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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434129/phage-displayed-peptides-that-mimic-epitopes-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid
#1
Osmany Larralde, Juraj Petrik
Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic infection of increasing public health threat for the UK, especially for immunosuppressed individuals. A human recombinant vaccine has been licensed only in China and is not clear whether it protects against hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, the most prevalent in Europe. The aim of this study was to use phage display technology as a tool to identify peptides that mimic epitopes of HEV capsid (mimotopes). We identified putative linear and conformational mimotopes using sera from Scottish blood donors that have the immunological imprint of past HEV infection...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434128/aspects-on-the-history-of-transmission-and-favor-of-distribution-of-viruses-by-iatrogenic-action-perhaps-an-example-of-a-paradigm-of-the-worldwide-spread-of-hiv
#2
REVIEW
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401351/quantification-of-intrahepatic-total-hbv-dna-in-liver-biopsies-of-hbv-infected-patients-by-a-modified-version-of-cobas-%C3%A2-ampliprep-cobas-%C3%A2-taqman-hbv-test-v2-0
#3
Romina Salpini, Lorenzo Piermatteo, Upkar Gill, Arianna Battisti, Francesca Stazi, Tania Guenci, Sara Giannella, Valentina Serafini, Patrick T F Kennedy, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Marco Ciotti
Intrahepatic total HBV DNA (it-HBV DNA) level might reflect the size of virus reservoir and correlate with the histological status of the liver. To quantitate it-HBV DNA in a series of 70 liver biopsies obtained from hepatitis B chronic patients, a modified version of the COBAS(®)Ampliprep/COBAS(®)TaqMan HBV test v2.0 was used for this purpose. The linearity and reproducibility of the modified protocol was tested by quantifying serial dilutions of a full-length HBV containing plasmid and it-HBV DNA from a reference patient...
April 11, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397024/performance-of-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-antibody-tests-a-comparative-analysis-based-on-samples-from-individuals-with-direct-contact-to-domestic-pigs-or-wild-boar-in-germany
#4
Frauke Mara Sommerkorn, Birgit Schauer, Thomas Schreiner, Helmut Fickenscher, Andi Krumbholz
In Europe, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 causes most human infections, and domestic pigs and wild boar represent the main reservoirs. Contact to these animals represents one source of human infection. However, interpretation of studies is challenged in the absence of a serological gold standard. Hence, this study compared results of different HEV immunoassays. Plasma samples from 139 individuals who had professional contact to pigs (veterinarians, meat inspectors, slaughterhouse workers; n = 114) or hunted regularly (n = 25) were tested with assays specific for HEV IgG, HEV IgM, HEV IgA, and total HEV immunoglobulin as well as for viral RNA...
April 10, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378248/role-of-il-21-in-htlv-1-infections-with-emphasis-on-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp
#5
Taraneh Rajaei, Hamid Farajifard, Houshang Rafatpanah, Reza Bustani, Narges Valizadeh, Bahareh Rajaei, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP...
April 4, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378247/il-17a-plays-an-important-role-in-protection-induced-by-vaccination-with-fibronectin-binding-domain-of-fibronectin-binding-protein-a-against-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#6
Kouji Narita, Krisana Asano, Akio Nakane
Fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) of Staphylococcus aureus is a microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules and has been known as one of the most important virulence factors involved in the initiation step of S. aureus infection. Therefore, it has been considered as a potential vaccine candidate. Previous studies have reported that vaccination with FnBPA protects animals against S. aureus infection. In this study, we demonstrated that vaccination with fibronectin-binding domain of FnBPA (FnBPA541-870) protects wild-type mice but not interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-deficient mice against S...
April 4, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343330/human-papilloma-virus-hpv-infection-leads-to-the-development-of-head-and-neck-lesions-but-offers-better-prognosis-in-malignant-indian-patients
#7
Shreya Sarkar, Neyaz Alam, Jayanta Chakraborty, Jaydip Biswas, Syam Sundar Mandal, Susanta Roychoudhury, Chinmay Kumar Panda
Head and neck cancers constitute a multifactorial global disease burden and are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) as a possible risk factor. The aim of the study is to understand the relationship between HPV and the development of head and neck lesions in Indian patients. To this end, frequency of HPV was assessed in relation to different demographic and etiological features and correlated with patient survival. The prevalence of HPV significantly increased from mild dysplastic lesions (43.6%) to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) stage IV (68...
March 25, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299430/alternative-quantiferon-cytokines-for-diagnosis-of-children-with-active-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-ghana
#8
Christian Lundtoft, Anthony Afum-Adjei Awuah, Norman Nausch, Anthony Enimil, Ertan Mayatepek, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Marc Jacobsen
IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) often present false-negative or indeterminate results in children with tuberculosis. HIV co-infection may contribute to decreased sensitivity of IGRAs by impairing T-cell IFN-γ expression. Measurement of alternative cytokines in QuantiFERON(®) (QFT) supernatants can circumvent the IFN-γ-dependency and may improve QFT sensitivity. We aimed to identify additional cytokines from QFT supernatants for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with tuberculosis and HIV co-infection from Ghana...
March 15, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283754/leishmania-donovani-chaperonin-10-regulates-parasite-internalization-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-macrophages
#9
Lucie Colineau, Joachim Clos, Kyung-Mee Moon, Leonard J Foster, Neil E Reiner
Protozoa of the genus Leishmania infect macrophages in their mammalian hosts causing a spectrum of diseases known as the leishmaniases. The search for leishmania effectors that support macrophage infection is a focus of significant interest. One such candidate is leishmania chaperonin 10 (CPN10) which is secreted in exosomes and may have immunosuppressive properties. Here, we report for the first time that leishmania CPN10 localizes to the cytosol of infected macrophages. Next, we generated two genetically modified strains of Leishmania donovani (Ld): one strain overexpressing CPN10 (CPN10+++) and the second, a CPN10 single allele knockdown (CPN10+/-), as the null mutant was lethal...
March 11, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238051/il-28-and-il-29-as-protective-markers-in-subject-with-dengue-fever
#10
Chih-Hsing Hung, Chung-Hao Huang, Lin Wang, Chun-Chi Huang, Meng-Chieh Wu, Yi-Ying Chin, Chun-Yu Lin, Ko Chang, Deng-Chyang Wu, Yen-Hsu Chen
About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively...
February 25, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#11
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220253/myd88-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#12
EDITORIAL
Jorge L Cervantes
MyD88 adaptor protein mediates numerous biologically important signal transduction pathways in innate immunity. MyD88 signaling fosters bacterial containment and is necessary to raise an adequate innate and acquired immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The phagosome is a crucial cellular location not only for Mtb replication, but it is also where components of the Myddosome and inflammasome are recruited. Besides its function as a TLR-adaptor protein, MyD88 may help stabilizing cytosolic receptors that are recruited to the phagosome...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214926/role-of-serum-level-and-genetic-variation-of-il-28b-in-interferon-responsiveness-and-advanced-liver-disease-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#13
Abdolvahab Alborzi, Tayebeh Hashempour, Javad Moayedi, Zahra Musavi, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Shahin Merat
Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) is suspected to be associated with response to treatment and one of the basic immunological backgrounds in liver transplant candidate (LTC). We aimed to assess whether genotypes of IL-28B can play a role in therapeutic response or advanced stages of liver disease. A total of 364 subjects were genotyped for IL-28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNPs using PCR-RFLP assay. Moreover, IL-28 serum level, HCV loads, and genotype were performed. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of unfavorable rs12979860 genotypes/CT + TT in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and LTC groups...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204873/dysbiosis-a-risk-factor-for-celiac-disease
#14
REVIEW
Anamaria Girbovan, Genel Sur, Gabriel Samasca, Iulia Lupan
Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176006/development-of-a-high-throughput-colorimetric-zika-virus-infection-assay
#15
Janis A Müller, Mirja Harms, Axel Schubert, Benjamin Mayer, Stephanie Jansen, Jean-Philippe Herbeuval, Detlef Michel, Thomas Mertens, Olli Vapalahti, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Jan Münch
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen that causes congenital infections which may result in birth defects, such as microcephaly. Currently, no approved treatment or vaccination is available. ZIKV can be readily detected in cell culture where virally infected cells are normally stained by specific antibodies. As ZIKV regularly causes a cytopathic effect, we were wondering whether this viral property can be used to quantitatively determine viral infectivity. We here describe the use of an 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide-(MTT)-based cell viability assay that allows to determine ZIKV-induced cell death...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083704/mdm2-gene-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-classic-kaposi-s-sarcoma-among-iranian-patients
#16
Sajad Varmazyar, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zabihollah Shoja, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco M Buonaguro, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Zahra Safaie-Naraghi, Somayeh Jalilvand
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of MDM2 (SNP309T>G, rs2279744) has been shown to increase the expression of the MDM2 protein in various cancer types. However, only one study has analyzed the role of the MDM2 polymorphism in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The association of MDM2 SNP309 with classic KS risk was evaluated in 79 Iranian patients with classic KS and 123 healthy controls. The MDM2 SNP309 was genotyped using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000052/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics-reveals-important-host-factors-involved-in-the-high-pathogenicity-of-the-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#17
Jiao Hu, Zhao Gao, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Yanyan Liang, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Huimou Liu, Wenbo Liu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
We previously reported a pair of H5N1 avian influenza viruses which are genetically similar but differ greatly in their virulence in mice. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly lethal to mice, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is avirulent. In this study, to investigate the host factors that account for their virulence discrepancy, we compared the pathology and host proteome of the CK10- or GS10-infected mouse lung. Moderate lung injury was observed from CK10-infected animals as early as the first day of infection, and the pathology steadily progressed at later time point...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995367/paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-induces-cytokine-secretion-in-epithelial-cells-in-a-protease-activated-receptor-dependent-par-manner
#18
Priscila de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Saara Maria Batista Dos Santos, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli de Barros, Paloma Korehisa Maza, Rosana Puccia, Erika Suzuki
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is one of the etiological agents of the human systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are expressed in many cell types and comprise a family of G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4), which may be activated by proteases secreted by several pathogens. In the present study, we showed that the pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis secretes components that promote interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by the lung epithelial cell line A549...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987042/using-dendritic-cells-to-evaluate-how-burkholderia-cenocepacia-clonal-isolates-from-a-chronically-infected-cystic-fibrosis-patient-subvert-immune-functions
#19
M Guadalupe Cabral, Marília Pereira, Zélia Silva, Inês Iria, Carla Coutinho, Andreia Lopes, Isabel Sá-Correia, Paula A Videira
Infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria is a threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, commonly leading to a fatal pneumonia, the cepacia syndrome. It causes a massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leucocyte recruitment to airway epithelium without resolving infection and contributing to tissue lesion. To dissect how Bcc bacteria subvert the immune response, we developed a co-culture model with human dendritic cells (DCs) and B. cenocepacia clonal variants isolated from a chronically infected CF patient, who died with cepacia syndrome...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858157/gender-and-age-specific-seroprevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-16-and-18-in-general-population-in-tehran-iran
#20
Arezoo Aghakhani, Setareh Mamishi, Shahram Sabeti, Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Mohammad Banifazl, Anahita Bavand, Amitis Ramezani
The assessment of the gender and age-specific seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) is essential for planning of HPV vaccine implementation into the preventive programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the age-specific seroprevalence of HPV-16 and 18 in both males and females in Tehran, Iran. Three hundred and seventy-eight women (10-35 years) and 162 men (10-25 years) from Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Anti-HPV IgG antibodies against HPV-16 and HPV-18 were detected by ELISA using papillomavirus type 16 and 18 L1-capsids as antigen...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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