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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861514/possibilities-of-obtaining-from-highly-polluted-environments-new-bacterial-strains-with-a-significant-decolorization-potential-of-different-synthetic-dyes
#1
Ewa Zabłocka-Godlewska, Wioletta Przystaś, Elżbieta Grabińska-Sota
The aim of this study was the isolation of bacterial strains which have the ability to decolorize synthetic dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The samples for bacterial isolation were collected from aqueous environments-two activated sludges and polluted local river. At the first stage of screening (performed on the solid media supplemented with two dyes-azo Evans blue or triphenylmethane brilliant green), 67 bacterial strains were isolated capable to decolorize the used dyes. In the further study, six dyes with different chemical structures were used: fluorone dyes (Bengal rose, erythrosine), triphenylmethane dyes (brilliant green, crystal violet), azo dyes (Evans blue, Congo red)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773924/mercury-in-the-diatoms-of-various-ecological-formations
#2
Magdalena Bełdowska, Aleksandra Zgrundo, Justyna Kobos
Mercury is a neurotoxin, its main source in the human organism being fish and seafood. The first level in the marine food web is formed of planktonic and benthic photosynthetic microorganisms, which form a biofilm on the surface of the hard bottom (epilithon) or plants (epiphyton). They are carriers of nutritional as well as toxic substances and pass these on to subsequent levels of the trophic web. Their biomass is often dominated by diatoms. This was the basis for the presented study into Hg accumulation in epilithic, epiphytic and planktonic diatoms, which was carried out in 2012-2013 in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755150/biodegradation-of-ammonium-ions-and-formate-during-ammonium-formate-metabolism-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-and-pichia-guilliermondii-in-a-batch-reactor
#3
M N Nsoe, G P Kofa, K S Ndi, B Mohammadou, M Heran, G J Kayem
The use of microorganisms for the biodegradation of pollutants is increasingly being studied. But at high concentrations, these pollutants become rather inhibitors for the metabolism of microorganisms. In this study, the biodegradation of ammonium formate at various concentrations (1.59-7.94 mM) by Yarrowia Lipolytica and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from the rubber effluent is studied by following the variation of ammonium ions and formate. A fitting of eight models of substrate inhibition was performed and the parameters were determined by nonlinear regression using MATLAB 8...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755149/influence-of-integrated-membrane-treatment-on-the-phytotoxicity-of-wastewater-from-the-coke-industry
#4
Marzena Smol, Dariusz Włóka, Maria Włodarczyk-Makuła
In this paper, coke wastewater that had passed through biological and integrated membrane processes (filtration on sand bed-reverse osmosis) was chosen to assess the phytotoxicity of selected industrial wastewater with regard to the test plant- Vicia faba . An innovative research technique in vitro test was conducted in a large scale phytothrone chamber on two matrices: cotton and Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MSBM). The toxicity of wastewater was evaluated for samples: (1) treated in the treatment plant by biological processes, (2) filtrated through a sand bed and filtrated (3) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681668/instability-of-water-quality-of-a-shallow-polymictic-flow-through-lake
#5
Beata Ferencz, Jarosław Dawidek, Magdalena Toporowska
This paper describes catchment processes that favor the trophic instability of a shallow polymictic lake, in which a shift from eutrophy to hypertrophy occurs rapidly. In the lake, in 2007, the winter discharge maximum and an intensive precipitation (monthly sums exceeded 60 mm) in a vegetation season were observed. In 2007, the cyanobacterial blooms disappeared and the water trophy decreased. Total phosphorus (TP) was the main factor determining the high trophic status of the lake. The TP retention resulted from a quick flow of two inflows: QI1 (r = 0...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563652/outlier-detection-in-urban-air-quality-sensor-networks
#6
V M van Zoest, A Stein, G Hoek
Low-cost urban air quality sensor networks are increasingly used to study the spatio-temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations. Recently installed low-cost urban sensors, however, are more prone to result in erroneous data than conventional monitors, e.g., leading to outliers. Commonly applied outlier detection methods are unsuitable for air pollutant measurements that have large spatial and temporal variations as occur in urban areas. We present a novel outlier detection method based upon a spatio-temporal classification, focusing on hourly NO2 concentrations...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503482/developmental-toxicity-of-diethylnitrosamine-in-zebrafish-embryos-juveniles-related-to-excessive-oxidative-stress
#7
Danping Huang, Hanmin Li, Qidi He, Weiqu Yuan, Zuanguang Chen, Hongzhi Yang
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is present in food, water, and daily supplies and is regarded as a toxicant of carcinogenicity. The developmental toxicity of DEN has been rarely reported as yet. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of DEN at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to access embryonic toxicity of the compound. The results show that DEN resulted in negative effects of hatching rate, heartbeat, body length, and spontaneous movement. Deformities, including notochord malformation, pericardium edema, embryonic membrane turbidity, tail hypoplasia, yolk sac deformity, and growth retardation, happened during exposure period...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497216/chemistry-of-sulfur-contaminated-soil-substrate-from-a-former-frasch-extraction-method-sulfur-mine-leachate-with-various-forms-of-litter-in-a-controlled-experiment
#8
Justyna Likus-Cieślik, Marcin Pietrzykowski, Marcin Chodak
The impact of tree litter on soil chemistry leachate and sulfurous substrates of mine soils from former Jeziórko sulfur mine was investigated. Composites were used: soil substrate (less contaminated at mean 5090 mg kg-1  S or high contaminated at 42,500 mg kg-1  S) + birch or pine litter and control substrate (no litter). The composites were rinsed with distilled water over 12 weeks. In the obtained leachate, pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon, N, Ca, Mg, Al, and S were determined. Physicochemical parameters of the substrates and their basal respiration rate were determined...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479120/the-impact-of-diesel-oil-pollution-on-the-hydrophobicity-and-co-2-efflux-of-forest-soils
#9
Edyta Hewelke, Jan Szatyłowicz, Piotr Hewelke, Tomasz Gnatowski, Rufat Aghalarov
The contamination of soil with petroleum products is a major environmental problem. Petroleum products are common soil contaminants as a result of human activities, and they are causing substantial changes in the biological (particularly microbiological) processes, chemical composition, structure and physical properties of soil. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of soil moisture on CO2 efflux from diesel-contaminated albic podzol soils. Two contamination treatments (3000 and 9000 mg of diesel oil per kg of soil) were prepared for four horizons from two forest study sites with different initial levels of soil water repellency...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398730/differential-tolerance-to-lead-and-cadmium-of-micropropagated-gypsophila-fastigiata-ecotype
#10
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Aleksandra Koźmińska
In vitro techniques may provide a suitable tool for effective propagation and conservation of plant species representing various ecological niches. The elaboration of such protocols is also prerequisite for selection of heavy-metal-tolerant plant material that could be afterwards used for restoration or remediation of polluted sites. In this study, culture protocol for Gypsophila fastigiata propagation was developed. The highest multiplication coefficient, which reached 6.5, and the best growth parameters were obtained on modified MS medium supplemented with 1...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367789/stimulation-of-heavy-metal-adsorption-process-by-using-a-strong-magnetic-field
#11
Krzysztof Rajczykowski, Krzysztof Loska
The adsorption process is one of the most important techniques of water and wastewater treatment technology. Therefore, there are many methods allowing to improve the effectiveness of these processes based mainly on the chemical modification of adsorbents. However, they are always associated with the necessity of introducing an additional wastes or sewage to the environment. That is why a purpose of the presented was to investigate an innovative and noninvasive adsorption supporting method based on the using of a static magnetic field...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367788/effect-of-silene-vulgaris-and-heavy-metal-pollution-on-soil-microbial-diversity-in-long-term-contaminated-soil
#12
Magdalena Pacwa-Płociniczak, Tomasz Płociniczak, Dan Yu, Jukka M Kurola, Aki Sinkkonen, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget, Martin Romantschuk
In this study, we analysed the impact of heavy metals and plant rhizodeposition on the structure of indigenous microbial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil that had been exposed to heavy metals for more than 150 years. Samples of the rhizosphere of Silene vulgaris and non-rhizosphere soils 250 and 450 m from the source of emission that had different metal concentrations were collected for analyses. The results showed that soils were collected 250 m from the smelter had a higher number of Cd-resistant CFU compared with the samples that were collected from 450 m, but no significant differences were observed in the number of total and oligotrophic CFU or the equivalent cell numbers between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils that were taken 250 and 450 m from the emitter...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367787/zinc-removal-from-the-aqueous-solutions-by-the-chemically-modified-biosorbents
#13
Krzysztof Rajczykowski, Oktawia Sałasińska, Krzysztof Loska
Biosorbents are the natural origin adsorbents, which popularity in environmental engineering is steadily increasing due to their low price, ease of acquisition, and lack of the toxic properties. Presented research aimed to analyze the possibility of chemical modification of the straw, which is a characteristic waste in the Polish agriculture, to improve its biosorption properties with respect to removal of selected metals from aquatic solutions. Biosorbents used during the tests was a barley straw that was shredded to a size in the range of 0...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755147/kinetic-and-thermodynamic-studies-of-chlorinated-organic-compound-degradation-by-siderite-activated-peroxide-and-persulfate
#14
Ni Yan, Mengjiao Li, Yali Liu, Fei Liu, Mark L Brusseau
The efficacy of two oxidant systems, iron-activated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and iron-activated hydrogen peroxide coupled with persulfate (S2 O8 2- ), was investigated for treatment of two chlorinated organic compounds, trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA). Batch tests were conducted at multiple temperatures (10-50 °C) to investigate degradation kinetics and reaction thermodynamics. The influence of an inorganic salt, dihydrogen phosphate ion (H2 PO4 - ), on oxidative degradation was also examined...
December 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749978/optimizing-the-gas-absorption-chemical-reaction-method-for-measuring-air-water-interfacial-area-in-porous-media
#15
Ying Lyu, Mark L Brusseau
The gas-absorption/chemical-reaction (GACR) method developed in Chemical Engineering to measure gas-fluid interface in reactor systems is adapted for natural porous geologic media. Several series of column experiments were conducted using model glass beads and a natural sand to determine optimal operational conditions for measuring air-water interfacial area with the adapted method. The impacts of operational variables were investigated, including liquid and gas volumetric flow rates, solution concentration, and temperature...
December 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225380/performance-of-anaerobic-biotrickling-filter-and-its-microbial-diversity-for-the-removal-of-stripped-disinfection-byproducts
#16
Bineyam Mezgebe, George A Sorial, E Sahle-Demessie, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Jingrang Lu
The objective of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation of chloroform by using biotrickling filter (BTF) and determining the dominant bacteria responsible for the degradation. The research was conducted in three phases under anaerobic condition, namely, in the presence of co-metabolite (Phase I), in the presence of co-metabolite and surfactant (Phase II) and in the presence of surfactant but no co-metabolite (Phase III). The results showed that the presence of ethanol as a co-metabolite provided 49% removal efficiency...
November 1, 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755148/modified-well-field-configurations-for-improved-performance-of-contaminant-elution-and-tracer-tests
#17
Zhilin Guo, Mark L Brusseau
Contaminant elution and tracer (CET) tests are one method for characterizing the impact of mass transfer, transformation, and other attenuation processes on contaminant transport and mass removal for subsurface systems. The purpose of the work reported herein is to explore specific well-field configurations for improving CET tests by reducing the influence of preferential flow and surrounding-plume effects. Three injection-extraction well configurations were tested for different domain conditions using a three-dimensional numerical model...
July 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187765/effect-of-land-use-seasonality-and-hydrometeorological-conditions-on-the-k-concentration-discharge-relationship-during-different-types-of-floods-in-carpathian-foothills-catchments-poland
#18
Joanna P Siwek, Mirosław Żelazny, Janusz Siwek, Wojciech Szymański
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of land use, seasonality, and hydrometeorological conditions on the relationship between stream water potassium (K+ ) concentration and discharge during different types of floods-short- and long-duration rainfall floods as well as snowmelt floods on frozen and thawed soils. The research was conducted in small catchments (agricultural, woodland, mixed-use) in the Carpathian Foothills (Poland). In the woodland catchment, lower K+ concentrations were noted for each given specific runoff value for summer rainfall floods versus snowmelt floods (seasonal effect)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104324/bacterial-degraders-of-coexisting-dichloromethane-benzene-and-toluene-identified-by-stable-isotope-probing
#19
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Futoshi Kurisu, Koki Toyota
Most bioremediation studies on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have focused on a single contaminant or its derived compounds and degraders have been identified under single contaminant conditions. Bioremediation of multiple contaminants remains a challenging issue. To identify a bacterial consortium that degrades multiple VOCs (dichloromethane (DCM), benzene, and toluene), we applied DNA-stable isotope probing. For individual tests, we combined a13 C-labeled VOC with other two unlabeled VOCs, and prepared three unlabeled VOCs as a reference...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989204/association-of-il-6-with-pm-2-5-components-importance-of-characterizing-filter-based-pm-2-5-following-extraction
#20
Courtney Roper, Lauren G Chubb, Leah Cambal, Brett Tunno, Jane E Clougherty, Cheryl Fattman, Steven E Mischler
Filter-based toxicology studies are conducted to establish the biological plausibility of the well-established health impacts associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure. Ambient PM2.5 collected on filters is extracted into solution for toxicology applications, but frequently, characterization is nonexistent or only performed on filter-based PM2.5 , without consideration of compositional differences that occur during the extraction processes. To date, the impact of making associations to measured components in ambient instead of extracted PM2...
January 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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