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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980843/contribution-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-1-to-systemic-inflammation-investigated-by-a-mouse-model-of-cervicovaginal-infection-with-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Krisana Asano, Kouji Narita, Shouhei Hirose, Akio Nakane
Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), a superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that is frequently associated with tampon use. It has long been suggested that TSS is induced when TSST-1 circulates through the body. However, the systemic distribution of TSST-1 from vagina or uterus has never been demonstrated. In this study, a mouse cervicovaginal infection model was established. Transcervical inoculation with a virulence strain of S. aureus and its derivative TSST-1-deficient mutant demonstrated that TSST-1 distributed to the bloodstream and spleen, and promoted systemic inflammation without bacteremia...
July 6, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974233/lopinavir-serum-concentrations-of-critically-ill-infants-a-pharmacokinetic-investigation-in-south-africa
#2
Michael Schultheiß, Sharon Kling, Ulrike Lenker, Miriam von Bibra, Bernd Rosenkranz, Hartwig Klinker
The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric antiretroviral therapy is unclear. A little pharmacokinetic datum from clinical practice exists beyond controlled approval studies including clinically stable children. The aim of this study is to quantify LPV exposure of critically ill infants in an ICU and-by identifying risk factors for inadequate exposure-to define sensible indications for TDM in pediatric HIV care; in addition, assume total drug adherence in ICU to compare LPV exposure with a setting of unknown adherence...
July 4, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974232/pa-x-a-key-regulator-of-influenza-a-virus-pathogenicity-and-host-immune-responses
#3
REVIEW
Jiao Hu, Chunxi Ma, Xiufan Liu
PA-X, a fusion protein belonging to influenza A viruses (IAVs), integrating the N-terminal 191 amino acids of PA gene and the ribosomal frame-shifting product that lengthens out to 41 or 61 amino acids. Since its discovery in 2012, multiple functions have been attributed to this small protein, including a process, where wide-spread protein synthesis in infected host cells is shut down (called host shutoff), and viral replication, polymerase activity, viral-induced cell apoptosis, PA nuclear localization, and virulence are modulated...
July 4, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971491/preventing-vertical-virus-infections-the-role-of-serologic-screening-of-pregnant-women
#4
REVIEW
Annemarie Berger, Hans Wilhelm Doerr
Several virus infections affect the pregnancy itself as well as the foetal development (rubella, PVB19, VZV, HSV, HCMV, HBV, HIV). Prevention can be established by vaccination or an assessment of the immunity status as well as by chemotherapy. The following review provides an update to current aspects focusing on the role of serologic screening.
July 3, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936565/recent-advances-on-t-cell-exhaustion-in-malaria-infection
#5
REVIEW
Esaki M Shankar, R Vignesh, A P Dash
T-cell exhaustion reportedly leads to dysfunctional immune responses of antigen-specific T cells. Investigations have revealed that T cells expand into functionally defective phenotypes with poor recall/memory abilities to parasitic antigens. The exploitation of co-inhibitory pathways represent a highly viable area of translational research that has very well been utilized against certain cancerous conditions. Malaria, at times, evolve into a sustained chronic state where T cells express several co-inhibitory molecules (negative immune checkpoints) facilitating parasite escape and sub-optimal protective responses...
June 23, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29936564/a-clone-of-the-emergent-streptococcus-pyogenes-emm89-clade-responsible-for-a-large-outbreak-in-a-post-surgery-oncology-unit-in-france
#6
Céline Plainvert, Magalie Longo, Elise Seringe, Benjamin Saintpierre, Elisabeth Sauvage, Laurence Ma, Johann Beghain, Nicolas Dmytruk, Gislène Collobert, Eric Hernandez, Christian Manuel, Pascal Astagneau, Philippe Glaser, Frédéric Ariey, Claire Poyart, Agnès Fouet
An outbreak of nosocomial infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS) occurred in a post-surgery oncology unit and concerned more than 60 patients and lasted 20 months despite enhanced infection control and prophylaxis measures. All GAS strains were characterized (emm genotype, toxin gene profile and pulse-field gel electrophoresis subtype). Selected strains were sequenced and phylogenetic relationship established. Capacity to form biofilm and interaction with human pulmonary epithelial cells and macrophages were determined...
June 23, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948091/vaccine-adjuvants-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotides-odns-mpl-3-o-deacylated-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-naloxone-enhanced-th1-immune-response-to-the-plasmodium-vivax-recombinant-thrombospondin-related-adhesive-protein-trap-in-mice
#7
Saeed Nazeri, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram A Mehrizi, Navid D Djadid, Georges Snounou, Chiara Andolina, François Nosten
Despite considerable efforts toward vaccine development over decades, there is no available effective vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of P. vivax (PvTRAP) is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito's salivary gland and vertebrate's hepatocyte; hence, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. In the current investigation, the role of antibodies and cellular immune responses induced by purified recombinant PvTRAP (rPvTRAP) delivered in three adjuvants, naloxone (NLX), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides ODN1826 (CpG-ODN), and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), alone and in combination was evaluated in immunized C57BL/6 mice...
June 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736763/serum-cytokine-responses-in-rickettsia-felis-infected-febrile-children-ghana
#8
Jessica Rauch, Peter Sothmann, Cassandra Aldrich, Ben Hogan, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May, Daniel Eibach, Dennis Tappe
The intracellular pathogen Rickettsia felis causes flea-borne spotted fever and is increasingly recognized as an emerging cause of febrile illness in Africa, where co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum is common. Rickettsiae invade endothelial cells. Little is known, however, about the early immune responses to infection. In this study, we characterize for the first time the cytokine profile in the acute phase of illness caused by R. felis infection, as well as in plasmodial co-infection, using serum from 23 febrile children < 15 years of age and 20 age-matched healthy controls from Ghana...
May 8, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700602/influence-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-on-hcmv-replication-in-human-embryonal-lung-fibroblasts
#9
Anika Zilch, Christian Rien, Cynthia Weigel, Stefanie Huskobla, Brigitte Glück, Katrin Spengler, Andreas Sauerbrei, Regine Heller, Markus Gräler, Andreas Henke
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common pathogen, which causes severe or even deadly diseases in immunocompromised patients. In addition, congenital HCMV infection represents a major health concern affecting especially the lung tissue of the susceptible individuals. Antivirals are a useful strategy to treat HCMV-caused diseases. However, all approved drugs target viral proteins but significant toxicity and an increasing resistance against these compounds have been observed. In infected cells, numerous host molecules have been identified to play important roles during HCMV replication...
April 26, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687353/gut-microbiome-of-moroccan-colorectal-cancer-patients
#10
Imane Allali, Noureddine Boukhatem, Leila Bouguenouch, Hanaa Hardi, H Abir Boudouaya, M Belen Cadenas, Karim Ouldim, Saaïd Amzazi, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Hassan Ghazal
Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death in Morocco, there are no studies of the microbiome changes associated with the disease in the Moroccan population. The aim of our study was to compare the stool microbiome of Moroccan cancer patients with healthy individuals. We analyzed the microbiome composition of samples from 11 CRC patients and 12 healthy individuals by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of samples revealed defined cancer versus healthy clusters. Our findings showed that cancer samples had higher proportions of Firmicutes (T = 50...
April 23, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619604/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-norovirus-genogroup-ii-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-tehran-iran
#11
Mahsa Farsi, Fatemeh Roodbari, Behrooz Nejati, Arash Arashkia, Somayeh Jalilvand, Alireza Nateghian, Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zabihollah Shoja
Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Iran, very limited studies have been performed with regard to the epidemiology of noroviruses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of GII noroviruses in hospitalized children less than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A total of 210 stool specimens were collected from Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and Bahrami Children's Hospital in Tehran, from June 2015 to June 2016. The samples were screened by real-time RT-PCR for genogroup II (GII)...
April 4, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397427/poly-i-c-adjuvant-strongly-enhances-parasite-inhibitory-antibodies-and-th1-response-against-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-1-42-kda-fragment-in-balb-c-mice
#12
Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Niloufar Rezvani, Sedigheh Zakeri, Atefeh Gholami, Laleh Babaeekhou
Malaria vaccine development has been confronted with various challenges such as poor immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidate antigens, which is considered as the main challenge. However, this problem can be managed using appropriate formulations of antigens and adjuvants. Poly(I:C) is a potent Th1 inducer and a human compatible adjuvant capable of stimulating both B- and T-cell immunity. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 142 (PfMSP-142 ) is a promising vaccine candidate for blood stage of malaria that has faced several difficulties in clinical trials, mainly due to improper adjuvants...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374787/rab27a-facilitates-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-growth-by-promoting-cell-surface-transport-of-envelope-proteins
#13
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Machiko Nishio
Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) proteins and genomes newly synthesized in the cytoplasm need to be transported to the plasma membrane where budding occurs. This mechanism, where Rab proteins regulate intracellular traffic by switching between GTP-bound active form and GDP-bound inactive form, is not fully understood. mRNA and protein expression levels of Rab8a, Rab11a, and Rab27a are not altered by hPIV-2 infection. hPIV-2 growth is affected by depletion of Rab27a but not Rab8a and Rab11a. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Rab27a Q78L promotes the cell surface levels of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins in hPIV-2-infected cells without affecting viral mRNA levels...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350290/the-microbiology-and-treatment-of-human-mastitis
#14
REVIEW
Angeliki Angelopoulou, Des Field, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Mastitis, which is generally described as an inflammation of breast tissue, is a common and debilitating disease which frequently results in the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and affects up to 33% of lactating women. The condition is a primary cause of decreased milk production and results in organoleptic and nutritional alterations in milk quality. Recent studies employing culture-independent techniques, including metagenomic sequencing, have revealed a loss of bacterial diversity in the microbiome of mastitic milk samples compared to healthy milk samples...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330591/changes-in-the-lipopolysaccharide-of-proteus-mirabilis-9b-m-o11a-clinical-strain-in-response-to-planktonic-or-biofilm-type-of-growth
#15
Agnieszka Zabłotni, Dominik Matusiak, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Magdalena Moryl, Anna Maciejewska, Anna N Kondakova, Alexander S Shashkov, Czesław Ługowski, Yuriy A Knirel, Antoni Różalski
The impact of planktonic and biofilm lifestyles of the clinical isolate Proteus mirabilis 9B-m on its lipopolysaccharide (O-polysaccharide, core region, and lipid A) was evaluated. Proteus mirabilis bacteria are able to form biofilm and lipopolysaccharide is one of the factors involved in the biofilm formation. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from planktonic and biofilm cells of the investigated strain and analyzed by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, Western blotting and ELISA, as well as NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274017/trypanosoma-cruzi-serinecarboxipeptidase-is-a-sulfated-glycoprotein-and-a-minor-antigen-in-human-chagas-disease-infection
#16
Luciana L Soprano, Juliana E Parente, Malena Landoni, Alicia S Couto, Vilma G Duschak
In this work, the presence of sulfated N-glycans was studied in a high-mannose-type glycoprotein of Trypanosoma cruzi with serinecarboxipeptidase (TcSCP) activity. The immune cross-reactivity between purified SCP and Cruzipain (Cz) was evidenced using rabbit sera specific for both glycoproteins. Taking advantage that SCP co-purifies with Cz from Concanavalin-A affinity columns, the Cz-SCP mixture was desulfated, ascribing the cross-reactivity to the presence of sulfate groups in both molecules. Therefore, knowing that Cz is a sulfated glycoprotein, with antigenic sulfated epitopes (sulfotopes), SCP was excised from SDS-PAGE and the N-glycosydic chains were analyzed by UV-MALDI-TOF-MS, confirming the presence of short-sulfated high-mannose-type oligosaccharidic chains...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256094/blocking-of-opioid-receptors-in-experimental-formaline-inactivated-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fi-rsv-immunopathogenesis-from-beneficial-to-harmful-impacts
#17
Vahid Salimi, Habib Mirzaei, Ali Ramezani, Alireza Tahamtan, Abbas Jamali, Shahram Shahabi, Maryam Golaram, Bagher Minaei, Mohammad Javad Gharagozlou, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
Opioid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes, such as immune response and impacts on disease severity. Here, we investigated the effect of opioid system on the immunopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine (FI-RSV)-mediated illness in a widely used mouse model. Female Balb/c mice were immunized at days 0 and 21 with FI-RSV (2 × 106  pfu, i.m.) and challenged with RSV-A2 (3 × 106  pfu, i.n.) at day 42. Nalmefene as a universal opioid receptors blocker administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg in combination with FI-RSV (FI-RSV + NL), and daily after live virus challenge (RSV + NL)...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238853/detection-and-genotyping-of-hpv-in-urine-samples-from-chilean-women-attending-primary-health-care-centers
#18
Nicolás Vergara, Monserrat Balanda, Wilma Hidalgo, Héctor San Martín, Alexis Aceituno, Francisco Roldán, Tania Villalón, Melissa Hott, Gloria Espinoza, Andrea Quiero, María T Valenzuela, Eugenio Ramírez
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignant neoplasm in women worldwide representing approximately 10% of all types of cancers. Triage of women through cervical cytology has been an important strategy for the surveillance and control of new cases of cervical cancer. However, in many regions around the world cervical cytology has a low coverage compared to developed countries. The molecular detection of HPV is the most effective method to increase the screening sensitivity of women at risk of developing cervical cancer...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556778/anti-candida-activity-of-antidepressants-sertraline-and-fluoxetine-effect-upon-pre-formed-biofilms
#19
Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523966/soluble-cd163-and-soluble-cd14-plasma-levels-but-not-cellular-hiv-dna-decrease-during-successful-interferon-free-anti-hcv-therapy-in-hiv-1-hcv-co-infected-patients-on-effective-combined-anti-hiv-treatment
#20
Saverio G Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Nicola Menegotto, Silvia Cavinato, Renzo Scaggiante, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Monica Basso, Anna Maria Cattelan
Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). The subjects were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or low-level viraemia (LLV) in the 18 months before T2...
March 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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