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Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528173/school-wellness-team-best-practices-to-promote-wellness-policy-implementation
#1
Erika Profili, Diana S Rubio, Hannah G Lane, Lea H Jaspers, Megan S Lopes, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
Schools with wellness teams are more likely to implement federally mandated Local Wellness Policies (LWPs, Local Education Agency-level policies for healthy eating/physical activity). Best practices have been developed for wellness teams based on minimal empirical evidence. The purpose of this study is to determine, among schools with wellness teams, associations between LWP implementation and six wellness team best practices (individually and as a sum score). An online survey targeting Maryland school wellness leaders/administrators (52...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528172/cannabis-and-pregnancy-maternal-child-health-implications-during-a-period-of-drug-policy-liberalization
#2
Katrina Mark, Mishka Terplan
Cannabis use is common and increasing among women in the United States. State policies are changing with a movement towards decriminalization and legalization. We explore the implications of cannabis liberalization for maternal and child health. Most women who use cannabis quit or cut back during pregnancy. Although women are concerned about the possible health effects of cannabis, providers do a poor job of counseling. There is a theoretical potential for cannabis to interfere with neurodevelopment, however human data have not identified any long-term or long lasting meaningful differences between children exposed in utero to cannabis and those not...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528171/accountable-care-organizations-and-the-use-of-cancer-screening
#3
Christian P Meyer, Anna Krasnova, Jesse D Sammon, Stuart R Lipsitz, Joel S Weissman, Maxine Sun, Quoc-Dien Trinh
Cancer preventive services, when used appropriately, result in improved health, better quality of life and decreased costs. For these reasons, cancer preventive services represent important priorities within the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Among the many provisions to improve access to preventive services the ACA introduced Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) as trajectory to deliver coordinated, high-quality care. In order to evaluate this benchmark, we analyzed (in 2016/Boston) screening prevalence of breast cancer, a recommended screening test according to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), and prostate cancer, for which screening is no longer recommended by the USPSTF, among traditional Medicare beneficiaries and those enrolled in ACOs...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528170/disparities-in-digital-reporting-of-illness-a-demographic-and-socioeconomic-assessment
#4
Samuel Henly, Gaurav Tuli, Sheryl Kluberg, Jared B Hawkins, Quynh Nguyen, Aranka Anema, Adyasha Maharana, John S Brownstein, Elaine O Nsoesie
Although digital reports of disease are currently used by public health officials for disease surveillance and decision making, little is known about environmental factors and compositional characteristics that may influence reporting patterns. The objective of this study is to quantify the association between climate, demographic and socio-economic factors on digital reporting of disease at the US county level. We reference approximately 1.5 million foodservice business reviews between 2004 and 2014, and use census data, machine learning methods and regression models to assess whether digital reporting of disease is associated with climate, socio-economic and demographic factors...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526394/do-high-participation-rates-improve-effects-of-population-based-general-health-checks
#5
A M Bender, T Jørgensen, C Pisinger
The aim is to investigate if the effect of a health check differs between areas with different participation rates. The Inter99 population-based randomized lifestyle intervention study covered 73 areas within the suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Adults aged 30-60years were randomly drawn from a population and were randomized to intervention group (n=11,483) or control group (n=47,122). Participation rates in the health check varied considerably between areas (mean 52%; range 35-85%). In separate survival analyses, area participation rate was included both as a continuous exposure variable and as a categorical variable (tertiles; low: 35-49%, meddle: 50-54%, high: 55-84%)...
May 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526393/energy-drink-consumption-and-marketing-in-south-africa
#6
Nicholas Stacey, Corné van Walbeek, Mashekwa Maboshe, Aviva Tugendhaft, Karen Hofman
Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising...
May 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526392/susceptibility-to-tobacco-product-use-among-youth-in-wave-1-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study
#7
Dennis R Trinidad, John P Pierce, James D Sargent, Martha M White, David R Strong, David B Portnoy, Victoria R Green, Cassandra A Stanton, Kelvin Choi, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Yuyan Shi, Jennifer Pearson, Annette R Kaufman, Nicolette Borek, Blair N Coleman, Andrew Hyland, Charles Carusi, Sheila Kealey, Eric Leas, Madison Noble, Karen Messer
The purpose of this study was to investigate susceptibility and ever use of tobacco products among adolescents and young adults in the US. Cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1(2013-2014) adolescent (12-17year-olds; n=13,651) and young adult (18-24year-olds; n=9112) data from the nationally-representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study was conducted. At 12years, 5% were ever tobacco users and 36% were susceptible to use. Seventy percent were susceptible at age 17years, and the same proportion were ever users at age 22years...
May 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506715/geographic-and-population-level-disparities-in-colorectal-cancer-testing-a-multilevel-analysis-of-medicaid-and-commercial-claims-data
#8
Melinda M Davis, Stephanie Renfro, Robyn Pham, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Jackilen Shannon, Gloria D Coronado, Stephanie B Wheeler
Morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) can be attenuated through guideline concordant screening and intervention. This study used Medicaid and commercial claims data to examine individual and geographic factors associated with CRC testing rates in one state (Oregon). A total of 65,711 beneficiaries (4516 Medicaid; 60,195 Commercial) became newly age-eligible for CRC screening and met inclusion criteria (e.g., continuously enrolled, no prior history) during the study period (January 2010-December 2013)...
May 12, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502579/point-of-sale-cigarette-purchase-patterns-among-u-s-adult-smokers-national-adult-tobacco-survey-2012-2014
#9
Judy Kruger, Amal Jama, Joseph G L Lee, Sara Kennedy, Asha Banks, Saida Sharapova, Israel Agaku
Tobacco products are ubiquitous in most U.S. retail environments. Given that data on preferred point-of-sale purchase locations among U.S. adult tobacco users are limited, an enhanced understanding of tobacco purchase locations can help inform tobacco control policy, planning, and practice. We investigated prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics associated with cigarette purchase location among U.S. adult smokers. Pooled data came from the 2012-2013 (N=60,192) and 2013-2014 (N=75,233) National Adult Tobacco Surveys...
May 11, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502578/evaluation-of-the-expect-respect-support-group-program-a-violence-prevention-strategy-for-youth-exposed-to-violence
#10
Dennis E Reidy, Kristin M Holland, Kai Cortina, Barbara Ball, Barri Rosenbluth
In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, Mage=14.3, S.D.=1.7, Range=11-17) from 36 schools in Texas participated in this accelerated longitudinal (7-year trajectory) study beginning in 2011. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted using three waves of data from three cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents...
May 11, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502577/psycho-social-influences-upon-older-women-s-decision-to-attend-cervical-screening-a-review-of-current-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Kirsty A Hope, Esther Moss, Charles W E Redman, Susan M Sherman
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide (WHO, 2016). In many developed countries the incidence of cervical cancer has been significantly reduced by the introduction of organised screening programmes however, in the UK, a fall in screening coverage is becoming a cause for concern. Much research attention has been afforded to younger women but age stratified mortality and incidence data suggest that older women's screening attendance is also worthy of study. This paper provides a review of current evidence concerning the psycho-social influences that older women experience when deciding whether to attend cervical screening...
May 11, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502576/the-effect-of-mpower-scores-on-cigarette-smoking-prevalence-and-consumption
#12
Anh Ngo, Kai-Wen Cheng, Frank J Chaloupka, Ce Shang
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the MPOWER package to support policy implementation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This study examined the effect of MPOWER policies on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in a global context. METHODS: The MPOWER composite score was constructed by adding up the six MPOWER scores for each country and survey year 2007-2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014, with a possible range between 6 (1 in each of the six score) and 29 (4 in M score and 5 in POWER scores)...
May 11, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502575/national-assessment-of-hpv-and-pap-tests-changes-in-cervical-cancer-screening-national-health-interview-survey
#13
Meg Watson, Vicki Benard, Jessica King, Anatasha Crawford, Mona Saraiya
BACKGROUND: Major organizations recommend cytology screening (Pap test) every 3years for women aged 21-65; women aged 30 to 65 have the option of adding the HPV test (co-test) every 5years. We examined national percentages of cervical cancer screening, and we examined use of co-testing as an option for screening. METHODS: We used 2015 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data to examine recent cervical cancer screening (Pap test within 3years among women aged 21-65 without a hysterectomy; N=10,596) and co-testing (N=9,125)...
May 11, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465131/pocket-money-eating-behaviors-and-weight-status-among-chinese-children-the-childhood-obesity-study-in-china-mega-cities
#14
Miao Li, Hong Xue, Peng Jia, Yaling Zhao, Zhiyong Wang, Fei Xu, Youfa Wang
Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban China. Data were collected in 2015 from 1648 students in 16 primary and middle schools in four mega-cities in China (4 schools/city): Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xi'an. Cluster robust negative binomial regression models were fit to assess family correlates of pocket money, associations of pocket money with child eating behaviors and weight outcomes, and possible modifying effects of schools' unhealthy food restrictions...
April 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461210/tracking-and-tracing-tobacco-products-in-kenya
#15
Hana Ross
This report evaluates the effectiveness of various measures to control the size of illicit cigarette trade in Kenya. It is based on a literature review, a review of conference proceedings/materials, online searches, and analyses of data from the National Statistical Office of Kenya, ERC, and Euromonitor. I used both published and grey literature, official government reports, and online news articles. In response to the presence of illicit cigarettes in the market in the early 2000s, Kenya adopted numerous measures to reduce tobacco tax evasion, with varying degrees of success...
April 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457714/discouraging-soft-drink-consumption-reduces-blood-glucose-and-cholesterol-of-brazilian-elementary-students-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Milena Miranda de Moraes, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Rita Adriana Gomes de Souza, Anibal Sanchez Moura, Gloria Valeria da Veiga, Rosely Sichieri
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational program aimed at discouraging sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages intake on blood fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Forty-seven fourth grade classes in twenty-two schools have participated in a randomized controlled trial aimed at discouraging soft drink intake in order to prevent excessive weight gain during a school year, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Of 1140 randomized students, 478 (238 in intervention group and 240 in control group) aged 9-12years old had at least one result on biochemical data and were analyzed to evaluate the effect of the intervention on changes in fasting glucose and total cholesterol at the end of follow-up...
April 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457713/management-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-the-united-states-results-from-a-national-survey-of-gastroenterology-physicians
#17
Traci T Murakami, Rebecca A Scranton, Heidi E Brown, Robin B Harris, Zhao Chen, Sunitha Musuku, Eyal Oren
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We sought to determine current knowledge and practices among gastroenterology physicians and assess adherence to current guidelines for H. pylori management. METHODS: Online surveys were distributed in 2014 to practicing gastroenterology physicians for information related to the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection. RESULTS: A total of 582 completed surveys were reviewed. The H. pylori screening test used "almost always" was gastric biopsy obtained during endoscopy (histology) (59%) followed by stool antigen test (20%)...
April 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456513/lifestyle-interventions-based-on-the-diabetes-prevention-program-delivered-via-ehealth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Kevin L Joiner, Soohyun Nam, Robin Whittemore
The objective was to describe Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-based lifestyle interventions delivered via electronic, mobile, and certain types of telehealth (eHealth) and estimate the magnitude of the effect on weight loss. A systematic review was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2003 and February 2016 that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. An overall estimate of the effect on mean percentage weight loss across all the interventions was initially conducted...
April 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455221/an-increase-in-sexually-transmitted-infections-seen-in-us-emergency-departments
#19
William S Pearson, Thomas A Peterman, Thomas L Gift
Surveillance data show that there is an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and we believe that because of this increased incidence, coupled with a deteriorating public health infrastructure, these STIs are being seen more often in emergency departments. Therefore, we used six years of the most recently available nationally-representative emergency department data to show an increase in the number of emergency department visits where a sexually transmitted infection was treated...
April 26, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455223/a-longitudinal-assessment-of-adherence-to-breast-and-cervical-cancer-screening-recommendations-among-women-with-and-without-intellectual-disability
#20
Xinling Xu, Suzanne W McDermott, Joshua R Mann, James W Hardin, Chelsea B Deroche, Dianna D Carroll, Elizabeth A Courtney-Long
Each year in the United States, about 4000 deaths are attributed to cervical cancer, and over 40,000 deaths are attributed to breast cancer (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2015). The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of full, partial, and no screening for breast and cervical cancer among women with and without intellectual disability (ID) who are within the age group for screening recommended by the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF), while accounting for changes in recommendations over the study period...
April 25, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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