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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

Aravind Shekar, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston Jeyabalaji, Murali Harishchandra Sripathy
Escherichia coli O157:H7 with its traits such as intestinal colonization and fecal-oral route of transmission demands mucosal vaccine development. E. coli secreted protein B (EspB) is one of the key type III secretory system (TTSS) targets for mucosal candidate vaccine due to its indispensable role in the pathogenesis of E. coli O157:H7. However, mucosally administered recombinant proteins have low immunogenicity which could be overcome by the use of mucosal adjuvants. The quest for safe, potent mucosal adjuvant has recognized ΔG fragment of Zonula occludens toxin of Vibrio cholerae with such properties...
September 12, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Ana V Banko, Ivana B Lazarevic, Danijela Z Karalic, Vojko B Djukic, Maja D Cupic, Goran Stevanovic, Tanja P Jovanovic
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been identified as a group 1 carcinogenic agent, particularly for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The sequence diversity of EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) reflects region-restricted polymorphisms, which may be associated with the development of certain malignancies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate EBV EBNA1 gene polymorphisms circulating in NPC, infectious mononucleosis, and isolates from patients with transplanted organs to determine if EBNA1 sequence specificities are useful as viral biomarkers for NPC...
September 10, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Matthias Stefan Schampera, Jose Arellano-Galindo, Karl Oliver Kagan, Stuart P Adler, Gerhard Jahn, Klaus Hamprecht
BACKGROUND: HCMV hyperimmunoglobulin-preparations (HIG) contain high concentrations of HCMV-specific IgG. The reduced maternofetal-HCMV-transmission rate of IgG may be due to HCMV-specific neutralizing antibodies against the HCMV pentameric complex (PC). In contrast to HIG, standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may have more neutralization (NT) capacity than HIG due to higher IgG subclass 3 levels (Planitzer et al., 2011). METHODS: We investigated the HCMV-specific NT-capacity of HIG Cytotect® , using a recombinant pentameric complex (gHgLUL128-131A) for specific antibody-depletion...
September 10, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Ke Zhang, Mei-Jun Shi, Zhuo Niu, Xi Chen, Jia-Yi Wei, Zi-Wei Miao, Wei-Dong Zhao, Yu-Hua Chen
Escherichia coli K1 is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the hallmark of bacterial meningitis. Reportedly, the deletion of virulence factor cglD (E44:ΔcglD) from E44 is responsible for a less efficient PMN transendothelial migration ability. In the present study, we found that complementation of the cglD gene into E44:ΔcglD mutant strain might restore the PMN count and myeloperoxidase level in a neonatal mouse meningitis...
August 31, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Kleber Paiva Trugilo, Guilherme Cesar Martelossi Cebinelli, Fernanda Costa Brandão Berti, Nádia Calvo Martins Okuyama, Fernando Cezar-Dos-Santos, Michelle Mota Sena, Luis Fernando Lásaro Mangieri, Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe, Karen Brajão de Oliveira
The main purpose was to assess the effect of c.29C>T and c.74G>C polymorphisms in the TGFB1 signal peptide on HPV infection and development of cervical lesions. Cervical swabs and blood samples were obtained from 349 outpatient women, along with socio-demographic and sexual behavioral data. The study population was stratified by absence or presence of HPV DNA, as tested by PCR, as well as by lesion grade. TGFB1 signal peptide polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism...
August 30, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Jun Ding, Yongling Ning, Yu Bai, Ximing Xu, Xiao Sun, Chunjian Qi
β-Glucan has been reported to activate dendritic cells (DCs), and activated DCs, subsequently, promote Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro. However, the mechanism that regulates the immune response of β-glucan-induced DCs has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Recent studies have drawn attention to a strong relationship between pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) recognition and autophagy for the activation of DC function. In this study, we observed that β-glucan induced the expression of a number of autophagy-related genes and the formation of autophagosomes in DCs...
August 7, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Yusuke Koizumi, Takuro Sakagami, Hitoshi Minamiguchi, Aya Makino, Ami Aoki, Keiko Hodohara, Hiroshige Mikamo, Akira Andoh, Yoshihide Fujiyama
We report a case of non-AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), non-CAPD (Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis), non-cirrhotic, Mycobacterium avium peritonitis, which is a rare form of mycobacterial infection. A 66-year-old Japanese man who had been treated previously for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), had developed disseminated M. avium infection. Antimycobacterial regimen improved his symptoms; however, following an interruption in treatment, he developed chylous ascites. The patient died of uncontrolled peritonitis despite intensive treatment...
August 6, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Riikka Ihalin, Deyu Zhong, Maribasappa Karched, Casey Chen, Sirkka Asikainen
Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) is covalently incorporated into bacterial surface structures, contributing to host mimicry and promoting adhesion to surfaces. Our aims were to determine the frequency of ChoP display among Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains, to clarify which surface structures bear ChoP, and whether ChoP-positivity relates to serum killing. The tested oral (N = 67) and blood isolates (N = 27) represented 6 serotypes. Mab TEPC-15 was used for immunoblotting of cell lysates and fractions and for immunofluorescence microscopy of cell surface-bound ChoP...
July 28, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Aldana G Vistarop, Melina Cohen, Fuad Huaman, Lucia Irazu, Marcelo Rodriguez, Elena De Matteo, María Victoria Preciado, Paola A Chabay
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gains access to the host through tonsillar crypts. Our aim was to characterize microenvironment composition around EBV+ cells in tonsils from pediatric carriers, to disclose its role on viral pathogenesis. LMP1 expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), was used to discriminate EBV + and - zones in 41 tonsil biopsies. Three regions were defined: Subepithelial (SE), interfollicular (IF) and germinal center (GC). CD8, GrB, CD68, IL10, Foxp3, PD1, CD56 and CD4 markers were evaluated by IHC; positive cells/100 total cells were counted...
July 25, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Agnieszka Bauer, Julia Madela, Sebastian Voigt
CD200 is a membrane protein that interacts with CD200R on the surface of immune cells and delivers an inhibitory signal. In this study, we characterized the distribution of inhibitory CD200R in rats. In addition, we investigated if e127, a homologue of rat CD200 expressed by rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV), can suppress immune functions in vitro. RT-PCR analysis was carried out to test the expression of CD200R in different rat tissues and flow cytometry was performed to characterize CD200R at the cellular level...
July 21, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Krisana Asano, Kouji Narita, Shouhei Hirose, Akio Nakane
Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), a superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that is frequently associated with tampon use. It has long been suggested that TSS is induced when TSST-1 circulates through the body. However, the systemic distribution of TSST-1 from vagina or uterus has never been demonstrated. In this study, a mouse cervicovaginal infection model was established. Transcervical inoculation with a virulence strain of S. aureus and its derivative TSST-1-deficient mutant demonstrated that TSST-1 distributed to the bloodstream and spleen, and promoted systemic inflammation without bacteremia...
July 6, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Michael Schultheiß, Sharon Kling, Ulrike Lenker, Miriam von Bibra, Bernd Rosenkranz, Hartwig Klinker
The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric antiretroviral therapy is unclear. A little pharmacokinetic datum from clinical practice exists beyond controlled approval studies including clinically stable children. The aim of this study is to quantify LPV exposure of critically ill infants in an ICU and-by identifying risk factors for inadequate exposure-to define sensible indications for TDM in pediatric HIV care; in addition, assume total drug adherence in ICU to compare LPV exposure with a setting of unknown adherence...
July 4, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Jiao Hu, Chunxi Ma, Xiufan Liu
PA-X, a fusion protein belonging to influenza A viruses (IAVs), integrating the N-terminal 191 amino acids of PA gene and the ribosomal frame-shifting product that lengthens out to 41 or 61 amino acids. Since its discovery in 2012, multiple functions have been attributed to this small protein, including a process, where wide-spread protein synthesis in infected host cells is shut down (called host shutoff), and viral replication, polymerase activity, viral-induced cell apoptosis, PA nuclear localization, and virulence are modulated...
July 4, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Annemarie Berger, Hans Wilhelm Doerr
Several virus infections affect the pregnancy itself as well as the foetal development (rubella, PVB19, VZV, HSV, HCMV, HBV, HIV). Prevention can be established by vaccination or an assessment of the immunity status as well as by chemotherapy. The following review provides an update to current aspects focusing on the role of serologic screening.
July 3, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Anika Zilch, Christian Rien, Cynthia Weigel, Stefanie Huskobla, Brigitte Glück, Katrin Spengler, Andreas Sauerbrei, Regine Heller, Markus Gräler, Andreas Henke
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common pathogen, which causes severe or even deadly diseases in immunocompromised patients. In addition, congenital HCMV infection represents a major health concern affecting especially the lung tissue of the susceptible individuals. Antivirals are a useful strategy to treat HCMV-caused diseases. However, all approved drugs target viral proteins but significant toxicity and an increasing resistance against these compounds have been observed. In infected cells, numerous host molecules have been identified to play important roles during HCMV replication...
August 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Imane Allali, Noureddine Boukhatem, Leila Bouguenouch, Hanaa Hardi, H Abir Boudouaya, M Belen Cadenas, Karim Ouldim, Saaïd Amzazi, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Hassan Ghazal
Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death in Morocco, there are no studies of the microbiome changes associated with the disease in the Moroccan population. The aim of our study was to compare the stool microbiome of Moroccan cancer patients with healthy individuals. We analyzed the microbiome composition of samples from 11 CRC patients and 12 healthy individuals by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of samples revealed defined cancer versus healthy clusters. Our findings showed that cancer samples had higher proportions of Firmicutes (T = 50...
August 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Mahsa Farsi, Fatemeh Roodbari, Behrooz Nejati, Arash Arashkia, Somayeh Jalilvand, Alireza Nateghian, Aliakbar Rahbarimanesh, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zabihollah Shoja
Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Iran, very limited studies have been performed with regard to the epidemiology of noroviruses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of GII noroviruses in hospitalized children less than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A total of 210 stool specimens were collected from Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and Bahrami Children's Hospital in Tehran, from June 2015 to June 2016. The samples were screened by real-time RT-PCR for genogroup II (GII)...
August 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
August 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Saverio G Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Nicola Menegotto, Silvia Cavinato, Renzo Scaggiante, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Monica Basso, Anna Maria Cattelan
Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). The subjects were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or low-level viraemia (LLV) in the 18 months before T2...
August 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Sandro Mancinelli, Robert Mphwere, Enok Bokola, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Leonardo Palombi, Francesca Lucaroni, Marina Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Transplacental passage of IgGs is impaired in HIV + pregnant women, possibly determining an inadequate immunological protection in their children. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal immunological IgG profile and immunoactivation status on the efficiency of transplacental passage of IgG subclasses in HIV + mothers. METHODS: 16 mother/infants pairs were studied in Malawi. Mothers received antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the third trimester of pregnancy...
August 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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