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International Journal for Parasitology

Euan R O Allan, Benjamin Gourbal, Camila B Dores, Anais Portet, Christopher J Bayne, Michael S Blouin
Schistosomiasis is one of the most detrimental neglected tropical diseases. Controlling the spread of this parasitic illness requires effective sanitation, access to chemotherapeutic drugs, and control over populations of the freshwater snails, such as Biomphalaria glabrata, that are essential intermediate hosts for schistosomes. Effectively controlling this disease, while minimizing ecological implications of such control, will require an extensive understanding of the immunological interactions between schistosomes and their molluscan intermediate hosts...
November 11, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne illness, the majority of which is caused by enteric infectious agents, costs global economies billions of dollars each year. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is particularly suited to foodborne transmission and is responsible for >8 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Procedures have been developed for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce and molecular diagnostic assays have been widely used in case linkages and infection source tracking, especially during outbreak investigations...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Alexander K Brazenor, Richard J Saunders, Terrence L Miller, Kate S Hutson
Intra-species morphological variation presents a considerable problem for species identification and can result in taxonomic confusion. This is particularly pertinent for species of Neobenedenia which are harmful agents in captive fish populations and have historically been identified almost entirely based on morphological characters. This study aimed to understand how the morphology of Neobenedenia girellae varies with host fish species and the environment. Standard morphological features of genetically indistinct parasites from various host fish species were measured under controlled temperatures and salinities...
November 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Natalia Osten-Sacken, Mike Heddergott, Anna Schleimer, Helena E Anheyer-Behmenburg, Martin Runge, Gavin J Horsburgh, Lauren Camp, Steven A Nadler, Alain C Frantz
Animal parasitic nematodes can cause serious diseases and their emergence in new areas can be an issue of major concern for biodiversity conservation and human health. Their ability to adapt to new environments and hosts is likely to be affected by their degree of genetic diversity, with gene flow between distinct populations counteracting genetic drift and increasing effective population size. The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis), a gastrointestinal parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), has increased its global geographic range after being translocated with its host...
November 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
David Hartmann, Radek Šíma, Jitka Konvičková, Jan Perner, Petr Kopáček, Daniel Sojka
By searching nucleotide databases for the North American Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, we have complemented the previously characterized European Ixodes ricinus legumain IrAE1 with a full set of nine analogous genes (isae1-9). Six of these were PCR confirmed as genes present in all tick genomes tested. The absolute mRNA copy number examined by quantitative (q)PCR enabled expression profiling and an absolute comparison of mRNA levels for individual I. scapularis (Is)AEs in tick tissues. Four IsAEs (1, 2, 4, 9) were expressed solely in the gut and thus are proposed to be involved in host blood digestion...
November 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Katrina M Pagenkopp Lohan, Kristina M Hill-Spanik, Mark E Torchin, Robert C Fleischer, Ryan B Carnegie, Kimberly S Reece, Gregory M Ruiz
Panama is a major hub for commercial shipping between two oceans, making it an ideal location to examine parasite biogeography, potential invasions, and the spread of infectious agents. Our goals were to (i) characterise the diversity and genetic connectivity of Perkinsus spp. haplotypes across the Panamanian Isthmus and (ii) combine these data with sequences from around the world to evaluate the current phylogeography and genetic connectivity of these widespread molluscan parasites. We collected 752 bivalves from 12 locations along the coast of Panama including locations around the Bocas del Toro archipelago and the Caribbean and Pacific entrances to the Panama Canal, from December 2012 to February 2013...
November 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Meng Zhang, Pierre Faou, Alexander G Maier, Melanie Rug
Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal malaria parasite species for humans, vastly remodels the mature erythrocyte host cell upon invasion for its own survival. Maurer's clefts are membraneous structures established by the parasite in the cytoplasm of infected cells. These organelles are deemed essential for trafficking of virulence complex proteins. The display of the major virulence protein, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 on the surface of the infected red blood cell and the subsequent cytoadhesion of infected cells in the microvasculature of vital organs is the key mechanism that leads to the pathology associated with malaria infection...
November 1, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Vahid H Gazestani, Marshall Hampton, Aubie K Shaw, Reza Salavati, Sara L Zimmer
The intricate life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei requires extensive regulation of gene expression levels of the mtRNAs for adaptation. Post-transcriptional gene regulatory programs, including unencoded mtRNA 3' tail additions, potentially play major roles in this adaptation process. Intriguingly, T. brucei mitochondrial transcripts possess two distinct unencoded 3' tails, each with a differing functional role; i.e., while one type is implicated in RNA stability (in-tails), the other type appears associated with translation (ex-tails)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Neil D Sargison, Elizabeth Redman, Alison A Morrison, David J Bartley, Frank Jackson, Hardeep Naghra-van Gijzel, Nancy Holroyd, Matthew Berriman, James A Cotton, John S Gilleard
Parasitic nematode species have extremely high levels of genetic diversity, presenting a number of experimental challenges for genomic and genetic work. Consequently, there is a need to develop inbred laboratory strains with reduced levels of polymorphism. The most efficient approach to inbred line development is single pair mating, but this is challenging for obligate parasites where the adult sexual reproductive stages are inside the host, and thus difficult to experimentally manipulate. This paper describes a successful approach to single pair mating of a parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus...
October 27, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Jennifer L Bellaw, Kristen Krebs, Craig R Reinemeyer, Jamie K Norris, Jessica A Scare, Stefanie Pagano, Martin K Nielsen
Cyathostomins are ubiquitous in grazing horses across the world, and anthelmintic resistance has been reported with increasing levels over past decades. The aims of the present study were (i) to investigate the efficacy against encysted larval stages of moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg) and fenbendazole (10 mg/kg daily for five consecutive days) and compare these regimens at 2 and 5 weeks post-treatment, (ii) to investigate individual cyathostomin species associated with shortened egg reappearance periods, and (iii) to document species exhibiting decreased susceptibility to the evaluated compounds...
October 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Manuel Rodriguez-Valle, Paula Moolhuijzen, Roberto A Barrero, Chian Teng Ong, Greta Busch, Thomas Karbanowicz, Mitchell Booth, Richard Clark, Johannes Koehbach, Hina Ijaz, Kevin Broady, Kim Agnew, Aleta G Knowles, Matthew I Bellgard, Ala E Tabor
The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) secretes neuropathic toxins into saliva that induce host paralysis. Salivary glands and viscera were dissected from fully engorged female I. holocyclus ticks collected from dogs and cats with paralysis symptoms. cDNA from both tissue samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 100 bp pair end read technologies. Unique and non-redundant holocyclotoxin sequences were designated as HT2-HT19, as none were identical to the previously described HT1. Specific binding to rat synaptosomes was determined for synthetic HTs, and their neurotoxic capacity was determined by neonatal mouse assay...
October 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Mosun E Ogedengbe, Shiem El-Sherry, Joseph D Ogedengbe, H David Chapman, John R Barta
Partial mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and near-complete nuclear (nu) 18S rDNA sequences were obtained from various eimeriid coccidia infecting vertebrates. New and published sequences were used in phylogenetic reconstructions based on nu 18S rDNA, mt COI and concatenated sequence datasets. Bayesian analyses of nu 18S rDNA sequences used secondary structure-based alignments with a doublet nucleotide substitution model; the codon nucleotide substitution model was applied to COI sequences...
October 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Loren Cassin Sackett
Parasitism of mammals is ubiquitous, but the processes driving parasite aggregation on hosts are poorly understood, as each system seems to show unique correlations between parasitism and host traits such as sex, age, size and body mass. Genetic diversity is also posited to influence susceptibility to parasitism, and provides a quantifiable measure of an intrinsic unchanging host property, but this link has not been well established. A lack of consistency in host traits predicting parasite heterogeneity may derive from the contribution of environmental factors to parasite aggregation...
September 28, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Manjurul Haque, Lisa M Starr, Kristine G Koski, Marilyn E Scott
Maternal dietary protein deficiency and gastrointestinal nematode infection during early pregnancy have negative impacts on both maternal placental gene expression and fetal growth in the mouse. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing to test our hypothesis that maternal protein deficiency and/or nematode infection also alter the expression of genes in the developing fetal brain. Outbred pregnant CD1 mice were used in a 2×2 design with two levels of dietary protein (24% versus 6%) and two levels of infection (repeated sham versus Heligmosomoides bakeri beginning at gestation day 5)...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Solange Oliveira, Juliana Aizawa, Herbert Sousa Soares, Daniela Pontes Chiebao, Márcio Botelho de Castro, Aline S Hora, Marcos Gomes Lopes, Gereon Schares, Mark C Jenkins, Oliver C H Kwok, Ricardo Augusto Dias, Solange Maria Gennari, Jitender P Dubey, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena
The importance of birds in the biological cycle of Neospora caninum is not clear. We report unsuccessful Neospora infection in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) using two isolates of N. caninum. In experiment #1, 30 White Leghorn chickens were orally inoculated with viable N. caninum oocysts (NC-SP1 isolate, 200 oocysts per bird) via the crop at 21days of age. Groups of three birds were euthanised at intervals of 7days (a total of 9weeks) and one group was challenged with the same oocyst dose at 37daysp.i...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
David S Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Trish Elliott, Megan S F Soon, Bryce S Thomas, Kylie R James, Shannon E Best, Rosemary A Aogo, Jessica A Engel, Kate H Gartlan, Jasmin Akter, Ismail Sebina, Ashraful Haque, Miles P Davenport
The artemisinins are the first-line therapy for severe and uncomplicated malaria, since they cause rapid declines in parasitemia after treatment. Despite this, in vivo mechanisms underlying this rapid decline remain poorly characterised. The overall decline in parasitemia is the net effect of drug inhibition of parasites and host clearance, which competes against any ongoing parasite proliferation. Separating these mechanisms in vivo was not possible through measurements of total parasitemia alone. Therefore, we employed an adoptive transfer approach in which C57BL/6J mice were transfused with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain-infected, fluorescent red blood cells, and subsequently drug-treated...
August 31, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Manuel Ritter, Ruth S Tamadaho, Judith Feid, Wenzel Vogel, Katharina Wiszniewsky, Sven Perner, Achim Hoerauf, Laura E Layland
Approximately 100 million people suffer from filarial diseases including lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis), onchocerciasis (river blindness) and loiasis. These diseases are amongst the most devastating of the neglected tropical diseases in terms of social and economic impact. Moreover, many infection-induced immune mechanisms in the host, their relationship to disease-related symptoms and the development of pathology within the site of infection remain unclear. To improve on current drug therapies or vaccines, further studies are necessary to decipher the mechanisms behind filaria-driven immune responses and pathology development, and thus the rodent model of Litomosoides sigmodontis can be used to unravel host-filaria interactions...
August 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Ana González-Hernández, Jimmy Borloo, Iris Peelaers, Stijn Casaert, Georges Leclercq, Edwin Claerebout, Peter Geldhof
The protective capacities of a native double-domain activation-associated secreted protein (ndd-ASP)-based vaccine against the cattle intestinal nematode Cooperia oncophora has previously been demonstrated. However, protection analysis upon vaccination with a recombinantly produced antigen has never been performed. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to test the protective potential of a Pichia-produced double-domain ASP (pdd-ASP)-based vaccine against C. oncophora. Additionally, we aimed to compare the cellular and humoral mechanisms underlying the vaccine-induced responses by the native (ndd-ASP) and recombinant vaccines...
August 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Brenda Solórzano-García, Jaime Gasca-Pineda, Robert Poulin, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
Microevolutionary processes in parasites are driven by factors related to parasite biology, host abundance and dispersal, and environmental conditions. Here, we test the prediction that isolation of host populations results in reduced genetic diversity and high differentiation among parasite populations. We conducted a population genetic analysis of two pinworms, Trypanoxyuris minutus and Trypanoxyuris atelis, commonly found parasitizing howler and spider monkeys in tropical rainforests across south-eastern Mexico, whose populations are currently isolated due to anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation...
August 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Thomas H Cribb, Rowan C Chick, Wayne O'Connor, Stephan O'Connor, Daniel Johnson, Kim B Sewell, Scott C Cutmore
Blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) of actinopterygians (bony fishes) have been shown to infect freshwater gastropods and marine polychaetes as intermediate hosts. However, no life cycle is known for any aporocotylid of chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and no adult aporocotylid has been linked to a cercaria infecting a bivalve. Here we report two novel infections that fill these gaps. Cercariae consistent with the family Aporocotylidae were found developing in sporocysts in the gonad of the surf pipi, Donax deltoides Lamarck, 1818 (Bivalvia: Donacidae), from Stockton Beach, central New South Wales, Australia...
November 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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