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International Journal for Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528874/animal-health-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-the-paradox-of-periparturient-parasitism
#1
J G M Houdijk, B J Tolkamp, J A Rooke, M R Hutchings
Here we provide the first known direct measurements of pathogen challenge impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) production, yield and intensity. Twin-rearing ewes were ad libitum fed pelleted lucerne from day -32 to 36 (day 0 is parturition), and repeatedly infected with 10,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (n=16), or sham-dosed with water (n=16). A third group of 16 ewes were fed at 80% of uninfected ewes' feed intake during lactation. Methane emissions were measured in respiration chambers (day 30 to -36) whilst total tract apparent nutrient digestibility around day 28 informed calculated manure methane and nitrous oxide emissions estimates...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526608/microrna-analysis-of-taenia-crassiceps-cysticerci-under-praziquantel-treatment-and-genome-wide-identification-of-taenia-solium-mirnas
#2
Matías Gastón Pérez, Natalia Macchiaroli, Gabriel Lichtenstein, Gabriela Conti, Sebastián Asurmendi, Diego Humberto Milone, Georgina Stegmayer, Laura Kamenetzky, Marcela Cucher, Mara Cecilia Rosenzvit
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and perform critical functions in development and disease. In spite of the increased interest in miRNAs from helminth parasites, no information is available on miRNAs from Taenia solium, the causative agent of cysticercosis, a neglected disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs from Taenia crassiceps, a laboratory model for T. solium studies, and identified miRNAs in the T...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526607/the-merozoite-specific-protein-tggra11b-identified-as-a-component-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-parasitophorous-vacuole-in-a-tachyzoite-expression-model
#3
Chandra Ramakrishnan, Robert A Walker, Ramon M Eichenberger, Adrian B Hehl, Nicholas C Smith
The apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii, infects all warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts but only felids as definitive hosts. Dense granule proteins are critical for the survival of Toxoplasma within host cells but, whilst these proteins have been studied intensively in tachyzoites, little is known about their expression in the coccidian stages in the cat intestine. Transcriptomic profiling indicates that two putative dense granule proteins, TgGRA11A and TgGRA11B, are expressed uniquely in merozoites. Immunofluorescent microscopy of Toxoplasma-infected cat intestine and tachyzoites engineered to express TgGRA11B, reveals that it is a dense granule protein that traffics into the parasitophorous vacuole and its membrane...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526606/identification-of-emsox2-a-member-of-the-sox-family-of-transcription-factors-as-a-potential-regulator-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-germinative-cells
#4
Zhe Cheng, Fan Liu, Mengya Dai, Jianjian Wu, Xiu Li, Xinrui Guo, Huimin Tian, Zhijie Heng, Ying Lu, Xiaoli Chai, Yanhai Wang
Larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most lethal helminthic infections in humans. The germinative cells, a population of stem cell-like cells, are considered to drive the continuous growth of the metacestodes within the host. The mechanisms and relative molecules controlling the behavior of germinative cells are poorly understood. Sox transcription factors play important roles in maintenance and regulation of stem/progenitor cells. We here describe the identification of a Sox family member in E...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526605/microevolutionary-response-of-a-gut-nematode-to-intestinal-inflammation
#5
Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Parasitic helminths interfere with the immune responses of their hosts to establish long-lasting, chronic infections. While favorable to the parasite, the capacity to dampen the immune response can also provide a benefit to the host in terms of reduced risk of immune disorders and immunopathology. The immunomodulatory role of nematodes has been exploited in clinical trials to treat a number of inflammatory and immune diseases. However, how parasites adapt to an inflammatory environment remains a poorly explored question...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495122/next-generation-sequencing-uncovers-within-host-differences-in-the-genetic-diversity-of-cryptosporidium-gp60-subtypes
#6
Alireza Zahedi, Alexander William Gofton, Fuchun Jian, Andrea Paparini, Charlotte Oskam, Andrew Ball, Ian Robertson, Una Ryan
The extent of within-host genetic diversity of parasites has implications for our understanding of the epidemiology, disease severity and evolution of parasite virulence. As with many other species, our understanding of the within-host diversity of the enteric parasite Cryptosporidium is changing. The present study compared Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing of glycoprotein 60 (gp60) amplicons from Cryptosporidium hominis (n=11), Cryptosporidium parvum (n=22) and Cryptosporidium cuniculus (n=8) DNA samples from Australia and China...
May 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455239/minimally-invasive-microbiopsies-a-novel-sampling-method-for-identifying-asymptomatic-potentially-infectious-carriers-of-leishmania-donovani
#7
Oscar David Kirstein, Ibrahim Abbasi, Ben Zion Horwitz, Laura Skrip, Asrat Hailu, Charles Jaffe, Lynlee L Li, Tarl W Prow, Alon Warburg
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially lethal, sand fly-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani species complex. There are several adequate methods for diagnosing VL, but the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, comprising potential parasite reservoirs for transmission of the disease. The gold standard for assessing host infectiousness to biting vector insects is xenodiagnosis (i.e. scoring infection rates among insectary-reared insects that had fed on humans suspected of being infected)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455238/a-novel-ex-vivo-immunoproteomic-approach-characterising-fasciola-hepatica-tegumental-antigens-identified-using-immune-antibody-from-resistant-sheep
#8
Timothy C Cameron, Ira Cooke, Pierre Faou, Hayley Toet, David Piedrafita, Neil Young, Vignesh Rathinasamy, Travis Beddoe, Glenn Anderson, Robert Dempster, Terry W Spithill
A more thorough understanding of the immunological interactions between Fasciola spp. and their hosts is required if we are to develop new immunotherapies to control fasciolosis. Deeper knowledge of the antigens that are the target of the acquired immune responses of definitive hosts against both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica will potentially identify candidate vaccine antigens. Indonesian Thin Tail sheep express a high level of acquired immunity to infection by F. gigantica within 4weeks of infection and antibodies in Indonesian Thin Tail sera can promote antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the surface tegument of juvenile F...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455237/lungworms-and-gastrointestinal-parasites-of-domestic-cats-a-european-perspective
#9
Alessio Giannelli, Gioia Capelli, Anja Joachim, Barbara Hinney, Bertrand Losson, Zvezdelina Kirkova, Magalie René-Martellet, Elias Papadopoulos, Róbert Farkas, Ettore Napoli, Emanuele Brianti, Claudia Tamponi, Antonio Varcasia, Ana Margarida Alho, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Luís Cardoso, Carla Maia, Viorica Mircean, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Guadalupe Miró, Manuela Schnyder, Cinzia Cantacessi, Vito Colella, Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Martin Knaus, Lénaïg Halos, Frederic Beugnet, Domenico Otranto
With the exception of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, feline lungworms have been poorly studied. Information on their distribution is patchy and mostly limited to case reports. In this study, the occurrence of feline lungworms and co-infecting gastrointestinal parasites has been investigated in 12 European countries (i.e. Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). An average of 10 domestic cats, with regular outdoor access, was sampled each month for 12months, and freshly passed faeces were collected...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455236/genomics-and-epigenetics-of-sexual-commitment-in-plasmodium
#10
REVIEW
D P Bechtsi, A P Waters
Malaria is the disease caused by the apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Expanding our arsenal to include transmission-blocking agents in our fight against malaria is becoming increasingly important. Such an implementation requires detailed understanding of the biology of the Plasmodium life cycle stages that are transmissible. Plasmodium gametocytes are the only parasite stage that can be transmitted to the mosquito vector and are the product of sexual development in a small percentage of parasites that continually proliferate in host blood...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414071/epigenetic-landscapes-underlining-global-patterns-of-gene-expression-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#11
REVIEW
Archana P Gupta, Zbynek Bozdech
The dynamic chromatin landscape displaying combinatorial complexity of the epigenome impacts gene expression that underlies many events of differentiation and cell cycle progression. In the past few years, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as important processes involved in the tight gene regulation in malaria parasites, Plasmodium spp. Focusing predominantly on Plasmodium falciparum, the species associated with the most severe form of the disease, many advances have been made in our understanding of the interaction between transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms as the pivotal processes in regulating life cycle progression, host parasite interactions and parasite adaptation to the host environment...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414070/the-unhealthy-attraction-of-plasmodium-vivax-to-reticulocytes-expressing-transferrin-receptor-1-cd71
#12
REVIEW
Benoit Malleret, Laurent Rénia, Bruce Russell
The majority of malaria parasite species prefer to invade reticulocytes, the most infamous being Plasmodium vivax. While the absence of an in vitro continuous culture method has hampered the study of P. vivax invasion biology, studies utilising primate models and ex vivo assays have provided some important insights. Most importantly, P. vivax merozoites have a strong preference for a subset of immature erythrocytes characterised by the expression of the transferrin receptor (CD71). This current opinion piece on P...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385494/schistosome-induced-pulmonary-b-cells-inhibit-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-display-a-reduced-th2-driving-function
#13
L E van der Vlugt, K Obieglo, A Ozir-Fazalalikhan, T Sparwasser, S Haeberlein, H H Smits
Chronic schistosome infections protect against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) via the induction of IL-10-producing splenic regulatory B (Breg) cells. Previous experiments have demonstrated that schistosome-induced pulmonary B cells can also reduce AAI, but act independently of IL-10. We have now further characterized the phenotype and inhibitory activity of these protective pulmonary B cells. We excluded a role for regulatory T (Treg) cell induction as putative AAI-protective mechanisms. Schistosome-induced B cells showed increased CD86 expression and reduced cytokine expression in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands compared with control B cells...
April 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347664/venestatin-a-ca-binding-protein-from-the-parasitic-nematode-strongyloides-venezuelensis-is-involved-in-the-larval-migration-process
#14
Daigo Tsubokawa, Takeshi Hatta, Taisei Kikuchi, Hiroki Maeda, Fusako Mikami, M Abdul Alim, Haruhiko Maruyama, Naotoshi Tsuji
The secretory EF-hand Ca(++)-binding proteins act as calcium signaling molecules for control of cell functions, but those proteins from parasitic helminths are poorly understood. Here, we have identified and characterized an EF-hand Ca(++)-binding protein from the rodent nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, termed 'venestatin', which is highly conserved in Strongyloides spp. Canonical two EF-hand domains and a signal peptide are present in venestatin. A gel mobility shift assay and Ruthenium red staining indicated that the recombinant venestatin possesses binding ability with Ca(++) ions...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344097/whence-river-blindness-the-domestication-of-mammals-and-host-parasite-co-evolution-in-the-nematode-genus-onchocerca
#15
Emilie Lefoulon, Alessio Giannelli, Benjamin L Makepeace, Yasen Mutafchiev, Simon Townson, Shigehiko Uni, Guilherme G Verocai, Domenico Otranto, Coralie Martin
The genus Onchocerca includes 34 described species and represents one of the largest genera of the filarial nematodes within the family Onchocercidae. Representative members of this genus are mainly parasites of ungulates, with some exceptions such as Onchocerca lupi and Onchocerca volvulus, infecting carnivores and/or humans. For a long time, the evolutionary relationships amongst onchocercids remained poorly studied, as the systematics of this genus was impaired by the high morphological variability of species included in the taxon...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336271/helminth-secretomes-reflect-different-lifestyles-and-parasitized-hosts
#16
Yesid Cuesta-Astroz, Francislon Silva de Oliveira, Laila Alves Nahum, Guilherme Oliveira
Helminths cause a number of medical and agricultural problems and are a major cause of parasitic infections in humans, animals and plants. Comparative analysis of helminth genes and genomes are important to understand the genomic biodiversity and evolution of parasites and their hosts in terms of different selective pressures in their habitats. The interactions between the infective organisms and their hosts are mediated in large part by secreted proteins, known collectively as the "secretome". Proteins secreted by parasites are able to modify a host's environment and modulate their immune system...
March 21, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322847/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-oncomelania-hupensis-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-involved-in-the-snail-host-innate-immune-response-to-the-parasite-schistosoma-japonicum
#17
Shuaiqin Huang, Yunchao Cao, Mingke Lu, Wenfeng Peng, Jiaojiao Lin, Chongti Tang, Liang Tang
Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, remains a devastating public health problem, with over 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide, especially in developing countries. The freshwater amphibious snail Oncomelania hupensis is the obligate intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. This unique and long-standing host-parasite interaction highlights the biomedical importance of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the snail immune defense response against schistosome infection...
March 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322846/did-biogeographical-processes-shape-the-monogenean-community-of-butterflyfishes-in-the-tropical-indo-west-pacific-region
#18
M Reverter, T H Cribb, S C Cutmore, R A Bray, V Parravicini, P Sasal
Geographical distribution of parasite species can provide insights into the evolution and diversity of parasitic communities. Biogeography of marine parasites is poorly known, especially because it requires an understanding of host-parasite interactions, information that is rare, especially over large spatial scales. Here, we have studied the biogeographical patterns of dactylogyrid parasites of chaetodontids, one of the most well-studied fish families, in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region. Dactylogyrid parasites were collected from gills of 34 butterflyfish species (n=560) at nine localities within an approximate area of 62millionkm(2)...
March 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263772/patterns-of-parasite-distribution-in-the-hybrids-of-non-congeneric-cyprinid-fish-species-is-asymmetry-in-parasite-infection-the-result-of-limited-coadaptation
#19
Vadym Krasnovyd, Lukáš Vetešník, Lenka Gettová, Kristína Civáňová, Andrea Šimková
Hybrids and their parasite diversity represent interesting models for evolutionary ecology. The modified immune response, shifted ecology, inheritance, and maternal ancestry of hybrid host fish are supposed to affect the diversity of their parasite communities. The pattern of metazoan parasite distribution in non-congeneric cyprinids - common bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (species with different morphology and ecology, and harbouring different specific parasites) - and their hybrids was analysed...
March 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315671/spatial-distribution-of-soil-contaminated-with-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts-in-relation-to-the-distribution-and-use-of-domestic-cat-defecation-sites-on-dairy-farms
#20
J A Simon, S Kurdzielewicz, E Jeanniot, E Dupuis, F Marnef, D Aubert, I Villena, M-L Poulle
Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed...
May 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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