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Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133266/mapping-suicide-mortality-in-ohio-a-spatial-epidemiological-analysis-of-suicide-clusters-and-area-level-correlates
#1
Cynthia A Fontanella, Daniel M Saman, John V Campo, Danielle L Hiance-Steelesmith, Jeffrey Bridge, Helen Anne Sweeney, Elisabeth D Root
Previous studies have investigated spatial patterning and associations of area characteristics with suicide rates in Western and Asian countries, but few have been conducted in the United States. This ecological study aims to identify high-risk clusters of suicide in Ohio and assess area level correlates of these clusters. We estimated spatially smoothed standardized mortality ratios (SMR) using Bayesian conditional autoregressive models (CAR) for the period 2004 to 2013. Spatial and spatio-temporal scan statistics were used to detect high-risk clusters of suicide at the census tract level (N=2952)...
November 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109016/modifiable-predictors-of-insufficient-sleep-durations-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-youth-in-the-compass-study
#2
Karen A Patte, Wei Qian, Scott T Leatherdale
The purpose of the current study was to simultaneously examine commonly proposed risk and protective factors for sleep deprivation over time among a large cohort of Ontario and Alberta secondary school students. Using 4-year linked longitudinal data from youth in years 1 through 4 (Y1[2012/2013], Y2[2013/2014], Y3[2014/2015], Y4[2015/2016]) of the COMPASS study (n=26,205), the likelihood of students meeting contemporary sleep recommendations was tested based on their self-reported substance use, bullying victimization, physical activity, and homework and screen time...
November 9, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128410/temporal-trends-in-dancing-among-adults-between-1994-and-2012-the-health-survey-for-england
#3
Amy Jo Vassallo, Claire E Hiller, Evangelos Pappas, Emmanuel Stamatakis
The benefits of physical activity are established, however, increasing population physical activity levels remains a challenge. Participating in activities that are enjoyable and multidimensional, such as dancing, are associated with better adherence. However, the extent to which the general population participates in dancing and its temporal trends has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends and patterns and correlates of dance participation in England from 1994 to 2012 using a series of large nationally representative surveys...
November 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128409/breast-cancer-related-perceptions-and-practices-of-health-professionals-working-in-brazil-s-network-of-primary-care-units
#4
Benjamin D Hallowell, Douglas M Puricelli Perin, Eduardo J Simoes, Diana C Paez, Diana C Parra, Ross C Brownson, Mona Saraiya
In 2004 the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) established breast cancer screening guidelines for women in Brazil: annual clinical breast exam for women age 40-49 and biennial mammogram for women age 50-69. Healthcare provider's adherence to these guidelines is currently unknown. The objective of this study is to describe the perceptions and practices related to breast cancer screening among physicians, nurses, and health unit coordinators working in the network of primary healthcare units (HCUs) in Brazil...
November 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128408/adding-folic-acid-to-corn-masa-flour-partnering-to-improve-pregnancy-outcomes-and-reduce-health-disparities
#5
REVIEW
Alina L Flores, Amy M Cordero, Michael Dunn, Joseph E Sniezek, Miguel A Arce, Krista S Crider, Sarah Tinker, Cynthia Pellegrini, Rita Carreón, Jose Estrada, Sara Struwe, Coleen Boyle
Although strides have been made in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), Hispanic women remain more likely to have a baby born with an NTD and less likely to know the benefits of, or consume, folic acid than women of other race/ethnic groups. In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated that all enriched cereal grain products be fortified with folic acid; however, corn masa flour (CMF), used to make many corn products that are a diet staple of many Hispanic groups, was not included under this regulation...
November 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104021/police-violence-among-women-in-four-u-s-cities
#6
Lisa Fedina, Bethany L Backes, Hyun-Jin Jun, Roma Shah, Boyoung Nam, Bruce G Link, Jordan E DeVylder
Police violence has been identified as a public health concern in the U.S., yet few studies have assessed the prevalence and nature of police violence among women. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that women reporting intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) to police are often met with harmful or neglectful police responses and thus, women's exposures to police violence may be associated with experiences of IPV and SV; however, this has not yet been empirically tested. This study assesses lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of police violence among women and investigates potential associations between IPV, SV, and police violence...
November 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126920/the-fentanyl-epidemic-in-canada-some-cautionary-observations-focusing-on-opioid-related-mortality
#7
Benedikt Fischer, Lenka Vojtila, Jürgen Rehm
In Canada, opioid-related overdose mortality has steeply increased in recent years; as a substantial number of opioid-related deaths are related to 'fentanyl' products, this phenomenon has widely been dubbed the 'fentanyl epidemic', also implying that these deaths are largely caused by clandestinely 'illicit fentanyl' products. We examined numbers and rates of opioid- and fentanyl-related deaths in six pan-Canadian provinces with respective (coroner-based) data available from 2010 to 2016. While fentanyl-related deaths are clearly increasing from relatively low levels in all provinces, those increases are strongest in the two Western provinces (e...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126919/school-based-mental-health-services-suicide-risk-and-substance-use-among-at-risk-adolescents-in-oregon
#8
Mallie J Paschall, Melina Bersamin
This study examined whether an increase in the availability of mental health services at school-based health centers (SBHCs) in Oregon public schools was associated with the likelihood of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and substance use behaviors among adolescents who experienced a depressive episode in the past year. The study sample included 168 Oregon public middle and high schools and 9073 students who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey (OHT) in 2013 and 2015. Twenty-five schools had an SBHC, and 14 of those schools increased availability of mental health services from 2013 to 2015...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126918/community-wide-physical-activity-intervention-based-on-the-japanese-physical-activity-guidelines-for-adults-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yoshinobu Saito, Yuko Oguma, Ayumi Tanaka, Masamitsu Kamada, Shigeru Inoue, Junko Inaji, Yoshitaka Kobori, Takayuki Tajima, Riri Kato, Yayoi Kibayashi, Yumi Narumi, Ayano Takeuchi, Motohiko Miyachi, I-Min Lee, Toru Takebayashi
Very few community intervention studies that promote physical activity (PA) using guidelines and its dissemination and implementation have been conducted. Consequently, we evaluated the effectiveness of a community-wide intervention (CWI) of PA with adults based on the Japanese guidelines for promoting PA. This was a non-randomized controlled trial, with four administrative districts in Fujisawa city assigned to the intervention group and nine to the control group. The CWI, conducted from 2013 to 2015, comprised information dissemination, education, and community support...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126917/a-method-for-the-inclusion-of-physical-activity-related-health-benefits-in-cost-benefit-analysis-of-built-environment-initiatives
#10
Belen Zapata-Diomedi, Lucy Gunn, Billie Giles-Corti, Alan Shiell, J Lennert Veerman
The built environment has a significant influence on population levels of physical activity (PA) and therefore health. However, PA-related health benefits are seldom considered in transport and urban planning (i.e. built environment interventions) cost-benefit analysis. Cost-benefit analysis implies that the benefits of any initiative are valued in monetary terms to make them commensurable with costs. This leads to the need for monetised values of the health benefits of PA. The aim of this study was to explore a method for the incorporation of monetised PA-related health benefits in cost-benefit analysis of built environment interventions...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126916/how-well-are-u-s-primary-care-providers-assessing-whether-their-male-patients-have-male-sex-partners
#11
Pollyanna R G Chávez, Laura G Wesolowski, Philip J Peters, Christopher H Johnson, Muazzam Nasrullah, Emeka Oraka, Euna M August, Elizabeth DiNenno
Identifying patients at-risk for HIV infection, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), is an important step in providing HIV testing and prevention interventions. It is unknown how primary care providers (PCPs) assess MSM status and related HIV-risk factors. We analyzed data from a panel-derived web-based survey for healthcare providers conducted in 2014 to describe how PCPs in the U.S. determined their patients' MSM status. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to describe PCP characteristics associated with systematically determining MSM status (i...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126915/steps-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-and-cardiometabolic-profiles
#12
Samantha Hajna, Nancy A Ross, Kaberi Dasgupta
The relative benefits of meeting the current moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and 'active' step count recommendations are unknown. Using robust linear regressions, we compared cardiometabolic marker differences (blood pressure, lipid levels, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), hemoglobin A1C, C-reactive protein (CRP), and body mass index (BMI)) across MVPA (150min/week) and step (10,000 steps/day) thresholds and between step categories (low active: 5000 to 7499, somewhat active: 7500 to 9999, and active: ≥10,000 steps/day vs...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117506/changes-in-body-mass-index-and-incidence-of-diabetes-a-longitudinal-study-of-alberta-s-tomorrow-project-cohort
#13
Ming Ye, Paula J Robson, Dean T Eurich, Jennifer E Vena, Jian-Yi Xu, Jeffrey A Johnson
Although obesity is a known risk factor for diabetes, the impact of body mass index (BMI) changes over time, especially BMI reduction, on diabetes development is less than clear. The objective of this study is to characterize the association between BMI changes over time and incidence of diabetes in a cohort of adults in Alberta. From 2000 to 2008, Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP) enrolled participants aged 35-69 to a population-based prospective cohort study. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight; change in BMI (∆BMI) was calculated as the difference between baseline and follow-up measurements...
November 5, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109015/factors-associated-with-participation-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-australia-results-from-the-45-and-up-study-cohort
#14
Emily He, Jie-Bin Lew, Sam Egger, Emily Banks, Robyn L Ward, Valerie Beral, Karen Canfell
The Australian Government's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) was introduced in 2006 to provide free home-based immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) to eligible Australians turning 55 and 65years in that year. With the gradual inclusion of additional age cohorts, the rollout of the NBCSP is being implemented in the context of a degree of opportunistic screening being provided through primary care physicians. This study investigated factors associated with ever-uptake of the NBCSP and of any CRC screening using questionnaire data from Australians aged ≥45years enrolled in the 45 and Up Study...
November 3, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109014/can-a-selfie-promote-public-engagement-with-skin-cancer
#15
Seth M Noar, Eric Leas, Benjamin M Althouse, Mark Dredze, Dannielle Kelley, John W Ayers
Social media may provide new opportunities to promote skin cancer prevention, but research to understand this potential is needed. In April of 2015, Kentucky native Tawny Willoughby (TW) shared a graphic skin cancer selfie on Facebook that subsequently went viral. We examined the volume of comments and shares of her original Facebook post; news volume of skin cancer from Google News; and search volume for skin cancer Google queries. We compared these latter metrics after TWs announcement against expected volumes based on forecasts of historical trends...
November 3, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109013/a-decompositional-analysis-of-firearm-related-mortality-in-the-united-states-2001-2012
#16
Russell Griffin, Joseph B Richardson, Jeffrey D Kerby, Gerald McGwin
Prior literature reporting increased rates of firearm-related homicide and suicide with increasing firearm availability is limited by only examining the availability of firearms, which is only one component of firearm-related mortality. The objective of the current study is to separate the rates into their respective components and determine which components contribute to mortality rate changes. To address the objective, nationally representative data from 2001 to 2012 was collected from a variety of publicly-available sources...
November 3, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104022/gender-specific-effects-of-physical-activity-on-children-s-academic-performance-the-active-smarter-kids-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
G K Resaland, V F Moe, J B Bartholomew, L B Andersen, H A McKay, S A Anderssen, E Aadland
Active learning combines academic content with physical activity (PA) to increase child PA and academic performance, but the impact of active learning is mixed. It may be that this is a moderated relationship in which active learning is beneficial for only some children. This paper examine the impact of baseline academic performance and gender as moderators for the effects of active learning on children's academic performance. In the ASK-study, 1129 fifth-graders from 57 Norwegian elementary schools were randomized by school to intervention or control in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015...
November 2, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092791/editorial-for-the-special-issue-on-behavior-change-health-and-health-disparities-2017
#18
Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 4th in a series on behavior change, health, and health disparities, a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. The U.S. ranks near the bottom on measures of population health relative to other industrialized countries despite spending orders of magnitude more on health care than any other nation. Population health experts agree that the area of personal behavior, or lifestyle, such as substance abuse, physical inactivity/obesity, and non-adherence with medical regimens is the single largest contributor to this situation...
October 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111159/the-association-between-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-lung-function-in-older-adults-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#19
Gary O'Donovan, Mark Hamer
The longitudinal association between physical activity and lung function is unclear. Therefore, we examined said association over eight years. This study included data from 2966 participants in English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (63±7years [mean±SD]), a prospective study of initially healthy, community dwelling adults. Physical activity was assessed using an interview and lung function using a spirometer at baseline (2004-5) and follow-up (2012-13). General linear regression was used to assess associations between activity and lung function...
October 27, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106915/neighborhood-price-of-healthier-food-relative-to-unhealthy-food-and-its-association-with-type-2-diabetes-and-insulin-resistance-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#20
David M Kern, Amy H Auchincloss, Mark F Stehr, Ana V Diez Roux, Kari A Moore, Genevieve Kanter, Lucy F Robinson
This study examined the association between the price of healthier food relative to unhealthy food and type 2 diabetes prevalence, incidence and insulin resistance (IR). Data came from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis exam 5 administered 2010-2012 (exam 4, five years prior, was used only for diabetes incidence) and supermarket food/beverage prices derived from Information Resources Inc. For each individual, average price of a selection of healthier foods, unhealthy foods and their ratio was computed for supermarkets within 3miles of the person's residential address...
October 26, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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