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Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336336/sunbed-use-among-64-000-danish-students-and-the-associations-with-demographic-factors-health-related-behaviours-and-appearance-related-factors
#1
Maria Kristine Hagelskær Meyer, Brian Køster, Lise Juul, Janne Schurmann Tolstrup, Pernille Bendtsen, Peter Dalum, Anne Sofie Plum Christensen
Sunbed use is associated with an increased risk for skin cancer and is particularly dangerous for younger persons. The objective of this study was to assess how demographic factors, health-related behaviours and appearance-related factors are associated with sunbed use. Cross-sectional data from the Danish National Youth Study collected by the National Institute of Public Health during 2014 was used. A total of 64,382 students aged 15-25years were included in the present study. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations...
March 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322882/alcohol-control-psas-and-drunk-driving-fatal-accidents-in-the-united-states-1996-2010
#2
Jeffrey Niederdeppe, Rosemary Avery, Emily N Miller
Widespread concern regarding the detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption (especially by minors) and associated social problems (particularly drunk driving) continues to exist among policymakers, law enforcement officers, and the general public. Alcohol consumption is a leading contributor to death from injuries, which itself is one of the main causes of death for people under 21years of age in the United States. This study examines the relationship between the volume and timing of alcohol-control public service announcements (PSAs) and rates of drunk-driving fatal accidents in the U...
March 18, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322877/neighborhood-walkability-moderates-the-association-between-low-back-pain-and-physical-activity-a-co-twin-control-study
#3
J R Zadro, D Shirley, M B Pinheiro, A Bauman, G E Duncan, P H Ferreira
The aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood walkability moderates the association between low back pain (LBP) and physical activity (PA), using a co-twin design to control for genetics and shared environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 10,228 twins from the Washington State Twin Registry with available data on LBP from recruitment surveys between 2009 and 2013. LBP within the past 3months was our exposure variable. Our outcome variables were sufficient moderate or vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA, defined as at least 75min of vigorous-intensity PA, or 150min of moderate-intensity PA per week), and walking (≥150min per week)...
March 18, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322879/the-association-between-beliefs-about-vitamin-d-and-skin-cancer-risk-related-behaviors
#4
Dawn M Holman, Zahava Berkowitz, Gery P Guy, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford, Elliot J Coups
Major health organizations recommend obtaining most of one's vitamin D through dietary sources rather than from sun exposure, given the link between sun exposure and increased skin cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors, a topic on which research is limited. We analyzed cross-sectional online survey data collected in the summer of 2015 from 4127U.S. adults aged 18years and older. Overall, 19.7% of adults believed that sun protection would put them at risk of not getting enough vitamin D...
March 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322884/cardiovascular-disease-screening-in-general-practice-general-practitioner-recording-of-common-risk-factors
#5
Lyle R Turner, Flavia Cicuttini, Christopher Pearce, Danielle Mazza
The assessment and screening of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical component of CVD prevention strategies in general practice (GP). This study sought to examine current CVD risk factor recording as recommended by Australian guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk. A retrospective analysis of routine GP data from 149,306 GP patients aged 45years and above in eastern Melbourne was conducted. Data were collected from GP clinics located throughout inner east Melbourne from July 2011 to September 2014 through the Melbourne East Monash General Practice Database...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322883/reports-of-self-rated-health-by-citizenship-and-homeownership-united-states-2000-2010
#6
Patricia Y Miranda, Adriana Reyes, Darrell Hudson, Nengliang Yao, William K Bleser, S Amy Snipes, Rhonda BeLue
Citizenship facilitates home ownership, which promotes access to additional resources and structures social context, factors that improve the health of individuals and communities. The objective of this study was to examine whether citizenship moderated the association between homeownership and self-rated health. We used multivariate logistic regression models and propensity score matching techniques to examine this association using pooled years 2000-2010 of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data linked with the National Health Interview Survey to examine U...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322881/the-cost-of-implementing-two-small-media-interventions-to-promote-hpv-vaccination
#7
Siddharth S Karanth, David R Lairson, Danmeng Huang, Lara S Savas, Sally W Vernon, María E Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of implementing lay health worker delivered print-based photonovella intervention and iPad-based tailored interactive multimedia intervention (TIMI) to promote Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake and completion among Hispanic parents of daughters 9-17years old. METHODS: We recruited 301 participants in control, 422 in photonovella, and 239 in TIMI clinics. Intervention costs were estimated using micro-costing from the societal perspective...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322880/analyzing-the-impact-of-public-transit-usage-on-obesity
#8
Zhaowei She, Douglas M King, Sheldon H Jacobson
The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of county-level public transit usage on obesity prevalence in the United States and assess the potential for public transit usage as an intervention for obesity. This study adopts an instrumental regression approach to implicitly control for potential selection bias due to possible differences in commuting preferences among obese and non-obese populations. United States health data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and transportation data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey are aggregated and matched at the county level...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322878/population-health-intervention-research-a-renewed-commitment-to-promoting-a-science-of-solutions
#9
EDITORIAL
Sandra D Isidean, Joseph E Tota, Gayle A Shinder, Eduardo L Franco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315761/a-growing-geographic-disparity-rural-and-urban-cigarette-smoking-trends-in-the-united-states
#10
N J Doogan, M E Roberts, M E Wewers, C A Stanton, D R Keith, D E Gaalema, A N Kurti, R Redner, A Cepeda-Benito, J Y Bunn, A A Lopez, S T Higgins
Rural areas of the United States have a higher smoking prevalence than urban areas. However, no recent studies have rigorously examined potential changes in this disparity over time or whether the disparity can be explained by demographic or psychosocial characteristics associated with smoking. The present study used yearly cross sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2007 through 2014 to examine cigarette smoking trends in rural versus urban areas of the United States. The analytic sample included 303,311 respondents...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315760/medication-adherence-outcomes-of-771-intervention-trials-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Vicki S Conn, Todd M Ruppar
Excellent medication adherence contributes to decreases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Although researchers have tested many interventions to increase adherence, results are sometimes conflicting and often unclear. This systematic review applied meta-analytic procedures to integrate primary research that tested medication adherence interventions. Comprehensive searching completed in 2015 located 771 published and unpublished intervention studies with adherence behavior outcomes. Random-effects model analysis calculated standardized mean difference effect sizes...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315759/associations-of-commuting-to-school-and-work-with-demographic-variables-and-with-weight-status-in-eight-european-countries-the-energy-cross-sectional-study
#12
Saskia J Te Velde, Eli Haraldsen, Frøydis N Vik, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Natasa Jan, Eva Kovacs, Luis A Moreno, Alain Dössegger, Yannis Manios, Johannes Brug, Elling Bere
This study aims to assess the prevalence of different modes of commuting to school and work for 10-12year-olds and their parents; to assess the associations with demographic variables (country, sex, parental education and ethnicity) and with weight status in eight European countries. As part of the ENERGY project a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in which modes of commuting and socio-demographic variables for children (N=7903) and one of their parents (n=6455) were measured by questionnaires. Children's weight and height were objectively measured; parents self-reported their weight and height...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279679/preventive-healthcare-for-young-children-a-systematic-review-of-interventions-in-primary-care
#13
REVIEW
Karyn E Alexander, Bianca Brijnath, Ruby Biezen, Kerry Hampton, Danielle Mazza
High rates of preventable health problems amongst children in economically developed countries have prompted governments to seek pathways for early intervention. We systematically reviewed the literature to discover what primary care-targeted interventions increased preventive healthcare (e.g. review child development, growth, vision screening, social-emotional health) for preschool children, excluding vaccinations. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched for published intervention studies, between years 2000 and 2014, which reflected preventive health activities for preschool children, delivered by health practitioners...
March 6, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257785/smoking-behaviors-and-intentions-among-current-e-cigarette-users-cigarette-smokers-and-dual-users-a-national-survey-of-u-s-high-school-seniors
#14
Sean Esteban McCabe, Phil Veliz, Vita V McCabe, Carol J Boyd
E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246020/association-between-interpersonal-trust-reciprocity-and-suicidal-behaviors-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-south-korea
#15
Ja Young Kim, Jaehong Yoon, Myoung-Hee Kim, Seung-Sup Kim
While a growing body of evidence suggest that social capital including interpersonal trust and reciprocity might be associated with mental health outcomes, few studies have explored the relationship with suicidal behaviors. This research examined the prospective association between interpersonal trust and reciprocity and suicidal behaviors using the Korea Welfare Panel Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort dataset in South Korea. Interpersonal trust and reciprocity were assessed at the 7th wave of the survey (2012), and each measure was classified into two categories (low vs...
February 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242263/prolonged-cannabis-withdrawal-in-young-adults-with-lifetime-psychiatric-illness
#16
Randi Melissa Schuster, Madeleine Fontaine, Emily Nip, Haiyue Zhang, Ailish Hanly, A Eden Evins
Young adults with psychiatric illnesses are more likely to use cannabis and experience problems from use. It is not known whether those with a lifetime psychiatric illness experience a prolonged cannabis withdrawal syndrome with abstinence. Participants were fifty young adults, aged 18-25, recruited from the Boston-area in 2015-2016, who used cannabis at least weekly, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify Axis I psychiatric diagnoses (PD+ vs PD-), and attained cannabis abstinence with a four-week contingency management protocol...
February 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235542/identifying-demographic-and-psychosocial-factors-related-to-the-escalation-of-smoking-behavior-among-mexican-american-adolescents
#17
Sahil S Shete, Anna V Wilkinson
Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States; smoking in Mexican American adolescents, a rapidly growing population, remains a major concern. Factors associated with escalation or progression along the smoking trajectory have not been studied in adolescent Mexican Americans. A better understanding of escalation is needed for cancer prevention and overall health. N=1,328 Mexican American adolescents joined a cohort in 2005-06. At baseline participants provided demographic, acculturation and psychosocial data, and reported their smoking status using the Minnesota Smoking Index...
February 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232101/lessons-learned-after-three-years-of-legalized-recreational-marijuana-the-colorado-experience
#18
Tista S Ghosh, Daniel I Vigil, Ali Maffey, Rickey Tolliver, Mike Van Dyke, Leonardo Kattari, Heather Krug, Jack K Reed, Larry Wolk
In November 2012 Colorado voters approved legalized recreational marijuana. On January 1, 2014 Colorado became the first state to allow legal sales of non-medical marijuana for adults over the age of 21. Since that time, the state has been monitoring potential impacts on population health. In this paper we present lessons learned in the first three years following legal sales of recreational marijuana. These lessons pertain to health behaviors and health outcomes, as well as to health policy issues. Our intent is to share these lessons with other states as they face the prospect of recreational marijuana legalization...
February 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232100/adult-obesity-management-in-primary-care-2008-2013
#19
Stephanie L Fitzpatrick, Victor J Stevens
In the U.S., the occurrence of weight counseling in primary care for patients with obesity decreased by 10% between 1995-1996 and 2007-2008. There have been several national recommendations and policies to improve obesity management since 2008. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of body mass index (BMI) screening, obesity diagnosis, and weight management counseling in the U.S. from 2008 to 2013. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey visit-level data for adults 18 and over with a primary care visit during survey years 2008-2009, 2010-2011, and 2012-2013 was included in the analyses using SAS v9...
February 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232098/what-do-we-know-about-brief-interventions-for-physical-activity-that-could-be-delivered-in-primary-care-consultations-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#20
REVIEW
Laura Lamming, Sally Pears, Dan Mason, Katie Morton, Maaike Bijker, Stephen Sutton, Wendy Hardeman
This systematic review of reviews aims to investigate how brief interventions (BIs) are defined, whether they increase physical activity, which factors influence their effectiveness, who they are effective for, and whether they are feasible and acceptable. We searched CINAHL, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, DARE, HTA database, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index-Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network from their inception until May 2015 to identify systematic reviews of the effectiveness of BIs aimed at promoting physical activity in adults, reporting a physical activity outcome and at least one BI that could be delivered in a primary care setting...
February 21, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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