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Journal of Medical Primatology

Braulio Hernández-Godínez, Adrián Poblano, Herlinda Bonilla-Jaime, Marcela Artega-Silva, Stephanie Sánchez-Torres, Rodrigo Mondragón-Lozano, Alejandra Ibáñez-Contreras
BACKGROUND: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) make it possible to obtain functional data on the activity of somatosensory pathway. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ontogeny of electrical nerve conduction in male rhesus monkeys using SEPs in correlation with the development of the musculoskeletal system based on somatometry and musculoskeletal enzymes. METHODS: Somatosensory evoked potentials of the medial and tibial nerves were performed, and somatometric measurements were obtained: total length, arm and forearm length, and thigh and calf length...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Ekaterina Perminov, Sara Mangosing, Alexandra Confer, Olga Gonzalez, Jason R Crawford, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward Dick
Disorders of sexual development are rare in non-human primates. We report a case of true hermaphroditism in a 19-year-old, nulliparous, female baboon (Papio spp.). At necropsy, the animal was obese with adequate muscle mass and hydration. Reproductive organs appeared normal with the exception of 2 firm nodular structures in the myometrium (1-1.5 cm diameter) and a thickened, dark endocervical mucosa. Histologically, both gonads were ovotestes and contained discrete areas of ovarian and testicular tissue. There were follicles in various stages of development surrounded by ovarian stroma...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Laura M Kleinschmidt, Matthew E Kinney, Christopher S Hanley
Strongyloides nematodes have been reported in all species of great apes with orangutans ≤5 years old most susceptible to severe clinical disease. This brief communication describes the first published case of antemortem diagnosis and treatment of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a clinically affected 5-month-old Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Yasuhiro Uno, Shotaro Uehara, Hiroshi Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. METHODS: CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Norimitsu Shirai, Mark G Evans
We report histopathology of retinal myelination discovered in a cynomolgus monkey. It consisted of a uniform population of spindle cells arranged in fascicles within the retina at the optic disk. The present case is remarkable in that there is a paucity of reports describing myelinated retinal nerve fibers in monkeys.
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Leslie Bosseler, Jaco Bakker, Luc Duchateau, Ed Remarque, Jan A M Langermans, Pieter Cornillie, Koen Chiers
BACKGROUND: To date, reference values for 25-OH-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium in serum of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) based on a large sample size are not available. METHODS: Serum reference values for these parameters were determined and correlated with sex, age, season of sampling, and time of long bone epiphyseal closure in captive-housed marmosets. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The 90% reference range for serum 25-OH-vitamin D is 47...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Zhi Lin, Lu Zhang, Di Zhang, Guitao Huo, Xiaobing Zhou, Yan-Wei Yang, Yan Huo, Bo Li, Xing-Chao Geng
This report describes a suppurative meningitis in a young cynomolgus. The animal had neutrophil aggregation in the subarachnoid space and hemorrhage in bilateral adrenal glands. Staphylococcus was identified by FISH in brain. To our knowledge, this is the first case of staphylococcal meningitis with Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in a cynomolgus monkey.
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Sree Kanthaswamy, Karen L Bales
Pedigree metrics are essential for investigating colony genetic structure. The genetic structure of a closed Callicebus cupreus colony was examined using multigenerational pedigrees. Inbreeding was low, but genetic drift caused the loss of founder genome representation. Pedigrees can be used to detect founder representation and prevent bottlenecks and allele loss.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Dmitriy I Dogadov, Lydia I Korzaya, Anastasia A Karlsen, Karen K Kyuregyan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and genetic variability of hepatitis A virus (HAV) isolates in monkeys born and kept at Adler Primate Center, as well as in imported animals. METHODS: The fecal samples from various species of monkeys (n = 119) were studied using reverse transcription seminested PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: HAV RNA was detected in 2 Macaca mulatta and 1 Macaca fascicularis (3...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Zandisiwe E Magwebu, Sahar Abdul-Rasool, Jürgen V Seier, Chesa G Chauke
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic predisposition of congenital cataract in a colony of captive-bred vervet monkeys. METHODS: Four congenital cataract genes: glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2 (GCNT2), heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4), crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) and lens intrinsic membrane protein-2 (LIM2) were screened, sequenced and analysed for possible genetic variants in 36 monkeys. Gene expression was also evaluated in these genes...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
J Díaz-Delgado, T C Sanches, C Dos Santos-Cirqueira, A A C Coimbra, J M Guerra, A Joppert, C Di Loretto, M B Rizardi, M Sansone, F O Nagamori, P S Gonçalves, R Ressio, S Iglezias, N C C A Fernandes, C Kanamura, K R Groch, J L Catão-Dias
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rare in New World primates. We report the gross, microscopical, and immunocytochemical features of a spontaneous HCC in a free-living marmoset (Callithrix sp.). Hepatitis B and C virus and aflatoxin immunohistochemistry were negative; however, concomitant intra- and extrahepatic biliary trematodiasis could have played a role.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
J Díaz-Delgado, J M Guerra, N C C A Fernandes, E Gonçalves-Serra, G A Minozzo, C Di Loretto, S Iglezias, K R Groch, R Ressio, C Kanamura, J L Catão-Dias
Pulmonary neoplasia is rare among wild New World primates. We report the gross, microscopical, and immunohistochemical features of a primary multicentric pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma in a free-living black capuchin monkey (Sapajus nigritus). Herein, the spectrum of pulmonary neoplasms in non-human primates is widened and briefly reviewed.
December 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
Lelita A Yakovleva, Boris A Lapin, Aslan A Agumava
Inoculation of hamadryas baboons with blood of leukemia ill people-induced malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in experimental animals for a very considerable latency period. At close contact of inoculated baboons with healthy non-inoculated animals, the lymphoma spread between them. The epidemiological analysis, postmortem examination, histological analysis, tissue culturing, and PCR were used for the diagnostics of lymphoma and pre-lymphoma, purification, identification of STLV-1, and HVP viruses. Characteristic clinical and morphological signs designated by us as pre-lymphoma often precede the lymphoma development...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Kristina Ortiz, Rebecca S Sampathkumar, Aftab A Ansari, Siddappa N Byrareddy
BACKGROUND: Pertussis toxin (PTX) blocks GPCR signaling resulting in the inhibition of chemotaxis/cell adhesion. It was reasoned that inhibition of cell trafficking may be an approach to prevent HIV/SIV transmission. METHODS: In this study, PTX in HEC gel was applied to the vaginal wall of monkeys that were then challenged intravaginally with SIVmac251. RESULTS: Results of these studies showed that 2 of 4 animals were resistant to infection...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
Débora Passos Hinojosa Schäffer, Nayone Lima Lantyer Cordeiro de Araujo, Ana Rosa Otero, Francisco de Assis Dórea Neto, Vivian Fernanda Barbosa, Emanoel Ferreira Martins Filho, Arianne Pontes Oriá
BACKGROUND: Epidural anesthesia is indicated to decrease other anesthetic requirements, prolong analgesia, and reduce side effects. In primates, its use has been scarcely described. The aim was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects of epidural anesthesia with lidocaine and dexmedetomidine (DEX) or morphine (MOR). METHODS: Ten female capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.) received epidural anesthesia with lidocaine and DEX or MOR under general anesthesia. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in heart rate with DEX and in blood pressure in all groups, with no changes in SpO2 ...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
A L Johnson, K Van Rompay, J R Reader
Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) has been described as an incidental finding in domestic animals and humans where it is associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection among other comorbidities. This report describes emphysematous changes consistent with PI in a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).
December 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
Cun Li, Susan Jenkins, Vicki Mattern, Anthony G Comuzzie, Laura A Cox, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz
BACKGROUND: Most developmental programming studies on maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) are in altricial rodents whose maternal nutritional burden and offspring developmental trajectory differ from precocial non-human primates and humans. METHODS: Control (CTR) baboon mothers ate ad libitum; MNR mothers ate 70% global control diet in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: We present offspring morphometry, blood cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) during second half of gestation (G) and first three postnatal years...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
Melissa R Berg, Michael A Owston, Marie-Claire Gauduin, Basel T Assaf, Anne D Lewis, Edward J Dick
Rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) experience immunosuppression and often opportunistic infection. Among the most common opportunistic infections are rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that undergoes continuous low-level replication in immunocompetent monkeys. Upon SIV-mediated immunodeficiency, RhCMV reactivates and results in lesions in numerous organ systems including the nervous and reproductive systems. We report the first case of cytomegaloviral hypophysitis in a SIV-immunocompromised rhesus macaque...
December 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
Hallie Mason Smith Lloyd, Claire A Kirchhoff
Differential diagnosis of observed morphological features on an adult male bonobo skeleton was consistent with idiopathic scoliosis. Directional asymmetry was an order of magnitude higher compared with asymptomatic skeletons. This possible case of idiopathic scoliosis contributes to data that suggest a weaker tie between bipedalism and scoliosis than previously hypothesized.
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
Stéfanie Vanessa Santos, Hilda F J Pena, Mauricio G Talebi, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Cristina T Kanamura, Josué Diaz-Delgado, Solange M Gennari, José Luiz Catão-Dias
We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals.
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
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