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Sub-cellular Biochemistry

Wei Zhang, Luiza M Mendonça, Louis M Mansky
In the original publication, the names of the second and third authors were incorrectly published.
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Francisco J Corpas, Luis A Del Río, José M Palma
Plant peroxisomes are organelles with a very active participation in the cellular regulation of the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, during the last two decades peroxisomes have been shown to be also a relevant source of nitric oxide (NO) and other related molecules designated as reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS have been mainly associated to nitro-oxidative processes; however, some members of these two families of molecules such as H2 O2 , NO or S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) are also involved in the mechanism of signaling processes mainly through post-translational modifications...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Non Miyata, Kanji Okumoto, Yukio Fujiki
Peroxisomes contain anabolic and catabolic enzymes including oxidases that produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. Peroxisomes also contain catalase to metabolize hydrogen peroxide. It has been recognized that catalase is localized to cytosol in addition to peroxisomes. A recent study has revealed that loss of VDAC2 shifts localization of BAK, a pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family, from mitochondria to peroxisomes and cytosol, thereby leading to release of peroxisomal matrix proteins including catalase to the cytosol...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Marc Fransen, Celien Lismont
Disturbances in cellular redox balance have been associated with pro-aging mechanisms and increased risk for various chronic disease states. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that peroxisomes are central players in cellular redox metabolism. Nevertheless, the potential role of this organelle as intracellular redox signaling platform has been largely overlooked for a long time. Fortunately, this situation is now changing. This review provides a snapshot of the current progress in the field, with an emphasis on the situation in mammals...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Jaideep Mathur, Aymen Shaikh, Neeta Mathur
A large amount of ultrastructural, biochemical and molecular analysis indicates that peroxisomes and mitochondria not only share the same subcellular space but also maintain considerable overlap in their proteins, responses and functions. Recent approaches using imaging of fluorescent proteins targeted to both organelles in living plant cells are beginning to show the dynamic nature of their interactivity. Based on the observations of living cells, mitochondria respond rapidly to stress by undergoing fission...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Joseph L Costello, Josiah B Passmore, Markus Islinger, Michael Schrader
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are dynamic, multifunctional organelles that play pivotal cooperative roles in the metabolism of cellular lipids and reactive oxygen species. Their functional interplay, the "peroxisome-mitochondria connection", also includes cooperation in anti-viral signalling and defence, as well as coordinated biogenesis by sharing key division proteins. In this review, we focus on multi-localised proteins which are shared by peroxisomes and mitochondria in mammals. We first outline the targeting and sharing of matrix proteins which are involved in metabolic cooperation...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Fred D Mast, John D Aitchison
Peroxisome proliferation involves signal recognition and computation by molecular networks that direct molecular events of gene expression, metabolism, membrane biogenesis, organelle proliferation, protein import, and organelle inheritance. Peroxisome biogenesis in yeast has served as a model system for exploring the regulatory networks controlling this process. Yeast is an outstanding model system to develop tools and approaches to study molecular networks and cellular responses and because the mechanisms of peroxisome biogenesis and key aspects of the transcriptional regulatory networks are remarkably conserved from yeast to humans...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Ronald J A Wanders, Hans R Waterham, Sacha Ferdinandusse
Peroxisomes catalyze a number of essential metabolic functions and impairments in any of these are usually associated with major clinical signs and symptoms. In contrast to mitochondria which are autonomous organelles that can catalyze the degradation of fatty acids, certain amino acids and other compounds all by themselves, peroxisomes are non-autonomous organelles which are highly dependent on the interaction with other organelles and compartments to fulfill their role in metabolism. This includes mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and the cytosol...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
José M Palma, Paz Álvarez de Morales, Luis A Del Río, Francisco J Corpas
Despite of their economical and nutritional interest, the biology of fruits is still little studied in comparison with reports of other plant organs such as leaves and roots. Accordingly, research at subcellular and molecular levels is necessary not only to understand the physiology of fruits, but also to improve crop qualities. Efforts addressed to gain knowledge of the peroxisome proteome and how it interacts with the overall metabolism of fruits will provide tools to be used in breeding strategies of agricultural species with added value...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Vishal C Kalel, Ralf Erdmann
Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles of eukaryotic cells performing a wide range of functions including fatty acid oxidation, peroxide detoxification and ether-lipid synthesis in mammals. Peroxisomes lack their own DNA and therefore have to import proteins post-translationally. Peroxisomes can import folded, co-factor bound and even oligomeric proteins. The involvement of cycling receptors is a special feature of peroxisomal protein import. Complex machineries of peroxin (PEX) proteins mediate peroxisomal matrix and membrane protein import...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Kanji Okumoto, Non Miyata, Yukio Fujiki
Pex5 and Pex7 are cytosolic receptors for peroxisome targeting signal type-1 (PTS1) and type-2 (PTS2), respectively, and play a pivotal role in import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. Recent advance in mass spectrometry analysis has facilitated comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interaction network by a combination with immunoprecipitation or biochemical purification. In this chapter, we introduce several findings obtained by these methods applied to mammalian cells. Exploring Pex5-binding partners in mammalian cells revealed core components comprising the import machinery complex of matrix proteins and a number of PTS1-type cargo proteins...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Jessica Klümper, Silke Oeljeklaus, Bettina Warscheid, Ralf Erdmann, Wolfgang Schliebs
Different pull-down strategies were successfully applied to gain novel insight into the interactome of human membrane-associated proteins. Here, we compare the outcome, efficiency and potential of pull-down strategies applied to human peroxisomal membrane proteins. Stable membrane-bound protein complexes can be affinity-purified from genetically engineered human cells or subfractions thereof after detergent solubilization, followed by size exclusion chromatography and analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). As exemplified for Protein A-tagged human PEX14, one of the central constituents of the peroxisomal matrix protein import machinery, MS analyses of the affinity-purified complexes revealed an unexpected association of PEX14 with other protein assemblies like the microtubular network or the insertion apparatus for peroxisomal membrane proteins comprising PEX3, PEX16 and PEX19...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Matthew Anderson-Baron, Andrew J Simmonds
As a laboratory animal, Drosophila melanogaster has made extensive contributions to understanding many areas of fundamental biology as well as being an effective model for human disease. Until recently, there was relatively little known about fly peroxisomes. There were early studies that examined the role of peroxisome enzymes during development of organs like the eye. However, with the advent of a well-annotated, sequenced genome, several groups have collectively determined, first by sequence homology and increasingly by functional studies, Drosophila Peroxins and related peroxisome proteins...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Toni Gabaldón
Peroxisomes are single-membrane bound intracellular organelles that can be found in organisms across the tree of eukaryotes, and thus are likely to derive from an ancestral peroxisome in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Yet, peroxisomes in different lineages can present a large diversity in terms of their metabolic capabilities, which reflects a highly variable proteomic content. Theories on the evolutionary origin of peroxisomes have shifted in the last decades from scenarios involving an endosymbiotic origin, similar to those of mitochondria and plastids, towards hypotheses purporting an endogenous origin from within the endomembrane system...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Kristina Bersch, Ignacio Lobos Matthei, Sven Thoms
In a compartmentalized cell, correct protein localization is crucial for function of virtually all cellular processes. From the cytoplasm as a starting point, proteins are imported into organelles by specific targeting signals. Many proteins, however, act in more than one cellular compartment. In this chapter, we discuss mechanisms by which proteins can be targeted to multiple organelles with a focus on a novel gene regulatory mechanism, functional translational readthrough, that permits multiple targeting of proteins to the peroxisome and other organelles...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Markus Kunze
Peroxisomes harbor a plethora of proteins, but the peroxisomal proteome as the entirety of all peroxisomal proteins is still unknown for mammalian species. Computational algorithms can be used to predict the subcellular localization of proteins based on their amino acid sequence and this method has been amply used to forecast the intracellular fate of individual proteins. However, when applying such algorithms systematically to all proteins of an organism the prediction of its peroxisomal proteome in silico should be possible...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Johannes Freitag, Thorsten Stehlik, Alina C Stiebler, Michael Bölker
Fungal peroxisomes are characterized by a number of specific biological functions. To understand the physiology and biochemistry of these organelles knowledge of the proteome content is crucial. Here, we address different strategies to predict peroxisomal proteins by bioinformatics approaches. These tools range from simple text searches to network based learning strategies. A complication of this analysis is the existence of cryptic peroxisomal proteins, which are overlooked in conventional bioinformatics queries...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Sigrun Reumann, Gopal Chowdhary
Our knowledge of the proteome of plant peroxisomes is far from being complete, and the functional complexity and plasticity of this cell organelle are amazingly high particularly in plants, as exemplified by the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant-specific peroxisome functions that have been uncovered only recently include, for instance, the participation of peroxisomes in phylloquinone and biotin biosynthesis. Experimental proteome studies have been proved very successful in defining the proteome of Arabidopsis peroxisomes but this approach also faces significant challenges and limitations...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Markus Islinger, Andreas Manner, Alfred Völkl
Purification technologies are one of the working horses in organelle proteomics studies as they guarantee the separation of organelle-specific proteins from the background contamination by other subcellular compartments. The development of methods for the separation of organelles was a major prerequisite for the initial detection and characterization of peroxisome as a discrete entity of the cell. Since then, isolated peroxisomes fractions have been used in numerous studies in order to characterize organelle-specific enzyme functions, to allocate the peroxisome-specific proteome or to unravel the organellar membrane composition...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Xin Chen, Chris Williams
Peroxisomes in fungi are involved in a huge number of different metabolic processes. In addition, non-metabolic functions have also been identified. The proteins that are present in a particular peroxisome determine its metabolic function, whether they are the matrix localized enzymes of the different metabolic pathways or the membrane proteins involved in transport of metabolites across the peroxisomal membrane. Other peroxisomal proteins play a role in organelle biogenesis and dynamics, such as fission, transport and inheritance...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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