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International Journal for Parasitology

Maoxuan Liu, Purity Kipanga, Anh Hung Mai, Ineke Dhondt, Bart P Braeckman, Wim De Borggraeve, Walter Luyten
Parasitic helminths continue to pose problems in human and veterinary medicine, as well as in agriculture. Resistance to current anthelmintics has prompted the search for new drugs. Anthelmintic metabolites from medicinal plants could be good anthelmintic drug candidates. However, the compounds active against nematodes have not been identified in most medicinal plants with anthelmintic activity. In this study, we aimed to identify the active compounds against helminths in Warburgia ugandensis Sprague subspecies ugandensis (Canellaceae) and study the underlying mechanism of action...
July 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Anna K Crater, Scott Roscoe, Ambreen Fahim, Sirinart Ananvoranich
Sumoylation and desumoylation are reversible pathways responsible for modification of protein structures and functions by the reversible covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) peptide. These pathways are important for a wide range of cellular processes and require a steady supply of SUMO, which is generated by an enzymatic reaction catalyzed by the ubiquitin-like protease (Ulp) family. Here we show by functional complementation analysis that the Ulp1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgUlp1) can rescue a growth-deficient phenotype of a yeast-Ulp1 knockout...
July 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
P Maksimov, W Basso, J Zerweck, M Schutkowski, U Reimer, A Maksimov, F J Conraths, G Schares
Due to their ground-feeding behaviour, free-ranging chickens and turkeys are exposed to oocysts and are good indicators of the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment. In addition, poultry may become infected by ingestion of tissues of infected intermediate hosts such as small rodents. Free-ranging poultry are considered an important source of T. gondii infection in humans, especially in developing countries. Knowledge on T. gondii genotypes in infected animals and humans is important for understanding the epidemiology of T...
June 30, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Melanie Clerc, Godefroy Devevey, Andy Fenton, Amy B Pedersen
Coinfections with parasitic helminths and microparasites are highly common in nature and can lead to complex within-host interactions between parasite species which can cause negative health outcomes for humans, and domestic and wild animals. Many of these negative health effects worsen with increasing parasite burdens. However, even though many studies have identified several key factors that determine worm burdens across various host systems, less is known about how the immune response interacts with these factors and what the consequences are for the outcome of within-host parasite interactions...
June 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jose M Ribeiro, Meera Garriga, Nicole Potchen, Anna K Crater, Ankit Gupta, Daisuke Ito, Sanjay A Desai
CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is addressing key limitations in the transfection of malaria parasites. While this method has already simplified the needed molecular cloning and reduced the time required to generate mutants in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum, optimal selection of required guide RNAs and guidelines for successful transfections have not been well characterised, leading workers to use time-consuming trial and error approaches. We used a genome-wide computational approach to create a comprehensive and publicly accessible database of possible guide RNA sequences in the P...
June 15, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Guillaume Roux, Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Patrick Bastien, Yvon Sterkers
The molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis lacks standardisation due to the use of numerous methods with variable performance. This diversity of methods also impairs robust performance comparisons between laboratories. The harmonisation of practices by diffusion of technical guidelines is a useful way to improve these performances. The knowledge of methods and practices used for this molecular diagnosis is an essential step to provide guidelines for Toxoplasma-PCR. In the present study, we aimed (i) to describe the methods and practices of Toxoplasma-PCR used by clinical microbiology laboratories in France and (ii) to propose technical guidelines to improve molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
June 8, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Vishal Khatri, Nikhil Chauhan, Kanchan Vishnoi, Agneta von Gegerfelt, Courtney Gittens, Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) affects 120 million people around the world and another 856 million people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Mass Drug Administration (MDA) spearheaded by the World Health Organization is the only current strategy to control this infection. Recent reports suggest that despite several rounds of MDA, elimination has not been achieved and there is a need for more stringent control strategies for control of LF. An effective prophylactic vaccine combined with MDA has significant potential...
June 6, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Donald P Knowles, Lowell S Kappmeyer, Darrell Haney, David R Herndon, Lindsay M Fry, James B Munro, Kelly Sears, Massaro W Ueti, Lauren N Wise, Marta Silva, David A Schneider, Juanita Grause, Stephen N White, Kyle Tretina, Richard P Bishop, David O Odongo, Angela M Pelzel-McCluskey, Glen A Scoles, Robert H Mealey, Joana C Silva
A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses...
June 6, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Guangxu Ma, Tao Wang, Pasi K Korhonen, Ching-Seng Ang, Nicholas A Williamson, Neil D Young, Andreas J Stroehlein, Ross S Hall, Anson V Koehler, Andreas Hofmann, Robin B Gasser
In this study, we explored the molecular alterations in the developmental switch from the L3 to the exsheathed L3 (xL3) and to the L4 stage of Haemonchus contortus in vitro using an integrated transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approach. Totals of 9,754 mRNAs, 88 microRNAs (miRNAs) and 1,591 proteins were identified, and 6,686 miRNA-mRNA pairs inferred in all larval stages studied. Approximately 16% of transcripts in the combined transcriptome (representing all three larval stages) were expressed as proteins, and there were positive correlations (r = 0...
May 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
G Schares, M Koethe, B Bangoura, A-C Geuthner, F Randau, M Ludewig, P Maksimov, M Sens, A Bärwald, F J Conraths, I Villena, D Aubert, M Opsteegh, J Van der Giessen
Chickens, especially if free-range, are frequently exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, and may represent an important reservoir for T. gondii. Poultry products may pose a risk to humans, when consumed undercooked. In addition, chickens are regarded as sensitive indicators for environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts and have been used as sentinels. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of commonly used antibody detection methods, i.e. the modified agglutination test (MAT), IFAT and ELISA to detect T...
May 19, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Vanessa Andresiuk, Ibrahim Balkaya, Adriano Casulli, Robin B Gasser, Joke van der Giessen, Luis Miguel González, Karen L Haag, Houria Zait, Malik Irshadullah, Abdul Jabbar, David J Jenkins, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Maria Teresa Manfredi, Hossein Mirhendi, Selim M'rad, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Myriam Oudni-M'rad, Nora Beatriz Pierangeli, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Steffen Rehbein, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Sami Simsek, Silvia Viviana Soriano, Hein Sprong, Viliam Šnábel, Gérald Umhang, Antonio Varcasia, Urmas Saarma
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes...
May 19, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Adriana Botero, Irit Kapeller, Crystal Cooper, Peta L Clode, Joseph Shlomai, R C Andrew Thompson
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) is the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids. It consists of a few dozen maxicircles and several thousand minicircles, all catenated topologically to form a two-dimensional DNA network. Minicircles are heterogeneous in size and sequence among species. They present one or several conserved regions that contain three highly conserved sequence blocks. CSB-1 (10 bp sequence) and CSB-2 (8 bp sequence) present lower interspecies homology, while CSB-3 (12 bp sequence) or the Universal Minicircle Sequence is conserved within most trypanosomatids...
May 17, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Rodrigo Megía-Palma, Javier Martínez, José J Cuervo, Josabel Belliure, Octavio Jiménez-Robles, Verónica Gomes, Carlos Cabido, Juli G Pausas, Patrick S Fitze, José Martín, Santiago Merino
Current and past parasite transmission may depend on the overlap of host distributions, potentially affecting parasite specificity and co-evolutionary processes. Nonetheless, parasite diversification may take place in sympatry when parasites are transmitted by vectors with low mobility. Here, we test the co-speciation hypothesis between lizard final hosts of the Family Lacertidae, and blood parasites of the genus Schellackia, which are potentially transmitted by haematophagous mites. The effects of current distributional overlap of host species on parasite specificity are also investigated...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Boris R Krasnov, Georgy I Shenbrot, Luther van der Mescht, Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova
We tested whether geographic range position of fleas parasitic on small mammals in the Palearctic is affected by environmental niche conservatism or geographic range conservatism by measuring phylogenetic signal in range centroids and boundaries. We predicted that stronger phylogenetic signal in latitudinal than longitudinal range positions would indicate the important role of niche conservatism as a driver of the evolution of fleas' geographic ranges. Phylogenetic signals in geographic range positions were measured across 120 species, as well as within five flea lineages (subfamily/family rank) of different evolutionary ages...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jan Mach, Jarmila Bíla, Kateřina Ženíšková, Dominik Arbon, Ronald Malych, Marie Glavanakovová, Eva Nývltová, Robert Sutak
Naegleria gruberi is a free-living amoeba, closely related to the human pathogen Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of the deadly human disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Herein, we investigated the effect of iron limitation on different aspects of N. gruberi metabolism. Iron metabolism is among the most conserved pathways found in all eukaryotes. It includes the delivery, storage and utilisation of iron in many cell processes. Nevertheless, most of the iron metabolism pathways of N. gruberi are still not characterised, even though iron balance within the cell is crucial...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Volodimir Sarabeev, Juan Antonio Balbuena, Serge Morand
The biogeographic patterns of abundance and prevalence of helminths from Liza haematocheilus were studied across its native (Sea of Japan) and introduced (Sea of Azov) distribution ranges. Abundance-occupancy relationships (AORs) were tested for the core-satellite and enemy release (ERH) species hypotheses in eight and 14 host samples from the native and introduced host ranges, respectively. The AOR model fitted parasite data extremely well, irrespective of whether the host or the parasite species were native or invasive...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Lynn Grignard, Bronner P Gonçalves, Angela M Early, Rachel F Daniels, Alfred B Tiono, Wamdaogo M Guelbéogo, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Elke M van Veen, Kjerstin Lanke, Amidou Diarra, Issa Nebie, Sodiomon B Sirima, Geoff A Targett, Sarah K Volkman, Daniel E Neafsey, Dyann F Wirth, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections often comprise multiple distinct parasite clones. Few datasets have directly assessed infection complexity in humans and mosquitoes they infect. Examining parasites using molecular tools may provide insights into the selective transmissibility of isolates. Using capillary electrophoresis genotyping and next generation amplicon sequencing, we analysed complexity of parasite infections in human blood and in the midguts of mosquitoes that became infected in membrane feeding experiments using the same blood material in two West African settings...
July 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jennifer S Armistead, Roberto R Moraes Barros, Tyler J Gibson, Whitney A Kite, J Patrick Mershon, Lynn E Lambert, Sachy E Orr-Gonzalez, Juliana M Sá, John H Adams, Thomas E Wellems
In vitro studies of sexual blood stages of the most fatal malaria species, Plasmodium falciparum, have revealed key processes by which gametocytes develop and transmit infection from humans to anopheline mosquitoes. However, most malaria cases outside sub-Saharan Africa are caused by other Plasmodium spp., frequently Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic parasite of macaque monkeys. Gametocytes of P. vivax and P. knowlesi exhibit distinct morphology, faster development, and a shorter life span compared with gametocytes of P...
July 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
David Arranz-Solís, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Sebastian Lourido, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Jeroen P J Saeij
Herein we describe, to our knowledge for the first time the use of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system for genome editing of Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. By using plasmids containing the CRISPR/Cas9 components adapted to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we successfully knocked out a green fluorescent protein (GFP) in an Nc-1 GFP-expressing strain, and efficiently disrupted the NcGRA7 gene in the Nc-Spain7 isolate by insertion of a pyrimethamine resistance cassette...
July 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
M Andreína Pacheco, Axl S Cepeda, Rasa Bernotienė, Ingrid A Lotta, Nubia E Matta, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Ananias A Escalante
Haemosporida is a diverse group of vector-borne parasitic protozoa, ubiquitous in terrestrial vertebrates worldwide. The renewed interest in their diversity has been driven by the extensive use of molecular methods targeting mitochondrial genes. Unfortunately, most studies target a 478 bp fragment of the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, which often cannot be used to separate lineages from different genera found in mixed infections that are common in wildlife. In this investigation, an alignment constructed with 114 mitochondrial genome sequences belonging to four genera (Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Hepatocystis) was used to design two different sets of primers targeting the cytb gene as well as the other two mitochondrial DNA genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3...
July 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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