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Ecology of Food and Nutrition

Aatma Singh, Kiran Bains, Harpreet Kaur
One hundred volunteer female college teachers were selected from Jalandhar, Punjab, India. General obesity was found in 56.6%, 76.9%, and 76.2%, abdominal obesity in 56.6%, 57.7%, and 81.0%, of 30- to 39-year-old (Group I), 40- to 49-year-old, (Group II) and 50- to 59-year-old (Group III) participants, respectively. A significantly (p ≤ .05) lower mean value of uncontrolled eating domain was observed in the participants belonging to Group I in comparison to Groups II and III. The cognitive restraint was less in Group III (13...
September 12, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Ardhendu Bhusan Praharaj, Ramesh Kumar Goenka, Sujata Dixit, Manoj Kumar Gupta, Shantanu Kumar Kar, Sapna Negi
Rising burden of diabetes in India requires quick intervention that integrates policies and programs for effective prevention and control of disease. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to observe effect of diet in two Indian communities practicing sedentary lifestyle. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood sugar, glycated-hemoglobin (HbA1C), and lipid profile. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements were recorded. Diabetes incidence was lower in lacto-vegetarian (1...
September 11, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Pauline Rutendo Gwatirisa, Barbara Pamphilon, Katja Mikhailovich
The short- and long-term effects of climate change on Papua New Guinea's agricultural sector have generated significant debate in recent times. Current literature demonstrates that different population groups have differing levels of vulnerability and resilience to the flow-on effects of climate change, particularly drought. Yet different schools of thought on the country's food security and effects on livelihoods persist. This article draws on evidence from research conducted in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea as part of a bigger economic empowerment project to illustrate the vulnerabilities of one community of rural semisubsistence farmers to drought-induced food insecurity...
August 9, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Nida I Shaikh, Amanda Maxfield, Shailaja S Patil, Solveig A Cunningham
This study uses freelists to document perceptions of healthfulness, modernity, and availability of foods and beverages among adolescents ages 13-18 years (n = 26) in urbanizing India. Among the 10 foods and beverages adolescents perceived as "new," half were also seen as modern and unhealthy, 4 as traditional and unhealthy, and 3 as modern and healthy. Of those 10 "new" foods, 4 were reported as available only in supermarkets, 4 only in kiraana (local) stores, and 6 in both. Adolescents ascribed healthfulness and modernity to food and beverage items and were aware of their availability across stores...
July 20, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Rachel L Vollmer, Kari Adamsons, Jaime S Foster, Amy R Mobley
Fathers (n = 149) of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Feeding, Role of the Father (ROF), and ROF at Mealtimes (ROFM) questionnaires to determine whether fathers' demographic characteristics are associated with child overweight. Low-income was associated with higher pressure to eat (p = .006) and perceived their child as higher weight (p = .001). Higher education level was associated with lower ROF (p = .018) and ROFM (p = .002) and higher child diet quality (p = .002). Father's BMI was positively associated with ROFM (p = ...
July 13, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Gabriella Chiutsi-Phiri, Eleonore Heil, Alexander A Kalimbira, Charles Masangano, Beatrice M Mtimuni, Michael B Krawinkel, Irmgard Jordan
This study assessed caregivers' knowledge and practices and factors that influence the adoption of improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices after nutrition education in Kasungu and Mzimba districts among 198 caregivers. Mixed-methods convergent-parallel design, including knowledge tests, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews in the intervention areas, was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Data were analyzed using count regression and content analysis, which showed that knowledge increased among caregivers after nutrition education...
July 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Heath Pillen, George Tsourtos, John Coveney, Antonia Thodis, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Antigone Kouris-Blazos
This article explores why some Greek immigrants to Australia continue to adhere to a traditional Mediterranean diet whereas others have adopted eating behaviors characteristic of a less healthy "Australian" diet. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted and comparisons made between individuals consuming more (n = 6) and less traditional diets (n = 6). The level of adherence to the diet was previously assessed by a diet score in a separate quantitative study (MEDIS-Australia) from which the subset of 12 participants for the present study was recruited...
July 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Laura C Hopkins, Melissa Sattler, Elizabeth Anderson Steeves, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Joel Gittelsohn
The aim of this study was to describe the relationship of breakfast frequency to diet quality and BMI among low-income, predominantly African American adolescents aged 9-15 (n = 239). Mean frequency of breakfast consumption was 5.0 ± 0.15 times per week. A significant, positive relationship was seen between HEI scores and frequency of breakfast consumption (p = .01). Dairy (p = .02) and whole grains (p < .01) HEI component scores were significantly related to breakfast frequency. No relationship was seen between breakfast frequency and BMI...
July 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
M Lozano, J M Ramada, J Peiró, A Frígola, M J Esteve
Nutritional research in elderly disabled is difficult in noninstitutionalized people. The dietary intake of a noninstitutionalized disabled population of the eastern region of Spain was evaluated to detect possible nutritional deviations. A total of 329 participants aged 65 and over were recruited. Most participants were overweight. Carbohydrates did not reach 50% of total Kcal/day. Insufficient micronutrient intakes and high consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats (SFA) were found. A decreasing trend of water intake (p < ...
July 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Rainier Masa, Gina Chowa, Victor Nyirenda
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of food insecurity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in Zambia. A cross-sectional sample of 101 PLHIV was surveyed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. In multivariable linear regression models, income, household possessions, and perceived coping strategies were significantly associated with decreased food insecurity. Debt and perceived mental distress were significantly associated with increased food insecurity...
May 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Levi C Frehlich, Lindsay K Eller, Jill A Parnell, Tak S Fung, Raylene A Reimer
The primary purpose of this study was to describe dietary intakes among Canadian undergraduate students enrolled in an Introductory Nutrition course. A secondary objective was to determine food group servings associated with meeting more Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of select nutrients and with a lower body mass index (BMI). Participants (n = 124, 20.7±3.2yrs) provided output from a 3-day dietary record and completed a physical activity/demographics questionnaire. Linear regression showed that the dietary intake associated with meeting the most DRIs included vegetables, fruits, protein foods, and dairy (p = 0...
May 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Caitlyn D Placek
Pica, the intentional ingestion of culturally determined "nonfood" substances, occurs cross-culturally and most commonly during pregnancy. The current study describes women's perceptions of ethnomedical and sociocultural aspects of pica along with familial acquisition and transmission of knowledge and behaviors in a South Indian population. Findings showed that in contrast to Western models of pica, nonfood consumption is not entirely taboo; consumers rely on local remedies to cure overconsumption; and perceptions of prevalence extend beyond pregnancy...
April 18, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Laura Hall, Luz María Tejada-Tayabas, Joel Monárrez-Espino
ABSTEACT Despite the reported poor dietary habits and risk of weight gain in college students, they remain understudied in Mexico. Mexican college students are in a rapidly changing economic environment; a shift from a traditional, homemade cuisine to a diet more heavily influenced by an industrialized culture seems to be occurring, potentially affecting the quality of their dietary intake. A health and nutrition survey was conducted among 450 Mexican college students to study the relationship between sociodemographic factors and diet quality...
March 22, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
D Akerele, R A Sanusi, O A Fadare, O F Ashaolu
This study examined the influence of food consumption diversity on adequate intakes of food calories, proteins and micronutrients among households in rural Nigeria within the framework of panel data econometrics using a nationally representative data. We found that substantial proportion of households suffered deficiency of calories, proteins and certain micronutrients; with higher percentage of sufferer households occurring in the post-planting season. The different measures of dietary diversity (constructed and used for analysis) consistently indicate significant and positive influence of dietary diversity on the likelihood of adequate consumption of food nutrients...
March 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Bryan E Denham
Drawing on data gathered in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, this study examined internal and external locus of control, self-esteem, neuroticism, perceived health status, uniqueness, and somatic amplification as correlates of dietary supplement use. With sex, race, and age measures also included in the study, bivariate analyses showed greater supplement use among women and older respondents as well as those scoring higher on internal locus of control, self-esteem, perceived health status, and somatic amplification...
March 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Aliye Ozenoglu, Pinar Sokulmez Kaya, Canan Asal Ulus, Kamil Alakus
This study aimed to investigate the effect of breastfeeding on maternal BMI and evaluate mothers' knowledge of infant feeding in Samsun, Turkey. A total of 289 mothers who had children ranging from 0 to 2 years of age and applied to the Family Health Centers were included in the study. The mothers filled out a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics and knowledge on infant feeding. The data was evaluated using the SPSS with the descriptive statistics, the Student t-test, the chi-square test, and multiple linear regression analyses...
March 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Erica G Soltero, Luis Ortiz Hernández, Edtna Jauregui, Lucie Lévesque, Juan Lopez Y Taylor, Simón Barquera, Rebecca E Lee
Food resources in school neighborhoods can negatively influence diet; however, this environment is understudied. This study characterized the school neighborhood food environment in Guadalajara (n=11), Puerto Vallarta (n=7), and Mexico City (n=14). Convenience stores, table-service restaurants, and taco stands were highly available in all three cities. Grocery stores were highly available in Mexico City school neighborhoods, yet less frequently observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta. Socioeconomic differences in food cart and grocery store availability were observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta...
March 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Melissa Fuster
The study was conducted to understand fried-food (FF) consumption among Hispanic Caribbean (HC) communities in New York City. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with 23 adults self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, or Puerto Rican. Most informants considered FFs an important part of their traditional diet. Potential explanations included taste, cost, convenience, and the emotive values attached to FF. FF consumption was contextualized in local foodscapes. Results include strategies to diminish FF consumption and differences across HC groups and migratory generations...
March 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Matthew William Cooper, Colin Thor West
When cash cropping leads to agricultural and livelihood changes in the Global South, concern about food security is common among policy makers. This is indeed the case in the Sikasso region of Mali, where many have suggested that the ubiquitous cash crop cotton is a cause of the unexpectedly high rates of malnutrition in the region. Using household and forest surveys, we found little evidence that cotton cultivation is associated with malnutrition or decreased food security at a household level, but we did find evidence of a coassociation between cotton cultivation, loss of natural capital, and malnutrition at the village level...
March 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Mieke Faber, Friede A M Wenhold, Sunette M Laurie
Sociodemographic, living standard measure, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and dietary diversity in relation to household food security were assessed. Using a hunger score, households were categorized as food secure (n = 125) or food insecure (n = 273). Food secure respondents had a higher mean dietary diversity score (3.98; 95%CI [3.79, 4.18] versus 3.65; 95% [CI 3.53, 3.77]), were more likely to eat vitamin A-rich foods (OR 1.15; 95% CI [1.05, 1.26]), a more varied diet (DDS ≥ 4, OR 1.90; 95% CI [1...
January 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
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