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International Journal for Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104352/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-two-pathogenic-tritrichomonas-foetus-genotypes-there-is-more-to-the-proteome-than-meets-the-eye
#1
Leah J Stroud, Jan Šlapeta, Matthew P Padula, Dylan Druery, George Tsiotsioras, Jens R Coorssen, Colin M Stack
Certain clinical isolates of Tritrichomonas foetus infect the urogenital tract of cattle while others infect the gastrointestinal tract of cats. Previous studies have identified subtle genetic differences between these isolates with the term "genotype" adopted to reflect host origin. The aim of this work was to seek evidence of host-specific adaptation and to clarify the relationship between T. foetus genotypes. To do this we characterised the proteomes of both genotypes using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled with LC-MS/MS...
January 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089659/corrigendum-to-unambiguous-determination-of-plasmodium-vivax-reticulocyte-invasion-by-flow-cytometry-int-j-parasitol-46-2016-31-39
#2
Jee-Sun Cho, Bruce Russell, Varakorn Kosaisavee, Rou Zhang, Yves Colin, Olivier Bertrand, Rajesh Chandramohanadas, Cindy S Chu, Francois Nosten, Laurent Renia, Benoit Malleret
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057461/anisakis-simplex-complex-ecological-significance-of-recombinant-genotypes-in-an-allopatric-area-of-the-adriatic-sea-inferred-by-genome-derived-simple-sequence-repeats
#3
Ivona Mladineo, Željka Trumbić, Ivana Radonić, Anamarija Vrbatović, Jerko Hrabar, Ivana Bušelić
The genus Anisakis includes nine species which, due to close morphological resemblance even in the adult stage, have previously caused many issues in their correct identification. Recently observed interspecific hybridisation in sympatric areas of two closely related species, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, has raised concerns whether a F1 hybrid generation is capable of overriding the breeding barrier, potentially giving rise to more resistant/pathogenic strains infecting humans...
January 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043858/infectivity-of-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-plasmodium-vivax-infections-to-a-southeast-asian-vector-anopheles-dirus
#4
Kirakorn Kiattibutr, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Patchara Sriwichai, Teerawat Saeseu, Nattawan Rachaphaew, Chayanut Suansomjit, Sureemas Buates, Thomas Obadia, Ivo Mueller, Liwang Cui, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot
Plasmodium vivax is now the predominant species causing malarial infection and disease in most non-African areas, but little is known about its transmission efficiency from human to mosquitoes. Because the majority of Plasmodium infections in endemic areas are low density and asymptomatic, it is important to evaluate how well these infections transmit. Using membrane feeding apparatus, Anopheles dirus were fed with blood samples from 94 individuals who had natural P. vivax infections with parasitemias spanning four orders of magnitude...
December 30, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012717/schistosoma-hemozoin-and-its-possible-roles
#5
REVIEW
Shu-Hua Xiao, Jun Sun
More than 95years ago Schistosoma pigment had been deemed as a degradation product of haemoglobin. Until the 1950s, scientists initiated to pay attention to understand the hematophagous habit of schistosomes, and to study the degradation of haemoglobin as well as the formation of hemozoin inside the gut of the worms. For a long time, the formation of hemozoin in both Plasmodium and in Schistosoma was considered to be the major route of heme detoxification, and hemozoin served a role in waste disposal. At the beginning of this century, the chemical structure of Schistosoma pigment was confirmed to be identical to that of malarial pigment (hemozoin) and its synthetic analogue, β-hematin...
December 22, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003151/urogenital-schistosomiasis-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-low-birth-weight-delivery-analysis-of-a-prospective-cohort-of-pregnant-women-and-their-offspring-in-gabon
#6
Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Josiane Honkpehedji, Arti Basra, Jean Rodolphe Mackanga, Rella Manego Zoleko, Jeannot Zinsou, Jean Claude Dejon Agobe, Bertrand Lell, Pierre-Blaise Matsiegui, Raquel Gonzales, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Clara Menendez, Peter G Kremsner, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Michael Ramharter
An estimated 40 million women of childbearing age suffer from schistosomiasis. Animal models indicate a deleterious effect of maternal schistosomiasis on pregnancy outcomes. To date there is a lack of epidemiological evidence evaluating schistosomiasis-related morbidity in pregnancy. This study was designed to describe the impact of urogenital schistosomiasis on pregnancy outcomes in a highly endemic region of central Africa. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Fougamou and Lambaréné, Gabon, were consecutively screened for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in diurnal urine samples...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003150/concomitant-helminth-infection-downmodulates-the-vaccinia-virus-specific-immune-response-and-potentiates-virus-associated-pathology
#7
Pedro Henrique Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Lorena Falabella Daher de Freitas, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Fabiana Coelho, Fernando Sérgio Barbosa, Denise Nogueira, Chiara Amorim, Lucas de Carvalho Dhom-Lemos, Luciana Maria Oliveira, Alexandre Barcelos da Silveira, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
The aim of this work was to elucidate the immunopathological mechanisms of how helminths may influence the course of a viral infection, using a murine model. Severe virulence, a relevant increase in the virus titres in the lung and a higher mortality rate were observed in Ascaris and Vaccinia virus (VACV) co-infected mice, compared with VACV mono-infected mice. Immunopathological analysis suggested that the ablation of CD8(+) T cells, the marked reduction of circulating CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ, and the robust pulmonary inflammation were associated with the increase of morbidity/mortality in co-infection and subsequently with the negative impact of concomitant pulmonary ascariasis and respiratory VACV infection for the host...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003149/elucidation-of-the-first-definitively-identified-life-cycle-for-a-marine-turtle-blood-fluke-trematoda-spirorchiidae-enables-informed-control
#8
Thomas H Cribb, Jose L Crespo-Picazo, Scott C Cutmore, Brian A Stacy, Phoebe A Chapman, Daniel García-Párraga
Blood flukes of the family Spirorchiidae are significant pathogens of both free-ranging and captive marine turtles. Despite a significant proportion of marine turtle mortality being attributable to spirorchiid infections, details of their life cycles remain almost entirely unknown. Here we report on the molecular elucidation of the complete life cycle of a marine spirorchiid, identified as Amphiorchis sp., infecting vermetid gastropods and captive hatched neonate Caretta caretta in the Oceanogràfic Aquarium, in Valencia, Spain...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940066/fasciola-hepatica-demonstrates-high-levels-of-genetic-diversity-a-lack-of-population-structure-and-high-gene-flow-possible-implications-for-drug-resistance
#9
Nicola J Beesley, Diana J L Williams, Steve Paterson, Jane Hodgkinson
Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke, is a trematode parasite of considerable economic importance to the livestock industry and is a re-emerging zoonosis that poses a risk to human health in F. hepatica-endemic areas worldwide. Drug resistance is a substantial threat to the current and future control of F. hepatica, yet little is known about how the biology of the parasite influences the development and spread of resistance. Given that F. hepatica can self-fertilise and therefore inbreed, there is the potential for greater population differentiation and an increased likelihood of recessive alleles, such as drug resistance genes, coming together...
December 7, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919591/clonorchis-sinensis-excretory-secretory-products-regulate-migration-and-invasion-in-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-expression
#10
Jhang Ho Pak, Jimin Shin, In-Sung Song, Sungbo Shim, Sung-Wuk Jang
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. We have previously reported that excretory-secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. However, the regulatory mechanisms through which matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression affects cholangiocarcinoma development remain unclear. In the current study, we examined the potential role of excretory-secretory products in regulating the migration and invasion of various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914977/trematodes-with-a-reproductive-division-of-labour-heterophyids-also-have-a-soldier-caste-and-early-infections-reveal-how-colonies-become-structured
#11
Ana E Garcia-Vedrenne, Anastasia C E Quintana, Andrea M DeRogatis, Christina M Dover, Maribel Lopez, Armand M Kuris, Ryan F Hechinger
Recent findings have extended the documentation of complex sociality to the Platyhelminthes, describing the existence of a reproductive division of labour involving a soldier caste among the parthenitae of trematode parasites. However, all species examined to date occupy high positions in trematode interspecific dominance hierarchies and belong to two closely related families, the Echinostomatidae and the Philophthalmidae (Superfamily Echinostomatoidea). Further, the two species documented as lacking soldiers also belong to the Echinostomatidae...
November 30, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899329/plasmodium-vivax-vaccine-research-we-ve-only-just-begun
#12
REVIEW
Wai-Hong Tham, James G Beeson, Julian C Rayner
Plasmodium vivax parasites cause the majority of malaria cases outside Africa, and are increasingly being acknowledged as a cause of severe disease. The unique attributes of P. vivax biology, particularly the capacity of the dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, to maintain blood-stage infections even in the absence of active transmission, make blood-stage vaccines particularly attractive for this species. However, P. vivax vaccine development remains resolutely in first gear, with only a single blood-stage candidate having been evaluated in any depth...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899328/the-s48-45-six-cysteine-proteins-mediators-of-interaction-throughout-the-plasmodium-life-cycle
#13
REVIEW
Silvia A Arredondo, Stefan H I Kappe
During their life cycle Plasmodium parasites rely upon an arsenal of proteins that establish key interactions with the host and vector, and between the parasite sexual stages, with the purpose of ensuring infection, reproduction and proliferation. Among these is a group of secreted or membrane-anchored proteins known as the six-cysteine (6-cys) family. This is a small but important family with only 14 members thus far identified, each stage-specifically expressed during the parasite life cycle. 6-cys proteins often localise at the parasite surface or interface with the host and vector, and are conserved in different Plasmodium species...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899327/novel-application-of-species-richness-estimators-to-predict-the-host-range-of-parasites
#14
David M Watson, Kirsty V Milner, Andrea Leigh
Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890694/cord-blood-igg-and-the-risk-of-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-the-first-year-of-life
#15
Linda M Murungi, Klara Sondén, Dennis Odera, Loureen B Oduor, Fatuma Guleid, Irene N Nkumama, Mark Otiende, David T Kangoye, Greg Fegan, Anna Färnert, Kevin Marsh, Faith H A Osier
Young infants are less susceptible to severe episodes of malaria but the targets and mechanisms of protection are not clear. Cord blood antibodies may play an important role in mediating protection but many studies have examined their association with the outcome of infection or non-severe malaria. Here, we investigated whether cord blood IgG to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens and antibody-mediated effector functions were associated with reduced odds of developing severe malaria at different time points during the first year of life...
November 24, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866904/assessment-of-the-national-schistosomiasis-control-program-in-a-typical-region-along-the-yangtze-river-china
#16
Yi Hu, Si Li, Congcong Xia, Yue Chen, Henry Lynn, Tiejun Zhang, Chenglong Xiong, Gengxin Chen, Zonggui He, Zhijie Zhang
Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in eastern China, particularly along the Yangtze River Basin. The latest national schistosomiasis control program (NSCP) was implemented in 2005 with the main goal of reducing the rate of infection to less than 5% by 2008 and 1% by 2015. To assess the progress, we applied a Bayesian spatio-temporal model to describe dynamics of schistosomiasis in Guichi, Anhui Province, China, using annual parasitological and environmental data collected within 41 sample villages for the period 2005-2011...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866903/emerging-concepts-in-t-follicular-helper-cell-responses-to-malaria
#17
REVIEW
Diana S Hansen, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Ann Ly, Lisa J Ioannidis, Peter D Crompton
Antibody responses to malaria and candidate malaria vaccines are short-lived in children, leaving them susceptible to repeated malaria episodes. Because T follicular helper (TFH) cells provide critical help to B cells to generate long-lived antibody responses, they have become the focus of recent studies of Plasmodium-infected mice and humans. The emerging data converge on common themes, namely, that malaria-induced TH1 cytokines are associated with the activation of (i) T-like memory TFH cells with impaired B cell helper function, and (ii) pre-TFH cells that acquire Th1-like features (T-bet expression, IFN-γ production), which impede their differentiation into fully functional TFH cells, thus resulting in germinal center dysfunction and suboptimal antibody responses...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836630/asia-pacific-malaria-is-singular-pervasive-diverse-and-invisible
#18
J Kevin Bairdm
Malaria in the Asia-Pacific region has been targeted for elimination by the year 2030. This article asks the question, "by what means?" in the context of proven technical strategies and tools against key challenges imposed by the distinct character of the Asia-Pacific malaria problem. The misperception of malaria in the Asia-Pacific region as a less serious but otherwise essentially similar problem to African malaria lulls us into rote application of the same tools and strategies. Those now mitigating the harm done by malaria in Africa will not suffice to eliminate malaria in the Asia-Pacific region - these tasks and the problems are fundamentally distinct...
November 9, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825828/dissecting-malaria-biology-and-epidemiology-using-population-genetics-and-genomics
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Auburn, Alyssa E Barry
Molecular approaches have an increasingly recognized utility in surveillance of malaria parasite populations, not only in defining prevalence and incidence with higher sensitivity than traditional methods, but also in monitoring local and regional parasite transmission patterns. In this review, we provide an overview of population genetic and genomic studies of human-infecting Plasmodium species, highlighting recent advances in the field. In accordance with the renewed impetus for malaria eradication, many studies are now using genetic and genomic epidemiology to support local evidence-based intervention strategies...
November 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825827/molecular-mechanisms-of-host-cell-traversal-by-malaria-sporozoites
#20
REVIEW
Annie S P Yang, Justin A Boddey
Malaria is a pernicious infectious disease caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Each year, malaria afflicts over 200million people, causing considerable morbidity, loss to gross domestic product of endemic countries, and more than 420,000 deaths. A central feature of the virulence of malaria parasites is the ability of sporozoite forms injected by a mosquito to navigate from the inoculation site in the skin through host tissues to infect the liver. The ability for sporozoites to traverse through different host cell types is very important for the successful development of parasites within the mammalian host...
November 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
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