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International Journal for Parasitology

Thiago Almeida Pereira, Wing-Kin Syn, Fausto E L Pereira, José Roberto Lambertucci, William Evan Secor, Anna Mae Diehl
Schistosomiasis is a major cause of fibrosis and portal hypertension. The reason 4-10% of infected subjects develops hepatosplenic schistosomiasis remains unclear. Chronically infected male CBA/J mice reproduce the dichotomic forms of human schistosomiasis. Most mice (80%) develop moderate splenomegaly syndrome (similar to hepatointestinal disease in humans) and 20% present severe hypersplenomegaly syndrome (analogous to human hepatosplenic disease). We demonstrated that the profibrogenic molecule osteopontin discriminates between mice with severe and mild disease and could be a novel morbidity biomarker in murine and human schistosomiasis...
October 10, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Kayode K Ojo, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam, Shiv K Verma, Suzanne Scheele, Amy E DeRocher, Michelle Yeargan, Ryan Choi, Tess R Smith, Kasey L Rivas, Matthew A Hulverson, Lynn K Barrett, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Marilyn Parsons, Jitender P Dubey, Daniel K Howe, Wesley C Van Voorhis
Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development...
October 8, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Christophe Diagne, Alexis Ribas, Nathalie Charbonnel, Ambroise Dalecky, Caroline Tatard, Philippe Gauthier, Voitto Haukisalmi, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Khalilou Bâ, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Sylvain Piry, Mbacké Sembène, Carine Brouat
Understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. Among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. Moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spillover") and/or by an increased transmission risk of native parasites due to their amplification by invaders ("parasite spillback")...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Samuel Crocodile Wassmer, Georges Emile Raymond Grau
Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe and fatal form of malaria in humans with over half a million deaths each year. Cerebral malaria, a complex neurological syndrome of severe falciparum malaria, is often fatal and represents a major public health burden. Despite vigorous efforts, the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria remains to be elucidated, thereby hindering the development of adjunctive therapies. In recent years, multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches have led to groundbreaking progress both in the laboratory and in the field...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Yuliang Ju, Xuan Wang, Tinglong Guan, Deliang Peng, Hongmei Li
The glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) of chitinases is a gene family widely expressed in archaes, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and hydrolyzes the β-1,4-linkages in chitin. The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is one of the organisms that produces GH18 chitinases. Notably, B. xylophilus has a higher number of GH18 chitinases compared with the obligate plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla. In this study, seven GH18 chitinases were identified and cloned from B. xylophilus based on genomic analyses...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Hanna Hartikainen, David Bass, Andrew G Briscoe, Hazel Knipe, Andy J Green, Beth Okamura
Amplicon sequencing on a High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) platform (custom barcoding) was used to detect and characterise myxosporean communities in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples from marine and freshwater environments and in faeces of animals that may serve as hosts or whose prey may host myxosporean infections. A diversity of myxozoans in filtered water samples and in faeces of piscivores (otters and great cormorants) was detected, demonstrating the suitability of lineage-specific amplicons for characterising otherwise difficult to sample parasite communities...
September 10, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
David L Emery, Peter W Hunt, Leo F LeJambre
Haemonchus contortus (Barber's pole worm or "BPW") is the nematode "nemesis" of small ruminant production systems in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its reputation derives from a combination of high fecundity and a short generational interval that provides an enviable developmental plasticity for adaptation or resistance to control measures. This review critically examines the historical and current literature on the host-parasite-environment (HPE) interaction for H. contortus, particularly in sheep, to highlight changes in parasite distribution and ecology on pasture, changes to the seasonal inhibition of fourth stage larvae and the most appropriate models to identify protective responses and assess vaccines...
September 9, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Suzy J Campbell, Susana V Nery, Catherine A D'Este, Darren J Gray, James S McCarthy, Rebecca J Traub, Ross M Andrews, Stacey Llewellyn, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Salvador Amaral, Archie Ca Clements
There is little evidence on prevalence or risk factors for soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Timor-Leste. This study describes the epidemiology, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and socioeconomic risk factors of STH and intestinal protozoa among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT), a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted across 18 villages, with data from six additional villages. Stool samples were assessed for STH and protozoal infections using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and questionnaires administered to collect WASH and socioeconomic data...
September 8, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Ana L Lanfranchi, Paola E Braicovich, Delfina M P Cantatore, Ana J Alarcos, José L Luque, Juan T Timi
With the aim of evaluating the utility of marine parasites as indicators of ecotonal regions in the marine environment, we analyzed data on assemblages of long-lived larval parasites of Zenopsis conchifer inhabiting the region of convergence of three masses of water in the southwestern Atlantic Oceans. These masses of water with different origins are expected to affect the structure of parasite communities by acting as sources of infective stages of helminth species typical of adjacent zoogeographical regions...
September 2, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Maria Trelis, Alicia Galiano, Anabel Bolado, Rafael Toledo, Antonio Marcilla, Dolores Bernal
Recent studies have shown the importance of exosomes in the host-parasite relationship. These vesicles are an important part of the excretory/secretory pathway for proteins with the potential to alter immune responses. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory role of exosomes in BALB/c mice using Echinostoma caproni as an experimental model of intestinal helminth infection. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were injected twice s.c. with purified exosomes of E. caproni, followed by experimental infection...
August 30, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Simone M Cacciò, Anna Rosa Sannella, Antonella Bruno, Christen R Stensvold, Erica Boarato David, Semiramis Guimarães, Elisabetta Manuali, Chiara Magistrali, Karim Mahdad, Miles Beaman, Roberta Maserati, Fabio Tosini, Edoardo Pozio
The flagellated protozoan Dientamoeba fragilis is often detected in humans with gastrointestinal symptoms, but it is also commonly found in healthy subjects. As for other intestinal protozoa, the hypothesis that genetically dissimilar parasite isolates differ in their ability to cause symptoms has also been raised for D. fragilis. To date, only two D. fragilis genotypes (1 and 2) have been described, of which genotype 1 largely predominates worldwide. However, very few markers are available for genotyping studies and therefore the extent of genetic variation among isolates remains largely unknown...
August 20, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Ana Born-Torrijos, Robert Poulin, Ana Pérez-Del-Olmo, Jacopo Culurgioni, Juan Antonio Raga, Astrid Sibylle Holzer
Overlapping distributions of hosts and parasites are critical for successful completion of multi-host parasite life cycles and even small environmental changes can impact on the parasite's presence in a host or habitat. The generalist Cardiocephaloides longicollis was used as a model for multi-host trematode life cycles in marine habitats. This parasite was studied to quantify parasite dispersion and transmission dynamics, effects of biological changes and anthropogenic impacts on life cycle completion. We compiled the largest host dataset to date, by analysing 3351 molluscs (24 species), 2108 fish (25 species) and 154 birds (17 species) and analysed the resultant data based on a number of statistical models...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Larson Boundenga, Céline Arnathau, Illich Manfred Mombo, Patrick Durand, Thierry-Audrey Tsoumbou, Bertony Vacky Otoro, Rick Sana, Alain-Prince Okouga, Nancy Moukodoum, Eric Willaume, Anaïs Herbert, David Fouchet, Virginie Rougeron, Cheikh Tidiane Bâ, Benjamin Ollomo, Christophe Paupy, Eric M Leroy, François Renaud, Dominique Pontier, Franck Prugnolle
Recent studies have revealed a large diversity of Plasmodium spp. among African great apes. Some of these species are related to Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria (subgenus Laverania), and others to Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax (subgenus Plasmodium), three other human malaria agents. Laverania parasites exhibit strict host specificity in their natural environment. Plasmodium reichenowi, Plasmodium billcollinsi, Plasmodium billbrayi and Plasmodium gaboni infect only chimpanzees, while Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium blacklocki and Plasmodium adleri are restricted to gorillas and Plasmodium falciparum is pandemic in humans...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, David Clarke, Jorge M Santos, Maria José Menezes, Caeul Lim, Anjali Mascarenhas, Laura Chery, Edwin Gomes, Sandra March, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Pradipsinh K Rathod, Marcelo U Ferreira, Flaminia Catteruccia, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread malaria parasite. Unique features of transmission biology complicate P. vivax control. Interventions targeting transmission are required for malaria eradication. In the absence of an in vitro culture, transmission studies rely on live isolates from non-human primates or endemic regions. Here, we demonstrate P. vivax gametocytes from both India and Brazil are stable during cryopreservation. Importantly, cryopreserved gametocytes from Brazil were capable of infecting three anopheline mosquito species in feedings done in the United States...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Louise E Atkinson, Iain R Miskelly, Christy L Moffett, Ciaran J McCoy, Aaron G Maule, Nikki J Marks, Angela Mousley
FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) signalling systems are core to nematode neuromuscular function. Novel drug discovery efforts associated with nematode FLP/FLP receptor biology are advanced through the accumulation of basic biological data that can reveal subtle complexities within the neuropeptidergic system. This study reports the characterisation of FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-11 (flp-11) and FMRFamide-like peptide encoding gene-32 (flp-32), two distinct flp genes which encode the analogous peptide, AMRN(A/S)LVRFamide, in multiple nematode species - the only known example of this phenomenon within the FLPergic system of nematodes...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Hifzur Rahman Ansari, Thomas J Templeton, Amit Kumar Subudhi, Abhinay Ramaprasad, Jianxia Tang, Feng Lu, Raeece Naeem, Yasmeen Hashish, Mary C Oguike, Ernest Diez Benavente, Taane G Clark, Colin J Sutherland, John W Barnwell, Richard Culleton, Jun Cao, Arnab Pain
Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Uriel Koziol, Miguel Koziol, Matías Preza, Alicia Costábile, Klaus Brehm, Estela Castillo
Neuropeptide mediated signalling is an ancient mechanism found in almost all animals and has been proposed as a promising target for the development of novel drugs against helminths. However, identification of neuropeptides from genomic data is challenging, and knowledge of the neuropeptide complement of parasitic flatworms is still fragmentary. In this work, we have developed an evolution-based strategy for the de novo discovery of neuropeptide precursors, based on the detection of localised sequence conservation between possible prohormone convertase cleavage sites...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Vaidas Palinauskas, Rita Žiegytė, Tatjana A Iezhova, Mikas Ilgūnas, Rasa Bernotienė, Gediminas Valkiūnas
Plasmodium elongatum causes severe avian malaria and is distributed worldwide. This parasite is of particular importance due to its ability to develop and cause lethal malaria not only in natural hosts, but also in non-adapted endemic birds such as the brown kiwi and different species of penguins. Information on vectors of this infection is available but is contradictory. PCR-based analysis indicated the possible existence of a cluster of closely related P. elongatum lineages which might differ in their ability to develop in certain mosquitoes and birds...
October 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Georgia M Ward, Martyn Bennett, Kelly Bateman, Grant D Stentiford, Rose Kerr, Stephen W Feist, Suzanne T Williams, Cedric Berney, David Bass
Paramyxida is an order of rhizarian protists that parasitise marine molluscs, annelids and crustaceans. They include notifiable pathogens (Marteilia spp.) of bivalves and other taxa of economic significance for shellfish production. The diversity of paramyxids is poorly known, particularly outside of commercially important hosts, and their phylogenetic position is unclear due to their extremely divergent 18S rDNA sequences. However, novel paramyxean lineages are increasingly being detected in a wide range of invertebrate hosts, and interest in the group is growing, marked by the first 'Paramyxean Working Group' Meeting held in Spain in February 2015...
September 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Erika T Ebbs, Eric S Loker, Norm E Davis, Veronica Flores, Aylen Veleizan, Sara V Brant
Migratory waterfowl play an important role in the maintenance and spread of zoonotic diseases worldwide. An example is cercarial dermatitis, caused when larval stages of schistosomes that normally develop in birds penetrate human skin. Members of the genus Trichobilharzia (Schistosomatidae), transmitted mainly by ducks, are considered to be major etiological agents of cercarial dermatitis globally. To better understand the diversity and distribution of Trichobilharzia spp., we surveyed ducks from the United States, eastern Canada, Argentina, South Africa and New Zealand...
September 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
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