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Sub-cellular Biochemistry

Michael A Harrison, Steven P Muench
The vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) is a ~1 MDa membrane protein complex that couples the hydrolysis of cytosolic ATP to the transmembrane movement of protons. In essentially all eukaryotic cells, this acid pumping function plays critical roles in the acidification of endosomal/lysosomal compartments and hence in transport, recycling and degradative pathways. It is also important in acid extrusion across the plasma membrane of some cells, contributing to homeostatic control of cytoplasmic pH and maintenance of appropriate extracellular acidity...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Uwe Schlattner, Laurence Kay, Malgorzata Tokarska-Schlattner
Isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) generate and use phosphocreatine, a concentrated and highly diffusible cellular "high energy" intermediate, for the main purpose of energy buffering and transfer in order to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. The mitochondrial CK isoform (mtCK) localizes to the mitochondrial intermembrane and cristae space, where it assembles into peripherally membrane-bound, large cuboidal homooctamers. These are part of proteolipid complexes wherein mtCK directly interacts with cardiolipin and other anionic phospholipids, as well as with the VDAC channel in the outer membrane...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Dorit Hanein, Niels Volkmann
Integrins are bidirectional transmembrane receptors that play central roles in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. They have been subject to structural studies for many years, in particular using X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and two-dimensional negative stain electron microscopy. Despite considerable progress, a full consensus on the molecular mechanism of integrin activation is still lacking. Three-dimensional reconstructions of full-length human platelet integrin αIIb β3 in lipid-bilayer nanodiscs obtained by electron cryo-microscopy and single-particle reconstruction have shed new light on the activation process...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Gaetano Santulli, Daniel Lewis, Amedee des Georges, Andrew R Marks, Joachim Frank
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are ubiquitous intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) release channels required for the function of many organs including heart and skeletal muscle, synaptic transmission in the brain, pancreatic beta cell function, and vascular tone. In disease, defective function of RyRs due either to stress (hyperadrenergic and/or oxidative overload) or genetic mutations can render the channels leaky to Ca2+ and promote defective disease-causing signals as observed in heat failure, muscular dystrophy, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegerative disease...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Alexander N Tikhonov
This chapter presents an overview of structural properties of the cytochrome (Cyt) b6 f complex and its functioning in chloroplasts. The Cyt b6 f complex stands at the crossroad of photosynthetic electron transport pathways, providing connectivity between Photosystem (PSI) and Photosysten II (PSII) and pumping protons across the membrane into the thylakoid lumen. After a brief review of the chloroplast electron transport chain, the consideration is focused on the structural organization of the Cyt b6 f complex and its interaction with plastoquinol (PQH2 , reduced form of plastoquinone), a mediator of electron transfer from PSII to the Cyt b6 f complex...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Roman Kouřil, Lukáš Nosek, Dmitry Semchonok, Egbert J Boekema, Petr Ilík
In nature, plants are continuously exposed to varying environmental conditions. They have developed a wide range of adaptive mechanisms, which ensure their survival and maintenance of stable photosynthetic performance. Photosynthesis is delicately regulated at the level of the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts and the regulatory mechanisms include a reversible formation of a large variety of specific protein-protein complexes, supercomplexes or even larger assemblies known as megacomplexes. Revealing their structures is crucial for better understanding of their function and relevance in photosynthesis...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Joseph O Primeau, Gareth P Armanious, M'Lynn E Fisher, Howard S Young
The calcium pump (a.k.a. Ca2+ -ATPase or SERCA) is a membrane transport protein ubiquitously found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all eukaryotic cells. As a calcium transporter, SERCA maintains the low cytosolic calcium level that enables a vast array of signaling pathways and physiological processes (e.g. synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, fertilization). In muscle cells, SERCA promotes relaxation by pumping calcium ions from the cytosol into the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the main storage compartment for intracellular calcium...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Joana S Sousa, Edoardo D'Imprima, Janet Vonck
Mitochondria are the power stations of the eukaryotic cell, using the energy released by the oxidation of glucose and other sugars to produce ATP. Electrons are transferred from NADH, produced in the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, to oxygen by a series of large protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which create a transmembrane electrochemical gradient by pumping protons across the membrane. The flow of protons back into the matrix via a proton channel in the ATP synthase leads to conformational changes in the nucleotide binding pockets and the formation of ATP...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Amrita Samanta, Taylor E T Hughes, Vera Y Moiseenkova-Bell
Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are evolutionarily conserved integral membrane proteins. The mammalian TRP superfamily of ion channels consists of 28 cation permeable channels that are grouped into six subfamilies based on sequence homology (Fig. 6.1). The canonical TRP (TRPC) subfamily is known for containing the founding member of mammalian TRP channels. The vanilloid TRP (TRPV) subfamily has been extensively studied due to the heat sensitivity of its founding member. The melastatin-related TRP (TRPM) subfamily includes some of the few known bi-functional ion channels, which contain functional enzymatic domains...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Dale E Edmondson, Claudia Binda
Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and B) are mammalian flavoenzymes bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane. They were discovered almost a century ago and they have been the subject of many biochemical, structural and pharmacological investigations due to their central role in neurotransmitter metabolism. Currently, the treatment of Parkinson's disease involves the use of selective MAO B inhibitors such as rasagiline and safinamide. MAO inhibition was shown to exert a general neuroprotective effect as a result of the reduction of oxidative stress produced by these enzymes, which seems to be relevant also in non-neuronal contexts...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Tim Rasmussen, Akiko Rasmussen
Mechanosensitive (MS) channels protect bacteria against hypo-osmotic shock and fulfil additional functions. Hypo-osmotic shock leads to high turgor pressure that can cause cell rupture and death. MS channels open under these conditions and release unspecifically solutes and consequently the turgor pressure. They can recognise the raised pressure via the increased tension in the cell membrane. Currently, a better understanding how MS channels can sense tension on molecular level is developing because the interaction of the lipid bilayer with the channel is being investigated in detail...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Dvir Harris, Shira Bar-Zvi, Avital Lahav, Itay Goldshmid, Noam Adir
Light absorption is the initial step in the photosynthetic process. In all species, most of the light is absorbed by dedicated pigment-protein complexes called light harvesting complexes or antenna complexes. In the case of cyanobacteria and red-algae, photosynthetic organisms found in a wide variety of ecological niches, the major antenna is called the Phycobilisome (PBS). The PBS has many unique characteristics that sets it apart from the antenna complexes of other organisms (bacteria, algae and plants). These differences include the type of light absorbing chromophores, the protein environment of the chromophores, the method of assembly and association and the intercellular location with respect to the photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs)...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Ivan Gushchin, Valentin Gordeliy
Microbial rhodopsins (MRs) are a large family of photoactive membrane proteins, found in microorganisms belonging to all kingdoms of life, with new members being constantly discovered. Among the MRs are light-driven proton, cation and anion pumps, light-gated cation and anion channels, and various photoreceptors. Due to their abundance and amenability to studies, MRs served as model systems for a great variety of biophysical techniques, and recently found a great application as optogenetic tools. While the basic aspects of microbial rhodopsins functioning have been known for some time, there is still a plenty of unanswered questions...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Chelsea R Epler Barbercheck, Esther Bullitt, Magnus Andersson
Escherichia coli bacterial cells produce multiple types of adhesion pili that mediate cell-cell and cell-host attachments. These pili (also called 'fimbriae') are large biopolymers that are comprised of subunits assembled via a sophisticated micro-machinery into helix-like structures that are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane. They are commonly essential for initiation of disease and thus provide a potential target for antibacterial prevention and treatment. To develop new therapeutics for disease prevention and treatment we need to understand the molecular mechanisms and the direct role of adhesion pili during pathogenesis...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Jan Löwe, Linda A Amos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Martin Loose, Katja Zieske, Petra Schwille
Even simple cells like bacteria have precisely regulated cellular anatomies, which allow them to grow, divide and to respond to internal or external cues with high fidelity. How spatial and temporal intracellular organization in prokaryotic cells is achieved and maintained on the basis of locally interacting proteins still remains largely a mystery. Bulk biochemical assays with purified components and in vivo experiments help us to approach key cellular processes from two opposite ends, in terms of minimal and maximal complexity...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Christopher H S Aylett, Iain G Duggin
In comparison with bacteria and eukaryotes, the large and diverse group of microorganisms known as archaea possess a great diversity of cytoskeletal proteins, including members of the tubulin superfamily. Many species contain FtsZ, CetZ and even possible tubulins; however, some major taxonomic groups do not contain any member of the tubulin superfamily. Studies using the model archaeon, Halferax volcanii have recently been instrumental in defining the fundamental roles of FtsZ and CetZ in archaeal cell division and cell shape regulation...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Ann-Christin Lindås, Karin Valegård, Thijs J G Ettema
Actin represents one of the most abundant and conserved eukaryotic proteins over time, and has an important role in many different cellular processes such as cell shape determination, motility, force generation, cytokinesis, amongst many others. Eukaryotic actin has been studied for decades and was for a long time considered a eukaryote-specific trait. However, in the early 2000s a bacterial actin homolog, MreB, was identified, characterized and found to have a cytoskeletal function and group within the superfamily of actin proteins...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Rachel Y Samson, Megan J Dobro, Grant J Jensen, Stephen D Bell
Although morphologically resembling bacteria, archaea constitute a distinct domain of life with a closer affiliation to eukaryotes than to bacteria. This similarity is seen in the machineries for a number of essential cellular processes, including DNA replication and gene transcription. Perhaps surprisingly, given their prokaryotic morphology, some archaea also possess a core cell division apparatus that is related to that involved in the final stages of membrane abscission in vertebrate cells, the ESCRT machinery...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Gero Fink, Christopher H S Aylett
A family of tubulin-related proteins (TubZs) has been identified in prokaryotes as being important for the inheritance of virulence plasmids of several pathogenic Bacilli and also being implicated in the lysogenic life cycle of several bacteriophages. Cell biological studies and reconstitution experiments revealed that TubZs function as prokaryotic cytomotive filaments, providing one-dimensional motive forces. Plasmid-borne TubZ filaments most likely transport plasmid centromeric complexes by depolymerisation, pulling on the plasmid DNA, in vitro...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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