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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

Mehmet Ates, Veysel Demir, Zikri Arslan, Mustafa Camas, Fatih Celik
In this study, the effects of exposure to engineered nickel oxide (NiO 40-60 nm) and cobalt oxide (CoO <100 nm) nanoparticles (NP) were investigated on Artemia salina. Aggregation and stability of the aqueous NP suspensions were characterized by DLS and TEM. Acute exposure was conducted on nauplii (larvae) in seawater in a concentration range from 0.2 to 50 mg/L NPs for 24 h (short term) and 96 h (long term). The hydrodynamic diameters of NiO and CoO NPs in exposure medium were larger than those estimated by TEM...
March 2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Renata Matraszek, Barbara Hawrylak-Nowak, Stanisław Chwil, Mirosława Chwil
This study evaluated the possibility of improving the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed white mustard 'Rota' using intensive S nutrition. Three S-SO4 (2, 6, 9 mM S) and four CdCl2 doses (0, 0.0002, 0.02, 0.04 mM Cd) in the Hoagland's nutrient solution were conducted for 14 days. High S supply (6 or 9 mM) appears, to some extent, to affect positively the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed mustard. It increased roots and shoots contents of K and S, without significant changes in P content. Simultaneously, Mg content in shoots and roots remained stable, but Mg bioaccumulation was elevated...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Marek Pająk, Ewa Błońska, Magdalena Frąc, Karolina Oszust
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of metal contamination on microbial functional diversity and enzyme activity in forest soils. This study involved the evaluation of the influence of the texture, carbon content and distance to the source of contamination on the change in soil microbial activity, which did not investigate in previous studies. The study area is located in southern Poland near the city of Olkusz around the flotation sedimentation pond of lead and zinc at the Mining and Metallurgical Company "ZGH Bolesław, Inc...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Barbara Gworek, Olga Bemowska-Kałabun, Marta Kijeńska, Justyna Wrzosek-Jakubowska
Mercury contamination in water has been an issue to the environment and human health. In this article, mercury in marine and oceanic waters has been reviewed. In the aquatic environment, mercury occurs in many forms, which depend on the oxidation-reduction conditions. These forms have been briefly described in this article. Mercury concentrations in marine waters in the different parts of the world have been presented. In the relevant literature, two models describing the fate and behavior of mercury in saltwater reservoirs have been presented, a conceptual model which treats all the oceans as one ocean and the "ocean margin" model, providing that the ocean margins manifested themselves as the convergence of continents and oceans, covering such geological features, such as estuaries, inland seas, and the continental shelf...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Magdalena Toporowska, Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska, Renata Kalinowska
In spite of extensive studies on multispecies toxigenic cyanobacterial blooms, they are still difficult to eliminate, and factors regulating their succession and toxin production remain still to discover. A 4-year study revealed periodical mass development of diazotrophic Nostocales such as Dolichospermum spp. (previously Anabaena), Aphanizomenon gracile and expansive Cuspidothrix (previously Aphanizomenon) issatschenkoi in a lake affected by perennial blooms of Planktothrix agardhii (Oscillatoriales). Compared to Oscillatoriales, Nostocales reached the highest total biomass (up to 16 mg L(-1)) and contributed nearly 33-85 % to the total biomass of filamentous cyanobacteria at higher water temperatures (average values 17...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Anna Lenart-Boroń, Anna A Wolanin, Łukasz Jelonkiewicz, Mirosław Żelazny
This 3-year study was aimed to understand the factors and mechanisms that cause the temporal changes in the concentration of microbiological indicators of water quality and nutrient concentration in selected sites of the Białka river catchment (southern Poland) situated in direct vicinity of the largest ski station in the region. The analysis comprised 35 sampling campaigns conducted in five sites. Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured during sampling, laboratory analyses included determination of the selected nutrients content (NH4, NO3, NO2, PO4); and the number of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Barbara Leśniewska, Anna Jeglikowska, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A new procedure for the determination of chromium species in polluted environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed in this work. A new material containing 1,5-diphenylcarbazone included in a polymeric matrix was prepared and employed as a solid-phase extraction material for selective separation of Cr(III) ions under dynamic conditions. Chromium(III) ions were retained on this sorbent with high efficiency and repeatability (95 %, RSD = 1 %) from solutions with pH 9.0. The quantitative recovery of analyte was obtained with 0...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Beata Klimek, Anna Sitarz, Maciej Choczyński, Maria Niklińska
Various inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial soils may adversely affect soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between the microbial activity, microbial biomass, and functional diversity of soil bacteria and the metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland). We collected soil samples in pine-dominated forest stands and analyzed them according to a range of soil physicochemical properties, including metal content (cadmium, lead, and zinc) and TPH content...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Raghupathi Matheyarasu, Nanthi S Bolan, Ravi Naidu
This study evaluated the effects of abattoir wastewater irrigation on plant growth and development. The soils used in this study were collected from Primo Smallgoods Abattoir (Port Wakefield, South Australia) at different sites such as currently irrigated (CI), currently not irrigated (CNI) and soil outside the irrigation area as control (CTRL). A completely randomised block design was employed for the plant growth experiment, where four crops (Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa, Sinapis alba and Helianthus annuus) were grown separately on three different soils (CI, CNI and CTRL) in plastic pots...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Dariusz Ciszewski, Tomáš Matys Grygar
Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ariel Marchlewicz, Dorota Domaradzka, Urszula Guzik, Danuta Wojcieszyńska
A Gram-positive bacterium, designated as strain B1(2015b), was isolated from the soil of the chemical factory "Organika-Azot" in Jaworzno, Poland. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was classified as a Bacillus thuringiensis species. Strain B1(2015b) is able to degrade ibuprofen and naproxen, however, these compounds are not sufficient carbon sources for this strain. In the presence of glucose, Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) degrades ibuprofen and naproxen with higher efficiency...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Aleksandra Weremczuk, Anna Barabasz, Anna Ruszczyńska, Ewa Bulska, Danuta Maria Antosiewicz
AhHMA4 from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes Zn/Cd export protein that controls Zn/Cd translocation to shoots. The focus of this manuscript is the evaluation of AhHMA4 expression in tomato for mineral biofortification (more Zn and less Cd in shoots and fruits). Hydroponic and soil-based experiments were performed. Transgenic and wild-type plants were grown on two dilution levels of Knop's medium (1/10, 1/2) with or without Cd, to determine if mineral composition affects the pattern of root/shoot partitioning of both metals due to AhHMA4 expression...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka, Anna Lenart-Boroń
Bacterial Escherichia coli isolates were derived from waters of the Nowohucki Reservoir (Cracow, Poland) in summer and winter seasons. In total, 94 strains, identified as E. coli, were isolated from five sampling sites in the area of the reservoir. Based on the disk-diffusion tests, it was found that the tested isolates were predominantly resistant to ticarcillin and ampicillin. Numerous multi-drug resistant strains were detected, which however did not exhibit the ESBL phenotype. However, PCR approach allowed to detect ESBL-mechanism genes (CTX-M3, OXA, SHV, and TEM) in as much as 38 % of E...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Agnieszka Wolińska, Agnieszka Kuźniar, Anna Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Natalia Jastrzębska, Eliza Roguska, Zofia Stępniewska
Soil microbial communities play an important role in the biodegradation of different petroleum derivates, including hydrocarbons. Also other biological factors such as enzyme and respiration activities and microbial abundance are sensitive to contamination with petroleum derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of autochthonic microbial community and biological parameters (respiration, dehydrogenase and catalase activities, total microorganisms count) on contamination with car fuels and engine oils...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Daniel Kępski, Marek Błaś, Mieczysław Sobik, Żaneta Polkowska, Katarzyna Grudzińska
Main aim of the work assumed recognition of physicochemical changes in snowpack occurring during the melting period. Properties of snow cover had been identified at two sites in Western Sudetes mountains (860 and 1228 m asl) in SW Poland since the end of January, and monitored until the disappearance of snow in late Spring. Snow pit measurements and sample collection at both sites were made followed by chemical analyses with the use of ionic chromatography. The results were compared for subsequent stages of snowpack evolution...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Barbara M Sensuła
The mass spectrometric analysis of the impact of sulfur dioxide and dust emission on carbon and oxygen stable isotopic compositions of glucose hydrolysed from α-cellulose samples extracted from Scots pine growing in the vicinity of "Huta Katowice" steelworks was the main aim of this study. The annual rings covered the time span from 1975 to 2012 AD. The relationships between climatic conditions, sulfur dioxide, and industrial dust emission and oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions were analyzed using correlation function methods...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Andrew J Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Elise Cartmell
It is important to understand the fate of Hg and Sb within the wastewater treatment process so as to examine potential treatment options and to ensure compliance with regulatory standards. The fate of Hg and Sb was investigated for an activated sludge process treatment works in the UK. Relatively high crude values (Hg 0.092 μg/L, Sb 1.73 μg/L) were observed at the works, whilst low removal rates within the primary (Hg 52.2 %, Sb 16.3 %) and secondary treatment stages (Hg 29.5 %, Sb -28.9 %) resulted in final effluent concentrations of 0...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Agnieszka Nowak, Agnieszka Mrozik
In this study, co-metabolic degradation of monochlorophenols (2-CP, 3-CP, and 4-CP) by the Pseudomonas sp. CF600 strain in the presence of phenol, sodium benzoate, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as an additional carbon source as well as the survival of bacteria were investigated. Moreover, the changes in cellular fatty acid profiles of bacteria depending on co-metabolic conditions were analyzed. It was found that bacteria were capable of degrading 4-CP completely in the presence of phenol, and in the presence of all substrates, they degraded 2-CP and 3-CP partially...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Barbara M Sensuła
In this study, stable carbon isotope ratios in the glucose samples were extracted from annual pine tree rings as bio-indicators of contemporary environmental changes in heavily urbanized areas. The sampling sites were located in close proximity to point source pollution emitters, such as a heat and power plant "Łaziska" and steelworks "Huta Katowice" in Silesia (Poland). The analysed samples covered the time span from 1975 to 2012 AD, the time period of the development of industrialization and the modernization in the industrial sector in Poland, similarly as in Eastern Europe...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ibiye S K Harry, Ekwu Ameh, Frederic Coulon, Andreas Nocker
Flow cytometry was applied to assess the microbiological impact of treated sewage effluent discharge into a small brook carrying surface runoff water. Increases in dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous were accompanied by increases in counts of intact bacteria by up to eightfold. Effluent ingress furthermore resulted in a pronounced shift of bacterial clusters. Whereas brook water upstream of the discharge point was characterised by a bacterial cluster with low nucleic acid (LNA) content, downstream water showed a shift to bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) content...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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