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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

Magdalena Kuśnierz
The light scattering method is a valuable tool for accessing particle size and structure mainly due to fast and the nonintrusive nature of the measurement. The method is based on a scattered intensity pattern and depends on particle volume, particle morphology, the light wavelength and the scattering angle. The light scattering model, for particles characterised by a fractal structure, is enabled with the use of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye theory under constrained assumptions. The range of validity of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye is limited when primary particles constituting aggregate have a size close to the wavelength...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Emily Hudson, Bernd Kulessa, Paul Edwards, Tom Williams, Rory Walsh
The mining and processing of metal ores in the UK has left a legacy of environmental degradation, and abandoned metal mines still pose a significant threat to terrestrial and fluvial environments. Flow gauging, water quality and geophysics were combined in an integrated assessment of surface and subsurface hydrological contamination at Esgair Mwyn, an abandoned mine in Ceredigion, Wales. Heavy metals discharged from the site are polluting downstream watercourses, leading to widespread Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) compliance failures...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Michael Oteng-Peprah, Mike Agbesi Acheampong, Nanne K deVries
This paper presents a literature review of the quality of greywater generated in different, especially developing, countries, constituents found in greywater, some treatment systems, natural materials for treatment, some reuse strategies and public perception regarding greywater reuse. The review shows that generation rates are mostly influenced by lifestyle, types of fixtures used and climatic conditions. Contaminants found in greywater are largely associated with the type of detergent used and influenced by other household practices...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Monika Paszkiewicz, Celina Sikorska, Danuta Leszczyńska, Piotr Stepnowski
The differences in effectiveness of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent for the selective extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were explained on the basis of theoretical study. It was observed that for low molecular weight PAHs, the recoveries using non-helical and helical MWCNTs were similar. In contrary, for PAHs containing five or more aromatic rings, the extraction efficiency was higher using HMWCNTs than for non-helical ones. Principle component analysis (PCA) as well as providing structural parameters and interaction energies for adsorption processes (PAH + CNT → PAH-CNT) have been used for this purpose...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Piotr Świątczak, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska
Digestate produced by cofermentation of agricultural waste and manure can be difficult to dispose of because its high ammonium content impedes its use in agriculture due to generation of odor and overfertilization. This study investigated the possibility of treating such nitrogen-rich digestate with aerobic granular sludge depending on the nitrogen load in the reactor. At nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 g TN/(L·day), the nitrogen removal efficiency was high (64.9 ± 9.8%), ammonium nitrogen was completely oxidized, and nitrate was the main nitrification product...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Lucia Sochuliaková, Elwira Sienkiewicz, Ladislav Hamerlík, Marek Svitok, Dana Fidlerová, Peter Bitušík
Diatom analysis was undertaken on a 200-year sediment record in an alpine lake (Popradské pleso, Tatra Mountains, Central Europe). Due to its remote character and well-documented human influence since the mid-nineteenth century, it allows a study of the relationship between anthropogenic pressures and diatom assemblages. Altogether, 122 diatom taxa of 40 genera were identified, and two major taxonomic shifts were revealed in the stratigraphic record. The timing of the first significant shift in ~ 1850 precludes the possibility of being caused by direct human activities, since according to historic documents there was neither continuous human presence nor grazing in the valley before that time...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura, Renata Dondajewska, Ryszard Gołdyn, Anna Kozak, Beata Messyasz
The ribbon type Lake Durowskie (Western Poland) is currently undergoing a sustainable restoration process due to water quality deterioration, manifested in water blooms, low transparency, and oxygen deficits near the bottom sediments. Three restoration methods were applied: (i) hypolimnion aeration using two wind-driven pulverizing aerators installed at the deepest places, (ii) phosphorus inactivation using small doses of iron sulfate and magnesium chloride several times a year, and (iii) biomanipulation using pike fry stocking...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Albert Ebo Duncan, Nanne de Vries, Kwabena Biritwum Nyarko
An investigative study was conducted to determine the heavy metal pollution in the sediment in the Pra Basin of Ghana from 27 sampling points during the dry and wet seasons using the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI). Sediments were acid digested and analyzed for the following selected metals: arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), total chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe) using the dual atomizer and hydride generator atomic absorption spectrophotometer (model ASC-7000 No A309654, Shimadzu, Japan)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ydrielly Veras Teles, Lorena Mota de Castro, Ézio Sargentini Junior, Aryana Pinheiro do Nascimento, Henrique Alves da Silva, Rebeca Silveira Costa, Rayane Delmontes do Nascimento Souza, Adolfo José da Mota, José Odair Pereira
Igarapé do Quarenta (IgQ), a stream located in the Manaus-AM, BR, has directly experienced the impacts of urban expansion over the last five decades, which contributed for its contamination. As an affluent of Rio Negro , IgQ also affects the water quality of this important river that bathes Manaus. However, the stress caused by the prolonged exposition to chemical agents may have selected microorganisms that exhibit great bioremediation potential. In the present study, bacteria isolated from four distinct sites of the IgQ were identified, and their potential to degrade hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was investigated using the s-diphenylcarbazide method...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Rafał Strachel, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Małgorzata Baćmaga
Zinc exerts negative effects on soil and contributing to the degradation of soil ecosystems. New solutions for restoring healthy soil activity are therefore needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbents in the biological remediation of soil contaminated with zinc. A pot experiment was conducted on loamy sand. The tested plant was maize ( Zea mays ). Soil was contaminated with zinc chloride doses of 0, 100, 300, and 900 mg Zn2+  kg-1  DM soil (dry matter of soil). Alginate, biochar, sepiolite, calcined halloysite, and a molecular sieve were added to soil in amounts corresponding to 2...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Aleksandra Bawiec, Katarzyna Pawęska, Krzysztof Pulikowski, Joanna Kajewska-Szkudlarek
The use of plants and natural processes for wastewater treatment is an issue that arouses interest among technologists and scientists around the world. The aim of the article was to analyze the influence of the air temperature and insolation on the removal of nitrate nitrogen from the wastewater treated in the hydroponic system, under greenhouse conditions. Samples of sewage for its quality tests were taken from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in the southwestern part of Poland. Data regarding daily sunshine duration and average daily air temperature values in selected periods of 2013-2016 come from a meteorological station located 30 km from WWTP...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Monika Asztemborska, Małgorzata Jakubiak, Romuald Stęborowski, Ewelina Chajduk, Grażyna Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska
Nanotechnology is a dynamically developing field of scientific and industrial interest across the entire world, and the commercialization of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly expanding. Incorporation of nanotechnologies into a range of manufactured goods results in increasing concern regarding the subsequent release of engineered NPs into the environment. One of the biggest threats of using NPs is the transfer and magnification of these particles in the trophic chain. The aim of the studies was the evaluation of the distribution of TiO2 NP contamination in the aquatic ecosystem under laboratory conditions...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Jarosław Lasota, Ewa Błońska
The aim of the study was to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in different forest humus types. The investigation was carried out in Chrzanów Forest District in southern Poland. Twenty research plots with different humus types (mor and mull) were selected. The samples for analysis were taken after litter horizons removing from a depth of 0-10 cm (from the Of- and Oh-horizon total or A-horizon). pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen content, base cations, acidity, and heavy metal content were determined...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Izabela Polowczyk, Piotr Cyganowski, Justyna Ulatowska, Wojciech Sawiński, Anna Bastrzyk
Removal of arsenic from water reservoirs is the issue of great concern in many places around the globe. As adsorption is one of the most efficient techniques for treatment of As-containing media, thus the present study concerns application of iron oxides-hydroxides (akaganeite) as adsorbents for removal of this harmful metal from aqueous solution. Two types of akaganeite were tested: synthetic one (A) and the same modified using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (AM ). Removal of As was tested in batch studies in function of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial arsenic concentration...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ewa Zabłocka-Godlewska, Wioletta Przystaś, Elżbieta Grabińska-Sota
The aim of this study was the isolation of bacterial strains which have the ability to decolorize synthetic dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The samples for bacterial isolation were collected from aqueous environments-two activated sludges and polluted local river. At the first stage of screening (performed on the solid media supplemented with two dyes-azo Evans blue or triphenylmethane brilliant green), 67 bacterial strains were isolated capable to decolorize the used dyes. In the further study, six dyes with different chemical structures were used: fluorone dyes (Bengal rose, erythrosine), triphenylmethane dyes (brilliant green, crystal violet), azo dyes (Evans blue, Congo red)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Magdalena Bełdowska, Aleksandra Zgrundo, Justyna Kobos
Mercury is a neurotoxin, its main source in the human organism being fish and seafood. The first level in the marine food web is formed of planktonic and benthic photosynthetic microorganisms, which form a biofilm on the surface of the hard bottom (epilithon) or plants (epiphyton). They are carriers of nutritional as well as toxic substances and pass these on to subsequent levels of the trophic web. Their biomass is often dominated by diatoms. This was the basis for the presented study into Hg accumulation in epilithic, epiphytic and planktonic diatoms, which was carried out in 2012-2013 in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
M N Nsoe, G P Kofa, K S Ndi, B Mohammadou, M Heran, G J Kayem
The use of microorganisms for the biodegradation of pollutants is increasingly being studied. But at high concentrations, these pollutants become rather inhibitors for the metabolism of microorganisms. In this study, the biodegradation of ammonium formate at various concentrations (1.59-7.94 mM) by Yarrowia Lipolytica and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from the rubber effluent is studied by following the variation of ammonium ions and formate. A fitting of eight models of substrate inhibition was performed and the parameters were determined by nonlinear regression using MATLAB 8...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Marzena Smol, Dariusz Włóka, Maria Włodarczyk-Makuła
In this paper, coke wastewater that had passed through biological and integrated membrane processes (filtration on sand bed-reverse osmosis) was chosen to assess the phytotoxicity of selected industrial wastewater with regard to the test plant- Vicia faba . An innovative research technique in vitro test was conducted in a large scale phytothrone chamber on two matrices: cotton and Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MSBM). The toxicity of wastewater was evaluated for samples: (1) treated in the treatment plant by biological processes, (2) filtrated through a sand bed and filtrated (3) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Beata Ferencz, Jarosław Dawidek, Magdalena Toporowska
This paper describes catchment processes that favor the trophic instability of a shallow polymictic lake, in which a shift from eutrophy to hypertrophy occurs rapidly. In the lake, in 2007, the winter discharge maximum and an intensive precipitation (monthly sums exceeded 60 mm) in a vegetation season were observed. In 2007, the cyanobacterial blooms disappeared and the water trophy decreased. Total phosphorus (TP) was the main factor determining the high trophic status of the lake. The TP retention resulted from a quick flow of two inflows: QI1 (r = 0...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
V M van Zoest, A Stein, G Hoek
Low-cost urban air quality sensor networks are increasingly used to study the spatio-temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations. Recently installed low-cost urban sensors, however, are more prone to result in erroneous data than conventional monitors, e.g., leading to outliers. Commonly applied outlier detection methods are unsuitable for air pollutant measurements that have large spatial and temporal variations as occur in urban areas. We present a novel outlier detection method based upon a spatio-temporal classification, focusing on hourly NO2 concentrations...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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