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International Journal for Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322847/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-oncomelania-hupensis-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-involved-in-the-snail-host-innate-immune-response-to-the-parasite-schistosoma-japonicum
#1
Shuaiqin Huang, Yunchao Cao, Mingke Lu, Wenfeng Peng, Jiaojiao Lin, Chongti Tang, Liang Tang
Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, remains a devastating public health problem, with over 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide, especially in developing countries. The freshwater amphibious snail Oncomelania hupensis is the obligate intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. This unique and long-standing host-parasite interaction highlights the biomedical importance of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the snail immune defense response against schistosome infection...
March 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322846/did-biogeographical-processes-shape-the-monogenean-community-of-butterflyfishes-in-the-tropical-indo-west-pacific-region
#2
M Reverter, T H Cribb, S C Cutmore, R A Bray, V Parravicini, P Sasal
Geographical distribution of parasite species can provide insights into the evolution and diversity of parasitic communities. Biogeography of marine parasites is poorly known, especially because it requires an understanding of host-parasite interactions, information that is rare, especially over large spatial scales. Here, we have studied the biogeographical patterns of dactylogyrid parasites of chaetodontids, one of the most well-studied fish families, in the tropical Indo-west Pacific region. Dactylogyrid parasites were collected from gills of 34 butterflyfish species (n = 560) at nine localities within an approximate area of 62 million km(2)...
March 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315671/spatial-distribution-of-soil-contaminated-with-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts-in-relation-to-the-distribution-and-use-of-domestic-cat-defecation-sites-on-dairy-farms
#3
J A Simon, S Kurdzielewicz, E Jeanniot, E Dupuis, F Marnef, D Aubert, I Villena, M-L Poulle
Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10 month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed...
March 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315363/sider2-retroposon-mediated-mrna-decay-in-leishmania-is-coupled-to-translation
#4
Hiva Azizi, Michaela Müller-McNicoll, Barbara Papadopoulou
We previously reported that Short Interspersed Degenerate Retroposons of the SIDER2 subfamily predominantly located within 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of Leishmania transcripts promote rapid turnover that is initiated by endonucleolytic cleavage. Here, we investigated whether SIDER2-mediated decay is linked to translation. We show that preventing translation initiation by inserting a hairpin structure at the 5'-end of a SIDER2-containing mRNA blocks degradation. Similarly, global inhibition of translation elongation by cycloheximide or termination by puromycin causes stabilization of SIDER2-containing transcripts...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315362/molecular-analyses-reveal-high-species-diversity-of-trematodes-in-a-sub-arctic-lake
#5
Miroslava Soldánová, Simona Georgieva, Jana Roháčová, Rune Knudsen, Jesper A Kuhn, Eirik H Henriksen, Anna Siwertsson, Jenny C Shaw, Armand M Kuris, Per-Arne Amundsen, Tomáš Scholz, Kevin D Lafferty, Aneta Kostadinova
To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages), and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263772/patterns-of-parasite-distribution-in-the-hybrids-of-non-congeneric-cyprinid-fish-species-is-asymmetry-in-parasite-infection-the-result-of-limited-coadaptation
#6
Vadym Krasnovyd, Lukáš Vetešník, Lenka Gettová, Kristína Civáňová, Andrea Šimková
Hybrids and their parasite diversity represent interesting models for evolutionary ecology. The modified immune response, shifted ecology, inheritance, and maternal ancestry of hybrid host fish are supposed to affect the diversity of their parasite communities. The pattern of metazoan parasite distribution in non-congeneric cyprinids - common bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (species with different morphology and ecology, and harbouring different specific parasites) - and their hybrids was analysed...
March 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238869/zoonotic-trichomonas-tenax-and-a-new-trichomonad-species-trichomonas-brixi-n-sp-from-the-oral-cavities-of-dogs-and-cats
#7
Pavlína Kellerová, Jan Tachezy
Trichomonads are known to inhabit the oral cavities of various mammals, including dogs, cats and horses. However, little attention has been paid to species identification, prevalence and zoonotic potential of these parasites, although their hosts live in close proximity with humans. According to the original description, oral trichomonads in dogs and cats belong to the genus Tetratrichomonas. Interestingly, later investigations suggested that the oral cavities of dogs and cats could be infected with different species of the genus Trichomonas, including the human oral cavity parasite Trichomonas tenax...
February 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238868/seroprevalence-isolation-and-co-infection-of-multiple-toxoplasma-gondii-strains-in-individual-bobcats-lynx-rufus-from-mississippi-usa
#8
Shiv K Verma, Amy R Sweeny, Matthew J Lovallo, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Oliver C Kwok, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su, Michael E Grigg, Jitender P Dubey
Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats...
February 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237890/experimental-and-modelling-investigations-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-miracidia-transmission-over-time-and-across-temperatures-implications-for-control
#9
Pierre Echaubard, Tomas León, Kulwadee Suwanatrai, Jukkrid Chaiyos, Christina S Kim, Frank F Mallory, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Robert C Spear, Banchob Sripa
Transmissibility is a significant factor in parasite fitness. The rate and magnitude of parasite transmission affect prevalence and infection intensity in individual hosts and are influenced by environmental factors. In this context, the objectives of this study were: (i) to experimentally assess Opisthorchis viverrini miracidia survival and infectivity over time and across temperatures; and (ii) to combine these experimental results with environmental data to build a key component of a transmission model, identifying seasonal windows of transmission risk in hyper-endemic northeastern Thailand...
February 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237889/giardia-duodenalis-induces-pathogenic-dysbiosis-of-human-intestinal-microbiota-biofilms
#10
Jennifer K Beatty, Sarah V Akierman, Jean-Paul Motta, Stacy Muise, Matthew L Workentine, Joe J Harrison, Amol Bhargava, Paul L Beck, Kevin P Rioux, Gordon Webb McKnight, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies...
February 22, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223178/direct-experimental-manipulation-of-intestinal-cells-in-ascaris-suum-with-minor-influences-on-the-global-transcriptome
#11
Bruce A Rosa, Samantha N McNulty, Makedonka Mitreva, Douglas P Jasmer
Ascaris suum provides a powerful model for studying parasitic nematodes, including individual tissues such as the intestine, an established target for anthelmintic treatments. Here, we add a valuable experimental component to our existing functional, proteomic, transcriptomic and phylogenomic studies of the Ascaris suum intestine, by developing a method to manipulate intestinal cell functions via direct delivery of experimental treatments (in this case, double-stranded (ds)RNA) to the apical intestinal membrane...
February 20, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214510/temperature-rise-and-parasitic-infection-interact-to-increase-the-impact-of-an-invasive-species
#12
Ciaran Laverty, David Brenner, Christopher McIlwaine, Jack J Lennon, Jaimie T A Dick, Frances E Lucy, Keith A Christian
Invasive species often detrimentally impact native biota, e.g. through predation, but predicting such impacts is difficult due to multiple and perhaps interacting abiotic and biotic context dependencies. Higher mean and peak temperatures, together with parasites, might influence the impact of predatory invasive host species additively, synergistically or antagonistically. Here, we apply the comparative functional response methodology (relationship between resource consumption rate and resource supply) in one experiment and conduct a second scaled-up mesocosm experiment to assess any differential predatory impacts of the freshwater invasive amphipod Gammarus pulex, when uninfected and infected with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae, at three temperatures representative of current and future climate...
February 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192124/comparative-cophylogenetics-of-australian-phabine-pigeons-and-doves-aves-columbidae-and-their-feather-lice-insecta-phthiraptera
#13
Andrew D Sweet, R Terry Chesser, Kevin P Johnson
Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192123/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-iid-subtype-family-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#14
Yaoyu Feng, Na Li, Dawn M Roellig, Alyssa Kelley, Guangyuan Liu, Said Amer, Kevin Tang, Longxian Zhang, Lihua Xiao
Host adaptation is known to occur in Cryptosporidium parvum, with IIa and IId subtype families preferentially infecting calves and lambs, respectively. To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of host adaptation in Cryptosporidium parvum, we sequenced the genomes of two IId specimens and one IIa specimen from China and Egypt using the Illumina technique and compared them with the published IIa IOWA genome. Sequence data were obtained for >99.3% of the expected genome. Comparative genomic analysis identified differences in numbers of three subtelomeric gene families between sequenced genomes and the reference genome, including those encoding SKSR secretory proteins, the MEDLE family of secretory proteins, and insulinase-like proteases...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192122/plasmodium-berghei-plasmepsin-viii-is-essential-for-sporozoite-gliding-motility
#15
Babu S Mastan, Sunil Kumar Narwal, Sandeep Dey, Kota Arun Kumar, Satish Mishra
Plasmodium aspartic proteases, termed plasmepsins (PMs) play many critical roles such as haemoglobin degradation, cleavage of PEXEL proteins and sporozoite development in the parasite life cycle. Most of the plasmepsins are well characterized, however the role of PM VIII in Plasmodium remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the functions of PM VIII (PBANKA_132910) in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei (Pb). By targeted gene deletion, we show that PbPM VIII is critical for sporozoite egress from an oocyst and gliding motility, which is a prerequisite for the invasion of salivary glands and subsequent transmission to the vertebrate host...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161403/factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-haemosporidian-parasites-within-an-oceanic-island
#16
David P Padilla, Juan Carlos Illera, Catalina Gonzalez-Quevedo, Miry Villalba, David S Richardson
Understanding how different ecological and evolutionary processes influence the distribution of pathogens within the environment is important from many perspectives including wildlife epidemiology, evolutionary ecology and conservation. The simultaneous use of ecological and evolutionary frameworks can enhance our conceptual understanding of host-parasite interactions, however such studies are rare in the wild. Using samples from 12 bird species caught across all habitats existing on an oceanic island, we evaluated how environmental variables, parasite host specificity and parasite phylogenetic relationships determine the distribution and prevalence of haemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon) in the wild living avifauna...
February 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161402/the-genome-of-the-protozoan-parasite-cystoisospora-suis-and-a-reverse-vaccinology-approach-to-identify-vaccine-candidates
#17
Nicola Palmieri, Aruna Shrestha, Bärbel Ruttkowski, Tomas Beck, Claus Vogl, Fiona Tomley, Damer P Blake, Anja Joachim
Vaccine development targeting protozoan parasites remains challenging, partly due to the complex interactions between these eukaryotes and the host immune system. Reverse vaccinology is a promising approach for direct screening of genome sequence assemblies for new vaccine candidate proteins. Here, we applied this paradigm to Cystoisospora suis, an apicomplexan parasite that causes enteritis and diarrhea in suckling piglets and economic losses in pig production worldwide. Using Next Generation Sequencing we produced an ∼84Mb sequence assembly for the C...
February 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153780/tools-for-attenuation-of-gene-expression-in-malaria-parasites
#18
REVIEW
Philip J Shaw, Aiyada Aroonsri
An understanding of the biology of Plasmodium parasites, which are the causative agents of the disease malaria, requires study of gene function. Various reverse genetic tools have been described for determining gene function. These tools can be broadly grouped as trans- and cis-acting. Trans-acting tools control gene functions through synthetic nucleic acid probe molecules matching the sequence of the gene of interest. Once delivered to the parasite, the probe engages with the mRNA of the target gene and attenuates its function...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153779/explaining-parasite-aggregation-more-than-one-parasite-species-at-a-time
#19
André Morrill, Felipe Dargent, Mark R Forbes
Studies generally have neglected parasite-centric views in explorations of whether the oft-seen patterns of parasite aggregation are adaptive. Using simulation models, we explored the effects of aggregation on coinfection with hetero- or conspecific parasite species characterised by different mean abundances. Increasing aggregation increased the probability of conspecific co-occurrence for parasites with low mean abundances, and increased median numbers of conspecifics for all species. In comparison, increasing aggregation generally decreased the probability, intensity and diversity of heterospecific co-occurrence, irrespective of mean abundance...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153778/accelerating-the-clinical-development-of-protein-based-vaccines-for-malaria-by-efficient-purification-using-a-four-amino-acid-c-terminal-c-tag
#20
Jing Jin, Kathryn A Hjerrild, Sarah E Silk, Rebecca E Brown, Geneviève M Labbé, Jennifer M Marshall, Katherine E Wright, Sandra Bezemer, Stine B Clemmensen, Sumi Biswas, Yuanyuan Li, Aadil El-Turabi, Alexander D Douglas, Pim Hermans, Frank J Detmers, Willem A de Jongh, Matthew K Higgins, Rebecca Ashfield, Simon J Draper
Development of bespoke biomanufacturing processes remains a critical bottleneck for translational studies, in particular when modest quantities of a novel product are required for proof-of-concept Phase I/II clinical trials. In these instances the ability to develop a biomanufacturing process quickly and relatively cheaply, without risk to product quality or safety, provides a great advantage by allowing new antigens or concepts in immunogen design to more rapidly enter human testing. These challenges with production and purification are particularly apparent when developing recombinant protein-based vaccines for difficult parasitic diseases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria being a prime example...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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