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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736763/serum-cytokine-responses-in-rickettsia-felis-infected-febrile-children-ghana
#1
Jessica Rauch, Peter Sothmann, Cassandra Aldrich, Ben Hogan, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May, Daniel Eibach, Dennis Tappe
The intracellular pathogen Rickettsia felis causes flea-borne spotted fever and is increasingly recognized as an emerging cause of febrile illness in Africa, where co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum is common. Rickettsiae invade endothelial cells. Little is known, however, about the early immune responses to infection. In this study, we characterize for the first time the cytokine profile in the acute phase of illness caused by R. felis infection, as well as in plasmodial co-infection, using serum from 23 febrile children < 15 years of age and 20 age-matched healthy controls from Ghana...
May 8, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700602/influence-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-on-hcmv-replication-in-human-embryonal-lung-fibroblasts
#2
Anika Zilch, Christian Rien, Cynthia Weigel, Stefanie Huskobla, Brigitte Glück, Katrin Spengler, Andreas Sauerbrei, Regine Heller, Markus Gräler, Andreas Henke
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common pathogen, which causes severe or even deadly diseases in immunocompromised patients. In addition, congenital HCMV infection represents a major health concern affecting especially the lung tissue of the susceptible individuals. Antivirals are a useful strategy to treat HCMV-caused diseases. However, all approved drugs target viral proteins but significant toxicity and an increasing resistance against these compounds have been observed. In infected cells, numerous host molecules have been identified to play important roles during HCMV replication...
April 26, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687353/gut-microbiome-of-moroccan-colorectal-cancer-patients
#3
Imane Allali, Noureddine Boukhatem, Leila Bouguenouch, Hanaa Hardi, H Abir Boudouaya, M Belen Cadenas, Karim Ouldim, Saaïd Amzazi, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Hassan Ghazal
Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death in Morocco, there are no studies of the microbiome changes associated with the disease in the Moroccan population. The aim of our study was to compare the stool microbiome of Moroccan cancer patients with healthy individuals. We analyzed the microbiome composition of samples from 11 CRC patients and 12 healthy individuals by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of samples revealed defined cancer versus healthy clusters. Our findings showed that cancer samples had higher proportions of Firmicutes (T = 50...
April 23, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619604/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-norovirus-genogroup-ii-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-tehran-iran
#4
Mahsa Farsi, Fatemeh Roodbari, Behrooz Nejati, Arash Arashkia, Somayeh Jalilvand, Alireza Nateghian, Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zabihollah Shoja
Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Iran, very limited studies have been performed with regard to the epidemiology of noroviruses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of GII noroviruses in hospitalized children less than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A total of 210 stool specimens were collected from Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and Bahrami Children's Hospital in Tehran, from June 2015 to June 2016. The samples were screened by real-time RT-PCR for genogroup II (GII)...
April 4, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556778/anti-candida-activity-of-antidepressants-sertraline-and-fluoxetine-effect-upon-pre-formed-biofilms
#5
Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523966/soluble-cd163-and-soluble-cd14-plasma-levels-but-not-cellular-hiv-dna-decrease-during-successful-interferon-free-anti-hcv-therapy-in-hiv-1-hcv-co-infected-patients-on-effective-combined-anti-hiv-treatment
#6
Saverio G Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Nicola Menegotto, Silvia Cavinato, Renzo Scaggiante, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Monica Basso, Anna Maria Cattelan
Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). The subjects were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or low-level viraemia (LLV) in the 18 months before T2...
March 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488063/deficit-of-igg2-in-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-is-responsible-of-inadequate-igg2-levels-in-their-hiv-uninfected-children-in-malawi
#7
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Sandro Mancinelli, Robert Mphwere, Enok Bokola, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Leonardo Palombi, Francesca Lucaroni, Marina Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Transplacental passage of IgGs is impaired in HIV + pregnant women, possibly determining an inadequate immunological protection in their children. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal immunological IgG profile and immunoactivation status on the efficiency of transplacental passage of IgG subclasses in HIV + mothers. METHODS: 16 mother/infants pairs were studied in Malawi. Mothers received antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the third trimester of pregnancy...
February 27, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397427/poly-i-c-adjuvant-strongly-enhances-parasite-inhibitory-antibodies-and-th1-response-against-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-1-42-kda-fragment-in-balb-c-mice
#8
Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Niloufar Rezvani, Sedigheh Zakeri, Atefeh Gholami, Laleh Babaeekhou
Malaria vaccine development has been confronted with various challenges such as poor immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidate antigens, which is considered as the main challenge. However, this problem can be managed using appropriate formulations of antigens and adjuvants. Poly(I:C) is a potent Th1 inducer and a human compatible adjuvant capable of stimulating both B- and T-cell immunity. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 142 (PfMSP-142 ) is a promising vaccine candidate for blood stage of malaria that has faced several difficulties in clinical trials, mainly due to improper adjuvants...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374787/rab27a-facilitates-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-growth-by-promoting-cell-surface-transport-of-envelope-proteins
#9
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Machiko Nishio
Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) proteins and genomes newly synthesized in the cytoplasm need to be transported to the plasma membrane where budding occurs. This mechanism, where Rab proteins regulate intracellular traffic by switching between GTP-bound active form and GDP-bound inactive form, is not fully understood. mRNA and protein expression levels of Rab8a, Rab11a, and Rab27a are not altered by hPIV-2 infection. hPIV-2 growth is affected by depletion of Rab27a but not Rab8a and Rab11a. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Rab27a Q78L promotes the cell surface levels of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins in hPIV-2-infected cells without affecting viral mRNA levels...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350290/the-microbiology-and-treatment-of-human-mastitis
#10
REVIEW
Angeliki Angelopoulou, Des Field, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Mastitis, which is generally described as an inflammation of breast tissue, is a common and debilitating disease which frequently results in the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and affects up to 33% of lactating women. The condition is a primary cause of decreased milk production and results in organoleptic and nutritional alterations in milk quality. Recent studies employing culture-independent techniques, including metagenomic sequencing, have revealed a loss of bacterial diversity in the microbiome of mastitic milk samples compared to healthy milk samples...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330591/changes-in-the-lipopolysaccharide-of-proteus-mirabilis-9b-m-o11a-clinical-strain-in-response-to-planktonic-or-biofilm-type-of-growth
#11
Agnieszka Zabłotni, Dominik Matusiak, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Magdalena Moryl, Anna Maciejewska, Anna N Kondakova, Alexander S Shashkov, Czesław Ługowski, Yuriy A Knirel, Antoni Różalski
The impact of planktonic and biofilm lifestyles of the clinical isolate Proteus mirabilis 9B-m on its lipopolysaccharide (O-polysaccharide, core region, and lipid A) was evaluated. Proteus mirabilis bacteria are able to form biofilm and lipopolysaccharide is one of the factors involved in the biofilm formation. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from planktonic and biofilm cells of the investigated strain and analyzed by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, Western blotting and ELISA, as well as NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274017/trypanosoma-cruzi-serinecarboxipeptidase-is-a-sulfated-glycoprotein-and-a-minor-antigen-in-human-chagas-disease-infection
#12
Luciana L Soprano, Juliana E Parente, Malena Landoni, Alicia S Couto, Vilma G Duschak
In this work, the presence of sulfated N-glycans was studied in a high-mannose-type glycoprotein of Trypanosoma cruzi with serinecarboxipeptidase (TcSCP) activity. The immune cross-reactivity between purified SCP and Cruzipain (Cz) was evidenced using rabbit sera specific for both glycoproteins. Taking advantage that SCP co-purifies with Cz from Concanavalin-A affinity columns, the Cz-SCP mixture was desulfated, ascribing the cross-reactivity to the presence of sulfate groups in both molecules. Therefore, knowing that Cz is a sulfated glycoprotein, with antigenic sulfated epitopes (sulfotopes), SCP was excised from SDS-PAGE and the N-glycosydic chains were analyzed by UV-MALDI-TOF-MS, confirming the presence of short-sulfated high-mannose-type oligosaccharidic chains...
April 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313096/editorship-for-medical-microbiology-and-immunology-the-baton-has-been-passed-on
#13
EDITORIAL
H W Doerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164393/bordetella-pertussis-virulence-factors-in-the-continuing-evolution-of-whooping-cough-vaccines-for-improved-performance
#14
REVIEW
Dorji Dorji, Frits Mooi, Osvaldo Yantorno, Rajendar Deora, Ross M Graham, Trilochan K Mukkur
Despite high vaccine coverage, whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis remains one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. Introduction of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in the 1940s and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in 1990s reduced the mortality due to pertussis. Despite induction of both antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses by aP and wP vaccines, there has been resurgence of pertussis in many countries in recent years. Possible reasons hypothesised for resurgence have ranged from incompliance with the recommended vaccination programmes with the currently used aP vaccine to infection with a resurged clinical isolates characterised by mutations in the virulence factors, resulting in antigenic divergence with vaccine strain, and increased production of pertussis toxin, resulting in dampening of immune responses...
February 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164392/maturation-and-cytokine-pattern-of-human-dendritic-cells-in-response-to-different-yeasts
#15
Silvia Boschi Bazan, Barbara Walch-Rückheim, Manfred J Schmitt, Frank Breinig
Activated dendritic cells (DC) induce and polarize T-cell responses by expression of distinct maturation markers and cytokines. This study systematically investigated the capacity of different biotechnically relevant yeast species and strains including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Candida glabrata to initiate maturation of human DC. As important prerequisite for T-cell activation, all yeasts were shown to effectively induce, though to a different extent, the expression of the activation marker CD83, the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, CD54, CD58, and CD40, as well as the antigen-presenting molecules MHCs I and II...
February 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147974/genotype-related-variations-in-proinflammatory-and-regulatory-cytokine-levels-in-treated-and-treatment-naive-hcv-infected-patients
#16
Rasoul Baharlou, Bizhan Romani, Seyed Jalal Kiani, Kaveh Sadeghi, Enayatollah Shadmand, Hadi Fazel, Farid Azizi Jalilian, Ebrahim Kord, Sajad Yaghoubi, Yousef Nikmanesh, Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) modulates immune-related inflammatory responses to induce milder reactions leading to virus persistence. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate the link between the HCV genotypes and the proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine levels. Ninety patients with hepatitis C infection (68 treatment-naive and 22 treated patients) and 76 healthy blood donors were studied. The serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17A, and IL-21 were measured by ELISA in the patients and healthy controls...
February 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119253/higher-expression-of-inhibitory-cd158b-and-cd158e-nk-cell-receptor-and-age-predicts-treatment-response-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#17
Anna Mania, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Paweł Kemnitz, Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Magdalena Figlerowicz, Jan Sikora, Wojciech Służewski, Jan Żeromski
Treatment with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) is the only choice for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in children. Natural killer (NK) cells were described to play a vital role in CHC. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of peripheral blood NK cell receptors in their relation to PEG-IFN/RBV treatment response. Study included 26 children with CHC-13 boys, age range 13.42 ± 3.28 years. Blood for biochemical, virological and cytometric testing was taken for evaluation prior to the antiviral treatment...
February 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081001/antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-curcumin-silver-nanoparticles-with-improved-stability-and-selective-toxicity-to-bacteria-over-mammalian-cells
#18
Swati Jaiswal, Prashant Mishra
Antibiotic resistance has necessitated search for new antibacterials for combating threat of pathogenic bacteria. Though chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles are a well-known antimicrobial agent, they are toxic to human cells at higher concentrations. Hence in the present study, curcumin-silver nanoparticles (Cur-AgNPs) of size 25-35 nm, were synthesized using curcumin, a phytochemical. These nanoparticles were effective against both Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were less toxic to human keratinocytes...
February 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043433/mcpip1-inhibits-coxsackievirus-b3-replication-by-targeting-viral-rna-and-negatively-regulates-virus-induced-inflammation
#19
Min Li, Kepeng Yan, Lin Wei, Yang Yang, Qian Qian, Wei Xu
Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1(MCPIP1) is identified as an important inflammatory regulator during immune response. MCPIP1 possesses antiviral activities against several viruses, such as Japanese encephalitis. However, its role on Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, a positive-stranded RNA virus, has not been addressed. Here, we reported that MCPIP1 was up-regulated in cardiomyocytes by CVB3 infection and in hearts and pancreas of infected mice. Then we found that overexpression of MCPIP1 inhibited CVB3 replication and knockdown of it promoted virus replication...
February 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256094/blocking-of-opioid-receptors-in-experimental-formaline-inactivated-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fi-rsv-immunopathogenesis-from-beneficial-to-harmful-impacts
#20
Vahid Salimi, Habib Mirzaei, Ali Ramezani, Alireza Tahamtan, Abbas Jamali, Shahram Shahabi, Maryam Golaram, Bagher Minaei, Mohammad Javad Gharagozlou, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
Opioid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes, such as immune response and impacts on disease severity. Here, we investigated the effect of opioid system on the immunopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine (FI-RSV)-mediated illness in a widely used mouse model. Female Balb/c mice were immunized at days 0 and 21 with FI-RSV (2 × 106  pfu, i.m.) and challenged with RSV-A2 (3 × 106  pfu, i.n.) at day 42. Nalmefene as a universal opioid receptors blocker administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg in combination with FI-RSV (FI-RSV + NL), and daily after live virus challenge (RSV + NL)...
December 18, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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