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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299430/alternative-quantiferon-cytokines-for-diagnosis-of-children-with-active-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-ghana
#1
Christian Lundtoft, Anthony Afum-Adjei Awuah, Norman Nausch, Anthony Enimil, Ertan Mayatepek, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Marc Jacobsen
IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) often present false-negative or indeterminate results in children with tuberculosis. HIV co-infection may contribute to decreased sensitivity of IGRAs by impairing T-cell IFN-γ expression. Measurement of alternative cytokines in QuantiFERON(®) (QFT) supernatants can circumvent the IFN-γ-dependency and may improve QFT sensitivity. We aimed to identify additional cytokines from QFT supernatants for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with tuberculosis and HIV co-infection from Ghana...
March 15, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283754/leishmania-donovani-chaperonin-10-regulates-parasite-internalization-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-macrophages
#2
Lucie Colineau, Joachim Clos, Kyung-Mee Moon, Leonard J Foster, Neil E Reiner
Protozoa of the genus Leishmania infect macrophages in their mammalian hosts causing a spectrum of diseases known as the leishmaniases. The search for leishmania effectors that support macrophage infection is a focus of significant interest. One such candidate is leishmania chaperonin 10 (CPN10) which is secreted in exosomes and may have immunosuppressive properties. Here, we report for the first time that leishmania CPN10 localizes to the cytosol of infected macrophages. Next, we generated two genetically modified strains of Leishmania donovani (Ld): one strain overexpressing CPN10 (CPN10+++) and the second, a CPN10 single allele knockdown (CPN10+/-), as the null mutant was lethal...
March 11, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238051/il-28-and-il-29-as-protective-markers-in-subject-with-dengue-fever
#3
Chih-Hsing Hung, Chung-Hao Huang, Lin Wang, Chun-Chi Huang, Meng-Chieh Wu, Yi-Ying Chin, Chun-Yu Lin, Ko Chang, Deng-Chyang Wu, Yen-Hsu Chen
About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively...
February 25, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#4
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220253/myd88-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#5
EDITORIAL
Jorge L Cervantes
MyD88 adaptor protein mediates numerous biologically important signal transduction pathways in innate immunity. MyD88 signaling fosters bacterial containment and is necessary to raise an adequate innate and acquired immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The phagosome is a crucial cellular location not only for Mtb replication, but it is also where components of the Myddosome and inflammasome are recruited. Besides its function as a TLR-adaptor protein, MyD88 may help stabilizing cytosolic receptors that are recruited to the phagosome...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214926/role-of-serum-level-and-genetic-variation-of-il-28b-in-interferon-responsiveness-and-advanced-liver-disease-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#6
Abdolvahab Alborzi, Tayebeh Hashempour, Javad Moayedi, Zahra Musavi, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Shahin Merat
Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) is suspected to be associated with response to treatment and one of the basic immunological backgrounds in liver transplant candidate (LTC). We aimed to assess whether genotypes of IL-28B can play a role in therapeutic response or advanced stages of liver disease. A total of 364 subjects were genotyped for IL-28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNPs using PCR-RFLP assay. Moreover, IL-28 serum level, HCV loads, and genotype were performed. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of unfavorable rs12979860 genotypes/CT + TT in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and LTC groups...
February 18, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204873/dysbiosis-a-risk-factor-for-celiac-disease
#7
REVIEW
Anamaria Girbovan, Genel Sur, Gabriel Samasca, Iulia Lupan
Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria...
February 15, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176006/development-of-a-high-throughput-colorimetric-zika-virus-infection-assay
#8
Janis A Müller, Mirja Harms, Axel Schubert, Benjamin Mayer, Stephanie Jansen, Jean-Philippe Herbeuval, Detlef Michel, Thomas Mertens, Olli Vapalahti, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Jan Münch
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen that causes congenital infections which may result in birth defects, such as microcephaly. Currently, no approved treatment or vaccination is available. ZIKV can be readily detected in cell culture where virally infected cells are normally stained by specific antibodies. As ZIKV regularly causes a cytopathic effect, we were wondering whether this viral property can be used to quantitatively determine viral infectivity. We here describe the use of an 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide-(MTT)-based cell viability assay that allows to determine ZIKV-induced cell death...
February 7, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083704/mdm2-gene-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-classic-kaposi-s-sarcoma-among-iranian-patients
#9
Sajad Varmazyar, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zabihollah Shoja, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco M Buonaguro, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Zahra Safaie-Naraghi, Somayeh Jalilvand
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of MDM2 (SNP309T>G, rs2279744) has been shown to increase the expression of the MDM2 protein in various cancer types. However, only one study has analyzed the role of the MDM2 polymorphism in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The association of MDM2 SNP309 with classic KS risk was evaluated in 79 Iranian patients with classic KS and 123 healthy controls. The MDM2 SNP309 was genotyped using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods...
January 12, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629411/combining-in-vitro-protein-detection-and-in-vivo-antibody-detection-identifies-potential-vaccine-targets-against-staphylococcus-aureus-during-osteomyelitis
#10
P Martijn den Reijer, Marjan Sandker, Susan V Snijders, Mehri Tavakol, Antoni P A Hendrickx, Willem J B van Wamel
Currently, little is known about the in vivo human immune response against Staphylococcus aureus during a biofilm-associated infection, such as osteomyelitis, and how this relates to protein production in biofilms in vitro. Therefore, we characterized IgG responses in 10 patients with chronic osteomyelitis against 50 proteins of S. aureus, analyzed the presence of these proteins in biofilms of the infecting isolates on polystyrene (PS) and human bone in vitro, and explored the relation between in vivo and in vitro data...
February 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000052/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics-reveals-important-host-factors-involved-in-the-high-pathogenicity-of-the-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#11
Jiao Hu, Zhao Gao, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Yanyan Liang, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Huimou Liu, Wenbo Liu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
We previously reported a pair of H5N1 avian influenza viruses which are genetically similar but differ greatly in their virulence in mice. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly lethal to mice, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is avirulent. In this study, to investigate the host factors that account for their virulence discrepancy, we compared the pathology and host proteome of the CK10- or GS10-infected mouse lung. Moderate lung injury was observed from CK10-infected animals as early as the first day of infection, and the pathology steadily progressed at later time point...
December 20, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995367/paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-induces-cytokine-secretion-in-epithelial-cells-in-a-protease-activated-receptor-dependent-par-manner
#12
Priscila de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Saara Maria Batista Dos Santos, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli de Barros, Paloma Korehisa Maza, Rosana Puccia, Erika Suzuki
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is one of the etiological agents of the human systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are expressed in many cell types and comprise a family of G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4), which may be activated by proteases secreted by several pathogens. In the present study, we showed that the pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis secretes components that promote interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by the lung epithelial cell line A549...
December 19, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987042/using-dendritic-cells-to-evaluate-how-burkholderia-cenocepacia-clonal-isolates-from-a-chronically-infected-cystic-fibrosis-patient-subvert-immune-functions
#13
M Guadalupe Cabral, Marília Pereira, Zélia Silva, Inês Iria, Carla Coutinho, Andreia Lopes, Isabel Sá-Correia, Paula A Videira
Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria is a threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, commonly leading to a fatal pneumonia, the cepacia syndrome. It causes a massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leucocyte recruitment to airway epithelium without resolving infection and contributing to tissue lesion. To dissect how Bcc bacteria subvert the immune response, we developed a co-culture model with human dendritic cells (DCs) and B. cenocepacia clonal variants isolated from a chronically infected CF patient, who died with cepacia syndrome...
December 16, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620485/evaluation-of-cytotoxicity-immune-compatibility-and-antibacterial-activity-of-biogenic-silver-nanoparticles
#14
M Składanowski, P Golinska, K Rudnicka, H Dahm, M Rai
The study was focused on assessment of antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and immune compatibility of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Streptomyces sp. NH28 strain. Nanoparticles were biosynthesized and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis system and zeta potential. Antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; minimal inhibitory concentration was recorded...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601062/high-prevalence-of-human-papillomaviruses-in-ghanaian-pregnant-women
#15
Marco H Schulze, Fabian M Völker, Raimond Lugert, Paul Cooper, Kai Hasenclever, Uwe Groß, Herbert Pfister, Steffi Silling
Data about the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in African women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology are still scarce. Current HPV vaccines contain HPV types, which mainly represent the HPV epidemiology of industrial countries. As further developments of HPV vaccines are going on, it is necessary to regard regional differences in HPV type prevalence to ensure optimal protection by the vaccine. Vaginal swabs of Ghanaian pregnant women, routinely collected before delivery to rule out bacterial infections causing early onset sepsis, were screened for 12 high-risk (HR), 13 probably/possibly (pHR), and 18 low-risk (LR) HPV types...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550158/fighting-cytomegalovirus-caused-diseases-the-immunologic-approach
#16
EDITORIAL
H W Doerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539577/prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-among-women-presenting-for-cervical-cancer-screening-in-chile-2014-2015
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Monserrat Balanda, Andrea Quiero, Nicolás Vergara, Gloria Espinoza, Héctor San Martín, Giovanna Rojas, Eugenio Ramírez
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, causing more than 600 deaths annually. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in public health services in Chile. Women aged 18-64 years residing in the north and central areas covered by six primary care centers of Santiago, Chile, were invited to participate from March 2014 to August 2015...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539576/refining-human-t-cell-immunotherapy-of-cytomegalovirus-disease-a-mouse-model-with-humanized-antigen-presentation-as-a-new-preclinical-study-tool
#18
REVIEW
Niels A W Lemmermann, Matthias J Reddehase
With the cover headline 'T cells on the attack,' the journal Science celebrated individualized cancer immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of T cells as the 'Breakthrough of the Year' 2013 (J. Couzin-Frankel in Science 342:1432-1433, 2013). It is less well recognized and appreciated that individualized T cell immunotherapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is approaching clinical application for preventing CMV organ manifestations, interstitial CMV pneumonia in particular. This coincident medical development is particularly interesting as reactivated CMV infection is a major viral complication in the state of transient immunodeficiency after the therapy of hematopoietic malignancies by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519596/prospects-of-a-vaccine-for-the-prevention-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-disease
#19
REVIEW
Bodo Plachter
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is one leading cause of childhood disabilities. Prevention of congenital HCMV disease by vaccination has consequently been identified as a priority public healthcare goal. Several vaccine candidates have been introduced in the past that aimed at the prevention of primary HCMV infection in pregnancy. None of these has provided complete protection, and no licensed vaccine is thus far available. An additional level of complexity has been reached by recent studies indicating that the burden of HCMV transmission and disease following non-primary infections in pregnancy may be higher than previously anticipated...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469378/c-type-lectin-receptors-in-tuberculosis-what-we-know
#20
REVIEW
Surabhi Goyal, Tilman E Klassert, Hortense Slevogt
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB), is recognized by a number of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), either soluble or predominantly expressed on the surface of various cells of innate and adaptive immunity. C-type lectin receptors (CTLRs) are a class of PRRs which can recognize a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, thereby playing a crucial role in immunity, as well as in maintaining homeostasis. Mtb surface ligands, including mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan and cord factor, are important immune modulators which recently have been found to be directly recognized by several CTLRs...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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