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International Journal for Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414071/epigenetic-landscapes-underlining-global-patterns-of-gene-expression-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#1
REVIEW
Archana P Gupta, Zbynek Bozdech
The dynamic chromatin landscape displaying combinatorial complexity of the epigenome impacts gene expression that underlies many events of differentiation and cell cycle progression. In the past few years, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as important processes involved in the tight gene regulation in malaria parasites, Plasmodium spp. Focusing predominantly on Plasmodium falciparum, the species associated with the most severe form of the disease, many advances have been made in our understanding of the interaction between transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms as the pivotal processes in regulating life cycle progression, host parasite interactions and parasite adaptation to the host environment...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414070/the-unhealthy-attraction-of-plasmodium-vivax-to-reticulocytes-expressing-transferrin-receptor-1-cd71
#2
REVIEW
Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Bruce Russell
The majority of malaria parasite species prefer to invade reticulocytes, the most infamous being Plasmodium vivax. While the absence of an in vitro continuous culture method has hampered the study of P. vivax invasion biology, studies utilising primate models and ex vivo assays have provided some important insights. Most importantly, P. vivax merozoites have a strong preference for a subset of immature erythrocytes characterised by the expression of the transferrin receptor (CD71). This current opinion piece on P...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385494/schistosome-induced-pulmonary-b-cells-inhibit-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-display-a-reduced-th2-driving-function
#3
L E van der Vlugt, K Obieglo, A Ozir-Fazalalikhan, T Sparwasser, S Haeberlein, H H Smits
Chronic schistosome infections protect against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) via the induction of IL-10-producing splenic regulatory B (Breg) cells. Previous experiments have demonstrated that schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells can also reduce AAI, but act independently of IL-10. We have now further characterized the phenotype and inhibitory activity of these protective pulmonary B cells. We excluded a role for regulatory T (Treg) cell induction as putative AAI-protective mechanisms. Schistosome-induced B cells showed increased CD86 expression and reduced cytokine expression in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands compared with control B cells...
April 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347664/venestatin-a-ca-binding-protein-from-the-parasitic-nematode-strongyloides-venezuelensis-is-involved-in-the-larval-migration-process
#4
Daigo Tsubokawa, Takeshi Hatta, Taisei Kikuchi, Hiroki Maeda, Fusako Mikami, M Abdul Alim, Haruhiko Maruyama, Naotoshi Tsuji
The secretory EF-hand Ca(++)-binding proteins act as calcium signaling molecules for control of cell functions, but those proteins from parasitic helminths are poorly understood. Here, we have identified and characterized an EF-hand Ca(++)-binding protein from the rodent nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, termed 'venestatin', which is highly conserved in Strongyloides spp. Canonical two EF-hand domains and a signal peptide are present in venestatin. A gel mobility shift assay and Ruthenium red staining indicated that the recombinant venestatin possesses binding ability with Ca(++) ions...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344097/whence-river-blindness-the-domestication-of-mammals-and-host-parasite-co-evolution-in-the-nematode-genus-onchocerca
#5
Emilie Lefoulon, Alessio Giannelli, Benjamin L Makepeace, Yasen Mutafchiev, Simon Townson, Shigehiko Uni, Guilherme G Verocai, Domenico Otranto, Coralie Martin
The genus Onchocerca includes 34 described species and represents one of the largest genera of the filarial nematodes within the family Onchocercidae. Representative members of this genus are mainly parasites of ungulates, with some exceptions such as Onchocerca lupi and Onchocerca volvulus, infecting carnivores and/or humans. For a long time, the evolutionary relationships amongst onchocercids remained poorly studied, as the systematics of this genus was impaired by the high morphological variability of species included in the taxon...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336271/helminth-secretomes-reflect-different-lifestyles-and-parasitized-hosts
#6
Yesid Cuesta-Astroz, Francislon Silva de Oliveira, Laila Alves Nahum, Guilherme Oliveira
Helminths cause a number of medical and agricultural problems and are a major cause of parasitic infections in humans, animals and plants. Comparative analysis of helminth genes and genomes are important to understand the genomic biodiversity and evolution of parasites and their hosts in terms of different selective pressures in their habitats. The interactions between the infective organisms and their hosts are mediated in large part by secreted proteins, known collectively as the "secretome". Proteins secreted by parasites are able to modify a host's environment and modulate their immune system...
March 21, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322847/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-oncomelania-hupensis-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-involved-in-the-snail-host-innate-immune-response-to-the-parasite-schistosoma-japonicum
#7
Shuaiqin Huang, Yunchao Cao, Mingke Lu, Wenfeng Peng, Jiaojiao Lin, Chongti Tang, Liang Tang
Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, remains a devastating public health problem, with over 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide, especially in developing countries. The freshwater amphibious snail Oncomelania hupensis is the obligate intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. This unique and long-standing host-parasite interaction highlights the biomedical importance of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the snail immune defense response against schistosome infection...
March 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322846/did-biogeographical-processes-shape-the-monogenean-community-of-butterflyfishes-in-the-tropical-indo-west-pacific-region
#8
M Reverter, T H Cribb, S C Cutmore, R A Bray, V Parravicini, P Sasal
Geographical distribution of parasite species can provide insights into the evolution and diversity of parasitic communities. Biogeography of marine parasites is poorly known, especially because it requires an understanding of host-parasite interactions, information that is rare, especially over large spatial scales. Here, we have studied the biogeographical patterns of dactylogyrid parasites of chaetodontids, one of the most well-studied fish families, in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region. Dactylogyrid parasites were collected from gills of 34 butterflyfish species (n=560) at nine localities within an approximate area of 62millionkm(2)...
March 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315671/spatial-distribution-of-soil-contaminated-with-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts-in-relation-to-the-distribution-and-use-of-domestic-cat-defecation-sites-on-dairy-farms
#9
J A Simon, S Kurdzielewicz, E Jeanniot, E Dupuis, F Marnef, D Aubert, I Villena, M-L Poulle
Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed...
March 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315363/sider2-retroposon-mediated-mrna-decay-in-leishmania-is-coupled-to-translation
#10
Hiva Azizi, Michaela Müller-McNicoll, Barbara Papadopoulou
We previously reported that Short Interspersed Degenerate Retroposons of the SIDER2 subfamily predominantly located within 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of Leishmania transcripts promote rapid turnover that is initiated by endonucleolytic cleavage. Here, we investigated whether SIDER2-mediated mRNA decay is linked to translation. We show that preventing translation initiation by inserting a hairpin structure at the 5'-end of a SIDER2-containing mRNA blocks degradation. Similarly, global inhibition of translation elongation by cycloheximide or termination by puromycin causes stabilisation of SIDER2-containing transcripts...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315362/molecular-analyses-reveal-high-species-diversity-of-trematodes-in-a-sub-arctic-lake
#11
Miroslava Soldánová, Simona Georgieva, Jana Roháčová, Rune Knudsen, Jesper A Kuhn, Eirik H Henriksen, Anna Siwertsson, Jenny C Shaw, Armand M Kuris, Per-Arne Amundsen, Tomáš Scholz, Kevin D Lafferty, Aneta Kostadinova
To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263772/patterns-of-parasite-distribution-in-the-hybrids-of-non-congeneric-cyprinid-fish-species-is-asymmetry-in-parasite-infection-the-result-of-limited-coadaptation
#12
Vadym Krasnovyd, Lukáš Vetešník, Lenka Gettová, Kristína Civáňová, Andrea Šimková
Hybrids and their parasite diversity represent interesting models for evolutionary ecology. The modified immune response, shifted ecology, inheritance, and maternal ancestry of hybrid host fish are supposed to affect the diversity of their parasite communities. The pattern of metazoan parasite distribution in non-congeneric cyprinids - common bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (species with different morphology and ecology, and harbouring different specific parasites) - and their hybrids was analysed...
March 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-pathogenic-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#13
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192124/comparative-cophylogenetics-of-australian-phabine-pigeons-and-doves-aves-columbidae-and-their-feather-lice-insecta-phthiraptera
#14
Andrew D Sweet, R Terry Chesser, Kevin P Johnson
Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153780/tools-for-attenuation-of-gene-expression-in-malaria-parasites
#15
REVIEW
Philip J Shaw, Aiyada Aroonsri
An understanding of the biology of Plasmodium parasites, which are the causative agents of the disease malaria, requires study of gene function. Various reverse genetic tools have been described for determining gene function. These tools can be broadly grouped as trans- and cis-acting. Trans-acting tools control gene functions through synthetic nucleic acid probe molecules matching the sequence of the gene of interest. Once delivered to the parasite, the probe engages with the mRNA of the target gene and attenuates its function...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153778/accelerating-the-clinical-development-of-protein-based-vaccines-for-malaria-by-efficient-purification-using-a-four-amino-acid-c-terminal-c-tag
#16
Jing Jin, Kathryn A Hjerrild, Sarah E Silk, Rebecca E Brown, Geneviève M Labbé, Jennifer M Marshall, Katherine E Wright, Sandra Bezemer, Stine B Clemmensen, Sumi Biswas, Yuanyuan Li, Aadil El-Turabi, Alexander D Douglas, Pim Hermans, Frank J Detmers, Willem A de Jongh, Matthew K Higgins, Rebecca Ashfield, Simon J Draper
Development of bespoke biomanufacturing processes remains a critical bottleneck for translational studies, in particular when modest quantities of a novel product are required for proof-of-concept Phase I/II clinical trials. In these instances the ability to develop a biomanufacturing process quickly and relatively cheaply, without risk to product quality or safety, provides a great advantage by allowing new antigens or concepts in immunogen design to more rapidly enter human testing. These challenges with production and purification are particularly apparent when developing recombinant protein-based vaccines for difficult parasitic diseases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria being a prime example...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238869/zoonotic-trichomonas-tenax-and-a-new-trichomonad-species-trichomonas-brixi-n-sp-from-the-oral-cavities-of-dogs-and-cats
#17
Pavlína Kellerová, Jan Tachezy
Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238868/seroprevalence-isolation-and-co-infection-of-multiple-toxoplasma-gondii-strains-in-individual-bobcats-lynx-rufus-from-mississippi-usa
#18
Shiv K Verma, Amy R Sweeny, Matthew J Lovallo, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Oliver C Kwok, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su, Michael E Grigg, Jitender P Dubey
Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237890/experimental-and-modelling-investigations-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-miracidia-transmission-over-time-and-across-temperatures-implications-for-control
#19
Pierre Echaubard, Tomas León, Kulwadee Suwanatrai, Jukkrid Chaiyos, Christina S Kim, Frank F Mallory, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Robert C Spear, Banchob Sripa
Transmissibility is a significant factor in parasite fitness. The rate and magnitude of parasite transmission affect prevalence and infection intensity in individual hosts and are influenced by environmental factors. In this context, the objectives of this study were: (i) to experimentally assess Opisthorchis viverrini miracidia survival and infectivity over time and across temperatures; and (ii) to combine these experimental results with environmental data to build a key component of a transmission model, identifying seasonal windows of transmission risk in hyper-endemic northeastern Thailand...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223178/direct-experimental-manipulation-of-intestinal-cells-in-ascaris-suum-with-minor-influences-on-the-global-transcriptome
#20
Bruce A Rosa, Samantha N McNulty, Makedonka Mitreva, Douglas P Jasmer
Ascaris suum provides a powerful model for studying parasitic nematodes, including individual tissues such as the intestine, an established target for anthelmintic treatments. Here, we add a valuable experimental component to our existing functional, proteomic, transcriptomic and phylogenomic studies of the Ascaris suum intestine, by developing a method to manipulate intestinal cell functions via direct delivery of experimental treatments (in this case, double-stranded (ds)RNA) to the apical intestinal membrane...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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