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International Journal for Parasitology

Rosemary A Aogo, David S Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Trish Elliott, Jasmin Akter, Lily G Fogg, Arya Sheela Nair, Urijah N Liligeto, Megan S F Soon, Bryce S Thomas, Clara P S Pernold, Aleksandra S Romanczuk, Pawat Laohamonthonkul, Ashraful Haque, Miles P Davenport
A major mechanism of host-mediated control of blood-stage Plasmodium infection is thought to be removal of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) from circulation by the spleen or phagocytic system. The rate of parasite removal is thought to be further increased by anti-malarial drug treatment, contributing to the effectiveness of drug therapy. It is difficult to directly compare pRBC removal rates in the presence and absence of treatment, since in the absence of treatment the removal rate of parasites is obscured by the extent of ongoing parasite proliferation...
September 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Muhsin Muhsin, Jesuthas Ajendra, Katrin Gentil, Afiat Berbudi, Anna-Lena Neumann, Lil Klaas, Kim E Schmidt, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P Hübner
IL-6 has a wide range of biological activities that includes anti- and pro-inflammatory aspects. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in immune responses to the rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, a model for human filarial infections. IL-6-/- mice had a significantly increased worm burden after natural infection compared with wild type controls at early time points p.i. Given that the worm burden in IL-6-/- mice was already increased at the time point the infective larvae reached the pleural cavity, immune responses that may facilitate the migration from the site of infection (skin) via the lymphatics to the pleural cavity were analysed...
September 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Tao Wang, Shuai Nie, Guangxu Ma, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Ching-Seng Ang, Gavin E Reid, Nicholas A Williamson, Robin B Gasser
Lipids play crucial roles in the biology of organisms, particularly relating to cellular membranes, energy storage, and intra- or inter-cellular signalling. Despite recent expansion of the lipidomics field, very little is known about the biology of lipids in metzoan pathogens, and, to date, there has been no global lipidomic study of a parasitic nematode. Using Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm) as a model, we describe the first known global lipidome for a parasitic nematode via high throughput LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics...
September 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Kyoko Hayashida, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Thillaiampalam Sivakumar, Junya Yamagishi, Yutaka Suzuki, Chihiro Sugimoto, Naoaki Yokoyama
Oriental theileriosis caused by Theileria orientalis is an economically significant disease in cattle farming. The lack of laboratory animal models and in vitro culture systems is a major obstacle in the drive to better understand the biology of this parasite. Notably, research on the sporozoite stage of T. orientalis has rarely been undertaken, although such investigations are of paramount importance for vaccine development based on blocking sporozoite invasion of its host animals. In the present study, we established a mouse-tick infection model for propagating T...
August 31, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Azan Z Virji, Jose Thekkiniath, Wenxiu Ma, Lauren Lawres, James Knight, Andrea Swei, Karine Le Roch, Choukri Ben Mamoun
Babesia microti and Babesia duncani are the main causative agents of human babesiosis in the United States. While significant knowledge about B. microti has been gained over the past few years, nothing is known about B. duncani biology, pathogenesis, mode of transmission or sensitivity to currently recommended therapies. Studies in immunocompetent wild type mice and hamsters have shown that unlike B. microti, infection with B. duncani results in severe pathology and ultimately death. The parasite factors involved in B...
August 31, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Anurag Shukla, Kellen L Olszewski, Manuel Llinás, Leah M Rommereim, Barbara A Fox, David J Bzik, Dong Xia, Jonathan Wastling, Daniel Beiting, David S Roos, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam
Toxoplasma gondii can grow and replicate using either glucose or glutamine as the major carbon source. Here, we have studied the essentiality of glycolysis in the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of T. gondii, using transgenic parasites that lack a functional hexokinase gene (Δhk) in RH (Type-1) and Prugniaud (Type-II) strain parasites. Tachyzoite stage Δhk parasites exhibit a fitness defect similar to that reported previously for the major glucose transporter mutant, and remain virulent in mice. However, although Prugniaud strain Δhk tachyzoites were capable of transforming into bradyzoites in vitro, they were severely compromised in their ability to make mature bradyzoite cysts in the brain tissue of mice...
August 31, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Xi Huang, Roland Hansson, Vaidas Palinauskas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Olof Hellgren, Staffan Bensch
Genomic sequencing of avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) has been challenging due to excessive contamination from host DNA. In this study, we developed a cost-effective protocol to obtain parasite sequences from naturally infected birds, based on targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing. With the genomic data of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi as a reference, we successfully sequenced up to 1000 genes from each of the 15 selected samples belonging to nine different cytochrome b lineages, eight of which belong to Haemoproteus and one to Plasmodium...
August 11, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
N J Fox, L A Smith, J G M Houdijk, S Athanasiadou, M R Hutchings
Of anthropogenic methane emissions, 40% can be attributed to agriculture, the majority of which are from enteric fermentation in livestock. With international commitments to tackle drivers of climate change, there is a need to lower global methane emissions from livestock production. Gastrointestinal helminths (parasitic worms) are globally ubiquitous and represent one of the most pervasive challenges to the health and productivity of grazing livestock. These parasites influence a number of factors affecting methane emissions including feed efficiency, nutrient use, and production traits...
August 11, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Elena N Surkova, Natalia P Korallo-Vinarskaya, Maxim V Vinarski, Michal Stanko, Elizabeth M Warburton, Luther van der Mescht, Irina S Khokhlova, Boris R Krasnov
The aims of this study were to determine whether sexual size dimorphism in fleas and gamasid mites (i) conforms to Rensch's rule (allometry of sexual size dimorphism) and (ii) covaries with sex ratio in infrapopulations (conspecific parasites harboured by an individual host), xenopopulations (conspecific parasites harboured by a population of a given host species in a locality) and suprapopulations (conspecific parasites harboured by an entire host community in a locality). Rensch's rule in sexual size dimorphism was tested across 150 flea and 55 mite species, whereas covariation between sexual size dimorphism and sex ratio was studied using data on ectoparasites collected from small mammalian hosts in Slovakia and western Siberia...
August 2, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Vincenzo A Ellis, Staffan Bensch
Parasites can vary in the number of host species they infect, a trait known as "host specificity". Here we quantify phylogenetic signal-the tendency for closely related species to resemble each other more than distantly related species-in host specificity of avian haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) using data from MalAvi, the global avian haemosporidian database. We used the genetic data (479 base pairs of cytochrome b) that define parasite lineages to produce genus level phylogenies...
August 2, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jenny Knapp, Patrick Giraudoux, Benoit Combes, Gérald Umhang, Franck Boué, Zeinaba Said-Ali, Soufiane Aknouche, Célie Garcia, Mallory Vacheyrou, Audrey Laboissière, Vincent Raton, Sébastien Comte, Stéphanie Favier, Jean-Michel Demerson, Christophe Caillot, Laurence Millon, Francis Raoul
In zoonotic infections, the relationships between animals and humans lead to parasitic disease with severity that ranges from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions. In cities and their surrounding areas, this statement is truer with the overcrowding of the protagonists of the parasites' life cycle. The present study aims to investigate the distribution of a parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis, which is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, using copro-sampling in historically endemic rural settlements of the eastern part of France and in newly endemic areas including urban parks and settlements surrounding Paris...
August 2, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Luther van der Mescht, Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova, Michal Stanko, Maxim V Vinarski, Natalia P Korallo-Vinarskaya, Boris R Krasnov
We tested whether biogeographic patterns characteristic for biological communities can also apply to populations and investigated geographic patterns of variation in abundance of ectoparasites (fleas and mites) collected from bodies of their small mammalian hosts (rodents and shrews) in the Palearctic at continental, regional and local scales. We asked whether (i) there is a relationship between latitude and abundance and (ii) similarity in abundance follows a distance decay pattern or it is better explained by variation in extrinsic biotic and abiotic factors...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
A M Gleichsner, K Reinhart, D J Minchella
Intraspecific competition between co-infecting parasites can influence the amount of virulence, or damage, they do to their host. Kin selection theory dictates that infections with related parasite individuals should have lower virulence than infections with unrelated individuals, because they benefit from inclusive fitness and increased host longevity. These predictions have been tested in a variety of microparasite systems, and in larval stage macroparasites within intermediate hosts, but the influence of adult macroparasite relatedness on virulence has not been investigated in definitive hosts...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Telleasha L Greay, Amanda D Barbosa, Robert L Rees, Andrea Paparini, Una M Ryan, Charlotte L Oskam, Peter J Irwin
Recent molecular and sero-surveillance studies of the tick-borne pathogen Hepatozoon canis have identified new hosts, potential vector species, and have revealed that H. canis is more widespread than previously thought. We report the first diagnosed case of canine hepatozoonosis in Australia from a Maremma Sheepdog in Sarina, Queensland. Hepatozoon canis was detected with blood smear examination and 18S rRNA sequencing. It is unknown when or how the organism was introduced into Australia, which raises questions about border biosecurity policies and the H...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Samantha J Emery-Corbin, Daniel Vuong, Ernest Lacey, Staffan G Svärd, Brendan R E Ansell, Aaron R Jex
Giardia duodenalis a species complex of gastrointestinal protists, with assemblages A and B infective to humans. To date, post-genomic proteomics are largely derived from Assemblage A, biasing understanding of parasite biology. To address this gap, we quantitatively analysed the proteomes of trophozoites from the genome reference and two clinical Assemblage B isolates, revealing lower spectrum-to-peptide matches in non-reference isolates, resulting in significant losses in peptide and protein identifications, and indicating significant intra-assemblage variation...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Maoxuan Liu, Purity Kipanga, Anh Hung Mai, Ineke Dhondt, Bart P Braeckman, Wim De Borggraeve, Walter Luyten
Parasitic helminths continue to pose problems in human and veterinary medicine, as well as in agriculture. Resistance to current anthelmintics has prompted the search for new drugs. Anthelmintic metabolites from medicinal plants could be good anthelmintic drug candidates. However, the compounds active against nematodes have not been identified in most medicinal plants with anthelmintic activity. In this study, we aimed to identify the active compounds against helminths in Warburgia ugandensis Sprague subspecies ugandensis (Canellaceae) and study the underlying mechanism of action...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Anna K Crater, Scott Roscoe, Ambreen Fahim, Sirinart Ananvoranich
Sumoylation and desumoylation are reversible pathways responsible for modification of protein structures and functions by the reversible covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptide. These pathways are important for a wide range of cellular processes and require a steady supply of SUMO, which is generated by an enzymatic reaction catalysed by the ubiquitin-like protease (Ulp) family. Here we show by functional complementation analysis that the Ulp1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgUlp1) can rescue a growth-deficient phenotype of a yeast-Ulp1 knockout...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
P Maksimov, W Basso, J Zerweck, M Schutkowski, U Reimer, A Maksimov, F J Conraths, G Schares
Due to their ground-feeding behaviour, free-ranging chickens and turkeys are exposed to oocysts and are good indicators of the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment. In addition, poultry may become infected by ingestion of tissues of infected intermediate hosts such as small rodents. Free-ranging poultry are considered an important source of T. gondii infection in humans, especially in developing countries. Knowledge on T. gondii genotypes in infected animals and humans is important for understanding the epidemiology of T...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jose M Ribeiro, Meera Garriga, Nicole Potchen, Anna K Crater, Ankit Gupta, Daisuke Ito, Sanjay A Desai
CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is addressing key limitations in the transfection of malaria parasites. While this method has already simplified the needed molecular cloning and reduced the time required to generate mutants in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum, optimal selection of required guide RNAs and guidelines for successful transfections have not been well characterised, leading workers to use time-consuming trial and error approaches. We used a genome-wide computational approach to create a comprehensive and publicly accessible database of possible guide RNA sequences in the P...
September 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Melanie Clerc, Godefroy Devevey, Andy Fenton, Amy B Pedersen
Coinfections with parasitic helminths and microparasites are highly common in nature and can lead to complex within-host interactions between parasite species which can cause negative health outcomes for humans, and domestic and wild animals. Many of these negative health effects worsen with increasing parasite burdens. However, even though many studies have identified several key factors that determine worm burdens across various host systems, less is known about how the immune response interacts with these factors and what the consequences are for the outcome of within-host parasite interactions...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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