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M Kumar, M K Ladyman, N Mai, T Temple, F Coulon
Polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) fulfil the need for insensitive munitions. However, the environmental impacts of PBX are unclear, even though it is likely that PBX residues from low-order detonations and unexploded ordnance are deposited on military training ranges. The release of high explosives from the polymer matrix into the environment has not been studied in detail, although as polymers degrade slowly in the environment we anticipate high explosives to be released into the environment. In this study, PBXN-109 (nominally 64% RDX) samples were exposed to variable UK climatic conditions reproduced in the laboratory to determine the effects of temperature, UV irradiation and rainfall on the release of RDX from the polymer binder...
November 28, 2016: Chemosphere
Toshimitsu Onduka, Daisuke Ojima, Katsutoshi Ito, Kazuhiko Mochida, Mana Ito, Jiro Koyama, Kazunori Fujii
Photo-induced toxicity is an important phenomenon in ecotoxicology because sunlight reaches many organisms in their natural habitats. To elucidate whether sunlight enhances the toxicity of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs), the acute toxicities of 10 nitro-PAHs and the related compound 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) to Tigriopus japonicus were assessed in darkness or under light conditions. In addition, the relationships among the toxicity of 1-NP to T. japonicus, lighting condition, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed were investigated in the presence or absence of the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid in the test solutions...
November 27, 2016: Chemosphere
Haitao Fan, Xiuhong Liu, Hao Wang, Yunping Han, Lu Qi, Hongchen Wang
In activated sludge systems, the aeration process consumes the most energy. The energy cost can be dramatically reduced by decreasing the operating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. However, low DO may lead to incomplete nitrification and poor settling performance of activated sludge flocs (ASFs). This study investigates oxygen transfer dynamics and settling performances of activated sludge under different sludge retention times (SRTs) and DO conditions using microelectrodes and microscopic techniques. Our experimental results showed that with longer SRTs, treatment capacity and settling performances of activated sludge improved due to smaller floc size and less extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)...
November 27, 2016: Chemosphere
Xiuling Bai, Jinhua Sun, Yunkai Zhou, Lei Gu, Hongyan Zhao, Jiehua Wang
Characterization of phosphorus (P) pools is vital to understanding the contribution of P to water eutrophication. In this study, dissolved and particulate P classes during an algae bloom in Lake Taihu, as well as their relationships with the main environmental factors, were analyzed based on solution (31)P NMR. The results showed that dissolved P was dominated by orthophosphate (Ortho-P) in heavily polluted regions and by orthophosphate monoester (Mono-P) and orthophosphate diester (Diester-P) in lightly polluted regions, indicating that the main dissolved P classes varied with the degree of lake pollution...
November 27, 2016: Chemosphere
Nematollah Jaafarzadeh, Farshid Ghanbari, Mehdi Ahmadi
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most applicable herbicides in the world. Therefore, its residue in aquatic environment threatens the human health and ecosystems. In this study, Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles (HNPs) were synthesized, and the characteristics of the obtained HNPs were determined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, and particle size analyzer (PSA)...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
Alejandra Huete-Soto, Mario Masís-Mora, Verónica Lizano-Fallas, Juan Salvador Chin-Pampillo, Elizabeth Carazo-Rojas, Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez
The biopurification systems (BPS) used for the treatment of pesticide-containing wastewater must present a versatile degrading ability, in order to remove different active ingredients according to the crop protection programs. This work aimed to assay the simultaneous removal of several pesticides (combinations of herbicides/insecticides/fungicides, or insecticides/fungicides) in a biomixture used in a BPS over a period of 115 d, and in the presence of oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibiotic of agricultural use that could be present in wastewater from agricultural pesticide application practices...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
Takashi Azuma, Mao Ishida, Kanae Hisamatsu, Ayami Yunoki, Kana Otomo, Mari Kunitou, Mai Shimizu, Kaori Hosomaru, Shiori Mikata, Yoshiki Mino
We evaluated the environmental fate of new three anti-influenza drugs, favipiravir (FAV), peramivir (PER), and laninamivir (LAN), and an active prodrug of LAN, laninamivir octanoate (LANO), in comparison with four conventional drugs, oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), amantadine (AMN), and zanamivir (ZAN) by photodegradation, biodegradation, and sorption to river sediments. In addition, we conducted 9-month survey of urban rivers in the Yodo River basin from 2015 to 2016 (including the influenza season) to investigate the current status of occurrence of these drugs in the river environment...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
Bin Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Ruijie Pan, Ting Xu, Jing Zhao, Wenping Huang, Youyu Liu, Daqiang Yin
The toxicological research of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has focused on its neurotoxicity; however, many questions still remain. For example, behavioral effects other than basic locomotion are seldom reported. To further evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a typical PBDE congener in animal tissues, we employed three different exposure modes, namely, continuous, early pulse, and interval exposure, to investigate the path angle and social activity changes of zebrafish larvae exposed to BDE-47 using automated equipment (Zebrabox)...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
Hui Li, Yue-Feng Qiu, Xiao-Li Wang, Jie Yang, Yun-Jiang Yu, Ya-Qin Chen, Yong-di Liu
In this study, Ni/Fe nanoparticles supported by biochar to stimulate the reduction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in groundwater remediation was investigated. In order to enhance the reactivity of ZVI (zero valent iron) nanoparticles, surface modification of ZVI was performed using nickel and biochar. The removal efficiency of 1,1,1-TCA increased from 42.3% to 99.3% as the biochar-to-Ni/Fe mass ratio increased from 0 to 1.0. However a higher biochar-to-Ni/Fe ratio showed little difference in the 1,1,1-TCA degradation efficiency...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
Alyson R Ribeiro, Torsten C Schmidt
Cefapirin (CEPA) and ceftiofur (CEF) are two examples of widely used veterinarian cephalosporins presenting multiple ionization centers. However, the acid dissociation constants (pKa) of CEF are missing and experimental data about CEPA are rare. The same is true for many cephalosporins, where available data are either incomplete or even wrong. Environmentally relevant biotic and abiotic processes depend primordially on the antibiotic pH-dependent speciation. Consequently, this physicochemical parameter should be reliable, including the correct ionization center identification...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
John Struger, Josey Grabuski, Steve Cagampan, Ed Sverko, Daryl McGoldrick, Christopher H Marvin
The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides and recent increased regulatory scrutiny requires the generation of monitoring data with sufficient scope and resolution to provide decision makers with a better understanding of occurrence and distribution in the environment. This study presents a wide-scale investigation of neonicotinoid insecticides used across the range of agricultural activities from fifteen surface water sites in southern Ontario. Using statistical analysis, the correlation of individual compounds with land use was investigated, and the relationship between neonicotinoid occurrence and hydrologic parameters in calibrated water courses was also assessed...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
Jing Meng, Seongjin Hong, Tieyu Wang, Qifeng Li, Seo Joon Yoon, Yonglong Lu, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim
Rapid economic growth during the past two decades in the region surrounding the Bohai and Yellow Seas has resulted in severe pollution. Large amounts of monitoring data on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in various environmental media have been accumulated, which allows us to conduct a fairly comprehensive assessment of the region around the Bohai and Yellow Seas to elucidate spatial patterns of pollution on a regional scale. This review summarized distributions of traditional and new POPs, including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in various environmental media...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
Alessandro Nardi, Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, Maura Benedetti, Daniele Fattorini, Giuseppe d'Errico, Francesco Regoli
Despite the great interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological functioning of marine organisms, indirect and interactive effects of rising temperature and pCO2 on bioaccumulation and responsiveness to environmental pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular mechanisms. According to future projections of temperature and pH/pCO2, this study investigated the main cellular pathways involved in metal detoxification and oxidative homeostasis in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed for 4 weeks to various combinations of two levels of pH/pCO2 (8...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
Anulipi Aich, Buddhadeb Chattopadhyay, Subhra Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Composite tannery effluent (TE) contaminated with a load of metals, especially chromium, is used in East Calcutta Wetland Ecosystem (ECW; a Ramsar site of West Bengal; No 1208) after natural stabilization for pisciculture and agriculture. Quantity and synergistic and antagonistic activities of both essential and nonessential metals in the effluents can induce a variety of complex changes in animal physiology. High fish yield and no apparent adverse influence on the fish biosystems thriving under pollutant stress at ECW allowed the practice to thrive sustainably over the last nearly 100 years...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
Huacai Ge, Jincui Wang
Poly (acrylic acid) modified activated carbon nanocomposite (PAA-AC) was synthesized. The structure and morphology of this nanocomposite were characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD and Zeta potential. The adsorption of some heavy metal ions on PAA-AC was studied. The characterization results indicated that PAA-AC was a novel and ear-like nanosheet material with the thickness of about 40 nm and the diameter of about 300 nm. The adsorption results exhibited that the introduction of carboxyl groups into activated carbon evidently increased the uptake for heavy metal ions and the nanocomposite had maximum uptake for Cd(II)...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
Jiewen Lin, Xiulan Weng, Rajarathnam Dharmarajan, Zuliang Chen
Bio-synthesis of Fe NPs in inert (nitrogen N-Fe NPs) and oxygen (O-Fe NPs) atmospheres employing green tea extracts was investigated through SEM, EDS, XPS and FT-IR techniques. The particle sizes of N-Fe NPs and O-Fe NPs were confirmed by SEM showing 84.7 ± 11.5 nm and 117.8 ± 26.2 nm respectively with subsequent evaluation of the percentage composition of Fe and O by EDS. The XPS results showed that the zero-valent iron and iron oxide nanoparticles were found to be dominant synthesized respectively in nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
Raquel Martín-Folgar, José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread and highly toxic heavy metal of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems. It occurs naturally in the environment but is also an industrial pollutant with extensively researched carcinogenic potentials. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are chaperones that play an important role in maintaining protein homeostasis under stress conditions. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise the most diverse group of the HSPs family. They are expressed both constitutively and by stress-induction...
November 24, 2016: Chemosphere
Shazia Nouren, Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Munawar Iqbal, Ismat Bibi, Shagufta Kamal, Sana Sadaf, Misbah Sultan, Abida Kausar, Yusra Safa
Citrus limon peroxidase mediated decolourization of Direct Yellow 4 (DY4) was investigated. The process variables (pH, temperature, incubation time, enzyme dose, H2O2 amount, dye concentration, co-metal ions and surfactants) were optimized for maximum degradation of dye. Maximum dye decolourization of 89.47% was achieved at pH 5.0, temperature 50 °C, enzyme dose 24 U/mL, H2O2 concentration 0.25 mM and DY4 concentration 18.75 mg/L and incubation time 10 min. The co-metal ions and surfactants did not affect the dye decolourization significantly...
November 24, 2016: Chemosphere
Nan Tao, Guanyi Liu, Lu Bai, Lu Tang, Changhong Guo
Aniline is a synthetic compound widely used in industrial and pesticide production, which can lead to environmental pollution. Its high concentration in rivers and lakes is hazardous to aquatic species. Although the mechanism of aniline toxicity has been studied extensively in animals and algae, little is known about its genotoxicity in plants. In this study, we investigated the genotoxicity effects of aniline on wheat root tip cells. The mitotic index of wheat root tip cells decreased when the aniline test concentration was higher than 10 mg L(-1)...
November 24, 2016: Chemosphere
Lisa A Rodenburg, David K Ralston
Using dated sediment cores, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in the New York/New Jersey Harbor and Lower Hudson River were investigated using Positive Matrix Factorization. Of the seven factors resolved, six represent Aroclors in various stages of weathering. Factor 1 resembles Aroclor 1242 and is consistent with the Upper Hudson River PCB signal associated with the General Electric capacitor plants near Hudson Falls, NY. This factor is the dominant source of PCBs in the upper layers of the sediment core collected in the Lower Hudson River...
November 24, 2016: Chemosphere
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