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Frontiers of Hormone Research

Dragana Miljić, Vera Popovic
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and mortality rates from cardiovascular causes are increased in patients with hypopituitarism. Features of obesity, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension are common in these patients. Unreplaced growth hormone (GH) deficiency and inadequate replacement of other hormone insufficiencies may be responsible for the adverse body composition and metabolic profile associated with hypopituitarism. Recently, fatty liver disease was added to this unfavorable metabolic phenotype...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Sabrina Corbetta, G Mantovani, A Spada
Parathyroid glands are the main regulator of body mineral metabolism through parathormone (PTH) actions on bone and kidney. Experimental evidence suggests that PTH may have non-classical target organs such as adipose tissue, arterial vascular wall, cardiac muscle cells, and adrenal cortex cells, where it may play a role in controlling body energy, blood pressure, and metabolism. Cardiometabolic features have been investigated in the wide spectrum of clinical parathyroid disorders, from hyperparathyroidism to pseudohypoparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Giulia Rastrelli, Sandra Filippi, Alessandra Sforza, Mario Maggi, Giovanni Corona
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypogonadism (HG) are frequently comorbid. In this review, we summarize interconnections between the construct of MetS and the presence of HG, as well as the effect of specific treatments for each condition on this association. Data from meta-analytic studies suggest a bidirectional pathogenic relationship. In fact, reduced T (-2.21 [-2.43 to -1.98] nmol/L) at baseline predicts incident MetS. On the other hand, MetS at study entry increases the risk of developing HG (OR 2.46 [1...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Moisés Mercado, Claudia Ramírez-Rentería
Diabetes is recognized as one of the most common acromegaly co-morbidities with a prevalence ranging 20-53%, while over one-third of these patients have an altered lipid profile. In fact, as in the non-acromegalic population, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism abnormalities are closely linked. Long term exposure to an excess of growth hormone (GH) and Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations results in insulin resistance and an increased hepatic glucose production. The lipolytic effect of GH results in the mobilization of free fatty acids that further contributes to the decreased insulin sensitivity found in these patients...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
K Alexander Iwen, Rebecca Oelkrug, Hannes Kalscheuer, Georg Brabant
Cardiometabolic risk factors like abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and hypertension are defined as metabolic syndrome (MetS), which represents one of the most frequent endocrine disorders particularly in a society with increasing weight problems. As more and more evidence is accumulated that thyroid hormones affect components of the MetS, the present review aims to summarize the rapidly expanding knowledge on the pathophysiological interaction between thyroid hormone status and MetS...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Andrew A Dwyer, Richard Quinton
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a term used to describe the constellation of cardiometabolic risk factors including central adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. Notably, a number of studies have shown high rates of testosterone (T) deficiency in men with MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both hypogonadism and MetS confer increased health risk for morbidity and mortality as men with the MetS are at twice the risk for developing cardiovascular disease and at 5-fold higher risk for developing T2DM...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels of sex steroids are high during pregnancy in contrast to untreated or replaced hypogonadism in most patients with a prolactinoma and hypogonadism may confer increased risk of MetS in hyperPRL. Dopamine-D2-agonist therapy can improve MetS in patients with a prolactinoma and lower glucose levels in patients with T2D...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Grethe A Ueland, Eystein S Husebye
Pharmacological glucocorticoid treatment is associated with adverse metabolic consequences such as hypertension, overweight, reduced glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus and ultimately increased mortality in cardiovascular disease. Here we review the evidence of detrimental effects of hormone replacement therapy in adrenal insufficiency (AI). Registry studies indicate increased cardiovascular mortality, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in both primary and secondary AI, but when cohorts with carefully characterized patients are studied the picture is less clear, and recently patients with primary AI was reported to have less hypertension and lower body mass index than controls...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Renato Pasquali
Both prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome is very high in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Obesity and visceral fat enlargement play a dominant role in determining the final phenotype of PCOS. Androgen excess and insulin resistance may be responsible for the development of all features of the metabolic syndrome. The major factors responsible for this association seem to be related to a triumvirate including androgen excess, insulin resistance and associated hyperinsulinemia, and obesity, particularly the abdominal-visceral phenotype...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Francesco Ferraù, Márta Korbonits
Cushing's syndrome (CS), including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes among its many manifestations, is "a model" of metabolic syndrome. Glucocorticoid (GC) excess, through a combination of effects on liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas, increases gluconeogenesis and impairs insulin sensitivity, leading to carbohydrate abnormalities. Dyslipidemia is a common finding in CS as a consequence of GC-related increased lipolysis, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. CS patients experience typical changes in body composition, with fat redistribution resulting in accumulation of visceral adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Ernesto Maddaloni, Ilaria Cavallari, Nicola Napoli, Caterina Conte
Vitamin D has been suggested as a protective compound for diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms linking vitamin D to the regulation of the immune response support a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Epidemiological evidence and observational studies suggesting that adequate vitamin D status is related to decreased risk of developing type 1 diabetes further corroborates this concept. However, only few and mostly underpowered randomized clinical trials have been conducted to test the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in autoimmune diabetes, with disappointing results...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Cristiana Cipriani, Jessica Pepe, Luciano Colangelo, Salvatore Minisola
The interplay between vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) represents one of the most important metabolic mechanisms of regulation of the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is therefore a major complication that arises as a result of reduced vitamin D levels, both as primary 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) and/or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) reduction. Different metabolic pathways are involved, as well as target organs and tissues, with several clinical complications. The skeleton is primarily involved, but many other extra-skeletal organs expressing the vitamin D and/or PTH receptors may theoretically be affected by vitamin D inadequacy and secondary hyperparathyroidism...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Roger Bouillon
There are very solid data to confirm that the vitamin D endocrine system is important not only for calcium transport or bone homeostasis but also for operational functions in most cells of the body. Preclinical studies convincingly demonstrated coherent actions of the vitamin D endocrine system on the proliferation/differentiation of most cells (and thus possibly on the evolution of cancer). The most plausible target tissues include skeletal and cardiac muscle, all immune cells, many cells involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, brain cells, and reproductive tissues...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Robert A Adler
Practical clinical guidance for vitamin D assessment and management relies on a strong evidence base, but unfortunately there are many deficiencies in our current knowledge. For the general population the Institute of Medicine recommendations are likely to provide adequate vitamin D levels without harms. Thus, most adults should ingest 600-800 IU (international units) in diet and supplements with up to 4,000 IU daily likely to be safe. In certain populations, such as those with osteoporosis or after bariatric surgery, it is important to know the levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but general screening has not been shown to improve health...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Emma M Laing, Richard D Lewis
North American and European authorities have identified thresholds up to 50 nmol/L serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) as optimal for pediatric vitamin D status. These recommendations are relative to skeletal endpoints, as vitamin D plays a pivotal role in bone mineral content (BMC) accretion. Suboptimal vitamin D consumption during youth may therefore hinder BMC acquisition, and contribute to an increased fracture risk. Though vitamin D requirements range between 400 and 800 IU/day, not all children achieve this...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Daniel D Bikle
The number of requests for vitamin D metabolite measurements has increased dramatically over the past decade leading commercial laboratories to develop rapid high throughput assays. The measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and to a lesser extent 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) dominates these requests, but requests for multiple metabolite measurements in the same sample are also increasing. The most commonly used methods include immunoassays and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, but with improvements in technology, especially in LC-MS, this method is gaining ascendance due to its greater precision and flexibility...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
David Goltzman, Michael Mannstadt, Claudio Marcocci
Classic endocrine feedback loops ensure the regulation of blood calcium. Calcium in the extracellular fluid (ECF) binds and activates the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on the parathyroid cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium. This in turn leads to a reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH) release. Hypocalcemia leads to the opposite sequence of events, namely, lowered intracellular calcium and increased PTH production and secretion. PTH rapidly increases renal calcium reabsorption and, over hours to days, enhances osteoclastic bone resorption and liberates both calcium and phosphate from the skeleton...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Wilson Savino
The concept of immunoendocrine interactions, existing in normal and pathological conditions, is relatively recent. Accordingly, cells from the immune system and from endocrine glands share common receptors for cytokines and hormones, allowing systemic and local regulatory mechanisms. In this context, lymphoid organs are under physiological hormonal control. Disturbances in these systems, as those caused by pathogens changes the physiological profile of these interactions, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines and hormones, and one example is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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