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Veterinary Pathology

Erik K Hofmeister, Melissa Lund, Valerie Shearn Bochsler
This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105 , 102 , and 101 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
James K Chambers, Takanori Shiga, Haruka Takimoto, Atsushi Dohata, Yasutsugu Miwa, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Uteri from 50 four-toed hedgehogs ( Atelerix albiventris) with clinical signs of uterine disease were histopathologically examined. Sixteen animals (32%) were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia, 7 animals (14%) were diagnosed with endometrial polyp, and 27 animals (54%) were diagnosed with endometrial neoplasia. The mean ages of the animals with endometrial hyperplasia, polyp, and neoplasia were 28.7 months, 29.4 months, and 25.2 months, respectively. The neoplasms were classified into 7 endometrial mixed tumors, 12 endometrial stromal nodules, and 8 endometrial stromal sarcomas...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
William O Iverson, Subramanya Karanth, Angela Wilcox, Cau D Pham, Shawn R Lockhart, Simone M Nicholson
A sexually mature Chinese-origin female Macaca fascicularis assigned to the high-dose group in a 26-week toxicology study with an experimental immunomodulatory therapeutic antibody (a CD40 L antagonist fusion protein) was euthanized at the scheduled terminal sacrifice on study day 192. The animal was healthy at study initiation and remained clinically normal throughout the study. On study day 141, abnormal clinical pathology changes were found during a scheduled evaluation; splenomegaly was detected on study day 149 and supported by ultrasound examination...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Justin M Stilwell, Daniel R Rissi
Multiple myeloma oncogene 1/interferon regulatory factor 4 (MUM1/IRF-4) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is mainly used for diagnostic confirmation of plasma cell tumors (PCTs) in dogs and cats. This article describes MUM1/IRF-4 IHC expression in 20 cases of canine cutaneous histiocytoma (CH) and compares it with 10 cutaneous or mucocutaneous PCTs and 5 cutaneous histiocytic sarcomas (HSs) submitted to the same IHC protocol. All histiocytomas had strong nuclear and variable cytoplasmic immunolabeling for MUM1/IRF-4, whereas all PCTs had strong nuclear and moderate cytoplasmic immunolabeling for MUM1/IRF-4...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
James K Chambers, Atigan Thongtharb, Takanori Shiga, Daigo Azakami, Miyoko Saito, Masumi Sato, Motoji Morozumi, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Canine Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing nonfatal structural epilepsy, mainly affecting miniature wirehaired dachshunds. Repeat expansion in the EPM2B gene causes a functional impairment of the ubiquitin ligase malin which regulates glycogen metabolism. Abnormally structured glycogen accumulates and develop polyglucosan bodies predominantly in the central nervous system. The authors performed a comprehensive clinical, genetic, and pathological study of 4 LD cases affecting miniature wirehaired dachshund dogs with EPM2B repeat expansions, with systemic distribution of polyglucosan bodies and accumulation of laforin and other functionally associated proteins in the polyglucosan bodies...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Lorelei L Clarke, Kevin D Niedringhaus, K Paige Carmichael, M Kevin Keel, Heather Fenton
Congenital ocular abnormalities in cervids have been previously reported as individual cases from various regions of the United States and include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, congenital cataracts, dermoids, and colobomata. A common underlying cause for these abnormalities, such as nutritional deficiencies, environmental toxin exposures, or genetic mutations, has not been established. This retrospective study summarized and compared cases of suspected congenital ocular abnormalities in free-ranging white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) in Athens, Georgia, to the preexisting literature...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Ranieri Verin, Francesco Cian, Jennifer Stewart, Diana Binanti, Amy L MacNeill, Martina Piviani, Paola Monti, Gianna Baroni, Sophie Le Calvez, Timothy J Scase, Riccardo Finotello
Vaginal and vulvar tumors are uncommon in dogs. Knowledge of canine primary clitoral neoplasia is restricted to a few case reports, and only carcinomas have been reported. Cytologic and histologic features reported in the literature seem to overlap with those of canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASA). Clinical features also recall those of canine AGASA, such as locoregional metastases and hypercalcemia of malignancy (HM). In this study, 6 cases of primary canine clitoral carcinomas (CCCs), with and without HM, were investigated by means of cytology, histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers including chromogranin A (CGA), synaptophysin (SYN), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and S-100...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Charles E Alex, Steven V Kubiski, Linlin Li, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Raymund F Wack, Megan A McCarthy, Joseph B Pesavento, Eric Delwart, Patricia A Pesavento
Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Rachel L Kinsella, Eric M Nehls, Christina L Stallings
There is a clear link between defects in autophagy and the development of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, raising interest in better understanding the roles of autophagy within the immune system. In addition, autophagy has been implicated in the immune response to infection by pathogenic microbes. As such, there are efforts currently underway to develop modulators of autophagy as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss the numerous roles for autophagy in immunity and how these activities are linked to disease...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Chutchai Piewbang, Wendy K Jo, Christina Puff, Martin Ludlow, Erhard van der Vries, Wijit Banlunara, Anudep Rungsipipat, Jochen Kruppa, Klaus Jung, Somporn Techangamsuwan, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Albert D M E Osterhaus
Bocaviruses are small nonenveloped DNA viruses belonging to the Bocaparvovirus genus of the Parvoviridae family and have been linked to both respiratory and enteric disease in humans and animals. To date, 3 bocaviruses, canine bocaviruses 1 to 3 (CBoV-1-3), have been shown to affect dogs with different disease manifestations reported for infected animals. We used next-generation sequencing to identify a novel strain of canine CBoV-2 (CBoV TH-2016) in a litter of puppies that died in Thailand from acute dyspnea and hemoptysis, for which no causal pathogen could be identified in routine assays...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Miguel Fernández, Ueli Braun, Sandra Frei, Matthias Schweizer, Monika Hilbe
Subsequent to a previous study of border disease virus (BDV) horizontal transmission from a persistently BDV-infected calf to 6 seronegative pregnant heifers, the heifers were slaughtered 60 days after exposure to the infected calf, and their fetuses and placentas were examined. Immunohistochemical examination of fetal organs and placenta showed positive labeling of moderate intensity for pestivirus antigen in 3 of 6 heifers. BDV infection in these 3 animals was confirmed by the detection of BDV RNA in different organs using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Jéssica Molín, Javier Asín, Arantzazu Vitoria, Arianne Sanz, Marina Gimeno, Antonio Romero, Javier Sánchez, Pedro Pinczowski, Francisco J Vázquez, Clementina Rodellar, Lluís Luján
A 1-month-old Purebred Spanish Horse (PSH) foal presented with progressive hepatic failure culminating in death. Hepatic lesions were consistent with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF). Genetic studies in the PKHD1 gene in the affected foal revealed that it was heterozygous for the 2 previously described single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to CHF in Swiss Franches-Montagnes (SFM) horses. In addition, 2 novel mutations were detected, the foal being homozygous for one of them and heterozygous for the other...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Christof A Bertram, Corinne Gurtner, Martina Dettwiler, Olivia Kershaw, Kristina Dietert, Laura Pieper, Hannah Pischon, Achim D Gruber, Robert Klopfleisch
Integration of new technologies, such as digital microscopy, into a highly standardized laboratory routine requires the validation of its performance in terms of reliability, specificity, and sensitivity. However, a validation study of digital microscopy is currently lacking in veterinary pathology. The aim of the current study was to validate the usability of digital microscopy in terms of diagnostic accuracy, speed, and confidence for diagnosing and differentiating common canine cutaneous tumor types and to compare it to classical light microscopy...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Cristian M Suárez-Santana, Eva Sierra, Josue Díaz-Delgado, Daniele Zucca, Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Raquel Puig-Lozano, Nakita Câmara, Jesús De la Fuente, Antonio Espinosa de Los Monteros, Miguel Rivero, Manuel Arbelo, Antonio Fernández
The prostate is the only accessory male genital gland described in cetaceans. Although few studies describe the gross and histologic anatomy of the prostate in cetaceans, there is no information on pathological findings involving this organ. The prostate glands of 45 cetaceans, including 8 different odontocete species ( n = 44) and 1 mysticete, were evaluated. The main pathologic diagnoses were verminous prostatitis, septic prostatitis, viral prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatitis of unknown etiology...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Luisa Vera Muscatello, Giancarlo Avallone, Fabienne Serra, Torsten Seuberlich, Maria Teresa Mandara, Silvia Sisó, Barbara Brunetti, Anna Oevermann
Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) are intraventricular neoplasms accounting for 10% of all primary central nervous system tumors in dogs. They are frequently classified according to the human WHO classification into choroid plexus papilloma (CPP, grade I), atypical CPP (aCPP, grade II), and choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC, grade III). Histological features observed in canine CPT such as increased vascular density (IVD) and glomeruloid microvascular proliferation (GMVP) are not part of the WHO classification. This multi-centric study aimed to investigate tumor-associated vascular hyperplasia in dogs by determining the prevalence of GMVP and IVD in 52 canine CPT and their association with tumor grade...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
José A Ramos-Vara, Margaret A Miller, Dee M Dusold
CD31 immunoreactivity has been reported in human nonendothelial tumors of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin. This study examined CD31 immunoreactivity of 347 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal, nonneoplastic, and neoplastic canine tissues. CD31 expression was considered positive if at least 10% of the cell population had membranous reactivity. Labeling with the CD31 antibody (clone JC/70A) was observed in 16 samples of normal organs (liver, kidney, lymph node), 6 of 6 specimens of hepatic nodular hyperplasia, 3 of 3 hepatic regenerative nodules, 1 of 4 anal sac carcinomas, 6 of 6 hemangiosarcomas, 18 of 20 hepatocellular carcinomas, 1 of 6 mammary carcinomas, 3 of 5 plasmacytomas, 18 of 53 renal cell carcinomas, and 1 of 5 cutaneous histiocytomas...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Byung-Joon Seung, Ha-Young Lim, Jong-Il Shin, Hyun-Woo Kim, Seung-Hee Cho, Soo-Hyeon Kim, Jung-Hyang Sur
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are an important component of leukocyte infiltration in tumors. TAMs can be classified into M1 and M2 phenotypes. In the present study, the expression of CD204, an M2-polarized macrophage receptor, was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the area surrounding TAMs in 101 cases of canine mammary gland tumor (CMT). We examined the relationship between M2-polarized TAMs and malignancy, histological subtype, histological grade, molecular subtype, hormone receptor (HR) status, and clinical obesity indices...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Nathan Hoggard, John S Munday, Jennifer Luff
Findings from polymerase chain reaction-based methods have suggested a role of Felis catus papillomavirus 2 (FcaPV-2) in the development of feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, because polymerase chain reaction cannot localize deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid within the lesion, it is difficult to differentiate a coincidental FcaPV-2 infection and a causative association. Given that a key event in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-induced cancer is the expression of viral E6 and E7 oncogenes, localization of FcaPV-2 E6 and E7 transcription within neoplastic cells in feline SCCs would support a causative role for this papillomavirus...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Erica L Noland, Matti Kiupel
The majority of primary intestinal lymphomas in dogs are T-cell lymphomas, with enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) large cell type (type 1) being the most common. While most T-cell lymphomas express the T-cell marker CD3, there is increasing evidence that some human and canine T-cell lymphomas coexpress the B-cell marker CD20. We describe 3 cases of CD3+, CD20+, Pax5- EATL type 1 in dogs. All 3 cases had clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma. Initial clinical signs included weight loss, inappetence, diarrhea, and/or vomiting...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Nicole Jungwirth, Johannes Junginger, Christoph Andrijczuk, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Peter Wohlsein
Plexiform vasculopathy refers to an endothelial proliferative disorder affecting cervical or inguinal lymph nodes of cats. The cause of this disorder and the origin of the proliferating endothelial cells are still unknown. In 4 cats with a history of a slowly growing, well-demarcated, nonpainful mass adjacent to the thyroid gland, an enlarged dark brown to red lymph node was removed. Histologically, the lymph nodes showed severe loss of lymphoid tissue with accumulations of erythrocytes. In addition, networks of capillary structures with well-differentiated endothelial cells on a collagen-rich stroma were observed, consistent with benign plexiform vasculopathy...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
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