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Veterinary Pathology

Luisa Vera Muscatello, Enrico Di Oto, Giuseppe Sarli, Valentina Monti, Maria Pia Foschini, Cinzia Benazzi, Barbara Brunetti
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor overexpressed in a subset of breast cancer due to HER2 gene amplification. HER2 protein is expressed in feline mammary carcinomas, but little is known about its cytogenetic alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate HER2 gene amplification status and its correlation with HER2 protein expression in feline mammary carcinomas. Feline mammary carcinomas were retrospectively selected and immunohistochemically (IHC) evaluated for HER2 protein expression...
November 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Javier Asín, Jéssica Molín, Marta Pérez, Pedro Pinczowski, Marina Gimeno, Nuria Navascués, Ana Muniesa, Ignacio de Blas, Delia Lacasta, Antonio Fernández, Lorena de Pablo, Matthew Mold, Christopher Exley, Damián de Andrés, Ramsés Reina, Lluís Luján
The use of vaccines including aluminum (Al)-based adjuvants is widespread among small ruminants and other animals. They are associated with the appearance of transient injection site nodules corresponding to granulomas. This study aims to characterize the morphology of these granulomas, to understand the role of the Al adjuvant in their genesis, and to establish the presence of the metal in regional lymph nodes. A total of 84 male neutered lambs were selected and divided into 3 treatment groups of 28 animals each: (1) vaccine (containing Al-based adjuvant), (2) adjuvant-only, and (3) control...
October 31, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Chiara Palmieri, Lyndal Hulse, Sara Pagliarani, Rebecca Larkin, Damien P Higgins, Kenneth Beagley, Stephen Johnston
Chlamydiosis is the most documented and serious disease of koalas, characterized by ocular, urinary, and reproductive lesions. Since little attention has been paid to the pathological effects of this infection in the male reproductive system, we aimed to determine the incidence and severity of reproductive pathology associated with chlamydial infection in male koalas submitted to koala hospitals in southeast Queensland. The entire reproductive tract from 62 sexually mature male koalas not suitable for rehabilitation was evaluated and 677 tissue samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
October 31, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sue E Knoblaugh, Lauren E Himmel
There is a growing need to quantitate or "score" lesions in mouse models of human disease, for correlation with human disease and to establish their clinical relevance. Several standard semiquantitative scoring schemes have been adapted for nonneoplastic lesions; similarly, the pathologist must carefully select an approach to score mouse models of cancer. Genetically engineered mouse models with a continuum of precancerous and cancerous lesions and xenogeneic models of various derivations present unique challenges for the pathologist...
October 31, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Rani S Sellers, S Radma Mahmood, Geoffrey S Perumal, Frank P Macaluso, Irwin J Kurland
Lipin-1 ( Lpin1)-deficient lipodystrophic mice have scant and immature adipocytes and develop transient fatty liver early in life. Unlike normal mice, these mice cannot rely on stored triglycerides to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the β-oxidation of fatty acids during periods of fasting. To compensate, these mice store much higher amounts of glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver than wild-type mice in order to support energy needs during periods of fasting. Our studies demonstrated that there are phenotypic changes in skeletal muscle fibers that reflect an adaptation to this unique metabolic situation...
October 31, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Ilaria Porcellato, Chiara Brachelente, Livia De Paolis, Laura Menchetti, Serenella Silvestri, Monica Sforna, Gaia Vichi, Selina Iussich, Luca Mechelli
Human melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, with poor prognosis and high resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The discovery of immunosuppressive mechanisms in the human melanoma microenvironment led to the use of new prognostic markers and to the development of immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoint molecules. Immunoescape mechanisms in canine melanoma have not yet been investigated, and no such immunotherapy has been tested. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the expression of transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in primary canine melanocytic tumors and to investigate their prognostic role...
October 31, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Ana Canadas, Miguel França, Cristina Pereira, Raquel Vilaça, Hugo Vilhena, Flora Tinoco, Maria João Silva, Jorge Ribeiro, Rui Medeiros, Pedro Oliveira, Patrícia Dias-Pereira, Marta Santos
Histopathology remains the cornerstone for diagnosing canine mammary tumors (CMTs). Recently, 2 classification systems (the World Health Organization [WHO] classification of 1999 and the proposal of 2011) and 2 grading methods based on the human Nottingham grade have been used by pathologists. Despite some evidence that the histological subtype and grade are prognostic factors, there is no comprehensive comparative study of these classification and grading systems in the same series of CMTs. In this study, the 2 classifications and the 2 grading methods were simultaneously applied to a cohort of 134 female dogs with CMTs...
October 31, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sabrina D Clark, Wenping Song, Rachel Cianciolo, George Lees, Mary Nabity, Shiguang Liu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNAs that act as regulators of posttranslational gene/protein expression and are known to play a key role in physiological and pathological processes. The objective of our study was to compare expression of miR-21 in renal tissue from dogs affected with chronic kidney disease (CKD) caused by X-linked hereditary nephropathy (XLHN), a disease equivalent to human Alport syndrome, to that from unaffected dogs. Additionally, we sought to characterize changes in relative mRNA expression of various genes associated with miR-21 function...
October 28, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Krista M D La Perle
Definable, reproducible, and meaningful are elemental features of grading/scoring systems, while thoroughness, accuracy, and consistency are quality indicators of pathology reports. The expertise of pathologists is significantly underutilized when it is limited to rendering diagnoses. The opportunity to provide guidance on animal model development, experimental design, optimal sample collection, and data interpretation not only contributes to job satisfaction but also, more importantly, promotes validation of the pathology data...
October 28, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Carolina Botta, Giovanni Pellegrini, Michael Hässig, Theresa Pesch, Barbara Prähauser, Sabina Wunderlin, Franco Guscetti, Marianne Schneeberger, Sarah Schmitt, Walter Basso, Monika Hilbe, Gerhard Schuler, Nicole Borel
Bovine abortion is a worldwide problem, but despite extensive histopathologic and molecular investigations, the cause of abortion remains unclear in about 70% of cases. Cellular debris is a commonly observed histopathologic finding in the fetal placenta and is often interpreted as necrosis. In this study, the nature of this cellular debris was characterized, and histologic changes in the normal fetal placenta during pregnancy and after delivery were assessed. In addition, the presence of the most common abortifacient pathogens in Switzerland ( Chlamydiaceae, Coxiella burnetii, Neospora caninum) was tested by polymerase chain reaction...
October 24, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Lieza Odendaal, Sarah J Clift, Geoffrey T Fosgate, A Sally Davis
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne disease that affects both ruminants and humans, with epidemics occurring more frequently in recent years in Africa and the Middle East, probably as a result of climate change and intensified livestock trade. Sheep necropsied during the 2010 RVF outbreak in South Africa were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). A total of 124 sheep were available for study, of which 99 cases were positive for RVF. Multifocal-random, necrotizing hepatitis was confirmed as the most distinctive lesion of RVF cases in adult sheep...
October 21, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sara Degl'Innocenti, Nicola Della Camera, Cristian Falzone, Carlo Cantile
Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare angiotropic large-cell lymphoma in which neoplastic lymphocytes proliferate within the lumina of small blood vessels in the absence of a primary extravascular mass or leukemia. This study included 10 cases of canine IVL restricted to the CNS. Dogs had an average age of 8 years and neurological signs mainly referred to brain involvement such as depression, seizures, and ambulatory deficits. Gross examination at necropsy showed focal extensive or multiple hemorrhagic areas mainly distributed in the telencephalon and diencephalon...
October 5, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Chiara Piccinelli, Rachel Jago, Elspeth Milne
Equine dysautonomia (grass sickness) is characterized by autonomic neuronal degeneration and is often fatal. As outbreaks occur, rapid diagnosis is essential but confirmation currently requires histological examination. This study evaluated diagnostic accuracy of cytological examination of cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) scrapings for dysautonomia diagnosis. CCG smears from 20 controls and 16 dysautonomia cases were stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG), hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and cresyl fast violet (CFV), with HE-stained histological sections of CCG as gold standard for diagnosis...
October 5, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Laura J Janke, Jerrold M Ward, Peter Vogel
The analysis and description of the appearance of cell death in tissue sections can add valuable information to research studies. The scoring/grading and quantification of cell death can be used either as part of a larger scoring scheme or as the final end point of a study. The degree of precision needed is study dependent and will be determined by the question being addressed and the complexity of the model. The methods one uses to quantify cell death are often guided by the tissue of interest. For example, in the brain, it is sometimes necessary to examine death of specific neuronal populations, whereas in more homogeneous tissue such as a tumor xenograft, quantification can be done on a whole-slide basis...
October 3, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Isao Matsumoto, Ko Nakashima, Yuko Goto-Koshino, James Kenn Chambers, Hajime Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Human enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is classified into 2 distinct subgroups based on their phenotypes (type I and type II). Canine intestinal T-cell lymphoma can be morphologically classified into large and small cell lymphomas (LCL and SCL, respectively). Their association with human EATL or immunohistochemical and biological features has not been well characterized. In this study, the immunohistochemical profiles of 17 cases of LCL and 33 cases of SCL were evaluated with markers used for human EATL classification...
October 3, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Ana Manuela de Azevedo, Ana Paula Losada, Andrés Barreiro, Sonia Vázquez, María Isabel Quiroga
Skeletal anomalies affect animal welfare and cause important economic problems in aquaculture. Despite the high frequency of skeletal problems in reared Solea senegalensis, there is lack of information regarding the histological features of normal and deformed vertebrae in this flatfish. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathological and radiographical appearance of vertebral body anomalies. Sixty-seven juvenile fish were radiographically examined 104 or 105 days after hatching. Through radiographic images, vertebral segments were selected and processed for histopathological examination from 7 normal and 7 affected fish...
October 3, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Silvia Sabattini, Giuliano Bettini
Cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCTs) account for approximately 20% of skin neoplasms in cats. As there is no grading system for these tumors, prognosis is difficult to estimate. Although the typical presentation is a benign tumor that can be cured by surgical excision, a small but important proportion of feline cMCTs is biologically aggressive and can spread to local lymph nodes, precede the onset of disseminated cutaneous disease, or be associated with visceral involvement. A number of macroscopic and histologic features were retrospectively evaluated in cases of feline cMCTs treated with surgical excision with or without medical therapy...
September 24, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Hugues Beaufrère, Drury Reavill, Jill Heatley, Leonardo Susta
The Quaker parrot has been used as a psittacine model to study clinical lipidology and lipid-related disorders. However, while Quaker parrots appear to be anecdotally susceptible to a variety of spontaneous dyslipidemic disorders and lesions caused by excess lipid accumulation, epidemiologic data are lacking. A multicenter retrospective study on 652 pathology submissions (411 necropsies and 243 biopsies) from Quaker parrots was performed by recording the final pathological diagnoses, age, and sex for each bird...
September 24, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Melissa Macías-Rioseco, Santiago Mirazo, Francisco A Uzal, Martín Fraga, Caroline Silveira, Leticia Maya, Franklin Riet-Correa, Juan Arbiza, Rodney Colina, Mark L Anderson, Federico Giannitti
Bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPIV-3) is a recognized respiratory pathogen of cattle, and it has also been identified in aborted fetuses. However, little is known of this agent as a reproductive pathogen and detailed descriptions of fetal pathology on natural cases are lacking in the scientific literature. This article describes and illustrates lesions in a fetus spontaneously aborted by a first-calving Holstein heifer, naturally infected with BPIV-3 genotype A, broadening the current knowledge on fetal pathology by this virus...
September 24, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sushan Han, Kristin G Mansfield, Dan S Bradway, Thomas E Besser, Deryck H Read, Gary J Haldorson, David P Alt, Jennifer H Wilson-Welder
A novel foot disease in free-ranging elk ( Cervus elaphus) in southwestern Washington State emerged in 2008 and spread throughout the region. Initial studies showed adult elk had chronic hoof overgrowth, sole ulcers, and sloughed hoof capsules, but no cause was determined. To identify possible causes and characterize the earliest lesions, 9-, 7-, and 3-month-old elk were collected. Nine-month-old elk had sole ulcers (3/9 elk) and sloughed/overgrown hoof capsules (4/9 elk) similar to adults. Histologically, lesions consisted of coronary, heel bulb, and interdigital ulcers with suppurative inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, deeply invasive spirochetes, and underrunning of the hoof capsule and heel-sole junction...
September 24, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
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