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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Aleksandra Koźmińska
In vitro techniques may provide a suitable tool for effective propagation and conservation of plant species representing various ecological niches. The elaboration of such protocols is also prerequisite for selection of heavy-metal-tolerant plant material that could be afterwards used for restoration or remediation of polluted sites. In this study, culture protocol for Gypsophila fastigiata propagation was developed. The highest multiplication coefficient, which reached 6.5, and the best growth parameters were obtained on modified MS medium supplemented with 1...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Krzysztof Rajczykowski, Krzysztof Loska
The adsorption process is one of the most important techniques of water and wastewater treatment technology. Therefore, there are many methods allowing to improve the effectiveness of these processes based mainly on the chemical modification of adsorbents. However, they are always associated with the necessity of introducing an additional wastes or sewage to the environment. That is why a purpose of the presented was to investigate an innovative and noninvasive adsorption supporting method based on the using of a static magnetic field...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Magdalena Pacwa-Płociniczak, Tomasz Płociniczak, Dan Yu, Jukka M Kurola, Aki Sinkkonen, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget, Martin Romantschuk
In this study, we analysed the impact of heavy metals and plant rhizodeposition on the structure of indigenous microbial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil that had been exposed to heavy metals for more than 150 years. Samples of the rhizosphere of Silene vulgaris and non-rhizosphere soils 250 and 450 m from the source of emission that had different metal concentrations were collected for analyses. The results showed that soils were collected 250 m from the smelter had a higher number of Cd-resistant CFU compared with the samples that were collected from 450 m, but no significant differences were observed in the number of total and oligotrophic CFU or the equivalent cell numbers between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils that were taken 250 and 450 m from the emitter...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Krzysztof Rajczykowski, Oktawia Sałasińska, Krzysztof Loska
Biosorbents are the natural origin adsorbents, which popularity in environmental engineering is steadily increasing due to their low price, ease of acquisition, and lack of the toxic properties. Presented research aimed to analyze the possibility of chemical modification of the straw, which is a characteristic waste in the Polish agriculture, to improve its biosorption properties with respect to removal of selected metals from aquatic solutions. Biosorbents used during the tests was a barley straw that was shredded to a size in the range of 0...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Bineyam Mezgebe, George A Sorial, E Sahle-Demessie, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Jingrang Lu
The objective of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation of chloroform by using biotrickling filter (BTF) and determining the dominant bacteria responsible for the degradation. The research was conducted in three phases under anaerobic condition, namely, in the presence of co-metabolite (Phase I), in the presence of co-metabolite and surfactant (Phase II) and in the presence of surfactant but no co-metabolite (Phase III). The results showed that the presence of ethanol as a co-metabolite provided 49% removal efficiency...
November 1, 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Joanna P Siwek, Mirosław Żelazny, Janusz Siwek, Wojciech Szymański
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of land use, seasonality, and hydrometeorological conditions on the relationship between stream water potassium (K+) concentration and discharge during different types of floods-short- and long-duration rainfall floods as well as snowmelt floods on frozen and thawed soils. The research was conducted in small catchments (agricultural, woodland, mixed-use) in the Carpathian Foothills (Poland). In the woodland catchment, lower K+ concentrations were noted for each given specific runoff value for summer rainfall floods versus snowmelt floods (seasonal effect)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Futoshi Kurisu, Koki Toyota
Most bioremediation studies on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have focused on a single contaminant or its derived compounds and degraders have been identified under single contaminant conditions. Bioremediation of multiple contaminants remains a challenging issue. To identify a bacterial consortium that degrades multiple VOCs (dichloromethane (DCM), benzene, and toluene), we applied DNA-stable isotope probing. For individual tests, we combined a (13)C-labeled VOC with other two unlabeled VOCs, and prepared three unlabeled VOCs as a reference...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Courtney Roper, Lauren G Chubb, Leah Cambal, Brett Tunno, Jane E Clougherty, Cheryl Fattman, Steven E Mischler
Filter-based toxicology studies are conducted to establish the biological plausibility of the well-established health impacts associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. Ambient PM2.5 collected on filters is extracted into solution for toxicology applications, but frequently, characterization is nonexistent or only performed on filter-based PM2.5, without consideration of compositional differences that occur during the extraction processes. To date, the impact of making associations to measured components in ambient instead of extracted PM2...
January 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Aleksandra Bawiec, Katarzyna Pawęska, Krzysztof Pulikowski
The aim of the study was to determine the changes in suspension particle size identified in biologically treated wastewater, which was then treated in hydroponic system with use of engineering lighting by the light-emitting diodes (LED). The study was subjected to wastewater purified under laboratory conditions, in a hydroponic system using the effect of macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and growing algae. Measurement of particle size was made using a laser granulometer. Analysis of the results showed that the additional lighting of the hydroponic system with LED can significantly influence the ability of the suspension particles to agglomerate and, consequently, determine their sedimentation properties...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Benjamin Apperl, Alexander Pressl, Karsten Schulz
The cost effective maintenance of underwater pressure pipes for sewage disposal in Austria requires the detection and localization of leakages. Extrusion of wastewater in lakes can heavily influence the water and bathing quality of surrounding waters. The Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology is a widely used technique for oil and gas pipeline leakage detection. While in pipeline leakage detection, fiber optic cables are installed permanently at the outside or within the protective sheathing of the pipe; this paper aims at testing the feasibility of detecting leakages with temporary introduced fiber optic cable inside the pipe...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Rafał Strachel, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Małgorzata Baćmaga
The progressive development of civilization and intensive industrialization has contributed to the global pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals, especially the soil. Degraded soils generally contain less organic matter, and thus, their homeostasis is more often disturbed, which in turn manifests in changes in biological and physicochemical properties of the soil. Therefore, new possibilities and solutions for possible neutralization of these contaminations are sought, inter alia, through reclamation of degraded land...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Dorota Adamczyk-Szabela, Zdzisława Romanowska-Duda, Katarzyna Lisowska, Wojciech M Wolf
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is extensively cultivated as either an important spice and food additive or a source of essential oil crucial for the production of natural phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. It is frequently attacked by fungal diseases. The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of thiuram contact time on the uptake of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead by Ocimum basilicum L. The relevant plant physiological parameters were also investigated. Two farmland soils typical for the Polish rural environment were used...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Bo Olofsson, Hedi Rasul, Annika Lundmark
Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Joanna Poluszyńska, Elżbieta Jarosz-Krzemińska, Edeltrauda Helios-Rybicka
The research comprised of studying the effect composting sewage sludge with sawdust and vermicomposting with earthworm Eisenia fetida has on the degradation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw rural sewage sludge prior composting was more contaminated with PAHs than urban sewage sludge, in both cases exceeding EU cutoff limits of 6 mg/kg established for land application. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBahAnt), acenaphtylene (Acy) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr) were predominant in rural sewage sludge, whilst the urban sewage sludge contained the highest concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFl), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkFl) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
A Wiszniewska, E Hanus-Fajerska, E Muszyńska, S Smoleń
Two species of Pb-adapted shrubs, Alyssum montanum and Daphne jasminea, were evaluated in vitro for their tolerance to elevated concentrations of cadmium. Shoot cultures were treated with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 μM CdCl2 for 16 weeks and analyzed for their organogenic response, biomass accretion, pigment content, and macronutrient status. Cadmium accumulation and its root-to-shoot translocation were also determined. In both species, rooted microplantlets, suitable for acclimatization, were obtained in the presence of Cd applied as selection agent...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Lucyna Samek, Z Stegowski, L Furman, K Styszko, K Szramowiat, J Fiedor
In industry areas of Poland such as Silesia or urban sites like Krakow and some other cities, the levels of pollutants frequently breach air quality standards. Particulate matter (PM) is the most important constituent of atmospheric pollution. Beginning on 1st February 2014 until 31st January 2015, the samples of fine particulate matter PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter of particles less than or equal to 2.5 μm) were collected at a site in the south-eastern Krakow urban background area. During this period, 194 samples were taken...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
M Zielińska, A Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, K Bułkowska, K Bernat, I Wojnowska-Baryła
This study investigated the use of ceramic membranes to remove total suspended solids (TSS), organics (expressed by chemical oxygen demand, COD), and bisphenol A (BPA) via microfiltration (MF, pore size 0.45 μm) and ultrafiltration (UF, cutoff 150 kDa) in post-treatment of effluents from aerobic granular sludge reactors (GSBRs). The efficiency of removal of COD, BPA, and TSS in MF was similar to that in UF; however, it was achieved at a lower pressure, which reduces energy consumption during the filtration process...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Barbara Leśniewska, Marta Gontarska, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A critical appraisal of single-step extraction procedures of chromium species from soil was done in terms of their selectivity towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. Samples of natural mineral and organic soil and samples of soil enriched with different chromium compounds of various solubility (in liquid or solid form) were used to simulate contamination of soil by liquid and solid wastes. The efficiency of extraction of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species with various reagents, e.g. acetic acid, chelating agents (EDTA, DTPA) or inorganic salts (phosphates and carbonates), was evaluated on the basis of recovery results obtained for enriched samples...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
H Galfi, H Österlund, J Marsalek, M Viklander
Inorganic chemicals in urban stormwater and snowmelt runoff originate from catchment geology and anthropogenic activities. The occurrence, partitioning and mobility of six minerals and six trace metal (TM) indicators of anthropogenic activities were studied in stormwater, snowmelt and baseflow in four urban catchments, and the sampling of inorganics was supplemented by measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), pH and total suspended solids (TSSs). Minerals occurred at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher (1-10(2) mg/L) than those of TMs (10(-2)-10(2) μg/L) and reflected the composition of local groundwater seeping into sewers...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Magdalena Zaborowska, Jan Kucharski, Jadwiga Wyszkowska
This study analysed the effectiveness of innovative (basalt meal, brown algae extract) and conventional (barley straw) substances which hypothetically alleviate the inhibiting effect of Cd(2+) on biochemical properties of soil, with particular regard to the activity of arylsulfatase. An analysis of their potential was carried out based on the activity of arylsulfatase and the number of Pseudomonas sp. determined on the 25th and 50th days of the study. Cd(2+) was applied in the following doses: 0, 4, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 mg Cd(2+) kg(-1) of DM soil, in the form of CdCl2·2...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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