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Preventive Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792894/medical-students-reflect-on-the-future-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#1
Ivie Eweka, Jean Fleuriscar, Jacqueline Fleuriscar, Adenike Adeyemi-Jones, Brianna Dillon, Tashuna Albritton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787775/health-information-exposure-from-information-and-communication-technologies-and-its-associations-with-health-behaviors-population-based-survey
#2
Chen Shen, Man Ping Wang, Alice Wan, Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Sophia Siu Chee Chan, Tai Hing Lam
Health information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly used but little is known about routine exposure to health information from ICTs and its associations with health behaviors. A territory-wide population-based dual landline and mobile telephone survey was conducted in 2016 in Hong Kong, where smartphone ownership and Internet access are among the most prevalent, easiest and fastest in the world. Health information exposure from traditional sources (television/radio/newspaper/magazine), Internet websites, social media sites and instant messaging (IM); and information on smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity were recorded...
May 19, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763684/promoting-health-equity-to-prevent-crime
#3
Dylan B Jackson, Michael G Vaughn
Traditionally, research activities aimed at diminishing health inequalities and preventing crime have been conducted in isolation, with relatively little cross-fertilization. We argue that moving forward, transdisciplinary collaborations that employ a life-course perspective constitute a productive approach to minimizing both health disparities and early delinquent involvement. Specifically, we propose a multidimensional framework that integrates findings on health disparities and crime across the early life-course and emphasizes the role of racial and socioeconomic disparities in health...
May 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753804/the-association-between-serum-vitamin-d-level-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-cooper-center-longitudinal-study
#4
Andjelka Pavlovic, Katelyn Abel, Carolyn E Barlow, Stephen W Farrell, Myron Weiner, Laura F DeFina
Low blood level of vitamin D and low physical activity have been linked to the development of cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D and cognition as measured via the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in a healthy, older population. The study sample consisted of 4358 patients from the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX. All participants underwent a maximal graded exercise test to determine cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Cognitive impairment was defined as a MoCA score <25...
May 15, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763683/sexual-and-gender-minority-cigarette-smoking-disparities-an-analysis-of-2016-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-data
#5
Leah Hoffman, Janine Delahanty, Sarah E Johnson, Xiaoquan Zhao
We examined the association between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identity, cigarette and e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors in the United States. Using data from 198,057 adults in 26 states in the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we estimated the prevalence of cigarette use, e-cigarette use, and potential risk factors by gender identity and sexual identity. Overall and sex-stratified bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions examined whether the relationship between sexual and gender identity and cigarette and e-cigarette use persisted after adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status, and other unhealthy behaviors...
May 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758306/drug-use-among-youth-national-survey-data-support-a-common-liability-of-all-drug-use
#6
Robert L DuPont, Beth Han, Corinne L Shea, Bertha K Madras
The prevalence of substance use disorders in adults is higher if substance use is initiated during adolescence, underscoring the importance of youth substance use prevention. We examined whether the use of one substance by adolescents is associated with increased risk for using any other substance, regardless of use sequences. In 2017 we examined data from 17,000 youth aged 12-17 who participated in the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a sample of nationally representative data on substance use among the U...
May 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758305/maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy-and-academic-achievement-of-offspring-over-time-a-registry-data-based-cohort-study
#7
Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Sabena Thomas, Christa L Lilly, Ingibjorg E Thorisdottir, John P Allegrante, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir
Few studies have assessed the cumulative impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on scholastic outcomes over time. We examined the relations between MSDP and academic achievement in the 4th, 7th and 10th grades using registry data collected at birth, during the neonatal period, and at each grade level from the 2000, LIFECOURSE study birth cohort in Reykjavik, Iceland (N = 1151, girls = 49.3%). Latent growth modeling showed that MSDP influenced Icelandic achievement scores, standardized to a range from 0 to 60, at baseline (β = -0...
May 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758304/effects-of-behavioral-counseling-on-cardiometabolic-biomarkers-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-japanese-national-database
#8
Nayu Ikeda, Nobuo Nishi, Motohiko Miyachi
In Japan, health insurers are obliged to conduct Specific Health Checkup (SHC) for middle-aged and elderly persons. High-risk persons are referred to Specific Health Guidance (SHG) to receive behavioral counseling based on individual action plans including targets for modification of daily energy balance through diet and physical activity. Using individual-level observational data, we examined the effects of diet and physical activity counseling on cardiometabolic biomarkers across the country. Subjects were 363,440 high-risk persons aged 40-64 who participated in intensive support in SHG for ≥3 months between April 2008 and March 2012...
May 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753806/the-association-between-income-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-is-moderated-by-utilitarian-lifestyles-a-nationally-representative-us-population-nhanes-1999-2014
#9
Lisa Kakinami, Rita Wissa, Rahid Khan, Gilles Paradis, Tracie A Barnett, Lise Gauvin
The objective of this study was to determine whether the relationship between income and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) persists after accounting for a person's utilitarian PA (all non-LTPA), sociodemographic characteristics and transportation PA. Data were from eight cycles (1999-2014) of the nationally representative samples of the US adult population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 35,239). Whether the poverty income ratio (0-1.3, 1.3-1.86, 1.86+ [reference]) was associated with minutes of LTPA (moderate, vigorous) after stratifying for utilitarian PA (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) was assessed in multiple linear regressions adjusted for age, sex, race, education, marital status, weight status, hours worked, and minutes of transportation-related PA in the past week...
May 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753805/desire-to-lose-weight-dietary-intake-and-psychological-correlates-among-middle-aged-and-older-women-the-colaus-study
#10
I Carrard, M Kruseman, P Marques-Vidal
Body dissatisfaction has been regularly associated with negative consequences on health of young women, but less is known regarding middle-aged or older women. However, body dissatisfaction in women has been seen for long as a "normative discontent" (i.e. widespread and chronic dissatisfaction) because of its high prevalence among all age categories. The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between the desire to lose weight, energy intake and psychological health in community-dwelling women issued from the second wave (cross-sectional data) of the cohort study CoLaus (2009-2012, Switzerland), taking age categories (40-59 and 60-80) and body mass index (BMI, normal and overweight/obese) into account...
May 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753803/cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-relation-to-physical-activity-during-adolescence-and-adulthood-in-japan-does-school-based-sport-club-participation-matter
#11
Krisztina Gero, Hiroyasu Iso, Akihiko Kitamura, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Akiko Tamakoshi
We examined potential associations of sport club participation during adolescence and sports-related physical activity during adulthood with mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a Japanese population. Between 1988 and 1990, 29,526 men and 41,043 women aged 40-79 years responded to a questionnaire including questions about the frequency of sports participation at baseline and sport club participation during junior/senior high school. Subjects were followed-up until the end of 2009, and 4230 cardiovascular deaths (870 CHD, 1859 stroke) were identified...
May 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752959/the-contribution-of-health-behaviors-to-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-health-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Dusan Petrovic, Carlos de Mestral, Murielle Bochud, Mel Bartley, Mika Kivimäki, Paolo Vineis, Johan Mackenbach, Silvia Stringhini
Unhealthy behaviors and their social patterning have been frequently proposed as factors mediating socioeconomic differences in health. However, a clear quantification of the contribution of health behaviors to the socioeconomic gradient in health is lacking. This study systematically reviews the role of health behaviors in explaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. Published studies were identified by a systematic review of PubMed, Embase and Web-of-Science. Four health behaviors were considered: smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet...
May 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750980/food-policy-in-the-era-of-trump-limits-to-deregulation
#13
Sara N Bleich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746972/onset-of-t2dm-after-gestational-diabetes-what-the-prevention-paradox-tells-us-about-risk
#14
Judith Bernstein, Emily Quinn, Omid Ameli, Myrita Craig, Timothy Heeren, Ronald Iverson, Brian Jack, Aviva Lee-Parritz, Lois Mccloskey
This study investigates the effect of severity of gestational diabetes (GDM) on likelihood of post-delivery glucose testing and early onset Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We asked if clinical focus on relative risk (RR), i.e. greater probability of T2DM onset in a higher-severity group, contributes to missed opportunities for prevention among women with lower-severity GDM. A sample of 12,622 continuously-insured women with GDM (2006-2015) was drawn from a large national dataset (OptumLabs® Data Warehouse) and followed for 3-years post-delivery...
May 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746975/nutrition-status-bone-mass-density-and-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#15
Shannon Kindilien, Elle M Goldberg, Melissa H Roberts, Diana Gonzales-Pacheco
The association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use and bone mass density (BMD) has been debated. Inadequate diet, which may occur in depressed individuals prescribed SSRIs is also associated with decreased BMD. This study seeks to determine if SSRI use in adults is associated with lower than average BMD while controlling for nutrition related variables. Further, it investigates whether there are potential interactions between micronutrients and SSRI use on BMD. Adults, 655 with an SSRI prescription ≥180 days and 12,372 non-users, were identified in the 2005-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data...
May 7, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746974/tobacco-use-in-cardiac-patients-perceptions-use-and-changes-after-a-recent-myocardial-infarction-among-us-adults-in-the-path-study-2013-2015
#16
Diann E Gaalema, Irene Pericot-Valverde, Janice Y Bunn, Andrea C Villanti, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Nathan J Doogan, Diana R Keith, Allison N Kurti, Alexa A Lopez, Tyler Nighbor, Maria A Parker, Amanda J Quisenberry, Ryan Redner, Megan E Roberts, Cassandra A Stanton, Philip A Ades, Stephen T Higgins
Smoking status following cardiac events strongly predicts future morbidity and mortality. Using a nationally representative sample of United States adults, aims of this study were (1) to estimate use of, and attitudes towards, tobacco products as a function of level of cardiac risk, and (2) to explore changes in attitudes and tobacco use among adults experiencing a recent myocardial infarction (MI). Data were obtained from the first and second waves of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study...
May 7, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746973/family-meals-among-parents-associations-with-nutritional-social-and-emotional-wellbeing
#17
Jennifer Utter, Nicole Larson, Jerica M Berge, Marla E Eisenberg, Jayne A Fulkerson, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
A growing body of research suggests that children and adolescents who share frequent meals with their families report better nutrition indicators, family relationships and mental health. Yet, little research has examined whether parents who share meals with their families report the same indicators of wellbeing. The current paper addresses this question using population-based survey data and a sample of parents in the United States (n = 889, mean age 31 years) that responded to the fourth wave of the Project EAT study in 2015-16...
May 7, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729288/colorectal-cancer-screening-in-the-united-states-trends-from-2008-to-2015-and-variation-by-health-insurance-coverage
#18
Janet S de Moor, Robin A Cohen, Jean A Shapiro, Marion R Nadel, Susan A Sabatino, K Robin Yabroff, Stacey Fedewa, Richard Lee, V Paul Doria-Rose, Cheryl Altice, Carrie N Klabunde
Regular colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is recommended for reducing CRC incidence and mortality. This paper provides an updated analysis of CRC screening in the United States (US) and examines CRC screening by several features of health insurance coverage. Recommendation-consistent CRC screening was calculated for adults aged 50-75 in 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015 using data from the National Health Interview Survey. CRC screening prevalence in 2015 was described overall and by sociodemographic subgroups. CRC screening by health insurance coverage was further examined using multivariable logistic regression, stratified by age (50-64 years and 65-75 years) and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, income, time in US, and comorbid conditions...
May 2, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729287/which-healthy-lifestyle-factors-are-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-suicidal-ideation-among-adolescents-faced-with-cyberbullying
#19
M Rodelli, I De Bourdeaudhuij, E Dumon, G Portzky, A DeSmet
Cyberbullying is associated with negative mental health outcomes including adolescent suicidal ideation. This requires effective and accessible preventive efforts. Healthy lifestyles are factors adolescents themselves can modify that may lower their risk of suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between physical activity, (outdoor) sport participation, a healthy diet, higher sleep duration and low levels of smoking and alcohol use, and suicidal ideation when faced with cyberbullying...
May 2, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727637/personal-behavioral-and-environmental-predictors-of-healthy-weight-maintenance-during-the-transition-to-adulthood
#20
Nicole Larson, Ying Chen, Melanie Wall, Megan R Winkler, Andrea B Goldschmit, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
There is a high prevalence of overweight among U.S. young adults and the intergenerational implications of excess weight gain at this life stage are great. We used Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) study data to identify personal, behavioral, and environmental factors that predicted healthy weight maintenance during the transition from adolescence to adulthood and as individuals progressed from the third to fourth decade of life. The sample included 1120 young adults who were secondary school students in Minneapolis-St...
May 1, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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