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International Journal for Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899329/plasmodium-vivax-vaccine-research-we-ve-only-just-begun
#1
REVIEW
Wai-Hong Tham, James G Beeson, Julian C Rayner
Plasmodium vivax parasites cause the majority of malaria cases outside Africa, and are increasingly being acknowledged as a cause of severe disease. The unique attributes of P. vivax biology, particularly the capacity of the dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, to maintain blood-stage infections even in the absence of active transmission, make blood-stage vaccines particularly attractive for this species. However, P. vivax vaccine development remains resolutely in first gear, with only a single blood-stage candidate having been evaluated in any depth...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899328/the-s48-45-six-cysteine-proteins-mediators-of-interaction-throughout-the-plasmodium-life-cycle
#2
REVIEW
Silvia A Arredondo, Stefan H I Kappe
During their life cycle Plasmodium parasites rely upon an arsenal of proteins that establish key interactions with the host or vector, and between the parasite sexual stages, with the purpose of ensuring infection, reproduction and proliferation. Among these is a group of secreted or membrane-anchored proteins known as the six-cysteine (6-cys) family. This is a small but important family with only 14 members thus far identified, each stage-specifically expressed during the parasite life cycle. 6-cys proteins often localise at the parasite surface or interface with the host and are conserved in different Plasmodium species...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899327/novel-application-of-species-richness-estimators-to-predict-the-host-range-of-parasites
#3
David M Watson, Kirsty V Milner, Andrea Leigh
Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890694/cord-blood-igg-and-the-risk-of-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-the-first-year-of-life
#4
Linda M Murungi, Klara Sondén, Dennis Odera, Loureen B Oduor, Fatuma Guleid, Irene N Nkumama, Mark Otiende, David T Kangoye, Greg Fegan, Anna Färnert, Kevin Marsh, Faith H A Osier
Young infants are less susceptible to severe episodes of malaria but the targets and mechanisms of protection are not clear. Cord blood antibodies may play an important role in mediating protection but many studies have examined their association with the outcome of infection or non-severe malaria. Here, we investigated whether cord blood IgG to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens and antibody-mediated effector functions were associated with reduced odds of developing severe malaria at different time points during the first year of life...
November 24, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866904/assessment-of-the-national-schistosomiasis-control-program-in-a-typical-region-along-the-yangtze-river-china
#5
Yi Hu, Si Li, Congcong Xia, Yue Chen, Henry Lynn, Tiejun Zhang, Chenglong Xiong, Gengxin Chen, Zonggui He, Zhijie Zhang
Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in eastern China, particularly along the Yangtze River Basin. The latest national schistosomiasis control program (NSCP) was implemented in 2005 with the main goal of reducing the rate of infection to less than 5% by 2008 and 1% by 2015. To assess the progress, we applied a Bayesian spatio-temporal model to describe dynamics of schistosomiasis in Guichi, Anhui Province, China, using annual parasitological and environmental data collected within 41 sample villages for the period 2005-2011...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866903/emerging-concepts-in-t-follicular-helper-cell-responses-to-malaria
#6
REVIEW
Diana S Hansen, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Ann Ly, Lisa J Ioannidis, Peter D Crompton
Antibody responses to malaria and candidate malaria vaccines are short-lived in children, leaving them susceptible to repeated malaria episodes. Because T follicular helper (TFH) cells provide critical help to B cells to generate long-lived antibody responses, they have become the focus of recent studies of Plasmodium-infected mice and humans. The emerging data converge on common themes, namely, that malaria-induced TH1 cytokines are associated with the activation of (i) T-like memory TFH cells with impaired B cell helper function, and (ii) pre-TFH cells that acquire Th1-like features (T-bet expression, IFN-γ production), which impede their differentiation into fully functional TFH cells, thus resulting in germinal center dysfunction and suboptimal antibody responses...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836630/asia-pacific-malaria-is-singular-pervasive-diverse-and-invisible
#7
J Kevin Bairdm
Malaria in the Asia-Pacific region has been targeted for elimination by the year 2030. This article asks the question, "by what means?" in the context of proven technical strategies and tools against key challenges imposed by the distinct character of the Asia-Pacific malaria problem. The misperception of malaria in the Asia-Pacific region as a less serious but otherwise essentially similar problem to African malaria lulls us into rote application of the same tools and strategies. Those now mitigating the harm done by malaria in Africa will not suffice to eliminate malaria in the Asia-Pacific region - these tasks and the problems are fundamentally distinct...
November 9, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825828/dissecting-malaria-biology-and-epidemiology-using-population-genetics-and-genomics
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Auburn, Alyssa E Barry
Molecular approaches have an increasingly recognized utility in surveillance of malaria parasite populations, not only in defining prevalence and incidence with higher sensitivity than traditional methods, but also in monitoring local and regional parasite transmission patterns. In this review, we provide an overview of population genetic and genomic studies of human-infecting Plasmodium species, highlighting recent advances in the field. In accordance with the renewed impetus for malaria eradication, many studies are now using genetic and genomic epidemiology to support local evidence-based intervention strategies...
November 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825827/molecular-mechanisms-of-host-cell-traversal-by-malaria-sporozoites
#9
REVIEW
Annie S P Yang, Justin A Boddey
Malaria is a pernicious infectious disease caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Each year, malaria afflicts over 200million people, causing considerable morbidity, loss to gross domestic product of endemic countries, and more than 420,000 deaths. A central feature of the virulence of malaria parasites is the ability of sporozoite forms injected by a mosquito to navigate from the inoculation site in the skin through host tissues to infect the liver. The ability for sporozoites to traverse through different host cell types is very important for the successful development of parasites within the mammalian host...
November 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773518/the-apicoplast-now-you-see-it-now-you-don-t
#10
REVIEW
Geoffrey Ian McFadden, Ellen Yeh
Parasites such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma possess a vestigial plastid homologous to the chloroplasts of algae and plants. The plastid (known as the apicoplast; for apicomplexan plastid) is non-photosynthetic and very much reduced, but has clear endosymbiotic ancestry including a circular genome that encodes RNAs and proteins and a suite of bacterial biosynthetic pathways. Here we review the initial discovery of the apicoplast, and recount the major new insights into apicoplast origin, biogenesis and function...
October 20, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670365/severe-malaria-what-s-new-on-the-pathogenesis-front
#11
Samuel Crocodile Wassmer, Georges Emile Raymond Grau
Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe and fatal form of malaria in humans with over half a million deaths each year. Cerebral malaria, a complex neurological syndrome of severe falciparum malaria, is often fatal and represents a major public health burden. Despite vigorous efforts, the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria remains to be elucidated, thereby hindering the development of adjunctive therapies. In recent years, multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches have led to groundbreaking progress both in the laboratory and in the field...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641827/versatile-glycoside-hydrolase-family-18-chitinases-for-fungi-ingestion-and-reproduction-in-the-pinewood-nematode-bursaphelenchus-xylophilus
#12
Yuliang Ju, Xuan Wang, Tinglong Guan, Deliang Peng, Hongmei Li
The glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) of chitinases is a gene family widely expressed in archaes, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and hydrolyzes the β-1,4-linkages in chitin. The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is one of the organisms that produces GH18 chitinases. Notably, B. xylophilus has a higher number of GH18 chitinases compared with the obligate plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla. In this study, seven GH18 chitinases were identified and cloned from B. xylophilus based on genomic analyses...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623220/assessing-myxozoan-presence-and-diversity-using-environmental-dna
#13
Hanna Hartikainen, David Bass, Andrew G Briscoe, Hazel Knipe, Andy J Green, Beth Okamura
Amplicon sequencing on a High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) platform (custom barcoding) was used to detect and characterise myxosporean communities in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples from marine and freshwater environments and in faeces of animals that may serve as hosts or whose prey may host myxosporean infections. A diversity of myxozoans in filtered water samples and in faeces of piscivores (otters and great cormorants) was detected, demonstrating the suitability of lineage-specific amplicons for characterising otherwise difficult to sample parasite communities...
September 10, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620133/haemonchus-contortus-the-then-and-now-and-where-to-from-here
#14
David L Emery, Peter W Hunt, Leo F LeJambre
Haemonchus contortus (Barber's pole worm or "BPW") is the nematode "nemesis" of small ruminant production systems in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its reputation derives from a combination of high fecundity and a short generational interval that provides an enviable developmental plasticity for adaptation or resistance to control measures. This review critically examines the historical and current literature on the host-parasite-environment (HPE) interaction for H. contortus, particularly in sheep, to highlight changes in parasite distribution and ecology on pasture, changes to the seasonal inhibition of fourth stage larvae and the most appropriate models to identify protective responses and assess vaccines...
September 9, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616734/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-related-risk-factors-for-soil-transmitted-helminth-and-giardia-duodenalis-infections-in-rural-communities-in-timor-leste
#15
Suzy J Campbell, Susana V Nery, Catherine A D'Este, Darren J Gray, James S McCarthy, Rebecca J Traub, Ross M Andrews, Stacey Llewellyn, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Salvador Amaral, Archie Ca Clements
There is little evidence on prevalence or risk factors for soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Timor-Leste. This study describes the epidemiology, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and socioeconomic risk factors of STH and intestinal protozoa among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT), a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted across 18 villages, with data from six additional villages. Stool samples were assessed for STH and protozoal infections using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and questionnaires administered to collect WASH and socioeconomic data...
September 8, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773519/immunomodulatory-potential-of-particular-trichinella-spiralis-muscle-larvae-excretory-secretory-components
#16
J Cvetkovic, Lj Sofronic-Milosavljevic, N Ilic, M Gnjatovic, I Nagano, A Gruden-Movsesijan
Excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae can induce the semi-matured status of rat dendritic cells. This may at least partly be the consequence of transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here we investigated the potential of several components of excretory-secretory antigens (native fraction containing 45, 49 and 53kDa proteins and recombinant Tsp53, representing one of the constituents of this fraction) to demonstrate previously observed effects of excretory-secretory antigens on dendritic cells in vitro, characterised by establishment of a particular phenotype (very low MHC II expression, moderate CD86 expression and significant ICAM-1 expression) and functional properties (low production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p70, and high production of IL-10 and TGF-β)...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771257/excretory-secretory-products-in-the-echinococcus-granulosus-metacestode-is-the-intermediate-host-complacent-with-infection-caused-by-the-larval-form-of-the-parasite
#17
Guilherme B Dos Santos, Karina M Monteiro, Edileuza Danieli da Silva, Maria Eduarda Battistella, Henrique B Ferreira, Arnaldo Zaha
The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771256/climate-driven-longitudinal-trends-in-pasture-borne-helminth-infections-of-dairy-cattle
#18
Johannes Charlier, Aklilu H Ghebretinsae, Bruno Levecke, Els Ducheyne, Edwin Claerebout, Jozef Vercruysse
Helminth parasites of grazing ruminants are highly prevalent globally and impact negatively on animal productivity and food security. There is a growing concern that climate change increases helminth disease frequency and intensity. In Europe, these concerns stem from case reports and theoretical life cycle models assessing the effects of climate change scenarios on helminth epidemiology. We believe this study is the first to investigate climate-driven trends in helminth infections of cattle on a cohort of randomly selected farms...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729271/selective-inhibition-of-sarcocystis-neurona-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-1-for-equine-protozoal-myeloencephalitis-therapy
#19
Kayode K Ojo, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam, Shiv K Verma, Suzanne Scheele, Amy E DeRocher, Michelle Yeargan, Ryan Choi, Tess R Smith, Kasey L Rivas, Matthew A Hulverson, Lynn K Barrett, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Marilyn Parsons, Jitender P Dubey, Daniel K Howe, Wesley C Van Voorhis
Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729270/serum-osteopontin-is-a-biomarker-of-severe-fibrosis-and-portal-hypertension-in-human-and-murine-schistosomiasis-mansoni
#20
Thiago Almeida Pereira, Wing-Kin Syn, Fausto E L Pereira, José Roberto Lambertucci, William Evan Secor, Anna Mae Diehl
Schistosomiasis is a major cause of fibrosis and portal hypertension. The reason 4-10% of infected subjects develops hepatosplenic schistosomiasis remains unclear. Chronically infected male CBA/J mice reproduce the dichotomic forms of human schistosomiasis. Most mice (80%) develop moderate splenomegaly syndrome (similar to hepatointestinal disease in humans) and 20% present severe hypersplenomegaly syndrome (analogous to human hepatosplenic disease). We demonstrated that the profibrogenic molecule osteopontin discriminates between mice with severe and mild disease and could be a novel morbidity biomarker in murine and human schistosomiasis...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
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