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Drug Metabolism Reviews

Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances in many countries. These are the two main hallucinogenic compounds of the "magic mushrooms" and both act as agonists or partial agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A subtype receptors. During the last few years, psilocybin and psilocin have gained therapeutic relevance but considerable physiological variability between individuals that can influence dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites...
January 31, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Dragos Apostu, Ondine Lucaciu, Gheorghe Dan Osvald Lucaciu, Bogdan Crisan, Liana Crisan, Mihaela Baciut, Florin Onisor, Grigore Baciut, Radu Septimiu Câmpian, Simion Bran
Titanium implants are widely used on an increasing number of patients in orthopedic and dental medicine. Despite the good survival rates of these implants, failures that lead to important socio-economic consequences still exist. Recently, research aimed at improving implant fixation, a process called osseointegration, has focused on a new, innovative field: systemic delivery of drugs. Following implant fixation, patients receive systemic drugs that could either impair or enhance osseointegration; these drugs include anabolic and anti-catabolic bone-acting agents in addition to new treatments...
January 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Nathalie K Zgheib, Robert A Branch
Despite the central role of the liver in drug metabolism, surprisingly there is lack of certainty in anticipating the extent of modification of the clearance of a given drug in a given patient. The intent of this review is to provide a conceptual framework in considering the impact of liver disease on drug disposition and reciprocally the impact of drug disposition on liver disease. It is proposed that improved understanding of the situation is gained by considering the issue as a special example of a drug-gene-environment interaction...
January 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Katrin Sak
Catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT, is an important phase II enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a methyl-group from S-adenosylmethionine to a catechol-containing substrate molecule. A genetic variant Val158Met in the COMT gene leads to a several-fold decrease in the enzymatic activity giving rise to the accumulation of potentially carcinogenic endogenous catechol estrogens and their reactive intermediates and increasing thus the risk of tumorigenesis. However, numerous association studies between the COMT genotype and susceptibility to various malignancies have shown inconsistent and controversial findings indicating that additional gene-gene and gene-environment interactions might be crucial in modulating the physiological role of the COMT...
November 23, 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Ahmed A El-Sherbeni, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are ancient electron-transfer-chain system of remarkable biological importance. Microsomal P450 enzymes are the P450 attached to endoplasmic reticulum, which, in humans, are critical for body's defenses against xenobiotics by mediating their metabolism, and cell signaling by mediating arachidonic acid (AA) transformation to several potent bioactive molecules. Only recently, modulating P450-mediated AA metabolism has risen as a promising new drug target. This review presents the therapeutic potential of finding effective, selective and safe treatments targeting P450-mediated AA metabolism, and the several approaches that have been used to find these treatments; among which, our focus was on modulators of P450 activities...
November 22, 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Joana Barbosa, Juliana Faria, Odília Queirós, Roxana Moreira, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
Tramadol and tapentadol are centrally acting, synthetic opioid analgesics used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Main metabolic patterns for these drugs in humans are well characterized. Tramadol is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 to O-desmethyltramadol (M1), its main active metabolite. M1 and tapentadol undergo mainly glucuronidation reactions. On the other hand, the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and tapentadol are dependent on multiple factors, such as the route of administration, genetic variability in pharmacokinetic components and concurrent consumption of other drugs...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Sylvia Chen, Natalia Sutiman, Clara Zhenxian Zhang, Yingnan Yu, Shirley Lam, Chiea Chuen Khor, Balram Chowbay
Drug efflux and influx transporters play critical roles in regulating the cellular drug disposition and modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-cancer agents, which may potentially alter treatment outcomes. The efficiency of drug transport is often dependent on the expression and activity of these membrane-bound proteins, factors which have been shown to be regulated by genes that are known to be highly polymorphic in different ethnic populations. The role of drug transporters becomes even more critical for anti-cancer agents due to the narrow therapeutic windows that separate treatment response and toxicities for these agents...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Jinping Gan, Shuguang Ma, Donglu Zhang
The bioactivation of drugs is often associated with toxicological outcomes; however, for most cases, the causal relationship between bioactivation and toxicity is not well established despite extensive research that attempts to elucidate the mechanisms leading to the formation of chemically reactive species, presumably the initial step towards adverse reactions. Due to rapid advancement in the research of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and the prevalence of CYP involvement in the metabolic clearance of pharmaceuticals, CYP-mediated bioactivation is widely investigated and reviewed, while non-CYP-mediated bioactivation has not been emphasized...
November 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Yuji Ishii
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Jialin Mao, Iain Martin, James McLeod, Gail Nolan, Robert van Horn, Manoli Vourvahis, Yvonne S Lin
A key goal in the clinical development of a new molecular entity is to quickly identify whether it has the potential for drug-drug interactions. In particular, confirmation of in vitro data in the early stage of clinical development would facilitate the decision making and inform future clinical pharmacology study designs. Plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-HC) is considered as an emerging endogenous biomarker for cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), one of the major drug metabolizing enzymes. Although there are increasing reports of the use of 4β-HC in academic- and industry-sponsored clinical studies, a thorough review, summary and consideration of the advantages and challenges of using 4β-HC to evaluate changes in CYP3A activity has not been attempted...
October 10, 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
James R Reed, Wayne L Backes
Cytochromes P450 represent a family of enzymes, which are responsible for the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics. Although the mammalian P450s require interactions with their redox partners in order to function, more recently, P450 system proteins have been shown to exist as multi-protein complexes that include the formation of P450•P450 complexes. Evidence has shown that the metabolism of some substrates by a given P450 can be influenced by the specific interaction of the enzyme with other forms of P450...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Francesca Toselli, Peter R Dodd, Elizabeth M J Gillam
P450s in the human brain were originally considered unlikely to contribute significantly to the clearance of drugs and other xenobiotic chemicals, since their overall expression was a small fraction of that found in the liver. However, it is now recognized that P450s play substantial roles in the metabolism of both exogenous and endogenous chemicals in the brain, but in a highly cell type- and region-specific manner, in line with the greater functional heterogeneity of the brain compared to the liver. Studies of brain P450 expression and the characterization of the catalytic activity of specific forms expressed as recombinant enzymes have suggested possible roles for xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s in the brain...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Martin J J Ronis
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play an important role in metabolism and clearance of most clinically utilized drugs and other xenobiotics. They are important in metabolism of endogenous compounds including fatty acids, sterols, steroids and lipid-soluble vitamins. Dietary factors such as phytochemicals are capable of affecting CYP expression and activity, which may be important in diet-drug interactions and in the development of fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. One important diet-CYP interaction is with diets containing plant proteins, particularly soy protein...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Martin Ronis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Oliver Hankinson
The environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin (TCDD) is the prototype of a large number of non-genotoxic carcinogens, dietary phytochemicals and endogenous metabolites that act via binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The TCDD-liganded AHR massively upregulates CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 in many mammalian organs. We demonstrated that TCDD treatment markedly increases the levels of several epoxides and diol metabolites of the epoxides of both ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the liver and lungs of mice, in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion, and most likely via the activities of the CYP1 family members...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Sung-Mi Kim, YongQiang Wang, Noushin Nabavi, Yi Liu, Maria Almira Correia
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) are enzymes that metabolize endo- and xenobiotics i.e. drugs, carcinogens, toxins, natural and chemical products. These agents modulate liver P450 content through increased synthesis or reduction via inactivation and/or proteolytic degradation, resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions. P450 proteolytic degradation occurs via ER-associated degradation (ERAD) involving either of two distinct routes: Ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation (ERAD/UPD) or autophagic lysosomal degradation (ERAD/ALD)...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Michael Murray
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) undergo cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent oxidation to epoxides that modulate important physiological functions, including vasoactivity, inflammation, nociception, proliferation and viability. One of the most important human CYP epoxygenases is human CYP2J2 that is widely expressed in tissues, especially heart, vascular smooth muscle, salivary glands and placenta. Recent studies have shown that overexpression of CYP2J2 in vivo reverses several pathological processes in animals, including hypertension and other cardiovascular pathologies and insulin resistance...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Jia Guo, Inger Johansson, Souren Mkrtchian, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
CYP2W1 is expressed in the course of development of the gastrointestinal tract, silenced after birth in intestine and colon by epigenetic modifications, but activated following demethylation in colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression levels in CRC positively correlate with the degree of malignancy, are higher in metastases and are predictive of colon cancer survival. The CYP2W1 transcripts have been detected also in hepatocellular carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and breast cancer; however, here the protein expression remains to be confirmed...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Pramod C Nair, Ross A McKinnon, John O Miners
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 1, 2, and 3 enzymes play an essential role in the metabolic clearance and detoxification of a myriad of structurally and chemically diverse drugs and non-drug xenobiotics. The individual CYP enzymes exhibit distinct substrate and inhibitor selectivities, and hence differing patterns of inhibitory drug-drug interactions. In addition, CYP enzymes differ in terms of regulation of expression, genetic polymorphism, and environmental factors that alter activity. The availability of three-dimensional structures from X-ray crystallography have been invaluable for understanding the structural basis of the ligand selectivity of CYP enzymes...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
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