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International Journal for Parasitology

G Schares, M Koethe, B Bangoura, A-C Geuthner, F Randau, M Ludewig, P Maksimov, M Sens, A Bärwald, F J Conraths, I Villena, D Aubert, M Opsteegh, J Van der Giessen
Chickens, especially if free-range, are frequently exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, and may represent an important reservoir for T. gondii. Poultry products may pose a risk to humans, when consumed undercooked. In addition, chickens are regarded as sensitive indicators for environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts and have been used as sentinels. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of commonly used antibody detection methods, i.e. the modified agglutination test (MAT), IFAT and ELISA to detect T...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Vanessa Andresiuk, Ibrahim Balkaya, Adriano Casulli, Robin B Gasser, Joke van der Giessen, Luis Miguel González, Karen L Haag, Houria Zait, Malik Irshadullah, Abdul Jabbar, David J Jenkins, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Maria Teresa Manfredi, Hossein Mirhendi, Selim M'rad, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Myriam Oudni-M'rad, Nora Beatriz Pierangeli, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Steffen Rehbein, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Sami Simsek, Silvia Viviana Soriano, Hein Sprong, Viliam Šnábel, Gérald Umhang, Antonio Varcasia, Urmas Saarma
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Adriana Botero, Irit Kapeller, Crystal Cooper, Peta L Clode, Joseph Shlomai, R C Andrew Thompson
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids. It consists of a few dozen maxicircles and several thousand minicircles, all catenated topologically to form a two-dimensional DNA network. Minicircles are heterogeneous in size and sequence among species. They present one or several conserved regions that contain three highly conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). CSB-1 (10 bp sequence) and CSB-2 (8 bp sequence) present lower interspecies homology, while CSB-3 (12 bp sequence) or the Universal Minicircle Sequence (UMS) is conserved within most trypanosomatids...
May 17, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Lynn Grignard, Bronner P Gonçalves, Angela M Early, Rachel F Daniels, Alfred B Tiono, Wamdaogo M Guelbéogo, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Elke M van Veen, Kjerstin Lanke, Amidou Diarra, Issa Nebie, Sodiomon B Sirima, Geoff A Targett, Sarah K Volkman, Daniel E Neafsey, Dyann F Wirth, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections often comprise multiple distinct parasite clones. Few datasets have directly assessed infection complexity in humans and mosquitoes they infect. Examining parasites using molecular tools may provide insights into the selective transmissibility of isolates. Using capillary electrophoresis genotyping and next generation amplicon sequencing, we analysed complexity of parasite infections in human blood and in the midguts of mosquitoes that became infected in membrane feeding experiments using the same blood material in two West African settings...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Rodrigo Megía-Palma, Javier Martínez, José J Cuervo, Josabel Belliure, Octavio Jiménez-Robles, Verónica Gomes, Carlos Cabido, Juli G Pausas, Patrick S Fitze, José Martín, Santiago Merino
Current and past parasite transmission may depend on the overlap of host distributions, potentially affecting parasite specificity and co-evolutionary processes. Nonetheless, parasite diversification may take place in sympatry when parasites are transmitted by vectors with low mobility. Here, we test the co-speciation hypothesis between lizard final hosts of the Family Lacertidae, and blood parasites of the genus Schellackia, which are potentially transmitted by haematophagous mites. The effects of current distributional overlap of host species on parasite specificity are also investigated...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Boris R Krasnov, Georgy I Shenbrot, Luther van der Mescht, Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova
We tested whether geographic range position of fleas parasitic on small mammals in the Palearctic is affected by environmental niche conservatism or geographic range conservatism by measuring phylogenetic signal in range centroids and boundaries. We predicted that stronger phylogenetic signal in latitudinal than longitudinal range positions would indicate the important role of niche conservatism as a driver of the evolution of fleas' geographic ranges. Phylogenetic signals in geographic range positions were measured across 120 species, as well as within five flea lineages (subfamily/family rank) of different evolutionary ages...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jan Mach, Jarmila Bíla, Kateřina Ženíšková, Dominik Arbon, Ronald Malych, Marie Glavanakovová, Eva Nývltová, Robert Sutak
Naegleria gruberi is a free-living amoeba, closely related to the human pathogen Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of the deadly human disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Herein, we investigated the effect of iron limitation on different aspects of N. gruberi metabolism. Iron metabolism is among the most conserved pathways found in all eukaryotes. It includes the delivery, storage and utilization of iron in many cell processes. Nevertheless, most of the iron metabolism pathways of N. gruberi are still not characterized, even though iron balance within the cell is crucial...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jennifer S Armistead, Roberto R Moraes Barros, Tyler J Gibson, Whitney A Kite, J Patrick Mershon, Lynn E Lambert, Sachy E Orr-Gonzalez, Juliana M Sá, John H Adams, Thomas E Wellems
In vitro studies of sexual blood stages of the most fatal malaria species, Plasmodium falciparum, have revealed key processes by which gametocytes develop and transmit infection from humans to anopheline mosquitoes. However, most malaria cases outside sub-Saharan Africa are caused by other Plasmodium spp., frequently Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic parasite of macaque monkeys. Gametocytes of P. vivax and P. knowlesi exhibit distinct morphology, faster development, and a shorter life span compared with gametocytes of P...
April 30, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
David Arranz-Solís, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Sebastian Lourido, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Jeroen P J Saeij
Herein we describe, to our knowledge for the first time the use of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/ CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system for genome editing of Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. By using plasmids containing the CRISPR/Cas9 components adapted to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we successfully knocked out a green fluorescent protein (GFP) in an Nc-1 GFP-expressing strain, and efficiently disrupted the NcGRA7 gene in the Nc-Spain7 isolate by insertion of a pyrimethamine resistance cassette...
April 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
M Andreína Pacheco, Axl S Cepeda, Rasa Bernotienė, Ingrid A Lotta, Nubia E Matta, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Ananias A Escalante
Haemosporida is a diverse group of vector-borne parasitic protozoa, ubiquitous in terrestrial vertebrates worldwide. The renewed interest in their diversity has been driven by the extensive use of molecular methods targeting mitochondrial genes. Unfortunately, most studies target a 478 bp fragment of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, which often cannot be used to separate lineages from different genera found in mixed infections that are common in wildlife. In this investigation, an alignment constructed with 114 mitochondrial genome sequences belonging to four genera (Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Hepatocystis) was used to design two different sets of primers targeting the cytb gene as well as the other two mitochondrial DNA genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3...
April 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Ignacio Gisbert Algaba, Bavo Verhaegen, Malgorzata Jennes, Mizanur Rahman, Wim Coucke, Eric Cox, Pierre Dorny, Katelijne Dierick, Stéphane De Craeye
Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which can infect any warm-blooded animal including humans. Humans and carnivores/omnivores can also become infected by consumption of raw or undercooked infected meat containing muscle cysts. This route of transmission is considered to account for at least 30% of human toxoplasmosis cases. To better assess the role of pork as a source of infection for humans, the parasite burden resulting from experimental infection with different parasite stages and different strains of T...
April 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Kai Wengelnik, Wassim Daher, Maryse Lebrun
Phosphoinositides are the phosphorylated derivatives of the structural membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol. Single or combined phosphorylation at the 3, 4 and 5 positions of the inositol ring gives rise to the seven different species of phosphoinositides. All are quantitatively minor components of cellular membranes but have been shown to have important functions in multiple cellular processes. Here we describe our current knowledge of phosphoinositide metabolism and functions in apicomplexan parasites, mainly focusing on Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp...
March 26, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Tiantian Jiang, Keats Shwab, Robbie Martin, Richard Gerhold, Benjamin Rosenthal, Jitender P Dubey, Chunlei Su
Toxoplasma gondii counts among the most consequential food-borne parasites, and although the parasite occurs in a wide range of wild and domesticated animals, farms may constitute a specific and important locus of transmission. If so, parasites in animals that inhabit agricultural habitats might be suspected of harboring genetically distinct parasite types. To better understand habitat effects pertinent to this parasite's transmission, we compiled and analyzed existing genotypic data of 623 samples from animals across a proximity gradient from areas of human settlement to the wilderness in North America...
March 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Gabriela Assis Burle-Caldas, Melissa Soares-Simões, Laiane Lemos-Pechnicki, Wanderson Duarte DaRocha, Santuza M R Teixeira
CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been used to edit genomes in a variety of organisms. Using the GP72 gene as a target sequence, we tested two distinct approaches to generate Trypanosoma cruzi knockout mutants using the Cas9 nuclease and in vitro transcribed single guide RNA. Highly efficient rates of disruption of GP72 were achieved either by transfecting parasites stably expressing Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 with single guide RNA or by transfecting wild type parasites with recombinant Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 previously associated with single guide RNA...
March 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Andrew D Sweet, Sarah E Bush, Daniel R Gustafsson, Julie M Allen, Emily DiBlasi, Heather R Skeen, Jason D Weckstein, Kevin P Johnson
Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies often show varying degrees of phylogenetic congruence. However, few studies have rigorously explored the factors driving this variation. Multiple factors such as host or parasite morphology may govern the degree of phylogenetic congruence. An ideal analysis for understanding the factors correlated with congruence would focus on a diverse host-parasite system for increased variation and statistical power. In this study, we focused on the Brueelia-complex, a diverse and widespread group of feather lice that primarily parasitize songbirds...
March 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Guadalupe Ortega-Pierres, Raúl Argüello-García, Marco S Laredo-Cisneros, Rocío Fonseca-Linán, Misael Gómez-Mondragón, Rolando Inzunza-Arroyo, David Flores-Benítez, Arturo Raya-Sandino, Bibiana Chavez-Munguía, José Luis Ventura-Gallegos, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Rosa María Bermúdez-Cruz, Lorenza González-Mariscal
The adhesion of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites to intestinal epithelial cells allows the onset and maintenance of giardiasis. During these interactions, epithelial cells can be committed to apoptosis by enzymes secreted by the parasites, including cysteine proteases that are increasingly identified as virulence factors in parasitic protozoa. In this work, a monoclonal antibody (mAb1G3) raised against G. duodenalis surface components was found to react with a 25 kDa protein expressed in the cell surface and flagella of G...
March 20, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Oneida Espinosa-Álvarez, Paola A Ortiz, Luciana Lima, André G Costa-Martins, Myrna G Serrano, Stephane Herder, Gregory A Buck, Erney P Camargo, Patrick B Hamilton, Jamie R Stevens, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi are generalist trypanosomes sharing a wide range of mammalian hosts; they are transmitted by triatomine bugs, and are the only trypanosomes infecting humans in the Neotropics. Their origins, phylogenetic relationships, and emergence as human parasites have long been subjects of interest. In the present study, taxon-rich analyses (20 trypanosome species from bats and terrestrial mammals) using ssrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH), heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) and Spliced Leader RNA sequences, and multilocus phylogenetic analyses using 11 single copy genes from 15 selected trypanosomes, provide increased resolution of relationships between species and clades, strongly supporting two main sister lineages: lineage Schizotrypanum, comprising T...
March 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Klára Vlčková, Jakub Kreisinger, Barbora Pafčo, Dagmar Čížková, Nikki Tagg, Adrian B Hehl, David Modrý
Understanding the complex Entamoeba communities in the mammalian intestine has been, to date, complicated by the lack of a suitable approach for molecular detection of multiple variants co-occurring in mixed infections. Here, we report on the application of a high throughput sequencing approach based on partial 18S rDNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We describe, to our knowledge, for the first time, the Entamoeba communities in humans, free-ranging western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees living in the Dja Faunal Reserve in Cameroon...
March 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jonathan Vadnal, Olivia G Granger, Ramesh Ratnappan, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien M O'Halloran, John M Hawdon
Interest has recently grown in developing the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora as a model to genetically dissect the process of parasitic infection. Despite the availability of a full genome assembly, there is substantial variation in gene model accuracy. Here, a methodology is presented for leveraging RNA-seq evidence to generate improved annotations using ab initio gene prediction software. After alignment of reads and subsequent generation of a RNA-seq supported annotation, the new gene prediction models were verified on a selection of genes by comparison with sequenced 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends products...
March 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Xuejin Zhang, Chi Yong Kim, Tori Worthen, William H Witola
Cryptosporidium is a highly prevalent protozoan parasite that is the second leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries, and causes a serious diarrheal syndrome in calves, lambs and goat kids worldwide. Development of fully effective drugs against Cryptosporidium has mainly been hindered by the lack of genetic tools for functional characterization and validation of potential molecular drug targets in the parasite. Herein, we report the development of a morpholino-based in vivo approach for Cryptosporidium parvum gene knockdown to facilitate determination of the physiological roles of the parasite's genes in a murine model...
March 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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