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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386151/water-use-and-treatment-in-container-grown-specialty-crop-production-a-review
#1
John C Majsztrik, R Thomas Fernandez, Paul R Fisher, Daniel R Hitchcock, John Lea-Cox, James S Owen, Lorence R Oki, Sarah A White
While governments and individuals strive to maintain the availability of high-quality water resources, many factors can "change the landscape" of water availability and quality, including drought, climate change, saltwater intrusion, aquifer depletion, population increases, and policy changes. Specialty crop producers, including nursery and greenhouse container operations, rely heavily on available high-quality water from surface and groundwater sources for crop production. Ideally, these growers should focus on increasing water application efficiency through proper construction and maintenance of irrigation systems, and timing of irrigation to minimize water and sediment runoff, which serve as the transport mechanism for agrichemical inputs and pathogens...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356605/assessing-historical-mining-and-smelting-effects-on-heavy-metal-pollution-of-river-systems-over-span-of-two-decades
#2
Magdalena Strzebońska, Elżbieta Jarosz-Krzemińska, Ewa Adamiec
Research was conducted on the most polluted river system in Poland, impacted by active and historical mining. Bottom sediment, suspended particulate matter and river water were collected in 2014 from Przemsza river and its tributaries. Sampling points remained the same as those chosen in a 1995 study. This allowed the comparison of heavy metal accumulation in bottom sediment over a span of almost two decades. It was concluded that Przemsza river water and its tributaries are heavily contaminated with the following (in μg/dm(3)): Pb (0...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344366/mercury-in-feathers-and-blood-of-gulls-from-the-southern-baltic-coast-poland
#3
Emilia Szumiło-Pilarska, Lucyna Falkowska, Agnieszka Grajewska, Włodzimierz Meissner
Gulls were assessed as sentinels of contamination in the coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, research material being obtained from dead birds collected on Polish beaches and near fishing ports in 2009-2012. In feathers and blood of four gull species: herring gull (Larus argentatus), common gull (Larus canus), black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), and great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), concentration of total mercury (HgT) was assayed, taking into account the type of feathers, sex, and age. Stable isotopes (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) were used as tracers of trophic position in the food web...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316352/nitrification-in-activated-sludge-exposed-to-static-magnetic-field
#4
Marcin Zieliński, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena Zielińska, Marcin Dębowski, Paulina Rusanowska, Joanna Kopańska
The study investigated wastewater treatment in an aerobic reactor with activated sludge exposed to static magnetic field (SMF) with mean induction of 8.1 mT. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand removal was about 90% in a control reactor and an SMF-exposed reactor. Although the nitrification efficiency was higher than 95% in both reactors, the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was higher in the SMF-exposed reactor. This resulted in shortening of nitrification time to 4 h compared to 8 h in the control reactor...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316351/air-contamination-by-mercury-emissions-and-transformations-a-review
#5
Barbara Gworek, Wojciech Dmuchowski, Aneta H Baczewska, Paulina Brągoszewska, Olga Bemowska-Kałabun, Justyna Wrzosek-Jakubowska
The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260820/the-impact-of-climate-change-on-metal-transport-in-a-lowland-catchment
#6
René R Wijngaard, Marcel van der Perk, Bas van der Grift, Ton C M de Nijs, Marc F P Bierkens
This study investigates the impact of future climate change on heavy metal (i.e., Cd and Zn) transport from soils to surface waters in a contaminated lowland catchment. The WALRUS hydrological model is employed in a semi-distributed manner to simulate current and future hydrological fluxes in the Dommel catchment in the Netherlands. The model is forced with climate change projections and the simulated fluxes are used as input to a metal transport model that simulates heavy metal concentrations and loads in quickflow and baseflow pathways...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190899/physiological-responses-of-rosa-rubiginosa-to-saline-environment
#7
Tomasz Hura, Bożena Szewczyk-Taranek, Katarzyna Hura, Krzysztof Nowak, Bożena Pawłowska
The aim of this work was to analyse the response of Rosa rubiginosa to salinity induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). Besides salt accumulation and pH changes, other parameters were investigated including photosynthetic activity, leaf water content, the dynamics of necrosis and chlorosis appearance and leaf drying. The study was complemented with microscopic analysis of changes in leaf anatomy. R. rubiginosa was more sensitive to the salinity induced by calcium chloride than by sodium chloride...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042183/integrated-anaerobic-aerobic-biodegradation-of-multiple-contaminants-including-chlorinated-ethylenes-benzene-toluene-and-dichloromethane
#8
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Koki Toyota
Complete bioremediation of soils containing multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains a challenge. To explore the possibility of complete bioremediation through integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation, laboratory feasibility tests followed by alternate anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed. Chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC), and dichloromethane (DCM) were used for anaerobic biodegradation, whereas benzene, toluene, and DCM were used for aerobic biodegradation tests...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018009/bioaugmentation-of-soil-contaminated-with-azoxystrobin
#9
Małgorzata Baćmaga, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Jan Kucharski
The presence of fungicides in the natural environment, either resulting from deliberate actions or not, has become a serious threat to many ecosystems, including soil. This can be prevented by taking appropriate measures to clear the environment of organic contamination, including fungicides. Therefore, a study was conducted aimed at determining the effect of bioaugmentation of soil exposed to azoxystrobin on its degradation and activity of selected enzymes (dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acidic phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152058/toxicity-of-engineered-nickel-oxide-and-cobalt-oxide-nanoparticles-to-artemia-salina-in-seawater
#10
Mehmet Ates, Veysel Demir, Zikri Arslan, Mustafa Camas, Fatih Celik
In this study, the effects of exposure to engineered nickel oxide (NiO 40-60 nm) and cobalt oxide (CoO <100 nm) nanoparticles (NP) were investigated on Artemia salina. Aggregation and stability of the aqueous NP suspensions were characterized by DLS and TEM. Acute exposure was conducted on nauplii (larvae) in seawater in a concentration range from 0.2 to 50 mg/L NPs for 24 h (short term) and 96 h (long term). The hydrodynamic diameters of NiO and CoO NPs in exposure medium were larger than those estimated by TEM...
March 2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942079/heavy-metals-in-water-percolating-through-soil-fertilized-with-biodegradable-waste-materials
#11
Jadwiga Wierzbowska, Stanisław Sienkiewicz, Sławomir Krzebietke, Teresa Bowszys
The influence of manure and composts on the leaching of heavy metals from soil was evaluated in a model lysimeter experiment under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from experimental fields, from 0- to 90-cm layers retaining the layout of the soil profile layers, after the second crop rotation cycle with the following plant species: potatoes, spring barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat. During the field experiment, 20 t DM/ha of manure, municipal sewage sludge composted with straw (SSCS), composted sewage sludge (SSC), dried granular sewage sludge (DGSS), "Dano" compost made from non-segregated municipal waste (CMMW), and compost made from municipal green waste (CUGW) was applied, i...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890942/removal-of-phosphate-from-aqueous-solution-using-alginate-iron-iii-chloride-capsules-a-laboratory-study
#12
Hanna Siwek, Artur Bartkowiak, Małgorzata Włodarczyk, Katarzyna Sobecka
Binding phosphate at participation of alginate/FeCl3 capsules was studied with laboratory experiments. The hydrogel microcapsules were obtained with the dropping-in method, by gelation of sodium alginate water solution by iron (III) chloride solution. Phosphate adsorption characteristics were studied in a static batch system with respect to changes in contact time, initial phosphates concentration, pH of solution, and temperature. After 24 h of the tests, average 87.5% of phosphate ions were removed from the natural water solutions; after 48 h, an equilibrium was reached...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829691/simulating-the-transfer-of-strontium-90-from-soil-to-leafy-vegetables-by-using-strontium-88
#13
Ding Kuke, Liu Shujuan, He Yingxue, Yan Dong, Zhang Fengshou, Wang Shuifeng, Guo Jinghua, Zhang Wei, Wang Xin, Jiang Xiaoyan
The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ((88)Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ((90)Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682198/interaction-between-cadmium-stress-and-sulphur-nutrition-level-on-macronutrient-status-of-sinapis-alba-l
#14
Renata Matraszek, Barbara Hawrylak-Nowak, Stanisław Chwil, Mirosława Chwil
This study evaluated the possibility of improving the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed white mustard 'Rota' using intensive S nutrition. Three S-SO4 (2, 6, 9 mM S) and four CdCl2 doses (0, 0.0002, 0.02, 0.04 mM Cd) in the Hoagland's nutrient solution were conducted for 14 days. High S supply (6 or 9 mM) appears, to some extent, to affect positively the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed mustard. It increased roots and shoots contents of K and S, without significant changes in P content. Simultaneously, Mg content in shoots and roots remained stable, but Mg bioaccumulation was elevated...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682197/functional-diversity-and-microbial-activity-of-forest-soils-that-are-heavily-contaminated-by-lead-and-zinc
#15
Marek Pająk, Ewa Błońska, Magdalena Frąc, Karolina Oszust
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of metal contamination on microbial functional diversity and enzyme activity in forest soils. This study involved the evaluation of the influence of the texture, carbon content and distance to the source of contamination on the change in soil microbial activity, which did not investigate in previous studies. The study area is located in southern Poland near the city of Olkusz around the flotation sedimentation pond of lead and zinc at the Mining and Metallurgical Company "ZGH Bolesław, Inc...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656005/mercury-in-marine-and-oceanic-waters-a-review
#16
Barbara Gworek, Olga Bemowska-Kałabun, Marta Kijeńska, Justyna Wrzosek-Jakubowska
Mercury contamination in water has been an issue to the environment and human health. In this article, mercury in marine and oceanic waters has been reviewed. In the aquatic environment, mercury occurs in many forms, which depend on the oxidation-reduction conditions. These forms have been briefly described in this article. Mercury concentrations in marine waters in the different parts of the world have been presented. In the relevant literature, two models describing the fate and behavior of mercury in saltwater reservoirs have been presented, a conceptual model which treats all the oceans as one ocean and the "ocean margin" model, providing that the ocean margins manifested themselves as the convergence of continents and oceans, covering such geological features, such as estuaries, inland seas, and the continental shelf...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546924/mass-development-of-diazotrophic-cyanobacteria-nostocales-and-production-of-neurotoxic-anatoxin-a-in-a-planktothrix-oscillatoriales-dominated-temperate-lake
#17
Magdalena Toporowska, Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska, Renata Kalinowska
In spite of extensive studies on multispecies toxigenic cyanobacterial blooms, they are still difficult to eliminate, and factors regulating their succession and toxin production remain still to discover. A 4-year study revealed periodical mass development of diazotrophic Nostocales such as Dolichospermum spp. (previously Anabaena), Aphanizomenon gracile and expansive Cuspidothrix (previously Aphanizomenon) issatschenkoi in a lake affected by perennial blooms of Planktothrix agardhii (Oscillatoriales). Compared to Oscillatoriales, Nostocales reached the highest total biomass (up to 16 mg L(-1)) and contributed nearly 33-85 % to the total biomass of filamentous cyanobacteria at higher water temperatures (average values 17...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546923/factors-and-mechanisms-affecting-seasonal-changes-in-the-prevalence-of-microbiological-indicators-of-water-quality-and-nutrient-concentrations-in-waters-of-the-bia%C3%A5-ka-river-catchment-southern-poland
#18
Anna Lenart-Boroń, Anna A Wolanin, Łukasz Jelonkiewicz, Mirosław Żelazny
This 3-year study was aimed to understand the factors and mechanisms that cause the temporal changes in the concentration of microbiological indicators of water quality and nutrient concentration in selected sites of the Białka river catchment (southern Poland) situated in direct vicinity of the largest ski station in the region. The analysis comprised 35 sampling campaigns conducted in five sites. Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured during sampling, laboratory analyses included determination of the selected nutrients content (NH4, NO3, NO2, PO4); and the number of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546922/chromium-speciation-in-wastewater-and-sewage-by-solid-phase-extraction-using-a-new-diphenylcarbazone-incorporated-resin
#19
Barbara Leśniewska, Anna Jeglikowska, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A new procedure for the determination of chromium species in polluted environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed in this work. A new material containing 1,5-diphenylcarbazone included in a polymeric matrix was prepared and employed as a solid-phase extraction material for selective separation of Cr(III) ions under dynamic conditions. Chromium(III) ions were retained on this sorbent with high efficiency and repeatability (95 %, RSD = 1 %) from solutions with pH 9.0. The quantitative recovery of analyte was obtained with 0...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471330/the-effects-of-heavy-metals-and-total-petroleum-hydrocarbons-on-soil-bacterial-activity-and-functional-diversity-in-the-upper-silesia-industrial-region-poland
#20
Beata Klimek, Anna Sitarz, Maciej Choczyński, Maria Niklińska
Various inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial soils may adversely affect soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between the microbial activity, microbial biomass, and functional diversity of soil bacteria and the metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland). We collected soil samples in pine-dominated forest stands and analyzed them according to a range of soil physicochemical properties, including metal content (cadmium, lead, and zinc) and TPH content...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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