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Chemosphere

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810222/bio-electro-oxidation-of-indigo-carmine-by-using-microporous-activated-carbon-fiber-felt-as-anode-and-bioreactor-support
#1
Luane Ferreira Garcia, Ana Claudia Rodrigues Siqueira, Germán Sanz Lobón, Jossano Saldanha Marcuzzo, Benevides Costa Pessela, Eduardo Mendez, Telma Alves Garcia, Eric de Souza Gil
The bioremediation and electro-oxidation (EO) processes are included among the most promising cleaning and decontamination mechanisms of water. The efficiency of bioremediation is dictated by the biological actuator for a specific substrate, its suitable immobilization and all involved biochemical concepts. The EO performance is defined by the anode efficiency to perform the complete mineralization of target compounds and is highlighted by the low or null use of reagent. Recently, the combination of both technologies has been proposed...
August 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810225/critical-evaluation-of-distillation-procedure-for-the-determination-of-methylmercury-in-soil-samples
#2
Pablo A Perez, Holger Hintelman, Waldo Quiroz, Manuel A Bravo
In the present work, the efficiency of distillation process for extracting monomethylmercury (MMHg) from soil samples was studied and optimized using an experimental design methodology. The influence of soil composition on MMHg extraction was evaluated by testing of four soil samples with different geochemical characteristics. Optimization suggested that the acid concentration and the duration of the distillation process were most significant and the most favorable conditions, established as a compromise for the studied soils, were determined to be a 70 min distillation using an 0...
August 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806677/influence-of-the-residue-from-an-iron-mining-dam-in-the-growth-of-two-macrophyte-species
#3
F Bottino, J A M Milan, M B Cunha-Santino, I Bianchini
On November 5th, 2015 the worst environmental disaster in Brazil spilled 60 million m(3) of iron mining residue into Gualaxo do Norte River (Minas Gerais State), an affluent of the highest River Basin of the Brazilian Southeast (Doce River Basin), reaching the Atlantic Ocean. To assess the impact of the iron residue on the aquatic plant metabolism, we performed macrophyte growth experiments under controlled light and temperature conditions using two species (Egeria densa and Chara sp.). The plants' growth data were fitted in a kinetic model to obtain the biomass yields (K) and growth rates (μ)...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806675/biotransformation-of-nsaids-by-pig-liver-microsomes-in%C3%A2-vitro-kinetics-metabolites-identification-and-toxicity-prediction
#4
Liyun Ma, Xiaojing Mao, Xiao Sun, Li Xu
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently used pharmaceuticals in animals. In the current study, the biotransformation of five NSAIDs by pig liver microsomes (PLMs) was studied. The pseudo-first-order kinetics mode was obtained for the metabolization of the studied NSAIDs by PLMs in vitro. The metabolites were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with a high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The hydroxylation of benzene was confirmed to be the dominating metabolic pathway...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810223/effects-of-an-allelochemical-in-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-filtrate-on-heterosigma-akashiwo-morphological-physiological-and-growth-effects
#5
Rui Wang, Qiaona Xue, Jiangtao Wang, Liju Tan, Qingchun Zhang, Yue Zhao, Donald M Anderson
The effects of an allelochemical extracted from the culture filtrate of diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo were investigated using a series of morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Growth experiments showed that H. akashiwo was significantly inhibited immediately after exposure to the allelochemical, with many cells rapidly dying and lysing based on microscopic observation. The effects of the allelochemical on the surviving cells were explored using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Flow cytometry (FCM), the latter by examination of a suite of physiological parameters (membrane integrity, esterase activity, chlorophyll-a content, membrane potential)...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810221/new-naphthalene-whole-cell-bioreporter-for-measuring-and-assessing-naphthalene-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-contaminated-site
#6
Yujiao Sun, Xiaohui Zhao, Dayi Zhang, Aizhong Ding, Cheng Chen, Wei E Huang, Huichun Zhang
A new naphthalene bioreporter was designed and constructed in this work. A new vector, pWH1274_Nah, was constructed by the Gibson isothermal assembly fused with a 9 kb naphthalene-degrading gene nahAD (nahAa nahAb nahAc nahAd nahB nahF nahC nahQ nahE nahD) and cloned into Acinetobacter ADPWH_lux as the host, capable of responding to salicylate (the central metabolite of naphthalene). The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter could effectively metabolize naphthalene and evaluate the naphthalene in natural water and soil samples...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806680/sequestration-of-aluminium-iii-by-different-natural-and-synthetic-organic-and-inorganic-ligands-in-aqueous-solution
#7
Paola Cardiano, Rosalia Maria Cigala, Francesco Crea, Fausta Giacobello, Ottavia Giuffrè, Anna Irto, Gabriele Lando, Silvio Sammartano
The speciation of Al(3+) in aqueous solutions containing organic and inorganic ligands important from a biological (citrate (Cit(3-)), gluconate (Gluc(-)), lactate (Lac(-)), silicate (H2SiO4(2-)), carbonate (CO3(2-)), fluoride (F(-))) and industrial (Gantrez(®); polymethyl-vinyl-ether-co-maleic acids; GTZ S95 and GTZ AN169) point of view is reported. The stability constants of Al(3+)/L(z-) complexes (L(z-) = ligand with z(-) charge) were determined by potentiometry at T = 298.15 K and 0.10 ≤ I/M ≤ 1...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806678/the-sorptive-and-reductive-capacities-of-biochar-supported-nanoscaled-zero-valent-iron-nzvi-in-relation-to-its-crystallite-size
#8
Shengsen Wang, Yanxia Zhou, Bin Gao, Xiaozhi Wang, Xianqiang Yin, Ke Feng, Jun Wang
In this work, nZVI was immobilized by bamboo derived biochars (nZVI/BB), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (nZVI/PBB) and nitric acid (HNO3) (nZVI/HBB) modified BB. H2O2 and HNO3 deceased surface area and pore volume of pristine biochars. Total iron (Fe) contents were 16.50, 24.40, and 13.08% for nZVI/BB, nZVI/PBB and nZVI/HBB, respectively. The X-ray diffraction revealed that nZVI in biochar matrix was dominantly metallic Fe coated with Fe oxides. The transmission electron microscopy indicated nZVI particle sizes were 41...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806674/cadmium-induces-histopathological-injuries-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-liver-of-freshwater-turtle-chinemys-reevesii
#9
Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Yonghui Wang, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, Lan Wang
The study investigated the histopathological and ultrastructural lesions of liver of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii exposed to Cadmium (Cd). The animals were exposed to 0 mg kg(-1) (0.85% normal saline (NS)), 7.5 mg kg(-1), 15 mg kg(-1), 30 mg kg(-1) Cd chloride separately by intraperitoneal injection. Liver samples were collected for examination of lesions under light and electronic microscopes. Results showed that liver tissues from Cd -treated animals presented various degrees of histopathological lesions...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802977/adsorption-and-coadsorption-mechanisms-of-cr-vi-and-organic-contaminants-on-h3po4-treated-biochar
#10
Nan Zhao, Chuanfang Zhao, Yizhong Lv, Weifang Zhang, Yuguo Du, Zhengping Hao, Jing Zhang
The study of simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic contaminants has practical applications due to the coexistence of complex pollutants in the wastewater or soil. In this work, biochar was prepared to study the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), naphthalene (NAP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the single or mixed systems. H3PO4-treated biochar presented a much higher adsorption capacity of the pollutants than the untreated biochar and also showed a high resistance to coexisting salts. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cr(VI) and BPA were 116...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802132/importance-of-intra-and-interspecific-plant-interactions-for-the-phytomanagement-of-semiarid-mine-tailings-using-the-tree-species-pinus-halepensis
#11
Duli Martinez-Oró, Isabel Parraga-Aguado, Jose Ignacio Querejeta, Héctor M Conesa
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of plant interactions (intra- and interspecific) on the growth and metal(loid) uptake of the tree species Pinus halepensis to determine its suitability for the phytomanagement of semiarid mine tailings. The pioneer tailings colonizer grass Piptatherum miliaceum was selected for assessing interspecific interactions. The experiment was conducted following a pot experimental design employing mine tailings soil. Pots containing single individuals of P. halepensis or P...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806672/a-novel-approach-for-rapidly-and-cost-effectively-assessing-toxicity-of-toxic-metals-in-acidic-water-using-an-acidophilic-iron-oxidizing-biosensor
#12
Shih-Hung Yang, Kuo-Chih Cheng, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
Contamination by heavy metals and metalloids is a serious environmental and health concern. Acidic wastewaters are often associated with toxic metals which may enter and spread into agricultural soils. Several biological assays have been developed to detect toxic metals; however, most of them can only detect toxic metals in a neutral pH, not in an acidic environment. In this study, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (IOB) Strain Y10 was isolated, characterized, and used to detect toxic metals toxicity in acidic water at pH 2...
August 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802978/gas-phase-hydration-of-glyoxylic-acid-kinetics-and-atmospheric-implications
#13
Ling Liu, Xiuhui Zhang, Zesheng Li, Yunhong Zhang, Maofa Ge
Oxocarboxylic acids are one of the most important organic species found in secondary organic aerosols and can be detected in diverse environments. But the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere has still not been fully understood. Neglecting the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in atmospheric models may be one of the most important reasons for the significant discrepancies between field measurements and abundance predictions of atmospheric models for oxocarboxylic acids. In the present paper, glyoxylic acid, as the most abundant oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, has been selected as an example to study whether the hydration process can occur in the atmosphere and what the kinetic process of hydration is...
August 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806681/human-biomonitoring-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbonsand-metals-in-the-general-population-residing-near-the-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator-of-modena-italy
#14
Maria Giulia Gatti, Petra Bechtold, Laura Campo, Giovanna Barbieri, Giulia Quattrini, Andrea Ranzi, Sabrina Sucato, Luca Olgiati, Elisa Polledri, Michael Romolo, Laura Iacuzio, Giuliano Carrozzi, Paolo Lauriola, Carlo A Goldoni, Silvia Fustinoni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A cross-sectional biomonitoring study was carried out to investigate exposure to incinerator emission in relation to the body burden of selected biomarkers in the population living around the plant. METHODS: Approximately 500 people, aged 18-69 yrs, living within 4 km from the incinerator were randomly selected form the population register. Exposure was measured through fall-out maps of particulate matter (PM), used as tracer for incinerator emissions...
August 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800536/fate-of-metals-before-and-after-chemical-extraction-of-incinerated-sewage-sludge-ash
#15
Jiang-Shan Li, Daniel C W Tsang, Qi-Ming Wang, Le Fang, Qiang Xue, Chi Sun Poon
Chemical extraction of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) can effectively recycle P, but it may change the speciation and mobility of the remaining metals. This study investigated the changes of the leaching potential and distribution of metals in the chemically extracted ISSA. Batch extraction experiments with different extractants, including inorganic acids, organic acids, and chelating agents, were conducted on the ISSA collected from a local sewage sludge incinerator. The extraction of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Ba, Cr and As from the ISSA and the corresponding changes of the mobility and speciation were examined...
August 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806676/occurrence-and-air-soil-exchange-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-at-a-cawnet-background-site-in-central-china-implications-for-influencing-factors-and-fate
#16
Lingxi Zhan, Tian Lin, Zuwu Wang, Zhineng Cheng, Gan Zhang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng
Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m(3) in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806671/characterization-and-health-risk-assessment-of-pm2-5-bound-organics-inside-and-outside-of-chinese-smoking-lounges
#17
Lijuan Li, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Judith C Chow, John G Watson, Frank S C Lee, Long Cui, Yuan Gao, Wenting Dai, Kin Fai Ho, Yu Huang, Junji Cao
PM2.5 samples were collected at six indoor public places that contained dedicated smoking lounges. Samples were taken in the smoking lounges, at two indoor locations outside of the lounges, and in outdoor air near the venues. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes (n-C16 to n-C40), iso/anteiso-alkanes (C29 to C33), hopanes and phthalate esters (PAEs) were quantified. Average PM2.5 levels of 170.2 ± 85.9 μg/m(3) in the lounges exceeded limits of 25 μg/m(3) set by World Health Organization (WHO); these levels were 5...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802129/interactions-of-two-novel-stabilizing-amendments-with-sunflower-plants-grown-in-a-contaminated-soil
#18
Zuzana Michálková, Domingo Martínez-Fernández, Michael Komárek
Several efficient stabilizing amendments have been recently proposed for the remediation of metal(loid)-contaminated soils. However, information on their interactions with plants, which is a crucial factor in soil environments, are still scarce. An amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) synthesized from organic compounds and nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) have been previously tested as promising stabilizing agents usable both for the stabilization of metals and As. Experiments with rhizoboxes were performed in order to evaluate their influence on the mobility of metal(loid)s in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800535/computational-investigation-of-the-nitrosation-mechanism-of-piperazine-in-co2-capture
#19
Qi Yu, Pan Wang, Fangfang Ma, Hong-Bin Xie, Ning He, Jingwen Chen
Quantum chemistry calculations and kinetic modeling were performed to investigate the nitrosation mechanism and kinetics of diamine piperazine (PZ), an alternative solvent for widely used monoethanolamine in postcombustion CO2 capture (PCCC), by two typical nitrosating agents, NO2(-) and N2O3, in the presence of CO2. Various PZ species and nitrosating agents formed by the reactions of PZ, NO2(-), and N2O3 with CO2 were considered. The results indicated that the reactions of PZ species having NH group with N2O3 contribute the most to the formation of nitrosamines in the absorber unit of PCCC and follow a novel three-step nitrosation mechanism, which is initiated by the formation of a charge-transfer complex...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800534/molecular-understanding-of-the-interaction-of-methyl-hydrogen-sulfate-with-ammonia-dimethylamine-water
#20
Xia Sheng, Hailiang Zhao, Lin Du
Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ (aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z for sulfur) level were used to investigate the contribution of methyl hydrogen sulfate (MHS) to new particle formation with the common atmospheric aerosol nucleation precursors including water (H2O), ammonia (NH3), and dimethylamine (DMA). A typical characteristic feature of the MHS-containing complexes is the formation of six- or eight-membered ring structures via SOH⋯O (MHS donor), OH⋯O/N (H2O donor) and NH⋯O/N (NH3/DMA donor). The stability of the complexes was evaluated based on the calculated binding energies...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
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