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Medical Microbiology and Immunology

Arezoo Aghakhani, Setareh Mamishi, Shahram Sabeti, Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Mohammad Banifazl, Anahita Bavand, Amitis Ramezani
The assessment of the gender and age-specific seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) is essential for planning of HPV vaccine implementation into the preventive programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the age-specific seroprevalence of HPV-16 and 18 in both males and females in Tehran, Iran. Three hundred and seventy-eight women (10-35 years) and 162 men (10-25 years) from Tehran, Iran, were enrolled. Anti-HPV IgG antibodies against HPV-16 and HPV-18 were detected by ELISA using papillomavirus type 16 and 18 L1-capsids as antigen...
November 17, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Stephan Herberhold, Martin Hellmich, Marcus Panning, Eva Bartok, Steffi Silling, Baki Akgül, Ulrike Wieland
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are an acknowledged cause of a subset of oropharyngeal cancers, especially of tonsillar cancer. Similar to HPV, some human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), such as Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), have an oncogenic potential. Recently, several novel HPyVs have been discovered. The aim of our study was to determine viral DNA prevalence and viral DNA load of 13 different HPyVs in benign and malignant tonsillar tissue and to compare the data with those found for HPV. A total of 78 biopsies of palatine tonsils with a histologic diagnosis of non-malignant disease (chronic tonsillitis, tonsillar hyperplasia, n = 40) or tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (n = 38) were included in the study...
November 10, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Angela Chiereghin, Evangelia Petrisli, Matteo Ravaioli, Maria Cristina Morelli, Gabriele Turello, Diego Squarzoni, Giulia Piccirilli, Simone Ambretti, Liliana Gabrielli, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Maria Paola Landini, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Infections continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. We retrospectively reviewed the symptomatic infectious episodes that occurred during the first year post-transplant to determine time of onset, causative pathogens and cell-mediated immunity response patterns. Ninety-eight of the 202 (48.5%) recipients enrolled developed at least one infectious episode. The total number of infectious episodes was 135: 77 (57.1%) bacterial, 45 (33.3%) viral and 13 (9...
October 25, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
J Teixeira, J R Mesquita, S S Pereira, R M S Oliveira, J Abreu-Silva, A Rodrigues, M Myrmel, K Stene-Johansen, J Øverbø, G Gonçalves, M S J Nascimento
The concept of zoonotic hepatitis E in industrialized countries has emerged with the discovery of swine strains of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, closely related to human HEV. Different routes of zoonotic HEV transmission have been recognized, including contact with infected pigs. Workers occupationally exposed to swine (WOES) have been considered a risk group for HEV infection, but contradictory results have been reported. In the present study, we searched for anti-HEV IgG in WOES (butchers, slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians and pig farmers; n = 114) and in the general population (n = 804) in order to investigate the potential occupational risk of zoonotic HEV infection in this work group...
October 21, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Imran Rashid, Nathalie Moiré, Bruno Héraut, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Marie-Noëlle Mévélec
Infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes serious public health problems and is of great economic importance worldwide. No vaccine is currently available, so the design of efficient vaccine strategies is still a topical question. In this study, we evaluated the immunoprophylactic potential of a T. gondii virulence factor, the rhoptry kinase ROP18, in a mouse model of chronic toxoplasmosis: first using a recombinant protein produced in Schneider insect cells adjuvanted with poly I:C emulsified in Montanide SV71 by a parenteral route or adjuvanted with cholera toxin by the nasal route and second using a DNA plasmid encoding ROP18 adjuvanted with GM-CSF ± IL-12 DNA...
October 18, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Bahman Navidshad, Juan Boo Liang
Nowadays, use of prebiotics as feed and food additives has received increasing interest because of the beneficial effects of prebiotics on the health of animals and humans. One of the beneficial effects of prebiotics is stimulation of immune system, which can be direct or indirect through increasing population of beneficial microbes or probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, in the gut. An important mechanism of action of probiotics and prebiotics, by which they can affect the immune system, is changing the expression of cytokines...
October 4, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Alessandra Bua, Melania Ruggeri, Stefania Zanetti, Paola Molicotti
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by damage to myelin and axons, over time leading to progressive neuronal degeneration and microglial activation. There is still no curative treatment, but during the last 20 years eight different therapies have become available including interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab, fingolimod, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone and teriflunomide. Teriflunomide is an immunomodulatory drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on T cell activation in central nervous system of the patients with multiple sclerosis...
October 4, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Stefanie Papp, Jessica Rauch, Svenja Kuehl, Ulricke Richardt, Christian Keller, Anke Osterloh
Rickettsioses are caused by intracellular bacteria of the family of Rickettsiaceae. Rickettsia (R.) typhi is the causative agent of endemic typhus. The disease occurs worldwide and is one of the most prevalent rickettsioses. Rickettsial diseases, however, are generally underdiagnosed which is mainly due to the lack of sensitive and specific methods. In addition, methods for quantitative detection of the bacteria for research purposes are rare. We established two qPCRs for the detection of R. typhi by amplification of the outer membrane protein B (ompB) and parvulin-type PPIase (prsA) genes...
October 1, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Alba Ribera, Dolors Garcia-Somoza, Fe Tubau, Carmen Cabellos, Javier Cabo, Javier Ariza
Using a tissue cage infection rat model, we test the anti-biofilm effect of clarithromycin on the efficacy of daptomycin and a daptomycin + rifampicin combination against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In vitro: kill curves, daptomycin exposure studies and clarithromycin activity against biofilm were studied. In vivo: the efficacies of clarithromycin, daptomycin or daptomycin + clarithromycin, daptomycin + rifampicin and daptomycin + rifampicin + clarithromycin combinations were evaluated...
September 17, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Haswel Jere, Jean-Baptiste Sagno, Paola Scarcella, Sandro Mancinelli, Ersilia Buonomo, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Leonardo Palombi, Marina Giuliano
Antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce rates of congenital CMV infection. Little information is available on the possible impact of antiretroviral therapy on postnatal breastfeeding-associated CMV infection acquisition. A cohort of 89 HIV-infected mothers and their children was studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from week 25 of gestation until 6 months postpartum or indefinitely if meeting the criteria for treatment. All women were evaluated for CMV IgG presence and CMV DNA in breast milk...
September 15, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
P Martijn den Reijer, Marjan Sandker, Susan V Snijders, Mehri Tavakol, Antoni P A Hendrickx, Willem J B van Wamel
Currently, little is known about the in vivo human immune response against Staphylococcus aureus during a biofilm-associated infection, such as osteomyelitis, and how this relates to protein production in biofilms in vitro. Therefore, we characterized IgG responses in 10 patients with chronic osteomyelitis against 50 proteins of S. aureus, analyzed the presence of these proteins in biofilms of the infecting isolates on polystyrene (PS) and human bone in vitro, and explored the relation between in vivo and in vitro data...
September 14, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
M Składanowski, P Golinska, K Rudnicka, H Dahm, M Rai
The study was focused on assessment of antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and immune compatibility of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Streptomyces sp. NH28 strain. Nanoparticles were biosynthesized and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis system and zeta potential. Antibacterial activity was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; minimal inhibitory concentration was recorded...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Bodo Plachter
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is one leading cause of childhood disabilities. Prevention of congenital HCMV disease by vaccination has consequently been identified as a priority public healthcare goal. Several vaccine candidates have been introduced in the past that aimed at the prevention of primary HCMV infection in pregnancy. None of these has provided complete protection, and no licensed vaccine is thus far available. An additional level of complexity has been reached by recent studies indicating that the burden of HCMV transmission and disease following non-primary infections in pregnancy may be higher than previously anticipated...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Agata Palusiak
The frequency of P. penneri isolation from hospital patients, mostly from urine and wounds, keeps on growing, and numerous isolates are multi-drug resistant. P. penneri rods produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which may lead to the septic shock. Until now, O-specific polysaccharide has been the best structurally and serologically characterized region of P. penneri LPS. It is worth having an insight into the serological specificity of both poly- and oligosaccharide parts of P. penneri LPS. The P. penneri core region is less structurally diverse than OPS, but still, among other enterobacterial LPS core regions, it is characterized by structural variability...
December 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
S Aswathyraj, G Arunkumar, E K Alidjinou, D Hober
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease and mainly affects infants and young children. The main manifestations are fever, vesicular rashes on hand, feet and buttocks and ulcers in the oral mucosa. Usually, HFMD is self-limiting, but a small proportion of children may experience severe complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis and neurorespiratory syndrome. Historically, outbreaks of HFMD were mainly caused by two enteroviruses: the coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and the enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Meng Yu, Qingnan Wang, Wenbao Qi, Kaizhao Zhang, Jianxin Liu, Pan Tao, Shikun Ge, Ming Liao, Zhangyong Ning
H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV)-infected human cases are increasing and reported over 200 mortalities since its first emergence in 2013. Host inflammatory response contributes to the clearance of influenza virus; meanwhile, the induced "cytokine storm" also leads to pathological lesions. However, what inflammation-related response of the host for H7N9 influenza A virus infection to survival from injures of exuberant cytokine release is still obscure. In this research, expression pattern and histological distribution of inflammation-related genes, RIP3, NLRP3, IL-1β, TNF-α, Slit2 and Robo4 in the lung of BALB/c mice infected with two H7N9 IAV strains with only a PB2 residue 627 difference were investigated, as well as the histopathological injury of the lung...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Wibke Katharina Janhsen, Christin Arnold, Julia Hentschel, Thomas Lehmann, Wolfgang Pfister, Michael Baier, Klas Böer, Kerstin Hünniger, Oliver Kurzai, Uta-Christina Hipler, Jochen Georg Mainz
In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients' airways, inflammatory processes decisively contribute to remodeling and pulmonary destruction. The aims of this study were to compare upper airway (UAW) inflammation in the context of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in a longitudinal setting, and to examine further factors influencing UAW inflammation. Therefore, we analyzed soluble inflammatory mediators in noninvasively obtained nasal lavage (NL) of CF patients together with microbiology, medication, and relevant clinical parameters...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Andi Krumbholz, Renate Egerer, Heike Braun, Michaela Schmidtke, Dagmar Rimek, Claudia Kroh, Bert Hennig, Marco Groth, Andreas Sauerbrei, Roland Zell
In October and November 2010, six children and one woman were presented with symptoms of aseptic meningitis in Jena, Thuringia, Germany. Enterovirus RNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of all patients by RT-PCR, and preliminary molecular typing revealed echovirus 18 (E-18) as causative agent. Virus isolates were obtained from stool samples of three patients and several contact persons. Again, most isolates were typed as E-18. In addition, coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) and echovirus 25 (E-25) were found to co-circulate...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Xiaoru Long, Jun Xie, Keting Zhao, Wei Li, Wei Tang, Sisi Chen, Na Zang, Luo Ren, Yu Deng, Xiaohong Xie, Lijia Wang, Zhou Fu, Enmei Liu
RSV can lead to persistent airway inflammation and AHR and is intimately associated with childhood recurrent wheezing and asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. There are high numbers of NK cells in the lung, which not only play important roles in the acute stage of RSV infection, but also are pivotal in regulating the pathogenesis of asthma. Therefore, in this study, we assumed that NK cells might contribute to persistent airway disease during the later stage of RSV infection. Mice were killed at serial time points after RSV infection to collect samples...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Eugenia Bifeld, Paloma Tejera Nevado, Janika Bartsch, Julia Eick, Joachim Clos
The majority of PCR-based detection systems for Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi aim at high sensitivity and specificity, rather than an accurate parasite load quantification required for experimental infections in basic research and drug development. Here, we describe the use of a dual-labelled probe qPCR to detect and quantify intracellular Old World Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi amastigotes after in vitro and in vivo infection experiments. We show that quantification of parasite actin gene DNA relative to the host cell actin gene DNA accurately reflects the parasite load relative to the host cells and that qPCR quantification is highly sensible to drug-induced cell death...
October 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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