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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

Tomasz Hura, Bożena Szewczyk-Taranek, Katarzyna Hura, Krzysztof Nowak, Bożena Pawłowska
The aim of this work was to analyse the response of Rosa rubiginosa to salinity induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). Besides salt accumulation and pH changes, other parameters were investigated including photosynthetic activity, leaf water content, the dynamics of necrosis and chlorosis appearance and leaf drying. The study was complemented with microscopic analysis of changes in leaf anatomy. R. rubiginosa was more sensitive to the salinity induced by calcium chloride than by sodium chloride...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Koki Toyota
Complete bioremediation of soils containing multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains a challenge. To explore the possibility of complete bioremediation through integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation, laboratory feasibility tests followed by alternate anaerobic-aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed. Chlorinated ethylenes, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC), and dichloromethane (DCM) were used for anaerobic biodegradation, whereas benzene, toluene, and DCM were used for aerobic biodegradation tests...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Małgorzata Baćmaga, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Jan Kucharski
The presence of fungicides in the natural environment, either resulting from deliberate actions or not, has become a serious threat to many ecosystems, including soil. This can be prevented by taking appropriate measures to clear the environment of organic contamination, including fungicides. Therefore, a study was conducted aimed at determining the effect of bioaugmentation of soil exposed to azoxystrobin on its degradation and activity of selected enzymes (dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acidic phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Mehmet Ates, Veysel Demir, Zikri Arslan, Mustafa Camas, Fatih Celik
In this study, the effects of exposure to engineered nickel oxide (NiO 40-60 nm) and cobalt oxide (CoO <100 nm) nanoparticles (NP) were investigated on Artemia salina. Aggregation and stability of the aqueous NP suspensions were characterized by DLS and TEM. Acute exposure was conducted on nauplii (larvae) in seawater in a concentration range from 0.2 to 50 mg/L NPs for 24 h (short term) and 96 h (long term). The hydrodynamic diameters of NiO and CoO NPs in exposure medium were larger than those estimated by TEM...
March 2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Jadwiga Wierzbowska, Stanisław Sienkiewicz, Sławomir Krzebietke, Teresa Bowszys
The influence of manure and composts on the leaching of heavy metals from soil was evaluated in a model lysimeter experiment under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from experimental fields, from 0- to 90-cm layers retaining the layout of the soil profile layers, after the second crop rotation cycle with the following plant species: potatoes, spring barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat. During the field experiment, 20 t DM/ha of manure, municipal sewage sludge composted with straw (SSCS), composted sewage sludge (SSC), dried granular sewage sludge (DGSS), "Dano" compost made from non-segregated municipal waste (CMMW), and compost made from municipal green waste (CUGW) was applied, i...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Hanna Siwek, Artur Bartkowiak, Małgorzata Włodarczyk, Katarzyna Sobecka
Binding phosphate at participation of alginate/FeCl3 capsules was studied with laboratory experiments. The hydrogel microcapsules were obtained with the dropping-in method, by gelation of sodium alginate water solution by iron (III) chloride solution. Phosphate adsorption characteristics were studied in a static batch system with respect to changes in contact time, initial phosphates concentration, pH of solution, and temperature. After 24 h of the tests, average 87.5% of phosphate ions were removed from the natural water solutions; after 48 h, an equilibrium was reached...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ding Kuke, Liu Shujuan, He Yingxue, Yan Dong, Zhang Fengshou, Wang Shuifeng, Guo Jinghua, Zhang Wei, Wang Xin, Jiang Xiaoyan
The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ((88)Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ((90)Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Renata Matraszek, Barbara Hawrylak-Nowak, Stanisław Chwil, Mirosława Chwil
This study evaluated the possibility of improving the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed white mustard 'Rota' using intensive S nutrition. Three S-SO4 (2, 6, 9 mM S) and four CdCl2 doses (0, 0.0002, 0.02, 0.04 mM Cd) in the Hoagland's nutrient solution were conducted for 14 days. High S supply (6 or 9 mM) appears, to some extent, to affect positively the macronutrient status of Cd-stressed mustard. It increased roots and shoots contents of K and S, without significant changes in P content. Simultaneously, Mg content in shoots and roots remained stable, but Mg bioaccumulation was elevated...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Marek Pająk, Ewa Błońska, Magdalena Frąc, Karolina Oszust
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of metal contamination on microbial functional diversity and enzyme activity in forest soils. This study involved the evaluation of the influence of the texture, carbon content and distance to the source of contamination on the change in soil microbial activity, which did not investigate in previous studies. The study area is located in southern Poland near the city of Olkusz around the flotation sedimentation pond of lead and zinc at the Mining and Metallurgical Company "ZGH Bolesław, Inc...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Barbara Gworek, Olga Bemowska-Kałabun, Marta Kijeńska, Justyna Wrzosek-Jakubowska
Mercury contamination in water has been an issue to the environment and human health. In this article, mercury in marine and oceanic waters has been reviewed. In the aquatic environment, mercury occurs in many forms, which depend on the oxidation-reduction conditions. These forms have been briefly described in this article. Mercury concentrations in marine waters in the different parts of the world have been presented. In the relevant literature, two models describing the fate and behavior of mercury in saltwater reservoirs have been presented, a conceptual model which treats all the oceans as one ocean and the "ocean margin" model, providing that the ocean margins manifested themselves as the convergence of continents and oceans, covering such geological features, such as estuaries, inland seas, and the continental shelf...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Magdalena Toporowska, Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska, Renata Kalinowska
In spite of extensive studies on multispecies toxigenic cyanobacterial blooms, they are still difficult to eliminate, and factors regulating their succession and toxin production remain still to discover. A 4-year study revealed periodical mass development of diazotrophic Nostocales such as Dolichospermum spp. (previously Anabaena), Aphanizomenon gracile and expansive Cuspidothrix (previously Aphanizomenon) issatschenkoi in a lake affected by perennial blooms of Planktothrix agardhii (Oscillatoriales). Compared to Oscillatoriales, Nostocales reached the highest total biomass (up to 16 mg L(-1)) and contributed nearly 33-85 % to the total biomass of filamentous cyanobacteria at higher water temperatures (average values 17...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Anna Lenart-Boroń, Anna A Wolanin, Łukasz Jelonkiewicz, Mirosław Żelazny
This 3-year study was aimed to understand the factors and mechanisms that cause the temporal changes in the concentration of microbiological indicators of water quality and nutrient concentration in selected sites of the Białka river catchment (southern Poland) situated in direct vicinity of the largest ski station in the region. The analysis comprised 35 sampling campaigns conducted in five sites. Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured during sampling, laboratory analyses included determination of the selected nutrients content (NH4, NO3, NO2, PO4); and the number of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Barbara Leśniewska, Anna Jeglikowska, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A new procedure for the determination of chromium species in polluted environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed in this work. A new material containing 1,5-diphenylcarbazone included in a polymeric matrix was prepared and employed as a solid-phase extraction material for selective separation of Cr(III) ions under dynamic conditions. Chromium(III) ions were retained on this sorbent with high efficiency and repeatability (95 %, RSD = 1 %) from solutions with pH 9.0. The quantitative recovery of analyte was obtained with 0...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Beata Klimek, Anna Sitarz, Maciej Choczyński, Maria Niklińska
Various inorganic and organic pollutants in industrial soils may adversely affect soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between the microbial activity, microbial biomass, and functional diversity of soil bacteria and the metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland). We collected soil samples in pine-dominated forest stands and analyzed them according to a range of soil physicochemical properties, including metal content (cadmium, lead, and zinc) and TPH content...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Raghupathi Matheyarasu, Nanthi S Bolan, Ravi Naidu
This study evaluated the effects of abattoir wastewater irrigation on plant growth and development. The soils used in this study were collected from Primo Smallgoods Abattoir (Port Wakefield, South Australia) at different sites such as currently irrigated (CI), currently not irrigated (CNI) and soil outside the irrigation area as control (CTRL). A completely randomised block design was employed for the plant growth experiment, where four crops (Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa, Sinapis alba and Helianthus annuus) were grown separately on three different soils (CI, CNI and CTRL) in plastic pots...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Dariusz Ciszewski, Tomáš Matys Grygar
Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Ariel Marchlewicz, Dorota Domaradzka, Urszula Guzik, Danuta Wojcieszyńska
A Gram-positive bacterium, designated as strain B1(2015b), was isolated from the soil of the chemical factory "Organika-Azot" in Jaworzno, Poland. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was classified as a Bacillus thuringiensis species. Strain B1(2015b) is able to degrade ibuprofen and naproxen, however, these compounds are not sufficient carbon sources for this strain. In the presence of glucose, Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) degrades ibuprofen and naproxen with higher efficiency...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Aleksandra Weremczuk, Anna Barabasz, Anna Ruszczyńska, Ewa Bulska, Danuta Maria Antosiewicz
AhHMA4 from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes Zn/Cd export protein that controls Zn/Cd translocation to shoots. The focus of this manuscript is the evaluation of AhHMA4 expression in tomato for mineral biofortification (more Zn and less Cd in shoots and fruits). Hydroponic and soil-based experiments were performed. Transgenic and wild-type plants were grown on two dilution levels of Knop's medium (1/10, 1/2) with or without Cd, to determine if mineral composition affects the pattern of root/shoot partitioning of both metals due to AhHMA4 expression...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Katarzyna Wolny-Koładka, Anna Lenart-Boroń
Bacterial Escherichia coli isolates were derived from waters of the Nowohucki Reservoir (Cracow, Poland) in summer and winter seasons. In total, 94 strains, identified as E. coli, were isolated from five sampling sites in the area of the reservoir. Based on the disk-diffusion tests, it was found that the tested isolates were predominantly resistant to ticarcillin and ampicillin. Numerous multi-drug resistant strains were detected, which however did not exhibit the ESBL phenotype. However, PCR approach allowed to detect ESBL-mechanism genes (CTX-M3, OXA, SHV, and TEM) in as much as 38 % of E...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Agnieszka Wolińska, Agnieszka Kuźniar, Anna Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Natalia Jastrzębska, Eliza Roguska, Zofia Stępniewska
Soil microbial communities play an important role in the biodegradation of different petroleum derivates, including hydrocarbons. Also other biological factors such as enzyme and respiration activities and microbial abundance are sensitive to contamination with petroleum derivates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of autochthonic microbial community and biological parameters (respiration, dehydrogenase and catalase activities, total microorganisms count) on contamination with car fuels and engine oils...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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