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Preventive Medicine

Fiona B Gillison, Ava B Lorenc A B, Ester F C Sleddens, Stefanie L Williams, Lou Atkinson
Many parents express concern that raising the issue of weight risks harming their child's physical self-perceptions and wellbeing. Such concerns can deter families from engaging with weight management services. This systematic review aimed to investigate the evidence behind these concerns by analysing the association between parent-child weight-talk and child wellbeing. A systematic search of eight databases identified four intervention studies and 38 associative studies. Meta-analysis was only possible for the associative studies; to facilitate more meaningful comparisons, weight-talk was categorized into four communication types and effect size estimates for the association between these and wellbeing indicators were calculated through a random effects model...
October 13, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Maria L Roditis, Kevin Delucchi, Audrey Chang, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to social norms, risks and benefits, and exposure to pro- versus anti-marijuana messaging is related to use...
October 13, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Rosenda Murillo, Kathryn J Reid, Elva M Arredondo, Jianwen Cai, Marc D Gellman, Nathan M Gotman, David X Marquez, Frank J Penedo, Alberto R Ramos, Phyllis C Zee, Martha L Daviglus
We examined associations of mild and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; apnea-hypopnea index ≥5 and ≥15, respectively) with recommended amounts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or vigorous physical activity (VPA) and by type of activity (i.e., recreational, transportation, and work activity). The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a multicenter population-based study, enrolled individuals from 2008 to 2011 from four U.S. metropolitan areas (Bronx, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Miami, Florida; San Diego, California)...
October 13, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Theresa A Hastert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Na Li, Naomi Dachner, Valerie Tarasuk
As concerns about food insecurity in high income countries grow, there is a need to better understand the impact of social policy decisions on this problem. In Canada, provincial government actions are particularly important because food insecurity places substantial burden on provincial health care budgets. This study was undertaken to describe the socio-demographic and temporal patterning of food insecurity in British Columbia (BC) from 2005 to 2012 and determine the impact of BC's one-time increase in social assistance and introduction of the Rental Assistance Program (RAP) on food insecurity rates among target groups...
October 8, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Allison J Carroll, Darwin R Labarthe, Mark D Huffman, Brian Hitsman
The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
October 4, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Lore Pil, Isabelle Hoorens, Katrien Vossaert, Vibeke Kruse, Isabelle Tromme, Niko Speybroeck, Lieve Brochez, Lieven Annemans
Skin cancer (melanoma- and non-melanoma skin cancer) is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers worldwide. This study analysed the current and future economic burden of skin cancer in Belgium and the cost-effectiveness of primary prevention of skin cancer. A retrospective bottom-up cost-of-illness study was performed, together with a Markov model in order to analyse the cost-effectiveness and the budget impact analysis of primary prevention of skin cancer in Belgium. Total prevalence of skin cancer in Belgium was estimated to triple in the next 20years...
October 3, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Jamie F Chriqui, Julien Leider, Emily Thrun, Lisa M Nicholson, Sandy J Slater
: Active travel to work can provide additional minutes of daily physical activity. While the literature points to the relationship between zoning, equity and socioeconomic status, and physical activity, no study has quantitatively explored these connections. This study examined whether zoning may help to moderate any income and poverty inequities in active travel and taking public transit to work. Research was conducted between May 2012 and June 2015. Zoning data were compiled for 3914 jurisdictions covering 45...
October 3, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Simon Rosenbaum, Joseph Firth, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Brendon Stubbs
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. CRF levels and moderators among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to (1) determine mean CRF in PLWH and compare levels with age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs), (2) explore moderators of CRF, (3) and (4) explore moderators of CRF outcomes following physical activity (PA) interventions. Major electronic databases were searched systematically for articles reporting CRF expressed as maximum or peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) in PLWH...
October 3, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Joanna E Cohen, Jennifer Brown, Carmen Washington, Kevin Welding, Jacqueline Ferguson, Katherine Smith
The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a global health treaty ratified by over 175 countries, calls on countries to ensure that tobacco packages carry health warning labels (HWLs) describing the harmful effects of tobacco use. We assessed the extent of compliance with 14 countries' HWL requirements. Unique cigarette packs were purchased in 2013 using a systematic protocol in 12 distinct neighborhoods within three of the ten most populous cities in the 14 low- and middle-income countries with the greatest number (count) of smokers...
October 3, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Coralia Vázquez-Otero, Erika L Thompson, Ellen M Daley, Stacey Griner, Rachel Logan, Cheryl A Vamos
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is safe and effective in preventing anogenital cancers and warts. However, myths have surrounded the HPV vaccine since its approval, including the possibility that HPV vaccinated young people are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and engaging in inconsistent condom use in a sample of U.S. college students. A secondary data analysis of the National College Health Assessment-II (Fall 2013) was conducted in 2015...
October 3, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Jana A Hirsch, Meghan Winters, Philippa J Clarke, Nathalie Ste-Marie, Heather A McKay
Neighborhood built environments may play an important role in shaping mobility and subsequent health outcomes. However, little work includes broader mobility considerations such as cognitive ability to be mobile, social connections with community, or transportation choices. We used a population-based sample of Canadian middle aged and older adults (aged 45 and older) from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA, 2008-2009) to create a holistic mobility measure: Mobility over Varied Environments Scale (MOVES)...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy...
September 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Dianne S Ward, Emily Welker, Ashley Choate, Kathryn E Henderson, Megan Lott, Alison Tovar, Amanda Wilson, James F Sallis
Time and Place of Study: 2010-2015; International. Given the high levels of obesity in young children, numbers of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. As the field has progressed, a number of interventions have been reviewed yet there is a need to summarize the data using more sophisticated analyses to answer questions on the effectiveness of interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in center-based ECE settings published between 2010 and 2015...
September 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Eduardo J Simões, Pedro C Hallal, Fernando V Siqueira, Chester Schmaltz, Danielle Menor, Deborah C Malta, Hebe Duarte, Adriano Akira Hino, Gregore I Mielke, Michael Pratt, Rodrigo S Reis
Physical inactivity causes 5.3 million deaths annually worldwide. We evaluated the impact on population leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) of scaling up an intervention in Brazil, Academia das Cidades program (AC-P). AC-P is a health promotion program classified as physical activity classes in community settings which started in the state of Pernambuco state in 2008. We surveyed households from 80 cities of Pernambuco state in 2011, 2012 and 2013, using monitoring data to classify city-level exposure to AC-P...
September 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Emily B Peterson, Jamie S Ostroff, Katherine N DuHamel, Thomas A D'Agostino, Marisol Hernandez, Mollie R Canzona, Carma L Bylund
Cancer screening is critical for early detection and a lack of screening is associated with late-stage diagnosis and lower survival rates. The goal of this review was to analyze studies that focused on the role of provider-patient communication in screening behavior for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer. A comprehensive search was conducted in four online databases between 1992 and 2016. Studies were included when the provider being studied was a primary care provider and the communication was face-to-face...
September 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Caitlin Mason, Jean De Dieu Tapsoba, Catherine Duggan, Ikuyo Imayama, Ching-Yun Wang, Larissa Korde, Anne McTiernan
Reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality are important health issues among postmenopausal women and may be associated with low vitamin D status. Overweight postmenopausal women, with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] 10-32ng/m, were recruited in Seattle, WA (2010-2012) and randomly assigned to 12months of weight loss +2000IU oral vitamin D3/day or weight loss+daily placebo. The weight-loss program included a reduced-calorie diet and 225min/week of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity...
September 26, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Kristin M Maiden, Marina Kaplan, Lee Ann Walling, Patricia P Miller, Gina Crist
Comprehensive land use plans and their corresponding regulations play a role in determining the nature of the built environment and community design, which are factors that influence population health and health disparities. To determine the level in which a plan addresses healthy living and active design, there is a need for a systematic, reliable and valid method of analyzing and scoring health-related content in plans and regulations. This paper describes the development and validation of a scoring tool designed to measure the strength and comprehensiveness of health-related content found in land use plans and the corresponding regulations...
September 26, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Allison N Kurti, Diana R Keith, Alyssa Noble, Jeff S Priest, Brian Sprague, Stephen T Higgins
Few studies have attempted to characterize how co-occurring risk factors for substance use disorders intersect. A recent study examined this question regarding cigarette smoking and demonstrated that co-occurring risk factors generally act independently. The present study examines whether that same pattern of independent intersection of risk factors extends to illicit drug abuse/dependence using a U.S. nationally representative sample (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2011-2013). Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling were used to examine risk of past-year drug abuse/dependence associated with a well-established set of risk factors for substance use (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, smoking status, alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness)...
September 26, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Shuangshuang Li, Linghui Meng, Arnaud Chiolero, Chuanwei Ma, Bo Xi
OBJECTIVE: China is the largest producer of tobacco worldwide. We assessed secular trends in prevalence of smoking, average cigarettes per day, mean age of initiation, and mortality attributable to smoking among the Chinese population between 1991 and 2011. DESIGN: Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted eight times between 1991 and 2011. A total of 83,447 participants aged 15years or older were included in this study. Trends in smoking were stratified by sex, age, and region (urban vs...
September 24, 2016: Preventive Medicine
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