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Chemosphere

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544901/alkaline-electrochemical-advanced-oxidation-process-for-chromium-oxidation-at-graphitized-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#1
Yudong Xue, Shili Zheng, Zhi Sun, Yi Zhang, Wei Jin
Alkaline electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for chromium oxidation and Cr-contaminated waste disposal were reported in this study. The highly graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes g-MWCNTs modified electrode was prepared for the in-situ electrochemical generation of HO2(-). RRDE test results illustrated that g-MWCNTs exhibited much higher two-electron oxygen reduction activity than other nanocarbon materials with peak current density of 1.24 mA cm(-2), %HO2(-) of 77.0% and onset potential of -0...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535483/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-a-retinoid-x-receptor-orthologue-in-platynereis-dumerilii-an-evolutionary-and-toxicological-perspective
#2
Ana André, Raquel Ruivo, Ana Capitão, Elsa Froufe, Inês Páscoa, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Miguel Machado Santos
In the present work we provide the first isolation and functional characterization of a RXR orthologue in an annelid species, the Platynereis dumerilii. Using an in vitro luciferase reporter assay we evaluated the annelid receptor ability to respond to ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid, TBT and TPT. Our results show that the annelid RXR responds to 9-cis-retinoic acid and to the organotins by activating reporter gene transcription. The findings suggest a conserved mode of action of the receptor in response to a common signaling molecule and modulation by organotin compounds between vertebrates and Lophotrochozoans...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535463/atmospheric-concentrations-distributions-and-air-soil-exchange-tendencies-of-pahs-and-pcbs-in-a-heavily-industrialized-area-in-kocaeli-turkey
#3
Banu Cetin, Sema Yurdakul, Melek Keles, Isil Celik, Fatma Ozturk, Cevdet Dogan
Dilovasi is one of the heavily industrialized areas in Turkey with serious environmental problems. In this study, the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and PCBs were measured for a whole year at 23 sites. The average ambient air Σ15PAH and Σ41PCB concentrations were found as 285 ± 431 ng m(-3) and 4152 ± 6072 pg m(-3), respectively. PAH concentrations increased with decreasing temperature especially in urban areas, indicating the impact of residential heating. However, PCB concentrations mostly increased with temperature probably due to enhanced volatilization from their sources...
May 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544902/extraction-and-applications-of-cyanotoxins-and-other-cyanobacterial-secondary-metabolites
#4
REVIEW
Fatima Haque, Sara Banayan, Josephine Yee, Yi Wai Chiang
The rapid proliferation of cyanobacteria in bodies of water has caused cyanobacterial blooms, which have become an increasing cause of concern, largely due to the presence of toxic secondary metabolites (or cyanotoxins). Cyanotoxins are the toxins produced by cyanobacteria that may be harmful to surrounding wildlife. They include hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatotoxins, and are classified based on the organs they affect. There are also non-toxic secondary metabolites that include chelators and UV-absorbing compounds...
May 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535462/pharmaceutical-substances-in-ambient-particulates-a-preliminary-assessment
#5
Angelo Cecinato, Paola Romagnoli, Mattia Perilli, Catia Balducci
Till now, no attention has been paid to pharmaceuticals (PCs) in the air, though they are known to affect waters, soils, foods and biota. This paper describes the first attempt to characterize the PC occurrence in the air. Airborne particulates (PM10 or PM2.5 fractions, from Amsterdam, Netherland, Rome and Rende, Italy) were sampled on quartz fiber filter by means of pumping systems operating at medium-volume conditions (16 or 38.5 L min(-1)). The samples were solvent extracted through sonication with a dichloromethane:acetone:methanol mixture and reduced close to dryness; three fractions of the residue were separated through column chromatography; they comprised non polar, low polar and very polar organic compounds, respectively, and PCs were in the third one...
May 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544898/aerosol-and-snow-transfer-processes-an-investigation-on-the-behavior-of-water-soluble-organic-compounds-and-ionic-species
#6
Elena Barbaro, Roberta Zangrando, Sara Padoan, Ornela Karroca, Giuseppa Toscano, Warren R L Cairns, Carlo Barbante, Andrea Gambaro
The concentrations of water-soluble compounds (ions, carboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars, phenolic compounds) in aerosol and snow have been determined at the coastal Italian base "Mario Zucchelli" (Antarctica) during the 2014-2015 austral summer. The main aim of this research was to investigate the air-snow transfer processes of a number of classes of chemical compounds and investigate their potential as tracers for specific sources. The composition and particle size distribution of Antarctic aerosol was measured, and water-soluble compounds accounted for 66% of the PM10 total mass concentration...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544897/size-resolved-aerosol-water-soluble-ions-during-the-summer-and-winter-seasons-in-beijing-formation-mechanisms-of-secondary-inorganic-aerosols
#7
Zirui Liu, Yuzhu Xie, Bo Hu, Tianxue Wen, Jinyuan Xin, Xingru Li, Yuesi Wang
Size-segregated water-soluble ionic species (WSIs) were measured using an Anderson cascade impactor from Jul. to Aug. 2008 and from Dec. 2009 to Feb. 2010 in urban Beijing. The results showed that fine particles (PM2.1, Dp < 2.1 μm) accounted for ∼49% (summer) and ∼34% (winter) of the total particulate mass, and WSIs accounted for 23-82% of the mass concentration of PM2.1. Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs, the sum of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) accounted for more than 30% of the fine particles, which were greatly elevated during particle pollution events (PM events), thereby leading to an alteration of the size distributions of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) to nearly single fine-mode distributions peaking at 0...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531558/accumulation-translocation-and-conversion-of-six-arsenic-species-in-rice-plants-grown-near-a-mine-impacted-city
#8
Li Ma, Lin Wang, Yuyu Jia, Zhaoguang Yang
Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) as the staple food in China was found to be efficient in accumulating arsenic (As) due to cultivated in flooded paddy soil. Uptake and translocation of As in rice plant depended on the As species. In this work, rice plant samples including roots, straws and grains as well as rhizosphere soils were collected from paddy fields near Changsha, a mine impacted city in Southern China. The total As concentrations in the collected samples were observed in the descending order as root > soil > straw > grain...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527917/spatial-distribution-of-vanadium-and-microbial-community-responses-in-surface-soil-of-panzhihua-mining-and-smelting-area-china
#9
Xuelong Cao, Muhe Diao, Baogang Zhang, Hui Liu, Song Wang, Meng Yang
Spatial distribution of vanadium in surface soils from different processing stages of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite in Panzhihua mining and smelting area (China) as well as responses of microbial communities including bacteria and fungi to vanadium were investigated by fieldwork and laboratory incubation experiment. The vanadium contents in this region ranged from 149.3 to 4793.6 mg kg(-1), exceeding the soil background value of vanadium in China (82 mg kg(-1)) largely. High-throughput DNA sequencing results showed bacterial communities from different manufacturing locations were quite diverse, but Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were abundant in all samples...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545000/occurrence-and-effects-of-plastic-additives-on-marine-environments-and-organisms-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Ludovic Hermabessiere, Alexandre Dehaut, Ika Paul-Pont, Camille Lacroix, Ronan Jezequel, Philippe Soudant, Guillaume Duflos
Plastics debris, especially microplastics, have been found worldwide in all marine compartments. Much research has been carried out on adsorbed pollutants on plastic pieces and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) associated with microplastics. However, only a few studies have focused on plastic additives. These chemicals are incorporated into plastics from which they can leach out as most of them are not chemically bound. As a consequence of plastic accumulation and fragmentation in oceans, plastic additives could represent an increasing ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538167/understanding-the-bioavailability-and-sequestration-of-different-metal-cations-in-the-presence-of-a-biodegradable-chelant-mgda-in-biological-fluids-and-natural-waters
#11
Clemente Bretti, Rosalia Maria Cigala, Concetta De Stefano, Gabriele Lando, Silvio Sammartano
Thermodynamic information about the metal-ligand interaction between Fe(3+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Sn(2+), and a biodegradable ligand as MGDA is reported. The speciation scheme was obtained by means of potentiometric measurements and isothermal titration calorimetry (to determine enthalpy changes) in NaCl medium. The formation of the ML and MLOH species was evidenced for all the metal cations, and for Fe(3+) also the ML2 and ML(OH)2 were found. The relative stability, for the ML species, follows the order: Sn(2+) > Fe(3+) > Cu(2+) > Zn(2+)...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535485/quantification-of-residual-antibiotics-in-cow-manure-being-spread-over-agricultural-land-and-assessment-of-their-behavioral-effects-on-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#12
Ji-Ran Yeom, Soon-Uk Yoon, Chang-Gyun Kim
Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in livestock manure used as fertilizer and spread over agriculture land, may pose a threat to the health of humans. Considering this, the concentrations of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and sulfathiazole (STZ) in the surface soil were quantified using LC-MS. These antibiotics have been used in livestock and are found in fertilizer produced from livestock excretions. Species of ABR were identified using 16S rDNA. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0, 7, and 15 cm from farmland in Incheon (South Korea)...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535484/biomonitoring-of-genotoxicity-of-industrial-fertilizer-pollutants-in-aiolopus-thalassinus-orthoptera-acrididae-using-alkaline-comet-assay
#13
Eman A Abdelfattah, Maria Augustyniak, Hesham A Yousef
Phosphate fertilizer industry is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollutants. Besides solid waste products, e.g. phosphates, sulphates, and heavy metals, also atmospheric pollutants, such as hydrofluoric acid fumes (HF), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and particulate matter with diameter up to 10 μm (PM10) can be dangerous. Genotoxic effect of these pollutants was monitored by assessing the DNA damage using alkaline comet assay on cells from brain, thoracic muscles and gut of Aiolopus thalassinus collected at three sites (A-C) located at 1, 3, and 6 km away from Abu-Zaabal Company for Fertilizers and Chemical Industries...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531839/genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-atrazine-atanor-50-sc-on-dendropsophus-minutus-peters-1872-anura-hylidae-developmental-larval-stages
#14
Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Calebe Bertolino Marins de Campos, Vinícius Guerra Batista, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Paulo de Marco Junior, Rogério Pereira Bastos, Daniela de Melo E Silva
The potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine were investigated in different developmental stages of Dendropsophus minutus tadpoles. These animals were exposed to 4 nominal concentrations of atrazine (2.25, 4.5, 9, and 18 mg/L) and 40 mg/L of Cyclophosphamide as a positive control, for 96 h. Negative controls were also added to the experiment. The tadpoles were divided into three groups according to Gosner's developmental stages, namely GS 25-33 as premetamorphic, GS 36-39 as prometamorphic, and GS 42-43 as metamorphic climax...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531555/microbial-detoxification-of-carvedilol-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-antagonist-by-the-filamentous-fungus-cunninghamella-echinulata
#15
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Katarzyna Lisowska
Beta adrenergic antagonists like carvedilol are typical environmental pollutants detected in wastewater and surface water. Human metabolism of carvedilol is well investigated, while its environmental fates are still unknown. In recent years, there have been appearing reports on high toxicity of β-blockers toward aquatic organisms. In this paper the ability of the filamentous fungus C. echinulata to eliminate the β-blocker has been described for the first time. An 83% loss of carvedilol was observed after 120 h incubation of the tested fungus with the compound, where hydroxylated carvedilol metabolites were identified as the major biotransformation products...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528313/changes-in-nutrient-removal-and-flocs-characteristics-generated-by-presence-of-zno-nanoparticles-in-activated-sludge-process
#16
Pabel Cervantes-Avilés, Germán Cuevas-Rodríguez
The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact generated by ZnO NPs on the activated sludge process treating raw (RWW) and filtered wastewater (FWW). It was analyzed the oxygen uptake rate, nutrient removal, flocs characteristics and the morphological interactions between activated sludge and ZnO NPs, in presence of 450-2000 mg/L. The results showed that the presence of more than 450 mg/L of ZnO NPs in raw and filtered wastewater inhibited the oxygen uptake by activated sludge. The highest inhibition was 35% in presence of 1500 mg/L in RWW...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525870/effective-swine-wastewater-treatment-by-combining-microbial-fuel-cells-with-flocculation
#17
Weijun Ding, Shaoan Cheng, Liliang Yu, Haobin Huang
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) provide a cost-effective method for treating swine wastewater treatment and simultaneously producing electricity, yet they need to be combined with other wastewater treatment processes to improve the effluent water quality. In this paper, we constructed single-chamber air-cathode MFCs with a compact configuration for nitrogen and COD removal and high electricity production and combined them with a low-cost flocculation process to discharge higher quality wastewater. We show that MFCs could remove ammonia at a rate of 269...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531838/antimicrobial-agents-triclosan-chloroxylenol-methylisothiazolinone-and-borax-used-in-cleaning-had-genotoxic-and-histopathologic-effects-on-rainbow-trout
#18
Erol Capkin, Tuna Ozcelep, Sevki Kayis, Ilhan Altinok
Triclosan (TRC), chloroxylenol (PCMX) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT) have been commonly used as an antimicrobial in soaps while borax (BRX) is used in household cleaning. After using these chemicals, they are washed down drains and getting into the aquatic ecosystem in which they may affect aquatic living organisms. In the present study, the chronic effects of TRC, PCMX, MIT and BRX on genotoxicity, gene expression and histopathology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were evaluated for 40 days under semi static condition...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528315/bisphenol-a-and-replacements-in-thermal-paper-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Maria K Björnsdotter, Jacob de Boer, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez
Thermal paper contains potentially toxic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), which is used as a color developer. BPA has been reported in thermal paper in concentrations up to 42,600 μg g(-1). The exposure to BPA via dermal transfer has been recently discussed as a significant contribution to the overall human exposure and the estimated daily intake (EDI) has been reported up to 218 μg d(-1). BPA has been also detected in recycled paper with concentrations up to 46 μg g(-1). Due to the fact that BPA is a known endocrine disruptor and migrates from materials, regulatory restrictions have been established to prevent risks for the human health...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528312/low-sensitivity-of-reproductive-life-stages-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-to-abamectin
#20
Laura J Falkenberg, Anna-Lisa Wrange, Alexandra Kinnby, Jon N Havenhand, Antony Lockyer, Craig A Styan
Hard surfaces submerged in the marine environment often become colonised by macro-organisms unless the surfaces have some form of biofouling protection. While protective paints that contain tributyltin or copper work well to prevent biofouling, release of these materials into the environment has been shown to have wider negative impacts. Consequently, new low-release antifouling paints are being developed with alternative active ingredients, such as avermectins, yet little is known about their potential effects on non-target organisms in marine environments...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
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