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Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802654/income-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-the-weekend-warrior-among-u-s-adults
#1
Kerem Shuval, Qing Li, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Rusty Tchernis
The present study examines the association between income and physical activity intensity along the entire continuum using accelerometry in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Specifically, we assessed the relationship between annual household income, sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity, and meeting physical activity guidelines over a brief, 2-day period ('weekend warrior'), and during the entire week. The sample consisted of 5206 National Health and Examination Survey adult participants (2003-2006) who wore accelerometers and completed pertinent survey questions...
August 9, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793236/prostate-specific-antigen-screening-an-update-of-physician-beliefs-and-practices
#2
Ingrid J Hall, Sun Hee Rim, Greta M Massetti, Cheryll C Thomas, Jun Li, Lisa C Richardson
PSA testing for early detection of prostate cancer decreased dramatically following the 2012 PSA screening recommendation against routine screening of asymptomatic men. In an assessment of the screening behaviors of primary care providers, the majority (61%) of family medicine and internal medicine practitioners who responded to a 2016 DocStyles online survey (608 of 1003) recommended prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing based on individual risk or other factors, rather than routinely screening all men for prostate cancer...
August 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789981/tobacco-and-nicotine-delivery-product-use-in-a-national-sample-of-pregnant-women
#3
Allison N Kurti, Ryan Redner, Alexa A Lopez, Diana R Keith, Andrea C Villanti, Cassandra A Stanton, Diann E Gaalema, Janice Y Bunn, Nathan J Doogan, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Megan E Roberts, Julie Phillips, Stephen T Higgins
Monitoring use of tobacco products among pregnant women is a public health priority, yet few studies in U.S. national samples have been reported on this topic. We examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of pregnant women. Data were obtained from all pregnant women (≥18 years) in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH, 2013-2014) Study (N=388). Prevalence of current and prior use of tobacco/nicotine products was examined overall and among current cigarette smokers...
August 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789980/use-of-higher-nicotine-tar-yield-regular-full-flavor-cigarettes-is-associated-with-nicotine-dependence-and-smoking-during-pregnancy-among-u-s-women
#4
Stephen T Higgins, Ryan Redner, Christopher A Arger, Allison N Kurti, Jeff S Priest, Janice Y Bunn
The present study examined full-flavor cigarette use among women of reproductive age to assess whether use is associated with greater nicotine dependence and smoking during pregnancy. We used data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005-2014). Consecutive years were combined to assure sufficient numbers of pregnant women. We examined whether use of full-flavor cigarettes was associated with greater odds of nicotine dependence using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), controlling for other smoking characteristics...
August 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782561/sex-differences-in-fitnessgram%C3%A2-health-risk-based-on-aerobic-capacity-and-body-composition-among-urban-public-elementary-school-children
#5
Susan B Racette, Mary L Uhrich, M Leanne White, Liyang Yu, B Ruth Clark
Children residing in urban, low-resource neighborhoods may be at increased risk for poor aerobic fitness and obesity. The objective of this collaborative project with an urban public school district was to quantify the combination of poor aerobic capacity and high percent body fat using FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) standards among urban, predominantly Black, public elementary school boys and girls. Measurements of aerobic capacity with the 20-m Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis were completed on 1,775 fourth and fifth grade students in 45 public elementary schools in St...
August 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780060/correspondence-regarding-castle-human-papillomavirus-screening-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
LETTER
Eric J Suba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778819/introduction-of-an-organised-programme-and-social-inequalities-in-mammography-screening-a-22-year-population-based-study-in-geneva-switzerland
#7
José Luis Sandoval, Jean-Marc Theler, Stéphane Cullati, Christine Bouchardy, Orly Manor, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Idris Guessous
In developed countries, breast cancer mortality has decreased during the last decades due to, at least partially, the advent of mammography screening. Organised programmes aim, among other objectives, to increase participation and decrease social inequalities in screening access. We aimed to characterise the evolution of socioeconomic disparities in mammography screening before and after the implementation of an organised programme in Geneva, Switzerland. We included 5345 women, aged 50-74years, without past history of breast cancer who participated in the cross-sectional Bus Santé study, between 1992 and 2014...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765084/surveillance-of-high-grade-cervical-cancer-precursors-cin-iii-ais-in-four-population-based-cancer-registries-united-states-2009-2012
#8
Meg Watson, Ashwini Soman, Elaine W Flagg, Elizabeth Unger, Dennis Deapen, Vivien W Chen, Lauren C Peres, Glenn Copeland, Thomas C Tucker, Erin Garnett, Mona Saraiya
Surveillance of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is important for determining the burden of a preventable disease, identifying effects of vaccination on future diagnoses, and developing targeted programs. We analyzed population-based rates of high-grade cervical cancer precursor lesions using data from four central cancer registries (diagnosis years 2009-2012 from Louisiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and diagnosis years 2011-2012 from Los Angeles) by age, race, and histology...
July 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765083/breast-screening-for-survivors-of-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Derek Muradali, Erin B Kennedy, Andrea Eisen, Claire M B Holloway, Courtney R Smith, Anna M Chiarelli
There is a large and growing population of women who have a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC). This systematic review was undertaken to explore the outcomes of surveillance mammography in breast cancer survivors, and to examine the evidence for screening these women within an organized population-based screening program. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 6, 2015), OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2012 to June 22, 2015) for English-language studies of surveillance of the target population...
July 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765082/is-there-a-relationship-between-accelerometer-assessed-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-and-cognitive-function-in-us-hispanic-latino-adults-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#10
Elizabeth Vásquez, Garrett Strizich, Carmen R Isasi, Sandra E Echeverria, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Kelly R Evenson, Marc D Gellman, Priya Palta, Qibin Qi, Melissa Lamar, Wassim Tarraf, Hector M González, Robert Kaplan
Normative changes in cognitive function are expected with increasing age. Research on the relationship between normative cognitive decline and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SED) needs further investigation in Hispanic/Latinos adults. We assessed the cross-sectional association between accelerometer assessed MVPA and SED with cognitive function in 7,478 adults aged 45-74years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. At baseline, cognitive tests included two executive function tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a test of language (Word Fluency), and a test of memory (Spanish English Verbal Learning Test)...
July 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757449/weight-loss-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-diabetes
#11
Linda M Delahanty
The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels...
July 28, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757450/applying-behavior-change-techniques-to-weight-management-during-pregnancy-impact-on-perinatal-outcomes
#12
Julie K Phillips, Stephen T Higgins
Unhealthy behaviors and lifestyle choices are contributing to the obesity epidemic and associated morbidities. Among reproductive aged women, obesity adversely affects perinatal outcomes and longer term maternal and child health. Interventions utilizing strategies of behavior change have the potential to improve outcomes, especially during pregnancy. Antenatal interventions to improve adherence to gestational weight gain guidelines are one such example. Although behaviorally-based intervention trials have been associated with modest decreases in gestational weight gain, the effect on short term perinatal outcomes has thus far been minimal...
July 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757448/is-initiating-tanning-bed-use-as-a-minor-associated-with-increased-risky-tanning-behaviors-and-burning-an-exploratory-study
#13
Andrew B Seidenberg, Seth M Noar, Jennah M Sontag
Tanning bed use is most common among youth and young adults, and is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer. Recently, numerous states have adopted restrictions on minors' access to tanning beds; however, little has been reported on how such policies may impact tanning behaviors and burning. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between age of indoor tanning initiation and risky tanning behaviors and burning. Female students (n=568) attending a large southeastern public university completed a questionnaire (spring of 2015) assessing tanning bed use history, including age of initiation...
July 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751176/the-effect-of-interactive-reminders-on-medication-adherence-a-randomized-trial
#14
Hengchen Dai, David Mao, Kevin G Volpp, Heather E Pearce, Michael J Relish, Victor F Lawnicki, Katherine L Milkman
Expanding on evidence that interventions to improve health are more effective when informed by behavioral science, we explore whether reminders designed to harness behavioral science principles can improve medication adherence. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 46,581 U.S. participants with commercial or Medicare Advantage insurance from Humana. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. Participants in the usual care condition only received standard mailings that the insurer usually sends...
July 24, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739490/are-single-children-more-likely-to-be-overweight-or-obese-than-those-with-siblings-the-influence-of-china-s-one-child-policy-on-childhood-obesity
#15
Jungwon Min, Hong Xue, Vivian H C Wang, Miao Li, Youfa Wang
China's one-child policy (1979-2015) has affected Chinese parenting practices and children's health behaviors and also may have contributed to increased childhood obesity. However, very limited research has investigated the association between one-child policy and childhood obesity. We examined characteristics of single-child families and the influence of one-child policy (indicated by single-child status) on children's weight status and related health behaviors. Data from children aged 6-18years old in the 2011 (n=1580) and 2000 (n=2317) China Health and Nutrition Survey were cross-sectionally analyzed with multilevel models...
July 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739489/colonoscopy-and-sigmoidoscopy-use-among-older-adults-in-different-countries-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Chen Chen, Eileen Läcke, Christian Stock, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner
Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) by colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality, and they are increasingly employed as screening tests and for diagnostic purposes in many countries. We conducted a systematic review to provide up-to-date estimates on the utilization of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy (colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy) in the general average-risk population in different countries. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles published between 1 September 2008 and 31 October 2016...
July 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735725/susceptibility-to-cigarette-smoking-among-middle-and-high-school-e-cigarette-users-in-canada
#17
Sunday Azagba, Neill Bruce Baskerville, Kristie Foley
There is a growing concern that the historic reductions in tobacco consumption witnessed in the past decades may be undermined by the rapid increase in e-cigarette use. This study examined the association between e-cigarette use and future intention to smoke cigarettes among middle and high school students who had never smoked cigarettes. Data were drawn from the 2014-2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=25,637). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between e-cigarette use and susceptibility to cigarette smoking...
July 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735724/evaluating-community-health-workers-attributes-roles-and-pathways-of-action-in-immigrant-communities
#18
Nadia Islam, Ephraim Shapiro, Laura Wyatt, Lindsey Riley, Jennifer Zanowiak, Rhodora Ursua, Chau Trinh-Shevrin
Community health workers (CHWs) are uniquely positioned to improve health outcomes in immigrant communities; however, research on appropriate metrics for evaluating CHW attributes and mechanisms of effectiveness are limited. The objective of this paper is to characterize CHW attributes and pathways of action using adapted measures, develop a scale using these measures, and explore how findings can inform future CHW research and practice. The study analyzed pre- and post-intervention group data from one quasi-experimental and three randomized controlled-design parent trials assessing the impact of CHW-led group and individual health coaching on various health outcomes in four New York City immigrant communities...
July 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729197/estimation-and-development-of-10-and-20-year-cardiovascular-mortality-risk-models-in-an-industrial-male-workers-database
#19
Gil Harari, Manfred S Green, Shira Zelber-Sagi
We examined the performance of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) models for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality prediction in Israeli industrial workers, and developed and validated new risk prediction models for CVD mortality incidence in the same population. Our database was a longitudinal Israeli industrial cohort (CORDIS cohort) of 4809 adult males followed-up for 22years. Performance of the FHS and the SCORE prediction models was analyzed by insertion of the CORDIS cohort measurements to each model separately...
July 18, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729198/e-cigarette-awareness-perceived-harmfulness-and-ever-use-among-u-s-adults
#20
Irene Pericot-Valverde, Diann E Gaalema, Jeffrey S Priest, Stephen T Higgins
The overarching aims of this study are to (a) estimate and update knowledge on rates and predictors of awareness, perceived harmfulness, and ever use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults and (b) to utilize that information to identify risk-factor profiles associated with ever use. Data were collected from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3738). Logistic regression was used to explore relationships between sociodemographics (gender, age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, educational attainment, income, and census region), current use of other tobacco products (conventional cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco), ever use of alternative products (hookah, pipes, roll-your-own cigarettes, and snus) and e-cigarette awareness, perceived harm, and ever use...
July 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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