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International Journal for Parasitology

Max McClure, Maria Diuk-Wasser
The nymph of the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis), the primary North American vector of the causative agent of Lyme disease, must attach to a host by the end of its questing season in order to feed and subsequently molt into an adult. The proper timing of this behavior is critical both for the tick's survival and for perpetuating the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Questing also depletes limited nymphal lipid reserves and increases desiccation risk. Given this tradeoff, questingbehavior and its environmental influences can be expressed in a dynamic state variable model...
November 14, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Trevor L Hewitt, Chelsea L Wood, Diarmaid Ó Foighil
Mussels in the order Unionoidacomprise ∼75% of the world's freshwater bivalve species and are free-living apart from a brief larval stage that parasitizes fish. We investigatedthe relationships among species of North American unionid mussels and their known host fishesfrom a macroevolutionary perspective to test whether and how ecological and evolutionary factors correlate with patterns of host use. A subset of 69 mussel species was chosen based on data availability regarding their fish host repertoires, phylogenetic relationships, and ecology...
November 14, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Natalia V Leiva, Patricio H Manríquez, Victor M Aguilera, M Teresa González
Ocean warming and acidification are general consequences of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to future predictions, highly productive systems such as the Humboldt Current System (HCS) are characterized by important variations in both temperature and pCO2 level, but how these physical-chemical ocean changes might influence the transmission and survival of parasites has not been assessed. This study experimentally evaluated the effects of temperature (14, 18 and 25°C) and the combined effects of temperature (∼15 and 20°C) and pCO2 level (∼500 and 1400 microatmospheres (µatm) on the emergence and survival of two species of marine trematodes-Echinostomatidae gen...
November 14, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Inga Siden-Kiamos, Tomasino Pace, Antonios Klonizakis, Marco Nardini, Celia R S Garcia, Chiara Currà
Sporozoites are the infective form of malaria parasites which are transmitted from the mosquito salivary glands to a new host in a mosquito blood meal. The sporozoites develop inside the sporogonic oocyst and it is crucial for the continuation of the life cycle that the oocyst ruptures to release sporozoites. We recently described two Plasmodium Oocyst Rupture Proteins (ORP1 and ORP2), localized at the oocyst capsule, that are each essential for rupture of the oocysts. Both ORPs contain a histone fold domain (HFD) implicated in the mechanism of oocyst rupture, possibly through the formation of a heterodimer between the two HFDs...
November 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Caroline D Keroack, Brendan Elsworth, Manoj T Duraisingh
Babesia parasites infect a diverse range of vertebrate hosts, from penguins to pigs. Recently, the emergence of zoonotic Babesia infection has been increasing, and the list of species reported to infect humans continues to grow. Babesiosis represents a burgeoning veterinary and medical threat, and the need for novel therapeutic drugs to effectively target this diverse group of parasites is pressing. Here, we review the current culture systems that exist to study and manipulate Babesia parasites, and identify the scope and methods for target discovery and validation to identify novel, potent anti-babesial inhibitors...
November 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
R Pigeault, C-S Cozzarolo, R Choquet, M Strehler, T Jenkins, J Delhaye, L Bovet, J Wassef, O Glaizot, P Christe
Theoretical studies predict that parasitic infection may impact host longevity and ultimately modify the trade-off between reproduction and survival. Indeed, a host may adjust its energy allocation in current reproduction to balance the negative effects of parasitism on its survival prospects. However, very few empirical studies tested this prediction. Avian haemosporidian parasites provide an excellent opportunity to assess the influence of parasitic infection on both host survival and reproduction. They are represented by three main genera (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) and are highly prevalent in many bird populations...
November 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Ruben Magni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance Liotta, Robert E Molestina
Proteomics of Babesia microti has lagged behind other apicomplexans despite recent genome and transcriptome studies. Here, we used a combination of nanotechnology and mass spectrometry to provide a proteomic profile of B. microti acute infection. We identified ∼500 parasite proteins in blood with functions such as transport, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, proteolysis, DNA and RNA metabolism, signaling, translation, lipid biosynthesis, and motility and invasion. We also identified surface antigens with roles in the immune response to the parasite...
November 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne zoonotic pathogens are a serious public health issue and result in significant global economic losses. Despite their importance to public health, epidemiological data on foodborne diseases including giardiasis caused by the enteric parasite, Giardia duodenalis, are lacking. This parasite is estimated to cause ∼28.2 million cases of diarrhoea each year due to contamination of food, but very few foodborne outbreaks have been documented due to the limitations of current detection as well as surveillance methods...
October 31, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Isaure de Buron, Beatrice L Colon, Sasha V Siegel, Jenna Oberstaller, Andrea Rivero, Dennis E Kyle
Life cycles of spirorchiids that infect the vascular system of turtles are poorly understood. Few life cycles of these blood flukes have been elucidated and all intermediate hosts reported are gastropods (Mollusca), regardless of whether the definitive host is a freshwater or a marine turtle. During a recent survey of blood fluke larvae in polychaetes on the coast of South Carolina, USA, spirorchiid-like cercariae were found to infect the polychaetes Amphitrite ornata (Terebellidae) and Enoplobranchus sanguineus (Polycirridae)...
October 25, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Gina M Gallego-Lopez, Audrey O T Lau, Roberta M O'Connor, Massaro W Ueti, Brian M Cooke, Jacob M Laughery, Telmo Graça, Sally A Madsen-Boutersea, Daiane P Oldiges, David R Allred, Carlos E Suarez
The factors involved in gain or loss of virulence in Babesia bovis are unknown. Spherical body protein 2 truncated copy 11 (sbp2t11) transcripts in B. bovis were recently reported to be a marker of attenuation for B. bovis strains. Increased cytoadhesion of B. bovis-infected red blood cells (iRBC) to vascular endothelial cells is associated with severe disease outcomes and an indicator of parasite virulence. Here, we created a stable B. bovis transfected line over-expressing sbp2t11 to determine whether up-regulation of sbp2t11 is associated with changes in cytoadhesion...
October 25, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Andrea Swei, Kerry E O'Connor, Lisa I Couper, Jose Thekkiniath, Patricia A Conrad, Kerry A Padgett, Joseph Burns, Melissa H Yoshimizu, Ben Gonzales, Brandon Munk, Nicholas Shirkey, Lora Konde, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Robert S Lane, Anne Kjemtrup
Babesiosis is a potentially fatal tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by a species complex of blood parasites that can infect a variety of vertebrates, particularly dogs, cattle, and humans. In the United States, human babesiosis is caused by two distinct parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia duncani. The enzootic cycle of B. microti, endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern regions, has been well characterised. In the western United States, however, the natural reservoir host and tick vector have not been identified for B...
October 25, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Carolina Hernández-Lara, Alejandro Espinosa de Los Monteros, Carlos Napoleón Ibarra-Cerdeña, Luis García-Feria, Diego Santiago-Alarcon
The traditional classification of avian Haemosporida is based mainly on morphology and life history traits. Recently, molecular hypotheses have challenged the traditional classification, leading to contradictory opinions on whether morphology is phylogenetically informative. However, the morphology has never been used to reconstruct the relationships within the group. We inferred the phylogeny of avian Haemosporida from 133 morphological characters present in blood stages. We included all species with at least one mitochondrial gene characterized (n= 93)...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Catherine M Elton, Marilis Rodriguez, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Cheryl A Lobo, Gavin J Wright
Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne parasitic disease and blood transfusion-transmitted infection primarily caused by the apicomplexan parasite, Babesia microti. There is no licensed vaccine for B. microti and the development of a reliable serological screening test would contribute to ensuring the safety of the donated blood supply. The recent sequencing of the B. microti genome has revealed many novel genes encoding proteins that can now be tested for their suitability as subunit vaccine candidates and diagnostic serological markers...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Purnima Bhanot, Nikhat Parveen
The incidence of babesiosis, Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases has increased steadily in Europe and North America during the last five decades. Babesia microti is transmitted by species of Ixodes, the same ticks that transmit the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. B. microti can also be transmitted through transfusion of blood products and is the most common transfusion-transmitted infection in the U.S.A. Ixodes ticks are commonly infected with both B. microti and B. burgdorferi, and are competent vectors for transmitting them together into hosts...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Sadia Saeed, Annie Z Tremp, Johannes T Dessens
Malaria parasite oocysts located on the mosquito midgut generate sporozoites by a process called sporogony. Plasmodium berghei parasites express six LCCL lectin domain adhesive-like proteins (LAPs), which operate as a complex and share a localisation in the crystalloid - an organelle found in the ookinete and young oocyst. Depletion of LAPs prevents crystalloid formation, increases oocyst growth, and blocks sporogony. Here, we describe a LAP4 mutant that has abnormal crystalloid biogenesis and produces oocysts that display reduced growth and premature sporogony...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Storm B Martin, Pierre Sasal, Scott C Cutmore, Selina Ward, Greta S Aeby, Thomas H Cribb
Podocotyloides stenometra Pritchard, 1966 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) is the only trematode known to infect anthozoan corals. It causes disease in coral polyps of the genus Porites Link (Scleractinia: Poritidae) and its life-cycle depends on ingestion of these polyps by butterflyfishes (Perciformes: Chaetodontidae). This species has been reported throughout the Indo-Pacific, from the Seychelles to the Galápagos, but no study has investigated whether multiple species are involved. Here, we recollect P. stenometra from its type-host and type-locality, in Hawaiian waters, and describe four new species from examination of 768 butterflyfishes from French Polynesia...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Lúcio M Barbosa, Bruna C Barros, Moreno de Souza Rodrigues, Luciano K Silva, Mitermayer G Reis, Ronald E Blanton
Eradication or local extinction of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni is a goal for many control programs. Population genetic analyses are helping to evaluate and guide these efforts, yet what to sample, how to sample and how densely to sample is not well established. We determined the S. mansoni allele frequency profile of nearly all infected inhabitants in two small Brazilian communities and created sub-samples representing 5-50% of all detected human infections (infrapopulations). Samples were selected at random with replacement, and each size class was replicated 100 times...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Vaidas Palinauskas, Rita Žiegytė, Jakov Šengaut, Rasa Bernotienė
Co-infections are prevalent worldwide, however, we are still struggling to understand interactions between different parasites and their impacts on host fitness. In the present experimental study we analysed the infection dynamics of two avian malarial parasites Plasmodium elongatum (genetic lineage pERIRUB01) and Plasmodium relictum (genetic lineage pSGS1) and their impacts on host health during single and co-infections. We reveal that P. elongatum intensity of parasitemia is enhanced by the presence of P...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Sean A Locke, Alex Van Dam, Monica Caffara, Hudson Alves Pinto, Danimar López-Hernández, Christopher A Blanar
Higher systematics within the Digenea, Carus 1863 have been relatively stable since a phylogenetic analysis of partial nuclear ribosomal markers (rDNA) led to the erection of the Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003. However, recent mitochondrial (mt) genome phylogenies suggest this order might be paraphyletic. These analyses show members of two diplostomidan superfamilies are more closely related to the Plagiorchiida La Rue, 1957 than to other members of the Diplostomida. A recent phylogeny based on partial cytochrome c oxidase I also indicates one of the groups implicated, the Diplostomoidea Poirier, 1886, is non-monophyletic...
October 19, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Stephen E Greiman, Joseph A Cook, Vasyl V Tkach, Eric P Hoberg, Damian M Menning, Andrew G Hope, Sarah A Sonsthagen, Sandra L Talbot
Natural history collections spanning multiple decades provide fundamental historical baselines to measure and understand changing biodiversity. New technologies such as next generation DNA sequencing have considerably increased the potential of museum specimens to address significant questions regarding the impact of environmental changes on host and parasite/pathogen dynamics. We developed a new technique to identify intestinal helminth parasites and applied it to shrews (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) because they are ubiquitous, occupy diverse habitats, and host a diverse and abundant parasite fauna...
October 11, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
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