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Journal of Medical Primatology

Lydia E O Light, Thad Q Bartlett, Annica Poyas, Mark J Nijland, Hillary F Huber, Cun Li, Kate Keenan, Peter W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction (NR) would increase activity and behavioral indicators of anxiety (self-directed behaviors, SDBs) in captive baboons (Papio sp.) and result in more protective maternal styles. METHODS: Our study included 19 adult female baboons. Seven females ate ad libitum (control group), and eight females ate 30% less (NR group) and were observed through pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: Control females engage in higher rates of SDB than NR females overall (P ≤ ...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Bokyeong Ryu, Kyung-Yeon Eo, Ja-Jun Jang, C-Yoon Kim, Ji Min Lee, Hanseul Oh, Ukjin Kim, Jin Kim, Hyun-Ho Lee, Young-Mok Jung, Jae-Hak Park
We describe the first case of biliary cirrhosis in Japanese macaque. Clinical signs had not been detected. The liver was nodular. Histopathologically, portal-to-portal pattern of fibrosis might have indicated chronic cholestasis. Fibrotic septa were infiltrated with inflammatory cells. Therefore, this case could be diagnosed as active incomplete biliary cirrhosis.
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Hanseul Oh, Kyung-Yeon Eo, Sanjeev Gumber, Jung Joo Hong, C-Yoon Kim, Hyun-Ho Lee, Young-Mok Jung, Jin Kim, Gyu-Whan Whang, Ji-Min Lee, Yong-Gu Yeo, Bokyeong Ryu, Ji-Sook Ryu, Seul-Kee Lee, Ukjin Kim, Sin-Geun Kang, Jae-Hak Park
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect warm-blooded animals including humans. New World monkeys, such as squirrel monkeys, are more susceptible to T. gondii than Old World monkeys, often developing fatal disease. METHODS: In this study, seven of thirteen dead squirrel monkeys at Seoul Grand Park were tested to find the cause of sudden death. RESULTS: The main histopathological findings included interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, and splenitis...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Allison Mustonen, Olga Gonzalez, Elda Mendoza, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward J Dick
BACKGROUND: Uremic encephalopathy is uncommon yet is one of the most severe complications of renal failure. We present a case of acute renal failure and associated cerebral and vascular lesions consistent with uremic encephalopathy in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). METHODS: A 14-year-old, female, specific-pathogen-free rhesus macaque presented in lateral recumbency, obtunded, severely dehydrated, and hypothermic, with severe azotemia, mild hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, increased anion gap, and hypercholesterolemia...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Thais Eleonora Madeira Buti, Tatiana Kugelmeier, Gisela Sobral, Priscila Viau Furtado, Dafne do Valle Dutra de Andrade Neves, Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The advent of non-invasive methods provides a powerful alternative to stress studies as the use of stressful handling techniques is no longer needed. However, many factors influence hormone metabolism such as sex, diet, and metabolic rate. Thus, validation should be species- and matrix-specific. METHODS: To assess stress response in brown howler monkeys Alouatta clamitans, we adopted an ACTH challenge test and parallelism to provide physiological and laboratorial validation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Charon de Villiers
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that non-human primates (NHP) represent the model of choice for integrative studies of testicular function and endocrine control. However, there are many species-specific differences that necessitate identification prior to the selection of an appropriate model for these studies. In an NHP breeding facility, this opportunity of selection is usually presented during breeding periods when it is crucial to determine which individuals should be maintained as breeders...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Henri Georges Michel Justin Bertrand, Charlotte Sandersen, Paul Andrew Flecknell
BACKGROUND: The use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research remains a major societal concern with public expectations that appropriate anaesthetics and analgesics are used to minimize any pain or distress caused to animals undergoing invasive procedures. A literature review was conducted to examine the reporting of anaesthesia and analgesia methods used in non-human primates undergoing surgical procedures, with recovery from anaesthesia. METHODS: A total of 397 papers from peer-review journals published between 2010 and 2015 were examined...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Jaclyn R Steinbach, Jamus MacGuire, Shu Chang, Elizabeth Dierks, Gordon S Roble
BACKGROUND: Retrospective analysis of post-operative vomiting (POV) in non-human primates at our institution was 11%. Based on this additional risk factor for post-operative complications, we aimed to eliminate or decrease POV by adding an antiemetic, maropitant citrate, to the pre-medication protocol. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective data were collected over a 5-year period from 46 macaques of two species during 155 procedures. Additionally, blood was collected from five Macaca mulatta to perform a pharmacokinetic analysis...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Kimberly D Spradling-Reeves, Jeremy P Glenn, Kenneth J Lange, Natalia Kuhn, Jacqueline J Coalson, Mark J Nijland, Cun Li, Peter W Nathanielsz, Laura A Cox
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the repertoire of non-human primate kidney genes expressed throughout development. The present work establishes an understanding of the primate renal transcriptome during fetal development in the context of renal maturation. METHODS: The baboon kidney transcriptome was characterized at 60-day gestation (DG), 90 DG, 125 DG, 140 DG, 160 DG and adulthood (6-12 years) using gene arrays and validated by QRT-PCR. Pathway and cluster analyses were used to characterize gene expression in the context of biological pathways...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
J Díaz-Delgado, T C Sanches, C S Cirqueira, A A C Coimbra, J M Guerra, V Olivares, C Di Loretto, R A Ressio, S Iglezias, N C C A Fernandes, C Kanamura, K R Groch, J L Catão-Dias
Cutaneous neoplasia is common in non-human primates. We describe the gross and microscopic features of multicentric cutaneous keratoacanthomas in a free-living marmoset (Callithrix sp.). Immunohistochemistry for human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus type I and simplex virus type II was negative. Keratoacanthomas should be included in the differential diagnosis for cutaneous masses in non-human primates.
March 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Yasuhiro Uno, Shotaro Uehara, Hassan M D Mahadhi, Kayoko Ohura, Masakiyo Hosokawa, Teruko Imai
BACKGROUND: Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme essential for drug metabolism, has been investigated as antidotes against organophosphorus nerve agents, and the efficacy and safety have been studied in cynomolgus macaques. BChE polymorphisms partly account for variable BChE activities among individuals in humans, but have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques. METHODS: Molecular characterization was carried out by analyzing primary sequence, gene, tissue expression, and genetic variants...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Braulio Hernández-Godínez, Adrián Poblano, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime, Marcela Artega-Silva, Stephanie Sánchez-Torres, Rodrigo Mondragón-Lozano, Alejandra Ibáñez-Contreras
BACKGROUND: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) make it possible to obtain functional data on the activity of somatosensory pathway. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ontogeny of electrical nerve conduction in male rhesus monkeys using SEPs in correlation with the development of the musculoskeletal system based on somatometry and musculoskeletal enzymes. METHODS: Somatosensory evoked potentials of the medial and tibial nerves were performed, and somatometric measurements were obtained: total length, arm and forearm length, and thigh and calf length...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Ekaterina Perminov, Sara Mangosing, Alexandra Confer, Olga Gonzalez, Jason R Crawford, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward Dick
Disorders of sexual development are rare in non-human primates. We report a case of true hermaphroditism in a 19-year-old, nulliparous, female baboon (Papio spp.). At necropsy, the animal was obese with adequate muscle mass and hydration. Reproductive organs appeared normal with the exception of 2 firm nodular structures in the myometrium (1-1.5 cm diameter) and a thickened, dark endocervical mucosa. Histologically, both gonads were ovotestes and contained discrete areas of ovarian and testicular tissue. There were follicles in various stages of development surrounded by ovarian stroma...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Laura M Kleinschmidt, Matthew E Kinney, Christopher S Hanley
Strongyloides nematodes have been reported in all species of great apes with orangutans ≤5 years old most susceptible to severe clinical disease. This brief communication describes the first published case of antemortem diagnosis and treatment of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a clinically affected 5-month-old Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).
June 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Norimitsu Shirai, Mark G Evans
We report histopathology of retinal myelination discovered in a cynomolgus monkey. It consisted of a uniform population of spindle cells arranged in fascicles within the retina at the optic disk. The present case is remarkable in that there is a paucity of reports describing myelinated retinal nerve fibers in monkeys.
June 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Leslie Bosseler, Jaco Bakker, Luc Duchateau, Ed Remarque, Jan A M Langermans, Pieter Cornillie, Koen Chiers
BACKGROUND: To date, reference values for 25-OH-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium in serum of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) based on a large sample size are not available. METHODS: Serum reference values for these parameters were determined and correlated with sex, age, season of sampling, and time of long bone epiphyseal closure in captive-housed marmosets. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The 90% reference range for serum 25-OH-vitamin D is 47...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Zhi Lin, Lu Zhang, Di Zhang, Guitao Huo, Xiaobing Zhou, Yan-Wei Yang, Yan Huo, Bo Li, Xing-Chao Geng
This report describes a suppurative meningitis in a young cynomolgus. The animal had neutrophil aggregation in the subarachnoid space and hemorrhage in bilateral adrenal glands. Staphylococcus was identified by FISH in brain. To our knowledge, this is the first case of staphylococcal meningitis with Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in a cynomolgus monkey.
April 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Sree Kanthaswamy, Karen L Bales
Pedigree metrics are essential for investigating colony genetic structure. The genetic structure of a closed Callicebus cupreus colony was examined using multigenerational pedigrees. Inbreeding was low, but genetic drift caused the loss of founder genome representation. Pedigrees can be used to detect founder representation and prevent bottlenecks and allele loss.
April 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Dmitriy I Dogadov, Lydia I Korzaya, Anastasia A Karlsen, Karen K Kyuregyan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and genetic variability of hepatitis A virus (HAV) isolates in monkeys born and kept at Adler Primate Center, as well as in imported animals. METHODS: The fecal samples from various species of monkeys (n = 119) were studied using reverse transcription seminested PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: HAV RNA was detected in 2 Macaca mulatta and 1 Macaca fascicularis (3...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Zandisiwe E Magwebu, Sahar Abdul-Rasool, Jürgen V Seier, Chesa G Chauke
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic predisposition of congenital cataract in a colony of captive-bred vervet monkeys. METHODS: Four congenital cataract genes: glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2 (GCNT2), heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4), crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) and lens intrinsic membrane protein-2 (LIM2) were screened, sequenced and analysed for possible genetic variants in 36 monkeys. Gene expression was also evaluated in these genes...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
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