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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

Florencia B González, Silvina R Villar, Judith Toneatto, María F Pacini, Julia Márquez, Luciano D'Attilio, Oscar A Bottasso, Graciela Piwien-Pilipuk, Ana R Pérez
Adipose tissue is a target of Trypanosoma cruzi infection being a parasite reservoir during the chronic phase in mice and humans. Previously, we reported that acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice is linked to a severe adipose tissue loss, probably triggered by inflammation, as well as by the parasite itself. Here, we evaluated how infection affects adipose tissue homeostasis, considering adipocyte anabolic and catabolic pathways, the immune-endocrine pattern and the possible repercussion upon adipogenesis...
November 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Changle Wang, Xia Chuai, Mei Liang
Gram-negative bacterium Legionella is able to proliferate intracellularly in mammalian host cells and amoeba, which became known in 1976 since they caused a large outbreak of pneumonia. It had been reported that different strains of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella feeleii caused human respiratory diseases, which were known as Pontiac fever or Legionnaires' disease. However, the differences of the virulence traits among the strains of the single species and the pathogenesis of the two diseases that were due to the bacterial virulence factors had not been well elucidated...
November 1, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Huali Yin, Jiani Qu, Qiu Peng, Runliang Gan
The early stage of oncogenesis is linked to the disorder of the cell cycle. Abnormal gene expression often leads to cell cycle disorders, resulting in malignant transformation of human cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a diverse range of human neoplasms, such as malignant lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric cancer. EBV mainly infects human lymphocytes and oropharyngeal epithelial cells. EBV is latent in lymphocytes for a long period of time, is detached from the cytoplasm by circular DNA, and can integrate into the chromosome of cells...
November 1, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Taraneh Rajaei, Hamid Farajifard, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Narges Valizadeh, Houshang Rafatpanah
One of the prominent features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is the excessive recruitment of leukocytes to the central nervous system (CNS), which leads to an inflammatory response-with chemokines and their receptors playing the main role in this recruitment. The aim of the study was to examine the relation of CXCR1 and CXCR2, both of which are involved in the trafficking of lymphocytes into the CNS, with the outcome of HTLV-1 infection. The mRNA levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls (HCs)...
October 20, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Matthias J Reddehase
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Fani Chatzopoulou, Georgia Gioula, Ioannis Kioumis, Dimitris Chatzidimitriou, Maria Exindari
Influenza remains an important threat for human health, despite the extensive study of influenza viruses and the production of effective vaccines. In contrast to virus genetics determinants, host genetic factors with clinical impact remained unexplored until recently. The association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and influenza outcome in a European population was investigated in the present study. All samples were collected during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 post-pandemic period 2010-11 and a sufficient number of severe and fatal cases was included...
October 10, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Volker Lohmann
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect 71 million people worldwide, often resulting in severe liver damage. Since 2014 highly efficient therapies based on directly acting antivirals (DAAs) are available, offering cure rates of almost 100%, if the infection is diagnosed in time. It took more than a decade to discover HCV in 1989 and another decade to establish a cell culture model. This review provides a personal view on the importance of HCV cell culture models, particularly the replicon system, in the process of therapy development, from drug screening to understanding of mode of action and resistance, with a special emphasis on the contributions of Ralf Bartenschlager's group...
October 8, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Md Imran Khan, Susanta Kumar Behera, Prajita Paul, Bhaskar Das, Mrutyunjay Suar, R Jayabalan, Derek Fawcett, Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern, Suraj K Tripathy, Amrita Mishra
The aim of the present study is focused on the synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites, where zinc oxide is overlaid on biogenic gold nanoparticles obtained from Hibiscus Sabdariffa plant extract. Optical property of nanocomposites is investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy and crystal structure has been determined using X-ray crystallography (XRD) technique. The presence of functional groups on the surface of Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites has been observed by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
October 5, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Andi Krumbholz, Janine Roempke, Thomas Liehr, Marco Groth, Astrid Meerbach, Michael Schacke, Gregor Maschkowitz, Helmut Fickenscher, Wolfram Klapper, Andreas Sauerbrei, Peter Wutzler, Roland Zell
Herpesvirus Macaca arctoides (HVMA) has the propensity to transform macaque lymphocytes to lymphoblastoid cells (MAL-1). Inoculation of rabbits with cell-free virus-containing supernatant resulted in the development of malignant lymphomas and allowed isolation of immortalised HVMA-transformed rabbit lymphocytes (HTRL). In this study, the HVMA genome sequence (approx. 167 kbp), its organisation, and novel aspects of virus latency are presented. Ninety-one open reading frames were identified, of which 86 were non-repetitive...
October 5, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi
The genus Bartonella consists of globally distributed and highly diverse alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide-range of mammals. Medically, Bartonella spp. constitute emerging, vector-borne, zoonotic, intravascular organisms that induce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (passive carrier of a microorganism) hosts. At times, these bacteria are accidentally transmitted by animal scratches, bites, needles sticks or vectors to animal or human hosts. We report the first documented human case of blood stream infection with Bartonella vinsonii subsp...
September 24, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Aravind Shekar, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston Jeyabalaji, Murali Harishchandra Sripathy
Escherichia coli O157:H7 with its traits such as intestinal colonization and fecal-oral route of transmission demands mucosal vaccine development. E. coli secreted protein B (EspB) is one of the key type III secretory system (TTSS) targets for mucosal candidate vaccine due to its indispensable role in the pathogenesis of E. coli O157:H7. However, mucosally administered recombinant proteins have low immunogenicity which could be overcome by the use of mucosal adjuvants. The quest for safe, potent mucosal adjuvant has recognized ΔG fragment of Zonula occludens toxin of Vibrio cholerae with such properties...
September 12, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Ana V Banko, Ivana B Lazarevic, Danijela Z Karalic, Vojko B Djukic, Maja D Cupic, Goran Stevanovic, Tanja P Jovanovic
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been identified as a group 1 carcinogenic agent, particularly for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The sequence diversity of EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) reflects region-restricted polymorphisms, which may be associated with the development of certain malignancies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate EBV EBNA1 gene polymorphisms circulating in NPC, infectious mononucleosis, and isolates from patients with transplanted organs to determine if EBNA1 sequence specificities are useful as viral biomarkers for NPC...
September 10, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Matthias Stefan Schampera, Jose Arellano-Galindo, Karl Oliver Kagan, Stuart P Adler, Gerhard Jahn, Klaus Hamprecht
BACKGROUND: HCMV hyperimmunoglobulin-preparations (HIG) contain high concentrations of HCMV-specific IgG. The reduced maternofetal-HCMV-transmission rate of IgG may be due to HCMV-specific neutralizing antibodies against the HCMV pentameric complex (PC). In contrast to HIG, standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may have more neutralization (NT) capacity than HIG due to higher IgG subclass 3 levels (Planitzer et al., 2011). METHODS: We investigated the HCMV-specific NT-capacity of HIG Cytotect® , using a recombinant pentameric complex (gHgLUL128-131A) for specific antibody-depletion...
September 10, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Ke Zhang, Mei-Jun Shi, Zhuo Niu, Xi Chen, Jia-Yi Wei, Zi-Wei Miao, Wei-Dong Zhao, Yu-Hua Chen
Escherichia coli K1 is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the hallmark of bacterial meningitis. Reportedly, the deletion of virulence factor cglD (E44:ΔcglD) from E44 is responsible for a less efficient PMN transendothelial migration ability. In the present study, we found that complementation of the cglD gene into E44:ΔcglD mutant strain might restore the PMN count and myeloperoxidase level in a neonatal mouse meningitis...
August 31, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Kleber Paiva Trugilo, Guilherme Cesar Martelossi Cebinelli, Fernanda Costa Brandão Berti, Nádia Calvo Martins Okuyama, Fernando Cezar-Dos-Santos, Michelle Mota Sena, Luis Fernando Lásaro Mangieri, Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe, Karen Brajão de Oliveira
The main purpose was to assess the effect of c.29C>T and c.74G>C polymorphisms in the TGFB1 signal peptide on HPV infection and development of cervical lesions. Cervical swabs and blood samples were obtained from 349 outpatient women, along with socio-demographic and sexual behavioral data. The study population was stratified by absence or presence of HPV DNA, as tested by PCR, as well as by lesion grade. TGFB1 signal peptide polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism...
August 30, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Vahid Salimi, Habib Mirzaei, Ali Ramezani, Alireza Tahamtan, Abbas Jamali, Shahram Shahabi, Maryam Golara, Bagher Minaei, Mohammad Javad Gharagozlou, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
In the original publication, seventh author's name was incorrectly published as 'Maryam Golaram'.
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Riikka Ihalin, Deyu Zhong, Maribasappa Karched, Casey Chen, Sirkka Asikainen
Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) is covalently incorporated into bacterial surface structures, contributing to host mimicry and promoting adhesion to surfaces. Our aims were to determine the frequency of ChoP display among Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains, to clarify which surface structures bear ChoP, and whether ChoP-positivity relates to serum killing. The tested oral (N = 67) and blood isolates (N = 27) represented 6 serotypes. Mab TEPC-15 was used for immunoblotting of cell lysates and fractions and for immunofluorescence microscopy of cell surface-bound ChoP...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Aldana G Vistarop, Melina Cohen, Fuad Huaman, Lucia Irazu, Marcelo Rodriguez, Elena De Matteo, María Victoria Preciado, Paola A Chabay
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gains access to the host through tonsillar crypts. Our aim was to characterize microenvironment composition around EBV+ cells in tonsils from pediatric carriers, to disclose its role on viral pathogenesis. LMP1 expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), was used to discriminate EBV + and - zones in 41 tonsil biopsies. Three regions were defined: Subepithelial (SE), interfollicular (IF) and germinal center (GC). CD8, GrB, CD68, IL10, Foxp3, PD1, CD56 and CD4 markers were evaluated by IHC; positive cells/100 total cells were counted...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Agnieszka Bauer, Julia Madela, Sebastian Voigt
CD200 is a membrane protein that interacts with CD200R on the surface of immune cells and delivers an inhibitory signal. In this study, we characterized the distribution of inhibitory CD200R in rats. In addition, we investigated if e127, a homologue of rat CD200 expressed by rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV), can suppress immune functions in vitro. RT-PCR analysis was carried out to test the expression of CD200R in different rat tissues and flow cytometry was performed to characterize CD200R at the cellular level...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Krisana Asano, Kouji Narita, Shouhei Hirose, Akio Nakane
Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), a superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that is frequently associated with tampon use. It has long been suggested that TSS is induced when TSST-1 circulates through the body. However, the systemic distribution of TSST-1 from vagina or uterus has never been demonstrated. In this study, a mouse cervicovaginal infection model was established. Transcervical inoculation with a virulence strain of S. aureus and its derivative TSST-1-deficient mutant demonstrated that TSST-1 distributed to the bloodstream and spleen, and promoted systemic inflammation without bacteremia...
November 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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