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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776194/a-cross-sectional-study-among-polish-hunters-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-and-the-analysis-of-factors-contributing-to-hev-infections
#1
Anna Baumann-Popczyk, Bartłomiej Popczyk, Elżbieta Gołąb, Wioletta Rożej-Bielicka, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is known as zoonotic agent. The main reservoirs of HEV in Europe are pigs, wild boars, and deer. Hunting activity is considered to be a risk factor for HEV infection. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1021 Polish hunters. To understand socio-demographic characteristics of this population and to gather information on potential exposures, all participants completed a questionnaire. Commercial immunoassays were employed to estimate seroprevalence anti-HEV. Samples with confirmed positive result of anti-HEV IgM were examined for HEV RNA...
August 3, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770333/immune-response-against-rickettsiae-lessons-from-murine-infection-models
#2
REVIEW
Anke Osterloh
Rickettsiae are small intracellular bacteria that can cause life-threatening febrile diseases. Rickettsioses occur worldwide with increasing incidence. Therefore, a vaccine is highly desired. A prerequisite for the development of a vaccine is the knowledge of the immune response against these bacteria, in particular protective immunity. In recent years murine models of rickettsial infections have been established, and the study of immune response against rickettsiae in mice provided many new insights into protective and pathological immune reactions...
August 2, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733760/intrauterine-therapy-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-valganciclovir-review-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Vera Seidel, Cornelia Feiterna-Sperling, Jan-Peter Siedentopf, Jörg Hofmann, Wolfgang Henrich, Christoph Bührer, Katharina Weizsäcker
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause for sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation in children without genetic diseases worldwide. There is little evidence guiding therapeutic strategies during pregnancy when intrauterine fetal CMV infection is confirmed. We provide a systematic review of the use of ganciclovir (GCV) or VGCV during pregnancy discussing safety of its use for mother and fetus and describe two cases of intrauterine therapy of fetal CMV infection with valganciclovir (VGCV)...
July 21, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730548/orthopedic-infections-caused-by-obligatory-anaerobic-gram-negative-rods-report-of-two-cases
#4
Marta Kierzkowska, Piotr Pedzisz, Ireneusz Babiak, Jakub Janowicz, Mateusz Kulig, Anna Majewska, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Grazyna Mlynarczyk
Anaerobic bone and joint infections are uncommon, although the number of anaerobic infections is presumably underestimated because of difficulties with isolation and identification of obligate anaerobes. This study describes two cases of complicated Bacteroides fragilis peri-implant infection of the lumbar spine, infection of the hip and osteomyelitis. Bacteria were identified with the use of a mass spectrometer, VITEK MS system. Drug susceptibility was performed with the use of E-test. The EUCAST breakpoints were used for interpretation with B...
July 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702856/dynamics-of-torque-teno-virus-viremia-could-predict-risk-of-complications-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Ramona Gilles, Marco Herling, Udo Holtick, Eva Heger, Sabine Awerkiew, Irina Fish, Konstantin Höller, Saleta Sierra, Elena Knops, Rolf Kaiser, Christof Scheid, Veronica Di Cristanziano
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an established treatment option for several hematological diseases. However, the first year post-transplantation is often complicated by infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Improvements in immunological monitoring could reduce such post-transplant complications. Torque Teno virus (TTV), a chronically persisting DNA virus, is reported to be a marker for immune function in immunocompromised patients. In the present study, the TTV kinetics were analyzed to investigate the potential role of TTV viremia as immune-competence read-out after allo-HSCT...
July 12, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474248/a-potential-role-for-staphylococcal-and-streptococcal-superantigens-in-driving-skewing-of-tcr-v%C3%AE-subsets-in-tonsillar-hyperplasia
#6
Fiona J Radcliff, Fiona Clow, Murali Mahadevan, James Johnston, Thomas Proft, Richard G Douglas, John D Fraser
The TCR Vβ repertoire from patients with recurrent tonsillitis and/or tonsillar hyperplasia was examined to determine whether the TCR Vβ composition is suggestive of local superantigen activity and if so, whether it is associated with the presence of superantigen producing bacteria. Tonsil specimens were cultured aerobically to allow identification and isolation of the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Group A Streptococcus. TCR Vβ subset analysis of tonsil leucocytes was performed by flow cytometry...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466382/assessment-of-htlv-1-proviral-load-lat-bim-c-fos-and-rad51-gene-expression-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#7
Samaneh Ramezani, Abbas Shirdel, Houshang Rafatpanah, Mohammad Mehdi Akbarin, Hanieh Tarokhian, Hossein Rahimi, Alireza Bari, Hamid Reza Jahantigh, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a life-threatening malignancy of HTLV-1 infected Th lymphocytes. In the present study host-virus interactions were investigated by assessment of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and host gene expression. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 18 ATLL, 10 HAM/TSP patients and 18 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). DNA and mRNA of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were extracted for PVL and LAT, BIM, c-FOS and RAD51 gene expression measurement using qRT-PCR. The mean PVL in ATLL patients was 11,430 ± 3770 copies/10(4) which was statistically higher than ACs, 530 ± 119 copies/10(4), (p < 0...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466381/tetherin-antagonism-by-v-proteins-is-a-common-trait-among-the-genus-rubulavirus
#8
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Morihiro Ito, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an anti-viral factor that restricts the budding of several enveloped viruses. Most of these viruses have evolved to encode tetherin antagonists. Our previous study demonstrated that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), a member of the genus Rubulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, was inhibited by tetherin, and its V protein decreases the amount of cell surface tetherin by the interaction. In the present study, we investigated whether tetherin inhibits the growth of other rubulaviruses including PIV-5, mumps virus (MuV), simian virus 41, and hPIV-4, and whether their V proteins act as tetherin antagonists...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455649/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2%C3%A2-v-protein-inhibits-induction-of-tetherin
#9
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin is an anti-viral factor that restricts viral budding through tethering virions to the cell surface. The human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) V protein decreases cell surface tetherin in HeLa cells, which constitutively express endogenous tetherin. However, the role of the hPIV-2 V protein in tetherin induction remains unclear. Here, we examined whether hPIV-2 infection itself induces tetherin in HEK293 cells that have no basal expression of tetherin. Unlike influenza A virus (IAV) infection, hPIV-2 infection induced neither tetherin mRNA nor protein expression...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434129/phage-displayed-peptides-that-mimic-epitopes-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid
#10
Osmany Larralde, Juraj Petrik
Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic infection of increasing public health threat for the UK, especially for immunosuppressed individuals. A human recombinant vaccine has been licensed only in China and is not clear whether it protects against hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, the most prevalent in Europe. The aim of this study was to use phage display technology as a tool to identify peptides that mimic epitopes of HEV capsid (mimotopes). We identified putative linear and conformational mimotopes using sera from Scottish blood donors that have the immunological imprint of past HEV infection...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434128/aspects-on-the-history-of-transmission-and-favor-of-distribution-of-viruses-by-iatrogenic-action-perhaps-an-example-of-a-paradigm-of-the-worldwide-spread-of-hiv
#11
REVIEW
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401351/quantification-of-intrahepatic-total-hbv-dna-in-liver-biopsies-of-hbv-infected-patients-by-a-modified-version-of-cobas-%C3%A2-ampliprep-cobas-%C3%A2-taqman-hbv-test-v2-0
#12
Romina Salpini, Lorenzo Piermatteo, Upkar Gill, Arianna Battisti, Francesca Stazi, Tania Guenci, Sara Giannella, Valentina Serafini, Patrick T F Kennedy, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Marco Ciotti
Intrahepatic total HBV DNA (it-HBV DNA) level might reflect the size of virus reservoir and correlate with the histological status of the liver. To quantitate it-HBV DNA in a series of 70 liver biopsies obtained from hepatitis B chronic patients, a modified version of the COBAS(®)Ampliprep/COBAS(®)TaqMan HBV test v2.0 was used for this purpose. The linearity and reproducibility of the modified protocol was tested by quantifying serial dilutions of a full-length HBV containing plasmid and it-HBV DNA from a reference patient...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378247/il-17a-plays-an-important-role-in-protection-induced-by-vaccination-with-fibronectin-binding-domain-of-fibronectin-binding-protein-a-against-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#13
Kouji Narita, Krisana Asano, Akio Nakane
Fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) of Staphylococcus aureus is a microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules and has been known as one of the most important virulence factors involved in the initiation step of S. aureus infection. Therefore, it has been considered as a potential vaccine candidate. Previous studies have reported that vaccination with FnBPA protects animals against S. aureus infection. In this study, we demonstrated that vaccination with fibronectin-binding domain of FnBPA (FnBPA541-870) protects wild-type mice but not interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-deficient mice against S...
June 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343330/human-papilloma-virus-hpv-infection-leads-to-the-development-of-head-and-neck-lesions-but-offers-better-prognosis-in-malignant-indian-patients
#14
Shreya Sarkar, Neyaz Alam, Jayanta Chakraborty, Jaydip Biswas, Syam Sundar Mandal, Susanta Roychoudhury, Chinmay Kumar Panda
Head and neck cancers constitute a multifactorial global disease burden and are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) as a possible risk factor. The aim of the study is to understand the relationship between HPV and the development of head and neck lesions in Indian patients. To this end, frequency of HPV was assessed in relation to different demographic and etiological features and correlated with patient survival. The prevalence of HPV significantly increased from mild dysplastic lesions (43.6%) to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) stage IV (68...
June 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#15
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
June 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397024/performance-of-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-antibody-tests-a-comparative-analysis-based-on-samples-from-individuals-with-direct-contact-to-domestic-pigs-or-wild-boar-in-germany
#16
Frauke Mara Sommerkorn, Birgit Schauer, Thomas Schreiner, Helmut Fickenscher, Andi Krumbholz
In Europe, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 causes most human infections, and domestic pigs and wild boar represent the main reservoirs. Contact to these animals represents one source of human infection. However, interpretation of studies is challenged in the absence of a serological gold standard. Hence, this study compared results of different HEV immunoassays. Plasma samples from 139 individuals who had professional contact to pigs (veterinarians, meat inspectors, slaughterhouse workers; n = 114) or hunted regularly (n = 25) were tested with assays specific for HEV IgG, HEV IgM, HEV IgA, and total HEV immunoglobulin as well as for viral RNA...
April 10, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378248/role-of-il-21-in-htlv-1-infections-with-emphasis-on-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp
#17
Taraneh Rajaei, Hamid Farajifard, Houshang Rafatpanah, Reza Bustani, Narges Valizadeh, Bahareh Rajaei, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP...
April 4, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214926/role-of-serum-level-and-genetic-variation-of-il-28b-in-interferon-responsiveness-and-advanced-liver-disease-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients
#18
Abdolvahab Alborzi, Tayebeh Hashempour, Javad Moayedi, Zahra Musavi, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Shahin Merat
Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) is suspected to be associated with response to treatment and one of the basic immunological backgrounds in liver transplant candidate (LTC). We aimed to assess whether genotypes of IL-28B can play a role in therapeutic response or advanced stages of liver disease. A total of 364 subjects were genotyped for IL-28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNPs using PCR-RFLP assay. Moreover, IL-28 serum level, HCV loads, and genotype were performed. A significant increase was observed in the frequencies of unfavorable rs12979860 genotypes/CT + TT in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and LTC groups...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204873/dysbiosis-a-risk-factor-for-celiac-disease
#19
REVIEW
Anamaria Girbovan, Genel Sur, Gabriel Samasca, Iulia Lupan
Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176006/development-of-a-high-throughput-colorimetric-zika-virus-infection-assay
#20
Janis A Müller, Mirja Harms, Axel Schubert, Benjamin Mayer, Stephanie Jansen, Jean-Philippe Herbeuval, Detlef Michel, Thomas Mertens, Olli Vapalahti, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Jan Münch
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen that causes congenital infections which may result in birth defects, such as microcephaly. Currently, no approved treatment or vaccination is available. ZIKV can be readily detected in cell culture where virally infected cells are normally stained by specific antibodies. As ZIKV regularly causes a cytopathic effect, we were wondering whether this viral property can be used to quantitatively determine viral infectivity. We here describe the use of an 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide-(MTT)-based cell viability assay that allows to determine ZIKV-induced cell death...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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