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International Journal for Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223178/direct-experimental-manipulation-of-intestinal-cells-in-ascaris-suum-with-minor-influences-on-the-global-transcriptome
#1
Bruce A Rosa, Samantha N McNulty, Makedonka Mitreva, Douglas P Jasmer
Ascaris suum provides a powerful model for studying parasitic nematodes, including individual tissues such as the intestine, an established target for anthelmintic treatments. Here, we add a valuable experimental component to our existing functional, proteomic, transcriptomic and phylogenomic studies of the Ascaris suum intestine, by developing a method to manipulate intestinal cell functions via direct delivery of experimental treatments (in this case, double-stranded (ds)RNA) to the apical intestinal membrane...
February 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214510/temperature-rise-and-parasitic-infection-interact-to-increase-the-impact-of-an-invasive-species
#2
Ciaran Laverty, David Brenner, Christopher McIlwaine, Jack J Lennon, Jaimie T A Dick, Frances E Lucy, Keith A Christian
Invasive species often detrimentally impact native biota, eg through predation, but predicting such impacts is difficult due to multiple and perhaps interacting abiotic and biotic context dependencies. Higher mean and peak temperatures, together with parasites, might influence the impact of predatory invasive host species additively, synergistically or antagonistically. Here, we apply the comparative functional response methodology (relationship between resource consumption rate and resource supply) in one experiment and conduct a second scaled-up mesocosm experiment to assess any differential predatory impacts of the freshwater invasive amphipod Gammarus pulex, when uninfected and infected with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae, at three temperatures representative of current and future climate...
February 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192124/comparative-cophylogenetics-of-australian-phabine-pigeons-and-doves-aves-columbidae-and-their-feather-lice-insecta-phthiraptera
#3
Andrew D Sweet, R Terry Chesser, Kevin P Johnson
Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192123/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-iid-subtype-family-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#4
Yaoyu Feng, Na Li, Dawn M Roellig, Alyssa Kelley, Guangyuan Liu, Said Amer, Kevin Tang, Longxian Zhang, Lihua Xiao
Host adaptation is known to occur in Cryptosporidium parvum, with IIa and IId subtype families preferentially infecting calves and lambs, respectively. To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of host adaptation in Cryptosporidium parvum, we sequenced the genomes of two IId specimens and one IIa specimen from China and Egypt using the Illumina technique and compared them with the published IIa IOWA genome. Sequence data were obtained for >99.3% of the expected genome. Comparative genomic analysis identified differences in numbers of three subtelomeric gene families between sequenced genomes and the reference genome, including those encoding SKSR secretory proteins, the MEDLE family of secretory proteins, and insulinase-like proteases...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192122/plasmodium-berghei-plasmepsin-viii-is-essential-for-sporozoite-gliding-motility
#5
Babu S Mastan, Sunil Kumar Narwal, Sandeep Dey, Kota Arun Kumar, Satish Mishra
Plasmodium aspartic proteases, termed plasmepsins (PMs) play many critical roles such as haemoglobin degradation, cleavage of PEXEL proteins and sporozoite development in the parasite life cycle. Most of the plasmepsins are well characterized, however the role of PM VIII in Plasmodium remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the functions of PM VIII (PBANKA_132910) in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei (Pb). By targeted gene deletion, we show that PbPM VIII is critical for sporozoite egress from an oocyst and gliding motility, which is a prerequisite for the invasion of salivary glands and subsequent transmission to the vertebrate host...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161403/factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-haemosporidian-parasites-within-an-oceanic-island
#6
David P Padilla, Juan Carlos Illera, Catalina Gonzalez-Quevedo, Miry Villalba, David S Richardson
Understanding how different ecological and evolutionary processes influence the distribution of pathogens within the environment is important from many perspectives including wildlife epidemiology, evolutionary ecology and conservation. The simultaneous use of ecological and evolutionary frameworks can enhance our conceptual understanding of host-parasite interactions, however such studies are rare in the wild. Using samples from 12 bird species caught across all habitats existing on an oceanic island, we evaluated how environmental variables, parasite host specificity and parasite phylogenetic relationships determine the distribution and prevalence of haemosporidians (Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon) in the wild living avifauna...
February 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161402/the-genome-of-the-protozoan-parasite-cystoisospora-suis-and-a-reverse-vaccinology-approach-to-identify-vaccine-candidates
#7
Nicola Palmieri, Aruna Shrestha, Bärbel Ruttkowski, Tomas Beck, Claus Vogl, Fiona Tomley, Damer P Blake, Anja Joachim
Vaccine development targeting protozoan parasites remains challenging, partly due to the complex interactions between these eukaryotes and the host immune system. Reverse vaccinology is a promising approach for direct screening of genome sequence assemblies for new vaccine candidate proteins. Here, we applied this paradigm to Cystoisospora suis, an apicomplexan parasite that causes enteritis and diarrhea in suckling piglets and economic losses in pig production worldwide. Using Next Generation Sequencing we produced an ∼84Mb sequence assembly for the C...
February 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153780/tools-for-attenuation-of-gene-expression-in-malaria-parasites
#8
REVIEW
Philip J Shaw, Aiyada Aroonsri
An understanding of the biology of Plasmodium parasites, which are the causative agents of the disease malaria, requires study of gene function. Various reverse genetic tools have been described for determining gene function. These tools can be broadly grouped as trans- and cis-acting. Trans-acting tools control gene functions through synthetic nucleic acid probe molecules matching the sequence of the gene of interest. Once delivered to the parasite, the probe engages with the mRNA of the target gene and attenuates its function...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153779/explaining-parasite-aggregation-more-than-one-parasite-species-at-a-time
#9
André Morrill, Felipe Dargent, Mark R Forbes
Studies generally have neglected parasite-centric views in explorations of whether the oft-seen patterns of parasite aggregation are adaptive. Using simulation models, we explored the effects of aggregation on coinfection with hetero- or conspecific parasite species characterised by different mean abundances. Increasing aggregation increased the probability of conspecific co-occurrence for parasites with low mean abundances, and increased median numbers of conspecifics for all species. In comparison, increasing aggregation generally decreased the probability, intensity and diversity of heterospecific co-occurrence, irrespective of mean abundance...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153778/accelerating-the-clinical-development-of-protein-based-vaccines-for-malaria-by-efficient-purification-using-a-four-amino-acid-c-terminal-c-tag
#10
Jing Jin, Kathryn A Hjerrild, Sarah E Silk, Rebecca E Brown, Geneviève M Labbé, Jennifer M Marshall, Katherine E Wright, Sandra Bezemer, Stine B Clemmensen, Sumi Biswas, Yuanyuan Li, Aadil El-Turabi, Alexander D Douglas, Pim Hermans, Frank J Detmers, Willem A de Jongh, Matthew K Higgins, Rebecca Ashfield, Simon J Draper
Development of bespoke biomanufacturing processes remains a critical bottleneck for translational studies, in particular when modest quantities of a novel product are required for proof-of-concept Phase I/II clinical trials. In these instances the ability to develop a biomanufacturing process quickly and relatively cheaply, without risk to product quality or safety, provides a great advantage by allowing new antigens or concepts in immunogen design to more rapidly enter human testing. These challenges with production and purification are particularly apparent when developing recombinant protein-based vaccines for difficult parasitic diseases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria being a prime example...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104352/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-two-pathogenic-tritrichomonas-foetus-genotypes-there-is-more-to-the-proteome-than-meets-the-eye
#11
Leah J Stroud, Jan Šlapeta, Matthew P Padula, Dylan Druery, George Tsiotsioras, Jens R Coorssen, Colin M Stack
Certain clinical isolates of Tritrichomonas foetus infect the urogenital tract of cattle while others infect the gastrointestinal tract of cats. Previous studies have identified subtle genetic differences between these isolates with the term "genotype" adopted to reflect host origin. The aim of this work was to seek evidence of host-specific adaptation and to clarify the relationship between T. foetus genotypes. To do this we characterised the proteomes of both genotypes using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with LC-MS/MS...
January 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089659/corrigendum-to-unambiguous-determination-of-plasmodium-vivax-reticulocyte-invasion-by-flow-cytometry-int-j-parasitol-46-2016-31-39
#12
Jee-Sun Cho, Bruce Russell, Varakorn Kosaisavee, Rou Zhang, Yves Colin, Olivier Bertrand, Rajesh Chandramohanadas, Cindy S Chu, Francois Nosten, Laurent Renia, Benoit Malleret
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057461/anisakis-simplex-complex-ecological-significance-of-recombinant-genotypes-in-an-allopatric-area-of-the-adriatic-sea-inferred-by-genome-derived-simple-sequence-repeats
#13
Ivona Mladineo, Željka Trumbić, Ivana Radonić, Anamarija Vrbatović, Jerko Hrabar, Ivana Bušelić
The genus Anisakis includes nine species which, due to close morphological resemblance even in the adult stage, have previously caused many issues in their correct identification. Recently observed interspecific hybridisation in sympatric areas of two closely related species, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, has raised concerns whether a F1 hybrid generation is capable of overriding the breeding barrier, potentially giving rise to more resistant/pathogenic strains infecting humans...
January 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043858/infectivity-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-plasmodium-vivax-infections-to-a-southeast-asian-vector-anopheles-dirus
#14
Kirakorn Kiattibutr, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Patchara Sriwichai, Teerawat Saeseu, Nattawan Rachaphaew, Chayanut Suansomjit, Sureemas Buates, Thomas Obadia, Ivo Mueller, Liwang Cui, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
Plasmodium vivax is now the predominant species causing malarial infection and disease in most non-African areas, but little is known about its transmission efficiency from human to mosquitoes. Because the majority of Plasmodium infections in endemic areas are low density and asymptomatic, it is important to evaluate how well these infections transmit. Using membrane feeding apparatus, Anopheles dirus were fed with blood samples from 94 individuals who had natural P. vivax infections with parasitemias spanning four orders of magnitude...
December 30, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012717/schistosoma-hemozoin-and-its-possible-roles
#15
REVIEW
Shu-Hua Xiao, Jun Sun
More than 95years ago Schistosoma pigment had been deemed as a degradation product of haemoglobin. Until the 1950s, scientists initiated to pay attention to understand the hematophagous habit of schistosomes, and to study the degradation of haemoglobin as well as the formation of hemozoin inside the gut of the worms. For a long time, the formation of hemozoin in both Plasmodium and in Schistosoma was considered to be the major route of heme detoxification, and hemozoin served a role in waste disposal. At the beginning of this century, the chemical structure of Schistosoma pigment was confirmed to be identical to that of malarial pigment (hemozoin) and its synthetic analogue, β-hematin...
December 22, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003151/urogenital-schistosomiasis-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-low-birth-weight-delivery-analysis-of-a-prospective-cohort-of-pregnant-women-and-their-offspring-in-gabon
#16
Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Josiane Honkpehedji, Arti Basra, Jean Rodolphe Mackanga, Rella Manego Zoleko, Jeannot Zinsou, Jean Claude Dejon Agobe, Bertrand Lell, Pierre-Blaise Matsiegui, Raquel Gonzales, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Clara Menendez, Peter G Kremsner, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Michael Ramharter
An estimated 40 million women of childbearing age suffer from schistosomiasis. Animal models indicate a deleterious effect of maternal schistosomiasis on pregnancy outcomes. To date there is a lack of epidemiological evidence evaluating schistosomiasis-related morbidity in pregnancy. This study was designed to describe the impact of urogenital schistosomiasis on pregnancy outcomes in a highly endemic region of central Africa. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Fougamou and Lambaréné, Gabon, were consecutively screened for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in diurnal urine samples...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003150/concomitant-helminth-infection-downmodulates-the-vaccinia-virus-specific-immune-response-and-potentiates-virus-associated-pathology
#17
Pedro Henrique Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Lorena Falabella Daher de Freitas, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Fabiana Coelho, Fernando Sérgio Barbosa, Denise Nogueira, Chiara Amorim, Lucas de Carvalho Dhom-Lemos, Luciana Maria Oliveira, Alexandre Barcelos da Silveira, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
The aim of this work was to elucidate the immunopathological mechanisms of how helminths may influence the course of a viral infection, using a murine model. Severe virulence, a relevant increase in the virus titres in the lung and a higher mortality rate were observed in Ascaris and Vaccinia virus (VACV) co-infected mice, compared with VACV mono-infected mice. Immunopathological analysis suggested that the ablation of CD8(+) T cells, the marked reduction of circulating CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ, and the robust pulmonary inflammation were associated with the increase of morbidity/mortality in co-infection and subsequently with the negative impact of concomitant pulmonary ascariasis and respiratory VACV infection for the host...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003149/elucidation-of-the-first-definitively-identified-life-cycle-for-a-marine-turtle-blood-fluke-trematoda-spirorchiidae-enables-informed-control
#18
Thomas H Cribb, Jose L Crespo-Picazo, Scott C Cutmore, Brian A Stacy, Phoebe A Chapman, Daniel García-Párraga
Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919591/clonorchis-sinensis-excretory-secretory-products-regulate-migration-and-invasion-in-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression
#19
Jhang Ho Pak, Jimin Shin, In-Sung Song, Sungbo Shim, Sung-Wuk Jang
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. We have previously reported that excretory-secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. However, the regulatory mechanisms through which matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression affects cholangiocarcinoma development remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the potential role of excretory-secretory products in regulating the migration and invasion of various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914977/trematodes-with-a-reproductive-division-of-labour-heterophyids-also-have-a-soldier-caste-and-early-infections-reveal-how-colonies-become-structured
#20
Ana E Garcia-Vedrenne, Anastasia C E Quintana, Andrea M DeRogatis, Christina M Dover, Maribel Lopez, Armand M Kuris, Ryan F Hechinger
Recent findings have extended the documentation of complex sociality to the Platyhelminthes, describing the existence of a reproductive division of labour involving a soldier caste among the parthenitae of trematode parasites. However, all species examined to date occupy high positions in trematode interspecific dominance hierarchies and belong to two closely related families, the Echinostomatidae and the Philophthalmidae (Superfamily Echinostomatoidea). Further, the two species documented as lacking soldiers also belong to the Echinostomatidae...
November 30, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
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