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Nannan Wang, Qiang Zhao, Han Xu, Wanyu Niu, Liang Ma, Dongcheng Lan, Linlin Hao
Raw coal fly ash (RCFA) was used directly as adsorbent to treat coking wastewater. The results show that the RCFA can introduce COD (14, 4, and 11 mg L-1 at pH = 1.0, 7.0, and 14.0, respectively) into water due to the dissolution of reductive components from RCFA, this can be avoided by washing (6 times) using distilled water. The concentration of leached metal elements in wastewater is lower than the standard in GB18918-2002, China. The adsorption process accords with the pseudo-second order adsorption kinetic model and Langmuir thermodynamics model better than other ones, and it belongs to a physical and exothermic process...
July 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Salatiel W da Silva, Emma M O Navarro, Marco A S Rodrigues, Andréa M Bernardes, Valentín Pérez-Herranz
The roles of the anode material, boron-doped diamond (BDD), with different boron (B) and substrate Silicon (Si) or Niobium (Nb) content, and one dimensionally stable anode (DSA® ), were evaluated in the oxidation of norfloxacin (NOR) by electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP). The effect of other components in real wastewater on the performance of EAOP was also studied. The anode materials were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, regarding diamond quality, electro-generation of oxidants and NOR oxidation mechanism (direct and/or indirect)...
July 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Rui Chen, Zhenyang Yu, Daqiang Yin
Influences on lipid metabolism and multi-generational obesogenic effects raised new concerns on lipophilic pollutants (e.g., lindane). Yet, the mechanisms remained unanswered. The present study exposed Caenorhabditis elegans to lindane for 4 consecutive generations (F0 to F3) at 1.0 ng/L, and measured effects in the directly exposed generations (F0 to F3), indirectly exposed ones (T1 and T1') and un-exposed ones (T3 and T3'). Lindane stimulated fat storages in all generations. At the biochemical level, lindane stimulated both acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl-transferases (CPT) in F0, T1 and T2, while inhibited them in F3, T1' and T3', demonstrating the balance between fatty acid synthesis and its depletion toward fat accumulation over generations...
July 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiao H Wang, Shan S Zheng, Tao Huang, Li M Su, Yuan H Zhao, Christopher L Souders, Christopher J Martyniuk
Fluazinam is a pyridinamine fungicide that induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in cells, and it has been reported to be neurotoxic. To characterize the biological effects of fluazinam, we assessed mitochondrial bioenergetics, dopamine system expression, and behavior of early life staged zebrafish (0.01 μM-0.5 μM). Fluazinam at environmentally-relevant levels did not induce sub-lethal effects in larvae, but at the LC50 (0.5 μM), fluazinam decreased basal and ATP-linked respiration significantly in embryos...
July 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Supratik Kar, Shinjita Ghosh, Jerzy Leszczynski
Halogenated chemicals including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) represent an emerging class of endocrine-disrupting pollutants for human populations across the globe. Distress related to their environmental fate and toxicity has initiated several research projects, but the amount of experimental data available for these pollutants is limited. The objective of this study is to assess the toxicity of potentially "safer" alternatives, in relation to their existing counterparts. Developmental toxicity data on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos of single and tertiary halogenated mixtures were modeled employing quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) tool...
July 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Ying Ying Chen, King Ming Chan
Trace metal ions such as cadmium (Cd2+ ) and trace organics typified by 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are common co-contaminants in the environment and cause toxic effects in aquatic organisms that pose serious health risks. We studied the effects of Cd2+ on the regulation of cytochrome P450 1A1 (cyp1a1) gene-induction by TCDD using zebrafish embryos and larvae and adult zebrafish tissues. Our results showed that TCDD induced the cyp1a1 gene in all developmental stages and tissues of zebrafish, and the induction was higher in females than males...
July 12, 2018: Chemosphere
M Mora, J Lafuente, D Gabriel
Effluents containing great amounts of oxidized sulfur compounds, such as sulfate or sulfite, can be valorized as elemental sulfur from a sequential reduction-oxidation biological process. However, the most important, challenging step to be optimized is the reduction of sulfate. The present study aimed at seeking out the optimal conditions to promote sulfidogenesis instead of methanogenesis using waste carbon sources and a methanogenic granular sludge. Crude glycerol showed better results in terms of the consumed COD/S-Sulfate ratio compared with acetate, cheese whey, pig slurry, and vinasse...
July 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Luchuan Chen, Chaojun Lei, Zhongjian Li, Bin Yang, Xingwang Zhang, Lecheng Lei
Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) based on hydroxyl radicals (OH) have some limitations when they are applied to real wastewater treatment, such like strict requirements on pH (acidic electrolyte) and high energy consumption. Compared to OH, Sulfate radicals (SO4 - ) have high redox potential in wider range of pH (2-9). In this study, SO4 - were efficiently produced by electrochemical activation of SO4 2- at boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. The degradation rate of 2,4-DCP (k = 0.828 ± 0...
July 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Peta A Neale, Frederic D L Leusch, Beate I Escher
In vitro bioassays are increasingly applied for water quality monitoring, with assays indicative of adaptive stress responses commonly included in test batteries. The NF-κB assay is responsive to surface water and wastewater extracts, but the causative compounds are unknown and micropollutants typically found in water do not activate the NF-κB assay. The current study aimed to investigate if co-extracted organic matter and/or endotoxins could cause the NF-κB response in surface water extracts. The effect of model bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated in the NF-κB assay both before and after solid-phase extraction (SPE), with 7% effect recovery for LPS and between 7 and 52% effect recovery for DOC observed...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Stavros Raptis, Dionisios Gasparatos, Maria Economou-Eliopoulos, Anastasios Petridis
Toxic chromium [(Cr(VI)] in food chain has created an alarming situation for human life and ecosystems. The present study through a greenhouse pot experiment aims to (a) investigate the ability of organic matter in reducing Cr uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from a sandy loam soil irrigating with Cr(VI)-water, (b) to provide a way for the restriction of Cr transfer from contaminated soils and irrigation water to plants/crops and (c) to contribute to the better management of soil (land) and water use, without reduction of the agricultural production...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Tirto Soenaryo, Shizuaki Murata, Anatoly Zinchenko
Contamination of soil by engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is an emergent environmental problem that urges the development of robust treatment protocols to prevent ENM transport through soil. We developed a method for efficient entrapment and retention of ENM in solid porous media of quartz sand with grain size of 300-500 μm used as a simple model of soil and studied the transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, silica and gold nanoparticles through the sand-packed column by UV-vis and fluorescent spectroscopy...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Sara Bonetta, Cristina Pignata, Silvia Bonetta, Lorenza Meucci, Donatella Giacosa, Elena Marino, Ilaria Gorrasi, Giorgio Gilli, Elisabetta Carraro
Disinfection of hot water systems is critical for reducing Legionnaires' disease in high-risk buildings. The use of neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEOW) is a promising method for the control of microorganisms in hot water systems. However, full-scale evaluations of the efficacy of NEOW devices to control Legionella pneumophila are currently lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a NEOW device in reducing L. pneumophila in a hotel water network. Water samples (n = 67) were collected from different sites of a hotel distribution system before and after the installation of the NEOW device at the 1st, 4th, 8th and 12th week...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Ana Letícia Madeira Sanches, Michiel Adriaan Daam, Emanuela Cristina Freitas, Aline Andrade Godoy, Gabriela Meireles, Ana Rita Almeida, Inês Domingues, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espíndola
In recent years, the need for the development of alternative test methods for the conventional acute fish toxicity test (AFT) with adult fish has often been discussed. In addition, concerns have been raised on the potential risks related with environmentally realistic pesticide mixtures since risk evaluations have traditionally been based on individual pesticides. The insecticide/acaricide abamectin and the fungicide difenoconazole are the main pesticides that are intensively used in Brazilian strawberry crop and are hence likely to occur simultaneously in edge-of-field waterbodies...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Peijing Kuang, Keisuke Natsui, Yasuaki Einaga
The electrochemical nitrate reduction by using boron-doped diamond (BDD) and copper (Cu) electrodes was investigated at various potentials. Product selectivity of nitrate reduction was strongly dependent on the applied potential for both electrodes. The highest selectivity of nitrogen gas production was obtained at -2.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) by using a BDD electrode with a faradaic efficiency as high as 45.2%. Compared with Cu electrode, nitrate reduction on BDD electrode occurred at more positive potential, and the production of nitrogen gas was larger...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Zaid Q Ababneh, Anas M Ababneh, Fahad I Almasoud, Sultan Alsagabi, Yousef J Alanazi, Ahmad A Aljulaymi, Khaled M Aljarrah
This study aims to assess the committed effective dose due to the intake of 210 Po from the consumption of fish in Arabian Gulf countries. Twenty different kinds of fish, which represent the most common fish species consumed in the Arabian Gulf countries, were analyzed using alpha spectrometer technique. 210 Po activity concentrations in fish samples were found to vary over a wide range from 0.1 to 14.7 Bq kg-1 fresh weight. This variation of 210 Po concentrations between various type of fish samples might be attributed to the feeding type pattern and the size of fish...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Han Chen, Tao Lin, Wei Chen
In this study, the combined toxicity of UV/chlorinated products on Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated when ibuprofen (IBP) and tyrosine (Tyr) were used as two precursors. The median-effect equation and combined index (CI)-isobologram equation were used to evaluate the combined toxicity of UV/chlorinated products. Results revealed that the UV/chlorinated products originated from binary Tyr and IBP showed a synergism in toxicity on Escherichia coli at low concentration level while it turned into a clear antagonism effect above a fa value of 0...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Anamika Das, Jabez W Osborne
Lead (Pb) is reported to have negative effects on the biogeochemical behaviour of the plant growth. In recent years, the significance of rhizoremediation of heavy metals has been of great focus aiding in the development rates of plants under stressed conditions. The present study evaluated the physio-biochemical response of Pennisetum purpureum to different concentrations of Pb (II) viz., 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg kg-1 in the form of lead (II) nitrate. The pre-characterized PGPR strain, Enterobacter cloacae - KU598849 was used to augment the plants...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Yuting Chen, Na Zhu, Yuyi Luo, Keqi Hu, Yungang Liu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a group of persistent organic pollutants are confirmed human carcinogens; however, their mutagenicity remains mostly unknown. We have reported the mutagenicity of some PCBs with one to four chlorines in mammalian cells expressing human CYP2E1. To further explore the structural requirements for the mutagenicity of PCBs, eight tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls untested before were investigated for the induction of gene mutations and micronuclei in a V79-derived cell line expressing both human CYP2E1 and sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1 (V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1), with SULT1A1 activity inhibited by pentachlorophenol, a potent SULT1 inhibitor...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Margarita Jiménez-Tototzintle, Izabel Jales Ferreira, Sheila da Silva Duque, Paulo Rubens Guimarães Barrocas, Enrico Mendes Saggioro
The dispersion of pollutants and proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the aquatic environment are an emerging health concern worldwide. In this sense, it is essential to develop new technologies to increase the quality of wastewater treatment, which is spread throughout the environment. The present study has demonstrated evidence of the existence of antibiotic and mercury-resistant bacteria in the aquatic environment. The application of heterogeneous photocatalysis with UVA/TiO2 P25 slurry (200 mg L-1 ), UVA/TiO2 -immobilized, and UVA/TiO2 -immobilized/H2 O2 were evaluated for the simultaneous elimination of a mixture of contaminants of emerging concern (acetamiprid (ACP), imazalil (IMZ) and bisphenol A (BPA)) and inactivation of antibiotic and mercury-resistant bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis)...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Sunayana Goswami, Suchismita Das
Copper (Cu) pollution in aquaculture ponds poses substantial ecological threats. Most phytoremediation studies deal with the efforts of removing Cu from water, but seldom, such endeavors are validated by suitable bioassays. The present study undertook a two-pronged effort to remediate Cu by phytoextraction with an aquatic macrophyte, Eichhornia crassipes, and establish the efficacy of such endeavors by Clarias batrachus bioassay. For phytoextraction trials, E. crassipes was exposed to Cu concentration 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 in Hoagland solution for 21 days...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
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