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Preventive Medicine

Maarit K Leinonen, Suzanne Campbell, Ole Klungsøyr, Stefan Lönnberg, Bo T Hansen, Mari Nygård
High coverage is essential for an effective screening programme. Here we present screening barriers and facilitators among 1.3 million women aged 25-69years eligible for screening within the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Program (NCCSP). We defined non-adherence as no screening test in 2008-2012. We divided adherent women into those screened spontaneously, and those who had a smear after receiving a reminder from the NCCSP. Explanatory variables were extracted from several nationwide registers, and modelled by modified Poisson regression...
November 25, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Francesca Carozzi, Antonio Federici, Guglielmo Ronco, Marco Zappa, Silvia Franceschi
In Italy, the cohorts of women who were offered Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2007/08 will reach the age for cervical cancer (CC) screening from 2017. The simultaneous shift from cytology-based screening to HPV test-based screening gives the opportunity for unprecedented reorganisation of CC prevention. The ONS (National Screening Monitoring Centre) Directive and the GISCi (Italian Group for Cervical Screening) identified the consensus conference as the most suitable method for addressing this topic...
November 25, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Ian Thomas
This is an invited commentary article, and so no abstract is required. By way of a brief description, this article tells two success stories in which policies were changed to increase equity in active living, and identifies the keys to success in each case.
November 24, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Paul D Loprinzi, Elizabeth Crush, Chelsea Joyner
Previous research demonstrates an inverse association between age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers with cognitive function; however, little is known about the combined associations of CVD risk factors and cognitive function with all-cause mortality in an older adult population, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (N=2,097; 60+yrs), with mortality follow-up through 2011. Evaluated individual biomarkers included mean arterial pressure (MAP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), A1C, and measured body mass index (BMI)...
November 15, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Juliana M Kling, Suneela Vegunta, Mina Al-Badri, Stephanie S Faubion, Heather E Fields, Amit A Shah, Mark R Wallace, Barbara E Ruddy, Michael J Bryan, M'hamed Temkit, Kathy L MacLaughlin
Routine pelvic examinations have been a fundamental part of the annual female examination. The 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline recommends against routine pelvic examinations in asymptomatic, nonpregnant, average-risk women. Our aim was to evaluate women's attitudes and beliefs about pelvic examinations and how knowledge of the new guidelines contributes to attitudes and beliefs. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered written survey developed through literature review and pretested and revised on the basis of staff suggestions...
November 14, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Allana G LeBlanc, Jean-Philippe Chaput
There is an urgent need to find novel strategies aimed at motivating people to go outside and move more. Pokémon Go blends a fun smartphone game with real-life, outdoor physical activity. Initial reports suggest it is a successful population level strategy to increase physical activity levels. Further research is needed to understand the long-term risks and benefits of this new game. Free-to-play location-based augmented reality mobile games are likely to be a new model for promoting healthy active living in the future...
November 14, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Dare Kim, Soo Choy Yoon, Eun-Cheol Park
Diabetes is a major chronic disease, and many studies have shown an association between diabetes with severe complications and certain causes of diabetes, including secondhand smoke. Smoking has been considered a significant issue around the world, and research has been conducted on its relationship with diseases including diabetes. However, previous studies have focused on the onset of diabetes, rather than glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Thus, this study aims to provide evidence of a relationship between secondhand smoke and glycemic control...
November 14, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Natalie Pearson, Emma Haycraft, Julie P Johnston, Andrew J Atkin
The transition from primary/middle school to secondary/high school is likely to be a key period in children's development, characterised by significant changes in their social and physical environment. However, little is known about the changes in sedentary behaviour that accompany this transition. This review aimed to identify, critically appraise and summarise the evidence on changes in sedentary behaviour across the primary - secondary school transition. Published English language studies were located from computerised and manual searches in 2015...
November 14, 2016: Preventive Medicine
André Salem Szklo, Roberto Magno Iglesias, Mirian Carvalho de Souza, Moysés Szklo, Tânia Maria Cavalcante, Liz Maria de Almeida
Brazil has experienced a large decline in cigarette consumption in the last 25years. However, the most recent annual reports from the tobacco industry market leader in Brazil did not show a decrease in its gross profits. This is particularly important because tobacco industry donations/sponsorships come directly from the industry's reported gross-profits and are used to subvert health policies. The aim of the present study was to estimate (i)tobacco industry's gross-profit from legal cigarettes sales, and (ii)all-cause smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) among current Brazilian smokers who consumed legal cigarettes in 2013...
November 14, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Daniel D Cohen, P López-Jaramillo, Fernández Santos, J Castro-Piñero, Grh Sandercock
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) provides protection against the elevated blood pressure in overweight youth. Less is known regarding any similar protective effect of muscular fitness. We investigated how handgrip strength, an easy to implement measure of muscular strength, interacted with CRF and BMI to determine blood pressure in youth. We measured systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, handgrip strength (HG), CRF and body mass index (BMI) in n=7329 10-16year-olds (47% girls). We defined elevated blood pressure as >91st percentile and Good HG as >33rd percentile...
November 12, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Andrea Torres, María Paula Díaz, Matthew J Hayat, Rodney Lyn, Michael Pratt, Deborah Salvo, Olga L Sarmiento
The Recreovia program provides free physical activity (PA) classes in public spaces in Bogota, Colombia. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Recreovia program in increasing PA among users of nine parks in Bogota. This study was a natural experiment conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Bogota. Community members and park users living nearby three groups of parks were compared: Group 1 were parks implementing new Recreovias (n=3), Group 2 were control parks (n=3) without Recreovias, and Group 3 were parks with existing Recreovías...
November 12, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Holly Elwell, Bianca Shulaker, Jasmin Rippon, Rick Wood
The United States is facing unprecedented health challenges - such as obesity and cardiovascular disease - many of which are related to a lack of or insufficient physical activity. Maintaining or creating parks and other public recreation facilities that promote physical activity is particularly important for combating these. This brief describes a strategic planning initiative, known as "Healthy, Connected Chattanooga." The City of Chattanooga, Tennessee, partnered with The Trust for Public Land, a national nonprofit organization, to analyze the city for physical activity opportunities and identify areas where interventions were of highest need...
November 11, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Lee Ingle, Michelle Swainson, David Brodie, Gavin R Sandercock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Kelly Samara Silva, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Fabiana Maluf Rabacow, Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Thiago Hérick de Sá
The purpose of this study is to discuss a paradigm shift towards a broader understanding of physical activity (PA) as part of daily living and, therefore, a different approach for PA guidelines, research, and promotion. To this aim, we centered the discussion in two topics: 1) PA: from a restricted view to a broader phenomenon; and 2) Recommendations for PA: moving beyond minutes and dose-response. A holistic understanding of PA and its relationship with health is not possible unless it is considered values, meanings, and symbols that impregnate the human behavior linked to the modes of living of a given people...
November 10, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Mandy Xian Hu, Femke Lamers, Eco J C de Geus, Brenda W J H Penninx
Physical activity, alcohol use and smoking might affect cardiovascular disease through modifying autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. We investigated: 1) whether there are consistent relationships between lifestyle factors and cardiac ANS activity over time, and 2) whether 2-year changes in lifestyle factors relate to 2-year changes in cardiac activity. Baseline (n=2618) and 2-year follow-up (n=2010) data of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety was combined. Baseline data was collected in the Netherlands from 2004-2007...
November 9, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Chanam Lee, Jeongjae Yoon, Xuemei Zhu
Previous research has examined personal, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, but most were cross-sectional and mode choice studies. This exploratory case study utilized a retrospective natural experiment opportunity, where a group of students transferred to a new school, and therefore experienced changes in their home-to-school travel environments. It examined whether such changes led to mode shifts from sedentary (car or school bus) to active (walking and bicycling) and what factors were associated with those shifts...
October 24, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Marc T Braverman, Lisa A Hoogesteger, Jessica A Johnson, Leif Edvard Aarø
Many universities are adopting campus tobacco policies, but little research has explored factors influencing the choice between the policy options of smoke-free versus 100% tobacco-free. Students, faculty, and staff at a U.S. state university participated in a web-based survey in 2013, approximately one year after adoption of a smoke-free policy. Respondents who expressed support for the policy were included in an analysis to examine their opinions regarding a 100% tobacco-free policy. The samples included 4138 students and 1582 faculty/staff...
October 23, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Anuradha Gorukanti, Kevin Delucchi, Pamela Ling, Raymond Fisher-Travis, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents' attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from California (63.21% females; mean age=16...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Angie L Cradock, Jessica L Barrett, Erica L Kenney, Catherine M Giles, Zachary J Ward, Michael W Long, Stephen C Resch, Andrea A Pipito, Emily R Wei, Steven L Gortmaker
Participation in recommended levels of physical activity promotes a healthy body weight and reduced chronic disease risk. To inform investment in prevention initiatives, we simulate the national implementation, impact on physical activity and childhood obesity and associated cost-effectiveness (versus the status quo) of six recommended strategies that can be applied throughout childhood to increase physical activity in US school, afterschool and childcare settings. In 2016, the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) systematic review process identified six interventions for study...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Alison M El Ayadi, Corinne H Rocca, Julia E Kohn, Denisse Velazquez, Maya Blum, Sara J Newmann, Cynthia C Harper
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are highly effective at preventing pregnancy but do not protect against sexually transmitted infection (STI). Recent efforts to improve access to intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants have raised concerns about STI prevention and reduced condom use, particularly among teenagers and young women. We evaluated whether a provider-targeted intervention to increase LARC access negatively impacted dual method use and STI incidence among an at-risk patient population...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
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