadsall, Donald L Uden
Existing literature shows mixed findings regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of depression screening, and relatively little is known about the effectiveness of depression screening among older adults in primary care visits in the U.S. This study examines the effects of depression screening on the three following outcomes: mood disorder diagnoses, overall antidepressant prescriptions, and potentially inappropriate antidepressant prescriptions among older adults ages 65 or older in office-based outpatient primary care settings...
April 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414064/obesity-in-coronary-heart-disease-an-unaddressed-behavioral-risk-factor
#4
Philip A Ades, Patrick D Savage
Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD). Over 80% of patients with CHD are overweight or obese. While obesity is often considered a relatively "minor" CHD risk factor, weight loss is a broadly effective risk-factor intervention. Weight loss can profoundly influence a number of "major" risk factors including: hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite its prominence as a risk factor most cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs do not have a specific, targeted intervention to assist patients with weight loss...
April 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412186/cardiorespiratory-fitness-physical-activity-and-cancer-mortality-in-men
#5
Baruch Vainshelboim, Jan Müller, Ricardo M Lima, Kevin T Nead, Cariad Chester, Khin Chan, Peter Kokkinos, Jonathan Myers
The preventive role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in cancer mortality is not well-established. This study sought to evaluate the association between CRF, PA and cancer mortality in men. Maximal exercise testing was performed at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in 5876 male veterans (60.5±11years) free from malignancy at baseline who were followed for mean of 9.9 (range 0.11 to 26.8) years. PA status was assessed in a sub-group of 4034 participants. Relative risks and population attributable risks (PAR%) for cancer-related mortality were determined...
April 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412185/coexistence-of-risk-behaviors-for-being-overweight-among-brazilian-adolescents
#6
Nathália Luíza Ferreira, Rafael Moreira Claro, Sueli Aparecida Mingoti, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes
This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of and the factors associated with the coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of adolescents (mostly aged 13-15years) enrolled from public and private schools of Brazil in 2012. The co-occurring sedentary behavior and inadequate food consumption (regular intake of sugary and fried foods, and irregular consumption of fruits and vegetables-FV) was estimated using a Venn diagram...
April 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408217/could-mobile-mammography-reduce-social-and-geographic-inequalities-in-breast-cancer-screening-participation
#7
Elodie Guillaume, Ludivine Launay, Olivier Dejardin, Véronique Bouvier, Lydia Guittet, Pauline Déan, Annick Notari, Rémy De Mil, Guy Launoy
Evaluation of mobile mammography for reducing social and geographic inequalities in breast cancer screening participation. We examined the responses to first invitations to undergo breast cancer screening from 2003 to 2012 in Orne, a French department. Half of the participants could choose between screening in a radiologist's office or a mobile mammography (MM) unit. We calculated the participation rate and individual participation model according to age group, deprivation quintile and distance. Among participants receiving an MM invitation, the preference was for MM...
April 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392253/ethical-imperatives-against-item-restriction-in-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program
#8
Benjamin W Chrisinger
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly known as food stamps) is the federal government's largest form of food assistance, and a frequent focus of political and scholarly debate. Previous discourse in the public health community and recent proposals in state legislatures have suggested limiting the use of SNAP benefits on unhealthy food items, such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This paper identifies two possible underlying motivations for item restriction, health and morals, and analyzes the level of empirical support for claims about the current state of the program, as well as expectations about how item restriction would change participant outcomes...
April 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392252/disparities-in-tobacco-marketing-and-product-availability-at-the-point-of-sale-results-of-a-national-study
#9
Kurt M Ribisl, Heather D'Angelo, Ashley L Feld, Nina C Schleicher, Shelley Golden, Douglas A Luke, Lisa Henriksen
OBJECTIVE: Neighborhood socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities exist in the amount and type of tobacco marketing at retail, but most studies are limited to a single city or state, and few have examined flavored little cigars. Our purpose is to describe tobacco product availability, marketing, and promotions in a national sample of retail stores and to examine associations with neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: At a national sample of 2230 tobacco retailers in the contiguous US, we collected in-person store audit data on: Availability of products (e...
April 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392251/historical-declines-and-disparities-in-cigarette-coupon-saving-among-adolescents-in-the-united-states-1997-2013
#10
Olusegun Owotomo, Julie Maslowsky, Keryn E Pasch
Exposure to cigarette coupons is associated with smoking initiation and likelihood of cigarette purchase among adolescents. Some adolescents who are exposed to cigarette coupons take a step further by choosing to save or collect these coupons, a further risk factor for cigarette smoking. This study examines historical trends and disparities in cigarette coupon saving among adolescents in the United States from 1997 to 2013. National samples of 10th and 12th grade students (n=129,111) were obtained from Monitoring the Future surveys in 1997-2013...
April 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390835/systematic-review-of-universal-school-based-resilience-interventions-targeting-adolescent-tobacco-alcohol-or-illicit-substance-use-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Rebecca Kate Hodder, Megan Freund, Luke Wolfenden, Jenny Bowman, Smriti Nepal, Julia Dray, Melanie Kingsland, Sze Lin Yoong, John Wiggers
Universal school-based interventions that address adolescent 'resilience' may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, however previous systematic reviews have not examined the effectiveness of such an intervention approach. A systematic review was undertaken to 1) assess whether universal school-based 'resilience' interventions are effective in reducing the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use by adolescents, and 2) describe such effectiveness per intervention characteristic subgroups...
April 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389331/calorie-changes-in-large-chain-restaurants-from-2008-to-2015
#12
Sara N Bleich, Julia A Wolfson, Marian P Jarlenski
No prior studies examining changes in the calorie content of chain restaurants have included national data before and after passage of federal menu labeling legislation, required by the 2010 Affordable Care Act. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants in 2008 and 2012 to 2015 using data were obtained from the MenuStat project (2012 to 2015) and from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (2008). This analysis included 44 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants which are available in all years of the data (2008 and 2012-2015) (N=19,391 items)...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389330/a-comparison-of-nicotine-dependence-among-exclusive-e-cigarette-and-cigarette-users-in-the-path-study
#13
Guodong Liu, Emily Wasserman, Lan Kong, Jonathan Foulds
Electronic cigarettes ("e-cigs") have recently gained in popularity, but their health risks, including dependence potential are unclear. This study analyzed the adult database from the Wave 1 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative survey of tobacco use in the United States, to assess the relative level of dependence among adult, exclusive everyday users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Of the total 32,320 observations from the Wave 1 PATH adult database, 3586 (5...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389329/associations-between-active-shooter-incidents-and-gun-ownership-and-storage-among-families-with-young-children-in-the-united-states
#14
Taryn W Morrissey
The presence of firearms and their unsafe storage in the home can increase risk of firearm-related death and injury, but public opinion suggests that firearm ownership is a protective factor against gun violence. This study examined the effects of a recent nearby active shooter incident on gun ownership and storage practices among families with young children. A series of regression models, with data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort merged with the FBI's Active Shooter Incidents data collected in 2003-2006, were used to examine whether household gun ownership and storage practices differed in the months prior to and following an active shooter incident that occurred anywhere in the United States or within the same state...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389328/motivational-and-contextual-determinants-of-hpv-vaccination-uptake-a-longitudinal-study-among-mothers-of-girls-invited-for-the-hpv-vaccination
#15
Mirjam Pot, Hilde M van Keulen, Robert A C Ruiter, Iris Eekhout, Liesbeth Mollema, Theo W G M Paulussen
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, HPV-vaccination uptake among 12-year-old girls remains to be lower (61% in 2016) than expected. The present study is about 1) replicating the extent to which social-psychological determinants found in earlier cross-sectional studies explain HPV-vaccination intention, and 2) testing whether HPV-vaccination intention, as well as other social-psychological determinants, are good predictors of future HPV-vaccination uptake in a longitudinal design. METHODS: A random sample of mothers of girls invited for the vaccination in 2015 was drawn from the Dutch vaccination register (Praeventis) (N=36,000) and from three online panels (N=2483)...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389327/interactions-of-psychosocial-factors-with-built-environments-in-explaining-adolescents-active-transportation
#16
Xiaobo Wang, Terry L Conway, Kelli L Cain, Lawrence D Frank, Brian E Saelens, Carrie Geremia, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz, Jordan A Carlson, James F Sallis
The present study examined independent and interacting associations of psychosocial and neighborhood built environment variables with adolescents' reported active transportation. Moderating effects of adolescent sex were explored. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted on data from the Teen Environment and Neighborhood observational study (N=928) in the Seattle, WA and Baltimore regions 2009-2011. Frequency index of active transportation to neighborhood destinations (dependent variable) and 7 psychosocial measures were reported by adolescents...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365373/marijuana-and-acute-health-care-contacts-in-colorado
#17
George Sam Wang, Katelyn Hall, Daniel Vigil, Shireen Banerji, Andrew Monte, Mike VanDyke
Over 22 million Americans are current users of marijuana; half of US states allow medical marijuana, and several allow recreational marijuana. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact marijuana has on hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and regional poison center (RPC) calls in Colorado, a medical and recreational marijuana state. This is a retrospective review using Colorado Hospital Association hospitalizations and ED visits with marijuana-related billing codes, and RPC marijuana exposure calls...
March 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359703/exploring-the-mediating-role-of-energy-balance-related-behaviours-in-the-association-between-sleep-duration-and-obesity-in-european-adults-the-spotlight-project
#18
Myrthe Timmermans, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Helene Charreire, Helga Bárdos, Sofie Compernolle, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Jean-Michel Oppert, Harry Rutter, Martin McKee, Jeroen Lakerveld
Sleep restriction is a risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Few studies have formally investigated the mediating role of energy balance-related behaviours in the sleep - obesity association. The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in the association of sleep duration with obesity in adults in five European urban regions. Data on self-reported sleep duration, energy balance-related behaviours, height and weight and other covariates were collected between February and September 2014 from participants to the SPOTLIGHT survey (N=5900, mean age 52years)...
March 28, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347696/workplace-mental-health-an-international-review-of-guidelines
#19
REVIEW
Kate Memish, Angela Martin, Larissa Bartlett, Sarah Dawkins, Kristy Sanderson
The aim of this systematic review was to determine the quality and comprehensiveness of guidelines developed for employers to detect, prevent, and manage mental health problems in the workplace. An integrated approach that combined expertise from medicine, psychology, public health, management, and occupational health and safety was identified as a best practice framework to assess guideline comprehensiveness. An iterative search strategy of the grey literature was used plus consultation with experts in psychology, public health, and mental health promotion...
March 24, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344120/a-systematic-review-of-lifestyle-counseling-for-diverse-patients-in-primary-care
#20
REVIEW
Cathy L Melvin, Melanie S Jefferson, LaShanta J Rice, Lynne S Nemeth, Andrea M Wessell, Paul J Nietert, Chanita Hughes-Halbert
Prior research and systematic reviews have examined strategies related to weight management, less is known about lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions optimally suited for implementation in primary care practices generally, and among racial and ethnic patient populations. Primary care practitioners may find it difficult to access and use available research findings on effective behavioral and lifestyle counseling strategies and to assess their effects on health behaviors among their patients. This systematic review compiled existing evidence from randomized trials to inform primary care providers about which lifestyle and behavioral change interventions are shown to be effective for changing patients' diet, physical activity and weight outcomes...
March 23, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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