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Preventive Medicine

M Courtney Hughes, Tamara A Baker, Hansol Kim, Elise G Valdes
Health care providers are in a unique position to address patients' health behaviors and social determinants of health, factors like income and social support that can significantly impact health. There is a need to better understand the risk behaviors of a population that providers may counsel (i.e., those who are insured and have a provider.) Using the 2015 and 2016 CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examine the prevalence of health behaviors and the existence of disparities in health behaviors based on social determinants among American adults...
January 10, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Sebastian A Srugo, Margaret de Groh, Ying Jiang, Howard I Morrison, Paul J Villeneuve
Dysglycemia, including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, is dangerous and widespread. Yet, the condition is transiently reversible and sequelae preventable, prompting the use of prediction algorithms to quickly assess dysglycemia status through self-reported data. However, as current algorithms have largely been developed in older populations, their application to younger adults is uncertain considering associations between risk factors and dysglycemia vary by age. We sought to identify sex-specific predictors of current dysglycemia among young adults and evaluate their ability to screen for prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes...
January 9, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Catherine L Idema, Sarah E Roth, Dawn M Upchurch
Self-rated health (SRH) is a widely used and valid marker of overall health and wellbeing and demographic differences in SRH are well-established. To date, few studies have examined how multiple components of body image shape young adults' SRH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of weight perception and perceived attractiveness on SRH among young adults. Data were from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) and young women and men ages 24-34 were analyzed (n = 7044 women, n = 6594 men) in April 2018...
January 9, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Lourdes M Rojas, Monica Bahamon, Rachel Wagstaff, Isabella Ferre, Tatiana Perrino, Yannine Estrada, Sara M St George, Hilda Pantin, Guillermo Prado
The objectives of this systematic review were: 1) to identify evidence-based youth (i.e., infancy, pre-school age, school age, and adolescence) mental and behavioral health disorder preventive interventions conducted in or offered by primary care settings; and 2) to describe these interventions' characteristics, efficacy, and clinical involvement. Randomized controlled trials that targeted the prevention of mental or behavioral health outcomes for youth and had a connection to primary care were included. The PRISMA guidelines were utilized for two phases: 1) searching PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases in January 2017; and 2) searching United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Systematic Reviews in November 2017...
January 2, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Daniela Gonzalez-Sicilia, Frédéric N Brière, Linda S Pagani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Robert S Kerrison, Christian von Wagner, Trish Green, Monica Winfield, Una Macleod, Mark Hughes, Colin J Rees, Stephen Duffy, Lesley M McGregor
Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among screened adults. The aim of this review was to identify patient-related factors associated with the screening test's use. We searched PubMed for studies that examined the association between FS screening use and one or more factors. To determine the eligibility of studies, we first reviewed titles, then abstracts, and finally the full paper. We started with a narrow search, which we expanded successively (by adding 'OR' terms) until the number of new publications eligible after abstract review was <1% of the total number of publications...
December 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Isis Van Putten, Kimberly S G Chang, Susie B Baldwin, Hanni Stoklosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Isabel Ruiz-Pérez, Ángel Bastos, Ripoll M J Serrano, Ignacio Ricci-Cabello
The objective of this systematic literature review is to examine the impact of interventions to improve cardiovascular disease healthcare provided to people living in rural areas. Systematic electronic searches were conducted in Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge in July 2018. We included clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of interventions to improve cardiovascular disease healthcare in rural areas. Study eligibility assessment, data extraction, and critical appraisal were undertaken by two reviewers independently...
December 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Anila Verghese, Margaret Raber, Shreela Sharma
The national Supplemental Nutrition Assistance program (SNAP) has been successful in reducing food insecurity among low-income Americans. However, the program has also been criticized as unhealthy food choices, and rates of diet-related chronic diseases remain high among SNAP beneficiaries. Recently, several multi-component interventions have targeted SNAP beneficiaries, aiming to improve how benefits are utilized to support a healthful diet. The aim of this scoping review is to examine the breadth of published interventions that have targeted SNAP beneficiaries, and their reported impact on diet and nutrition related outcomes...
December 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jingzhu Wu, Xuhong Hou, Lei Chen, Peizhu Chen, Li Wei, Fusong Jiang, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
To develop a non-invasive assessment tool and compare it to other assessment tools among middle-aged and elderly Shanghainese, 15,309 individuals, who were 45-70 years old, not previously diagnosed with diabetes, and from a cross-sectional survey conducted between April 2013 and August 2014 in Shanghai, were selected into this study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the exploratory group or the validation group. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria, and score points were generated according to the logistic regression coefficients...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Miriam G Cisternas, Louise B Murphy, Susan A Carlson
Recent studies of middle age and older adults with, or at risk for, arthritis demonstrate that engaging in physical activities like walking - even at levels below the current aerobic physical activity guideline of ≥150 min of moderate-intensity activity - can protect against onset of functional limitations. Using a large nationally representative sample of US adults ≥18 years with arthritis, we investigated whether, among those not meeting the aerobic activity guideline, walking ≥10 min/week vs...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
N J Polman, P J F Snijders, G G Kenter, J Berkhof, C J L M Meijer
Based on scientific data showing that HPV testing provides better protection against cervical precancer and cancer than cytology, in 2011 the Dutch Health Council advised the Minister of Welfare, Health and Sports to replace cytology by HPV testing in the Dutch population-based screening programme. After a successful evaluation of the feasibility of HPV-based screening in 2014, primary HPV testing for cervical screening was implemented in 2017. The Netherlands has been one of the first countries worldwide to implement nationwide HPV-based screening and its experience with the new programme is therefore followed with great interest...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jonathan T Macy, Holly P O'Rourke, Dong-Chul Seo, Clark C Presson, Laurie Chassin
Cigarette smoking is a well-established cause of excess morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining how smoking trajectories might be a mechanism through which adolescent tolerance for deviance predicts premature all-cause and tobacco-specific mortality. Participants were from a cohort-sequential study conducted in the Midwestern United States of the natural history of cigarette smoking from adolescence through midlife that collected nine waves of data from 1980 to 2011...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Cuiping Schiman, Lei Liu, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Lihui Zhao, Martha L Daviglus, Kiang Liu, James Fries, Daniel B Garside, Thanh-Huyen T Vu, Jeremiah Stamler, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Norrina B Allen
It is unclear how long-term medical utilization and costs from diverse care settings and their age-related patterns may differ by cardiovascular health (CVH) status earlier in adulthood. We followed 17,195 participants of the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project Industry (1967-1973) with linked Medicare claims (1992 to 2010). Baseline CVH is a composite measure of blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes, cholesterol, and smoking and includes four mutually exclusive strata: all factors were favorable (5...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Rachel C Ambagtsheer, Justin J Beilby, Renuka Visvanathan, Elsa Dent, Solomon Yu, Annette J Braunack-Mayer
With older adults living longer, health service providers have increasingly turned their attention towards frailty and its significant consequences for health and well-being. Consequently, frailty screening has gained momentum as a possible health policy answer to the question of what can be done to prevent frailty's onset and progression. However, who should be screened for frailty, where and when remains a subject of extensive debate. The purpose of this narrative review is to explore the dimensions of this question with reference to Wilson and Jungner's time-tested and widely accepted principles for acceptable screening within community settings...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
S Stoffel, L Benito, N Milà, N Travier, G Binefa, C Vidal, J Espinosa, V Moreno, M Garcia
The aim of the study was to measure the effect of three cost-neutral behavioral interventions on participation compared to the standard invitation letter in a population-based colorectal cancer screening program in 2014. For that purpose, a four-arm randomized field trial was conducted among 5077 individuals aged 50 to 69 years. Over an 8-week period, each week was randomly allocated to the intervention or the control conditions. Individuals assigned to the intervention conditions additionally received a prompt to write down the date to pick up the screening test in a pharmacy...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Alexis Merdjanoff, Aditi Bhanja, David M Abramson
Limiting the spread and impact of Zika was a major global priority in 2016, which required a variety of vector control measures. The success of vector control campaigns is varied and often dependent on public or political will. This paper examines the change over time in the United States population's support for vector control and the factors that predicted support for three vector control strategies (i.e., indoor spraying, outdoor spraying, and use of larvacide tablets) during the 2016 Zika outbreak in the United States...
December 27, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jiangrong Wang, Alexander Ploner, Pär Sparén, Tiia Lepp, Adam Roth, Lisen Arnheim-Dahlström, Karin Sundström
Ten years after its introduction, equity in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains unattained, not least for the groups at highest risk of cervical cancer. In Sweden, three different delivery modes of the vaccine have been in effect since May 2007. We used this as a natural experiment to investigate girls' HPV vaccine uptake in relation to parental country of birth and socioeconomic characteristics, by mode of delivery. Our nationwide study cohort comprised 689,676 girls born between 1990 and 2003...
December 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Joana Araújo, Elisabete Ramos, Henrique Barros
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of age-related changes in body mass index and waist circumference during adolescence on blood pressure levels and incidence of hypertension. Among the 2159 adolescents recruited at 13 years in Porto, Portugal, we evaluated those free of hypertension at baseline and followed-up at 17 years (n = 1377) - EPITeen cohort, 2003-2008. Changes in BMI percentage (BMI%) and waist circumference percentage (WC%) were evaluated continuously as the difference between 13 and 17 years, then categorized in sex-specific quartiles...
December 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Daniel M Goldberg, Beom-Young Cho, Hsien-Chang Lin
Prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases is critical due to high costs of healthcare and increasing prevalence. Historical trends suggest physicians underperform in behavioral counseling (including exercise, diet/nutrition, or weight management). This study investigated physicians' decision-making by examining non-clinical sociological factors that influence ordering and provision of behavioral counseling. This was a retrospective multi-year cross-sectional study. Using the Eisenberg model of physician-decision making, we analyzed data from the 2005-2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (unweighted N = 177,599)...
December 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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