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International Journal for Parasitology

Joseph E Ironside, Toby J Wilkinson
In the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, amphipod crustaceans have undergone a spectacular adaptive radiation, resulting in a diverse community of species. A survey of microsporidian parasites inhabiting endemic and non-endemic amphipod host species at the margins of Lake Baikal indicates that the endemic amphipods harbour many microsporidian parasite groups associated with amphipods elsewhere in Eurasia. While these parasites may have undergone a degree of adaptive radiation within the lake, there is little evidence of host specificity...
December 20, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Ernest Diez Benavente, Paola Florez de Sessions, Robert W Moon, Munira Grainger, Anthony A Holder, Michael J Blackman, Cally Roper, Christopher J Drakeley, Arnab Pain, Colin J Sutherland, Martin L Hibberd, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark
Plasmodium knowlesi, a common parasite of macaques, is recognised as a significant cause of human malaria in Malaysia. The P. knowlesi A1H1 line has been adapted to continuous culture in human erythrocytes, successfully providing an in vitro model to study the parasite. We have assembled a reference genome for the PkA1-H.1 line using PacBio long read combined with Illumina short read sequence data. Compared with the H-strain reference, the new reference has improved genome coverage and a novel description of methylation sites...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
James Nyagwange, Edwin Tijhaar, Nicola Ternette, Fredrick Mobegi, Kyle Tretina, Joana C Silva, Roger Pelle, Vishvanath Nene
East Coast fever is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The sporozoite stage of this parasite, harboured and released from the salivary glands of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus during feeding, invades and establishes infection in bovine lymphocytes. Blocking this initial stage of invasion presents a promising vaccine strategy for control of East Coast fever and can in part be achieved by targeting the major sporozoite surface protein p67. To support research on the biology of T...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Taylor Hollmann, Tae Kwon Kim, Lucas Tirloni, Željko M Radulović, Antônio F M Pinto, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Albert Mulenga
The adaptation of hard ticks to feed for long periods is facilitated by the cement cone, which securely anchors the tick mouthparts onto host skin and protects the tick from being groomed off by the host. Thus, preventing tick cement deposition is an attractive target for the development of innovative tick control. We used LC-MS/MS sequencing to identify 160 Amblyomma americanum tick cement proteins that include glycine-rich proteins (GRP, 19%), protease inhibitors (12%), proteins of unknown function (11%), mucin (4%), detoxification, storage, and lipocalin at 1% each, and housekeeping proteins (50%)...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Lizbeth Hernández-Ancheyta, María Del Rosario Salinas-Tobón, Juan Carlos Cifuentes-Goches, Javier Hernández-Sánchez
Trichinella spiralis infection in skeletal muscle culminates with nurse cell formation. The participation of excretory-secretory products of the muscle larvae (ML-ESP) has been implicated in this process through different studies performed in infected muscle and the muscle cell line C2C12. In this work, we developed primary myoblast cultures to analyze the changes induced by ML-ESP in muscle cells. Microarray analyses revealed expression changes in muscle cell differentiation, proliferation, cytoskeleton organization, cell motion, transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis and signaling pathways such as MAPK, Jak-STAT, Wnt and PI3K-Akt...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Andreas Monoyios, Martina Patzl, Sarah Schlosser, Michael Hess, Ivana Bilic
The current study focused on Histomonas meleagridis, a unicellular protozoan, responsible for histomonosis in poultry. Recently, the occurrence of the disease increased due to the ban of effective chemotherapeutic drugs. Basic questions regarding the molecular biology, virulence mechanisms or even life cycle of the flagellate are still puzzling. In order to address some of these issues, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of a virulent and an attenuated H. meleagridis strain traced back to a single cell and propagated in vitro as monoxenic mono-eukaryotic cultures...
December 1, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Christopher N Miller, Lyne Jossé, Ian Brown, Ben Blakeman, Jane Povey, Lyto Yiangou, Mark Price, Jindrich Cinatl, Wei-Feng Xue, Martin Michaelis, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Cryptosporidium parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea that pose a particular threat to children in developing areas and immunocompromised individuals. Curative therapies and vaccines are lacking, mainly due to lack of a long-term culturing system of this parasite. Here, we show that COLO-680N cells infected with two different Cryptosporidium parvum strains produce sufficient infectious oocysts to infect subsequent cultures, showing a substantial fold increase in production, depending on the experiment, over the most optimistic HCT-8 models...
November 28, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Wei Xu, Sumit Mukherjee, Yu Ning, Fong-Fu Hsu, Kai Zhang
Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (CFAS) catalyzes the transfer of a methylene group from S-adenosyl methionine to an unsaturated fatty acid, generating a cyclopropane fatty acid (CFA). The gene encoding CFAS is present in many bacteria and several Leishmania spp. including Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. In this study, we characterized the CFAS-null and -overexpression mutants in L. mexicana, the causative agent for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and central America...
November 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Jiayue Yan, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Laura Gangoso, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Ramón Soriguer, Jordi Figuerola
Pathogen-induced host phenotypic changes are widespread phenomena that can dramatically influence host-vector interactions. Enhanced vector attraction to infected hosts has been reported in a variety of host-pathogen systems, and has given rise to the parasite manipulation hypothesis whereby pathogens may adaptively modify host phenotypes to increase transmission from host to host. However, host phenotypic changes do not always favour the transmission of pathogens, as random host choice, reduced host attractiveness and even host avoidance after infection have also been reported...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Marijo S Roiko, Kaice LaFavers, Diane Leland, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
Antibody detection assays have long been the first line test to confirm infection with the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii. However, challenges exist with serological diagnosis, especially distinguishing between acute, latent and reactivation disease states. The sensitivity and specificity of serological tests might be improved by testing for antibodies against parasite antigens other than those typically found on the parasite surface during the acute stage. To this end, we analysed the reactivity profile of human sera, identified as positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG in traditional assays, by indirect immunofluorescence reactivity to acute stage intracellular tachyzoites and in vitro-induced latent stage bradyzoites...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Zeinab Ebrahimzadeh, Angana Mukherjee, Dave Richard
Despite representing a small percentage of the cellular lipids of eukaryotic cells, phosphoinositides (PIPs) are critical in various processes such as intracellular trafficking and signal transduction. Central to their various functions is the differential distribution of PIP species to specific membrane compartments through the actions of kinases, phosphatases and lipases. Despite their importance in the malaria parasite lifecycle, the subcellular distribution of most PIP species in this organism is still unknown...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Tine Huyse, Nele A M Boon, Frederik Van den Broeck, Moustapha Mbow, Anurag Chaturvedi, Lynn Meurs, Filip A M Volckaert, Katja Polman
Here we assess the role of parasite genetic variation in host disease phenotype in human schistosomiasis by implementing concepts and techniques from environmental association analysis in evolutionary epidemiology. Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease that affects more than 200 million people worldwide and is caused by parasitic flatworms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. While the role of host genetics has been extensively studied and demonstrated, nothing is yet known on the contribution of parasite genetic variation to host disease phenotype in human schistosomiasis...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Euan R O Allan, Benjamin Gourbal, Camila B Dores, Anais Portet, Christopher J Bayne, Michael S Blouin
Schistosomiasis is one of the most detrimental neglected tropical diseases. Controlling the spread of this parasitic illness requires effective sanitation, access to chemotherapeutic drugs, and control over populations of the freshwater snails, such as Biomphalaria glabrata, that are essential intermediate hosts for schistosomes. Effectively controlling this disease, while minimising ecological implications of such control, will require an extensive understanding of the immunological interactions between schistosomes and their molluscan intermediate hosts...
November 12, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne illness, the majority of which is caused by enteric infectious agents, costs global economies billions of dollars each year. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is particularly suited to foodborne transmission and is responsible for >8 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Procedures have been developed for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce and molecular diagnostic assays have been widely used in case linkages and infection source tracking, especially during outbreak investigations...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Alexander K Brazenor, Richard J Saunders, Terrence L Miller, Kate S Hutson
Intra-species morphological variation presents a considerable problem for species identification and can result in taxonomic confusion. This is particularly pertinent for species of Neobenedenia which are harmful agents in captive fish populations and have historically been identified almost entirely based on morphological characters. This study aimed to understand how the morphology of Neobenedenia girellae varies with host fish species and the environment. Standard morphological features of genetically indistinct parasites from various host fish species were measured under controlled temperatures and salinities...
November 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Natalia Osten-Sacken, Mike Heddergott, Anna Schleimer, Helena E Anheyer-Behmenburg, Martin Runge, Gavin J Horsburgh, Lauren Camp, Steven A Nadler, Alain C Frantz
Animal parasitic nematodes can cause serious diseases and their emergence in new areas can be an issue of major concern for biodiversity conservation and human health. Their ability to adapt to new environments and hosts is likely to be affected by their degree of genetic diversity, with gene flow between distinct populations counteracting genetic drift and increasing effective population size. The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis), a gastrointestinal parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), has increased its global geographic range after being translocated with its host...
November 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
David Hartmann, Radek Šíma, Jitka Konvičková, Jan Perner, Petr Kopáček, Daniel Sojka
By searching nucleotide databases for the North American Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, we have complemented the previously characterized European Ixodes ricinus legumain IrAE1 with a full set of nine analogous genes (isae1-9). Six of these were PCR confirmed as genes present in all tick genomes tested. The absolute mRNA copy number examined by quantitative (q)PCR enabled expression profiling and an absolute comparison of mRNA levels for individual I. scapularis (Is)AEs in tick tissues. Four IsAEs (1, 2, 4, 9) were expressed solely in the gut and thus are proposed to be involved in host blood digestion...
November 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Katrina M Pagenkopp Lohan, Kristina M Hill-Spanik, Mark E Torchin, Robert C Fleischer, Ryan B Carnegie, Kimberly S Reece, Gregory M Ruiz
Panama is a major hub for commercial shipping between two oceans, making it an ideal location to examine parasite biogeography, potential invasions, and the spread of infectious agents. Our goals were to (i) characterise the diversity and genetic connectivity of Perkinsus spp. haplotypes across the Panamanian Isthmus and (ii) combine these data with sequences from around the world to evaluate the current phylogeography and genetic connectivity of these widespread molluscan parasites. We collected 752 bivalves from 12 locations along the coast of Panama including locations around the Bocas del Toro archipelago and the Caribbean and Pacific entrances to the Panama Canal, from December 2012 to February 2013...
November 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Meng Zhang, Pierre Faou, Alexander G Maier, Melanie Rug
Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal malaria parasite species for humans, vastly remodels the mature erythrocyte host cell upon invasion for its own survival. Maurer's clefts are membraneous structures established by the parasite in the cytoplasm of infected cells. These organelles are deemed essential for trafficking of virulence complex proteins. The display of the major virulence protein, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 on the surface of the infected red blood cell and the subsequent cytoadhesion of infected cells in the microvasculature of vital organs is the key mechanism that leads to the pathology associated with malaria infection...
November 1, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Vahid H Gazestani, Marshall Hampton, Aubie K Shaw, Reza Salavati, Sara L Zimmer
The intricate life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei requires extensive regulation of gene expression levels of the mtRNAs for adaptation. Post-transcriptional gene regulatory programs, including unencoded mtRNA 3' tail additions, potentially play major roles in this adaptation process. Intriguingly, T. brucei mitochondrial transcripts possess two distinct unencoded 3' tails, each with a differing functional role; i.e., while one type is implicated in RNA stability (in-tails), the other type appears associated with translation (ex-tails)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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