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Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225380/performance-of-anaerobic-biotrickling-filter-and-its-microbial-diversity-for-the-removal-of-stripped-disinfection-byproducts
#1
Bineyam Mezgebe, George A Sorial, E Sahle-Demessie, Ashraf Aly Hassan, Jingrang Lu
The objective of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation of chloroform by using biotrickling filter (BTF) and determining the dominant bacteria responsible for the degradation. The research was conducted in three phases under anaerobic condition, namely, in the presence of co-metabolite (Phase I), in the presence of co-metabolite and surfactant (Phase II) and in the presence of surfactant but no co-metabolite (Phase III). The results showed that the presence of ethanol as a co-metabolite provided 49% removal efficiency...
November 1, 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187765/effect-of-land-use-seasonality-and-hydrometeorological-conditions-on-the-k-concentration-discharge-relationship-during-different-types-of-floods-in-carpathian-foothills-catchments-poland
#2
Joanna P Siwek, Mirosław Żelazny, Janusz Siwek, Wojciech Szymański
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of land use, seasonality, and hydrometeorological conditions on the relationship between stream water potassium (K+) concentration and discharge during different types of floods-short- and long-duration rainfall floods as well as snowmelt floods on frozen and thawed soils. The research was conducted in small catchments (agricultural, woodland, mixed-use) in the Carpathian Foothills (Poland). In the woodland catchment, lower K+ concentrations were noted for each given specific runoff value for summer rainfall floods versus snowmelt floods (seasonal effect)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104324/bacterial-degraders-of-coexisting-dichloromethane-benzene-and-toluene-identified-by-stable-isotope-probing
#3
Miho Yoshikawa, Ming Zhang, Futoshi Kurisu, Koki Toyota
Most bioremediation studies on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have focused on a single contaminant or its derived compounds and degraders have been identified under single contaminant conditions. Bioremediation of multiple contaminants remains a challenging issue. To identify a bacterial consortium that degrades multiple VOCs (dichloromethane (DCM), benzene, and toluene), we applied DNA-stable isotope probing. For individual tests, we combined a (13)C-labeled VOC with other two unlabeled VOCs, and prepared three unlabeled VOCs as a reference...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989204/association-of-il-6-with-pm2-5-components-importance-of-characterizing-filter-based-pm2-5-following-extraction
#4
Courtney Roper, Lauren G Chubb, Leah Cambal, Brett Tunno, Jane E Clougherty, Cheryl Fattman, Steven E Mischler
Filter-based toxicology studies are conducted to establish the biological plausibility of the well-established health impacts associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. Ambient PM2.5 collected on filters is extracted into solution for toxicology applications, but frequently, characterization is nonexistent or only performed on filter-based PM2.5, without consideration of compositional differences that occur during the extraction processes. To date, the impact of making associations to measured components in ambient instead of extracted PM2...
January 2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983135/analysis-of-granulometric-composition-of-algal-suspensions-in-wastewater-treated-with-hydroponic-method
#5
Aleksandra Bawiec, Katarzyna Pawęska, Krzysztof Pulikowski
The aim of the study was to determine the changes in suspension particle size identified in biologically treated wastewater, which was then treated in hydroponic system with use of engineering lighting by the light-emitting diodes (LED). The study was subjected to wastewater purified under laboratory conditions, in a hydroponic system using the effect of macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and growing algae. Measurement of particle size was made using a laser granulometer. Analysis of the results showed that the additional lighting of the hydroponic system with LED can significantly influence the ability of the suspension particles to agglomerate and, consequently, determine their sedimentation properties...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955108/feasibility-of-locating-leakages-in-sewage-pressure-pipes-using-the-distributed-temperature-sensing-technology
#6
Benjamin Apperl, Alexander Pressl, Karsten Schulz
The cost effective maintenance of underwater pressure pipes for sewage disposal in Austria requires the detection and localization of leakages. Extrusion of wastewater in lakes can heavily influence the water and bathing quality of surrounding waters. The Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology is a widely used technique for oil and gas pipeline leakage detection. While in pipeline leakage detection, fiber optic cables are installed permanently at the outside or within the protective sheathing of the pipe; this paper aims at testing the feasibility of detecting leakages with temporary introduced fiber optic cable inside the pipe...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890580/the-role-of-compost-in-stabilizing-the-microbiological-and-biochemical-properties-of-zinc-stressed-soil
#7
Rafał Strachel, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Małgorzata Baćmaga
The progressive development of civilization and intensive industrialization has contributed to the global pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals, especially the soil. Degraded soils generally contain less organic matter, and thus, their homeostasis is more often disturbed, which in turn manifests in changes in biological and physicochemical properties of the soil. Therefore, new possibilities and solutions for possible neutralization of these contaminations are sought, inter alia, through reclamation of degraded land...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867849/heavy-metal-uptake-by-herbs-v-metal-accumulation-and-physiological-effects-induced-by-thiuram-in-ocimum-basilicum-l
#8
Dorota Adamczyk-Szabela, Zdzisława Romanowska-Duda, Katarzyna Lisowska, Wojciech M Wolf
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is extensively cultivated as either an important spice and food additive or a source of essential oil crucial for the production of natural phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. It is frequently attacked by fungal diseases. The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of thiuram contact time on the uptake of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead by Ocimum basilicum L. The relevant plant physiological parameters were also investigated. Two farmland soils typical for the Polish rural environment were used...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845063/spread-of-water-borne-pollutants-at-traffic-accidents-on-roads
#9
Bo Olofsson, Hedi Rasul, Annika Lundmark
Traffic accidents sometimes lead to the spread of hazardous compounds to the environment. Accidental spills of hazardous compounds on roads in the vicinity of vulnerable objects such as water supplies pose a serious threat to water quality and have to be assessed. This study compared three different assessment methods, electrical resistivity measurements, analytical flow calculations, and 1D and 2D dynamic flow modeling, to describe rapid transport processes in the road shoulder and roadside verge after a major spill...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798500/studying-the-effects-of-two-various-methods-of-composting-on-the-degradation-levels-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-sewage-sludge
#10
Joanna Poluszyńska, Elżbieta Jarosz-Krzemińska, Edeltrauda Helios-Rybicka
The research comprised of studying the effect composting sewage sludge with sawdust and vermicomposting with earthworm Eisenia fetida has on the degradation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw rural sewage sludge prior composting was more contaminated with PAHs than urban sewage sludge, in both cases exceeding EU cutoff limits of 6 mg/kg established for land application. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBahAnt), acenaphtylene (Acy) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr) were predominant in rural sewage sludge, whilst the urban sewage sludge contained the highest concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFl), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkFl) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr)...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798499/comparative-assessment-of-response-to-cadmium-in-heavy-metal-tolerant-shrubs-cultured-in-vitro
#11
A Wiszniewska, E Hanus-Fajerska, E Muszyńska, S Smoleń
Two species of Pb-adapted shrubs, Alyssum montanum and Daphne jasminea, were evaluated in vitro for their tolerance to elevated concentrations of cadmium. Shoot cultures were treated with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 μM CdCl2 for 16 weeks and analyzed for their organogenic response, biomass accretion, pigment content, and macronutrient status. Cadmium accumulation and its root-to-shoot translocation were also determined. In both species, rooted microplantlets, suitable for acclimatization, were obtained in the presence of Cd applied as selection agent...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794573/quantitative-assessment-of-pm2-5-sources-and-their-seasonal-variation-in-krakow
#12
Lucyna Samek, Z Stegowski, L Furman, K Styszko, K Szramowiat, J Fiedor
In industry areas of Poland such as Silesia or urban sites like Krakow and some other cities, the levels of pollutants frequently breach air quality standards. Particulate matter (PM) is the most important constituent of atmospheric pollution. Beginning on 1st February 2014 until 31st January 2015, the samples of fine particulate matter PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter of particles less than or equal to 2.5 μm) were collected at a site in the south-eastern Krakow urban background area. During this period, 194 samples were taken...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769141/treatment-of-bisphenol-a-containing-effluents-from-aerobic-granular-sludge-reactors-with-the-use-of-microfiltration-and-ultrafiltration-ceramic-membranes
#13
M Zielińska, A Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, K Bułkowska, K Bernat, I Wojnowska-Baryła
This study investigated the use of ceramic membranes to remove total suspended solids (TSS), organics (expressed by chemical oxygen demand, COD), and bisphenol A (BPA) via microfiltration (MF, pore size 0.45 μm) and ultrafiltration (UF, cutoff 150 kDa) in post-treatment of effluents from aerobic granular sludge reactors (GSBRs). The efficiency of removal of COD, BPA, and TSS in MF was similar to that in UF; however, it was achieved at a lower pressure, which reduces energy consumption during the filtration process...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757662/selective-separation-of-chromium-species-from-soils-by-single-step-extraction-methods-a-critical-appraisal
#14
Barbara Leśniewska, Marta Gontarska, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A critical appraisal of single-step extraction procedures of chromium species from soil was done in terms of their selectivity towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. Samples of natural mineral and organic soil and samples of soil enriched with different chromium compounds of various solubility (in liquid or solid form) were used to simulate contamination of soil by liquid and solid wastes. The efficiency of extraction of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species with various reagents, e.g. acetic acid, chelating agents (EDTA, DTPA) or inorganic salts (phosphates and carbonates), was evaluated on the basis of recovery results obtained for enriched samples...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757661/mineral-and-anthropogenic-indicator-inorganics-in-urban-stormwater-and-snowmelt-runoff-sources-and-mobility-patterns
#15
H Galfi, H Österlund, J Marsalek, M Viklander
Inorganic chemicals in urban stormwater and snowmelt runoff originate from catchment geology and anthropogenic activities. The occurrence, partitioning and mobility of six minerals and six trace metal (TM) indicators of anthropogenic activities were studied in stormwater, snowmelt and baseflow in four urban catchments, and the sampling of inorganics was supplemented by measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), pH and total suspended solids (TSSs). Minerals occurred at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher (1-10(2) mg/L) than those of TMs (10(-2)-10(2) μg/L) and reflected the composition of local groundwater seeping into sewers...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747806/brown-algae-and-basalt-meal-in-maintaining-the-activity-of-arylsulfatase-of-soil-polluted-with-cadmium
#16
Magdalena Zaborowska, Jan Kucharski, Jadwiga Wyszkowska
This study analysed the effectiveness of innovative (basalt meal, brown algae extract) and conventional (barley straw) substances which hypothetically alleviate the inhibiting effect of Cd(2+) on biochemical properties of soil, with particular regard to the activity of arylsulfatase. An analysis of their potential was carried out based on the activity of arylsulfatase and the number of Pseudomonas sp. determined on the 25th and 50th days of the study. Cd(2+) was applied in the following doses: 0, 4, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 mg Cd(2+) kg(-1) of DM soil, in the form of CdCl2·2...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458404/use-of-ceramic-membranes-in-a-membrane-filtration-supported-by-coagulation-for-the-treatment-of-dairy-wastewater
#17
Magdalena Zielińska, Maciej Galik
A membrane filtration system was used to remove organic compounds, suspended solids, colour and turbidity from anaerobically treated dairy wastewater. Direct microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), MF-UF and a combination of UF with coagulation using two conventional coagulants were investigated. The installation with ceramic membranes was operated at a pressure of 0.15 MPa (MF) and 0.3 MPa (UF). COD removal was 89 ± 2% in MF, 95 ± 1% in UF and 99% in MF-UF. Apart from size exclusion, removal was also the result of adsorption of organics on the membrane; 3-18% of COD removal was attributed to adsorption...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450754/fast-ecotoxicity-detection-using-biosensors
#18
Martina Buckova, Roman Licbinsky, Vilma Jandova, Jan Krejci, Jana Pospichalova, Jiri Huzlik
The article provides information about a new device, AlgaTox developed in the R&D project sponsored by the Technology Agency (n.TA02030179) and patented in Czech Republic (CZ 305687). Its functionality is based on the use of biosensor, and its main advantage is fast response rate. The toxicity detection is achieved through precise measurement of green algae oxygen production dynamics after their exposure to light of wavelength of 680 nm. Clark sensor with a resolution of 0.05% of the equilibrium oxygen concentrations and stability at a constant pressure and temperature of 0...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386151/water-use-and-treatment-in-container-grown-specialty-crop-production-a-review
#19
John C Majsztrik, R Thomas Fernandez, Paul R Fisher, Daniel R Hitchcock, John Lea-Cox, James S Owen, Lorence R Oki, Sarah A White
While governments and individuals strive to maintain the availability of high-quality water resources, many factors can "change the landscape" of water availability and quality, including drought, climate change, saltwater intrusion, aquifer depletion, population increases, and policy changes. Specialty crop producers, including nursery and greenhouse container operations, rely heavily on available high-quality water from surface and groundwater sources for crop production. Ideally, these growers should focus on increasing water application efficiency through proper construction and maintenance of irrigation systems, and timing of irrigation to minimize water and sediment runoff, which serve as the transport mechanism for agrichemical inputs and pathogens...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356605/assessing-historical-mining-and-smelting-effects-on-heavy-metal-pollution-of-river-systems-over-span-of-two-decades
#20
Magdalena Strzebońska, Elżbieta Jarosz-Krzemińska, Ewa Adamiec
Research was conducted on the most polluted river system in Poland, impacted by active and historical mining. Bottom sediment, suspended particulate matter and river water were collected in 2014 from Przemsza river and its tributaries. Sampling points remained the same as those chosen in a 1995 study. This allowed the comparison of heavy metal accumulation in bottom sediment over a span of almost two decades. It was concluded that Przemsza river water and its tributaries are heavily contaminated with the following (in μg/dm(3)): Pb (0...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
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