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Frontiers of Hormone Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621766/preliminaries
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597238/vitamin-d-and-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Ernesto Maddaloni, Ilaria Cavallari, Nicola Napoli, Caterina Conte
Vitamin D has been suggested as a protective compound for diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms linking vitamin D to the regulation of the immune response support a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Epidemiological evidence and observational studies suggesting that adequate vitamin D status is related to decreased risk of developing type 1 diabetes further corroborates this concept. However, only few and mostly underpowered randomized clinical trials have been conducted to test the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in autoimmune diabetes, with disappointing results...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597237/vitamin-d-and-secondary-hyperparathyroid-states
#3
Cristiana Cipriani, Jessica Pepe, Luciano Colangelo, Salvatore Minisola
The interplay between vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) represents one of the most important metabolic mechanisms of regulation of the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is therefore a major complication that arises as a result of reduced vitamin D levels, both as primary 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) and/or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) reduction. Different metabolic pathways are involved, as well as target organs and tissues, with several clinical complications. The skeleton is primarily involved, but many other extra-skeletal organs expressing the vitamin D and/or PTH receptors may theoretically be affected by vitamin D inadequacy and secondary hyperparathyroidism...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597236/extra-skeletal-effects-of-vitamin-d
#4
Roger Bouillon
There are very solid data to confirm that the vitamin D endocrine system is important not only for calcium transport or bone homeostasis but also for operational functions in most cells of the body. Preclinical studies convincingly demonstrated coherent actions of the vitamin D endocrine system on the proliferation/differentiation of most cells (and thus possibly on the evolution of cancer). The most plausible target tissues include skeletal and cardiac muscle, all immune cells, many cells involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, brain cells, and reproductive tissues...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597235/practical-issues-in-vitamin-d-replacement
#5
Robert A Adler
Practical clinical guidance for vitamin D assessment and management relies on a strong evidence base, but unfortunately there are many deficiencies in our current knowledge. For the general population the Institute of Medicine recommendations are likely to provide adequate vitamin D levels without harms. Thus, most adults should ingest 600-800 IU (international units) in diet and supplements with up to 4,000 IU daily likely to be safe. In certain populations, such as those with osteoporosis or after bariatric surgery, it is important to know the levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, but general screening has not been shown to improve health...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597234/new-concepts-in-vitamin-d-requirements-for-children-and-adolescents-a-controversy-revisited
#6
Emma M Laing, Richard D Lewis
North American and European authorities have identified thresholds up to 50 nmol/L serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) as optimal for pediatric vitamin D status. These recommendations are relative to skeletal endpoints, as vitamin D plays a pivotal role in bone mineral content (BMC) accretion. Suboptimal vitamin D consumption during youth may therefore hinder BMC acquisition, and contribute to an increased fracture risk. Though vitamin D requirements range between 400 and 800 IU/day, not all children achieve this...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597233/vitamin-d-assays
#7
Daniel D Bikle
The number of requests for vitamin D metabolite measurements has increased dramatically over the past decade leading commercial laboratories to develop rapid high throughput assays. The measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and to a lesser extent 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) dominates these requests, but requests for multiple metabolite measurements in the same sample are also increasing. The most commonly used methods include immunoassays and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, but with improvements in technology, especially in LC-MS, this method is gaining ascendance due to its greater precision and flexibility...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597232/preliminaries
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597231/physiology-of-the-calcium-parathyroid-hormone-vitamin-d-axis
#9
David Goltzman, Michael Mannstadt, Claudio Marcocci
Classic endocrine feedback loops ensure the regulation of blood calcium. Calcium in the extracellular fluid (ECF) binds and activates the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on the parathyroid cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium. This in turn leads to a reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH) release. Hypocalcemia leads to the opposite sequence of events, namely, lowered intracellular calcium and increased PTH production and secretion. PTH rapidly increases renal calcium reabsorption and, over hours to days, enhances osteoclastic bone resorption and liberates both calcium and phosphate from the skeleton...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245460/endocrine-immunology-of-chagas-disease
#10
REVIEW
Wilson Savino
The concept of immunoendocrine interactions, existing in normal and pathological conditions, is relatively recent. Accordingly, cells from the immune system and from endocrine glands share common receptors for cytokines and hormones, allowing systemic and local regulatory mechanisms. In this context, lymphoid organs are under physiological hormonal control. Disturbances in these systems, as those caused by pathogens changes the physiological profile of these interactions, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines and hormones, and one example is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245459/the-somatotrope-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis-in-immunoregulation-and-immunosenescence
#11
REVIEW
Gwennaƫlle Bodart, Khalil Farhat, Chantal Charlet-Renard, Roberto Salvatori, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens
Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somatotrope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, but there is still some disagreement about the physiological role of this axis in basal conditions. Moreover, some authors have hypothesized that the physiological role of the somatotrope axis only appears in stressful conditions (such as sepsis or infective and inflammatory diseases). This chapter will provide an extended overview of the expression of the components (signals and receptors) of the somatotrope axis and their properties on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245458/endocrine-autoimmunity-in-down-s-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Federica Guaraldi, Ruth Rossetto Giaccherino, Fabio Lanfranco, Giovanna Motta, Davide Gori, Emanuela Arvat, Enzio Ghigo, Roberta Giordano
Since the mid 1900s, a significant increase of infectious, hematological, and autoimmune diseases has been reported in patients with Down's syndrome (DS), independent of sex, age, family history, and exposure to other risk factors, suggesting an intrinsic alteration of the immune system. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated alterations of both cellular and humoral immunological response mainly, although not exclusively, secondary to alterations of the expression of autoimmune regulator gene (located on chromosome 21), leading to thymic structural and functional impairments...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245457/steroids-and-autoimmunity
#13
REVIEW
Amelia Chiara Trombetta, Marianna Meroni, Maurizio Cutolo
From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245456/role-of-cortistatin-in-the-stressed-immune-system
#14
REVIEW
Mario Delgado, Elena Gonzalez-Rey
The immune system is faced with the daunting job of defending the organism against invading pathogens, while at the same time preserving the body integrity and maintaining tolerance to its own tissues. Loss of self-tolerance compromises immune homeostasis and leads to the onset of autoimmune disorders. The identification of endogenous factors that control immune tolerance and inflammation is a key goal for immunologists. Evidences from the last decade indicate that the neuropeptide cortistatin is one of the endogenous factors...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245455/thyroid-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Francesco Felicetti, Maria Graziella Catalano, Nicoletta Fortunati
Cancer and autoimmune diseases are often associated in the same individual. The functional link between the immune system and cancer development is only partially known. Even though the immune system can control the development of cancer through immune surveillance, cancer cell can escape it. It is debated whether autoimmune diseases have to be regarded as a cancer cause or its consequence. In particular, the association between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer (TC; especially papillary carcinoma) is a fascinating model of this complex relationship...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245454/leptin-neuroinflammation-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Nathalia R V Dragano, Roberta Haddad-Tovolli, Licio A Velloso
Hypothalamic resistance to adipostatic actions of leptin is a hallmark of obesity. Studies have revealed that hypothalamic inflammation, triggered in response to the consumption of large amounts of dietary fat, is an important mechanism in the development of leptin resistance. In this chapter, we will review the work that paved the way linking neuroinflammation of the hypothalamus and defective leptin action in obesity.
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245453/a-novel-clinical-entity-of-autoimmune-endocrinopathy-anti-pit-1-antibody-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Genzo Iguchi, Hironori Bando, Yutaka Takahashi
Pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (PIT-1; POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (POU1F1)) is an essential transcription factor for the differentiation of somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and thyrotrophs, and for the expression of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Mutations in PIT-1 cause congenital defects in GH and PRL secretion and severe TSH insufficiency. Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome, firstly reported in 2011, is characterized by acquired GH, PRL, and TSH deficiencies without PIT-1 mutation and is associated with the presence of the circulating antibody against PIT-1 protein as a marker...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245452/prolactin-an-immunomodulator-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Wilson Savino
Various lines of evidence show that prolactin (PRL) is an immunomodulator in health and disease. Cells of the immune system express PRL receptors and respond to the cognate ligand. Also, PRL itself is produced by several immune cells, indicating that in addition to its classic endocrine effects, it may also act via paracrine/autocrine pathways. PRL stimulates B and T lymphocyte proliferation, and its excess is associated with the appearance or recrudescence of various systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases, as demonstrated by experimental studies performed in mice, and by human case reports and case control studies...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245451/pituitary-autoimmunity
#19
REVIEW
Federica Guaraldi, Roberta Giordano, Silvia Grottoli, Lucia Ghizzoni, Emanuela Arvat, Ezio Ghigo
Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i.e. lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, IgG-4 related lymphoplasmacytic, and necrotizing) forms, and the pathognomonic association of lymphocytic hypophysitis with pregnancy and CTLA-4 antibody therapy, have been clearly demonstrated...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245450/intrahypophyseal-immune-endocrine-interactions-endocrine-integration-of-the-inflammatory-inputs
#20
REVIEW
U Renner, M Sapochnik, K Lucia, G K Stalla, E Arzt
Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of gram-negative bacteria has been recognized for more than 40 years as a modulator of anterior pituitary hormone production. The action of LPS was thought to be predominantly mediated through LPS-stimulated immune cell-derived cytokines, and is part of the concept of immune-endocrine crosstalk, which regulates bidirectional adaptive processes between the endocrine and immune systems during inflammatory or infectious processes. With the detection of innate immune system components in the normal and tumoral pituitary, including the Toll-like receptor 4, the target of LPS, it has become evident that LPS can directly modify the physiology and pathophysiology of the anterior pituitary...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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