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Veterinary Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178429/variations-in-histiocytic-differentiation-of-cell-lines-from-canine-cerebral-and-articular-histiocytic-sarcomas
#1
A Thongtharb, K Uchida, J K Chambers, H Nakayama
Two newly established canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) cell lines, designated as PWC-HS01 and FCR-HS02, were obtained from brain and articular tumors, respectively. These 2 HS cell lines had phagocytic ability and modal chromosome aberrations. Although morphologic features of both HS cells were similar, immunocytochemical examinations revealed that the PWC-HS01 cell line expressed both dendritic cell (ie, S100, CD208, CD1, and CD4) and macrophage (ie, CD68, CD163, and CD204) markers. In contrast, the FCR-HS02 cell line was immunonegative for CD204 and CD68 but consistently positive for the dendritic cell markers...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178428/effect-of-histophilus-somni-on-heart-and-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#2
D O'Toole, R Hunter, T Allen, B Zekarias, J Lehmann, K S Kim, D Grab, L B Corbeil
Histophilus somni is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium responsible for pneumonia and septicemia in cattle. Sequelae include infectious thrombotic meningoencephalitis (ITME), myocarditis, arthritis, and abortion. These syndromes are associated with widespread vasculitis and thrombosis, implicating a role for endothelium in pathogenesis. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigation of 10 natural cases of bovine H. somni myocarditis and 1 case of ITME revealed intravascular H. somni in large biofilm-like aggregates adherent to the luminal surface of microvascular endothelium...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178427/pathogenesis-of-colitis-in-germ-free-mice-infected-with-ehec-o157-h7
#3
K A Eaton, C Fontaine, D I Friedman, N Conti, C J Alteri
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are strains of E. coli that express Shiga toxins (Stx) and cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some cases, disease can progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney disease. Both enteric and renal disease are associated with the expression of stx genes, which are often carried on lysogenic phage. Toxin is expressed following induction and conversion of the phage to lytic growth. The authors previously used a germ-free mouse model to demonstrate that toxin gene expression is enhanced during growth in vivo and that renal disease is dependent on both prophage induction and expression of Stx2...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171733/microsporidiosis-in-four-tortoises-testudo-hermanni-boettgeri
#4
M Eydner, J Donhauser, A Beineke, P Guenther, S Blahak
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming fungi. A wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts can be infected; however, cases of infected turtles or tortoises have not yet been described. This is the first description of 4 cases in tortoises ( Testudo spp), which showed general signs of illness as well as intestinal and respiratory signs until death occurred or they were euthanized. Granulomatous and necrotizing inflammation was visible in the lung and liver. Fungal organisms were present in heart blood, lung, liver, and intestine...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171732/endolymphatic-sac-tumor-in-two-dogs
#5
K J Barnes, V Clear, K Youmans, M R Hardcastle, N Nelson, A Petersen, M Kiupel
Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) are rare neoplasms of the inner and middle ear described in humans. Diagnosis of such neoplasms is difficult and largely dependent on a combination of histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical findings. Although the neoplastic cells lack cellular features of malignancy, these are clinically aggressive tumors that often invade the surrounding temporal bone. Here, we describe 2 dogs with middle ear masses that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical similarities with human ELSTs...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129098/expression-of-kidney-injury-molecule-1-in-healthy-and-diseased-feline-kidney-tissue
#6
S K Bland, C W Schmiedt, M E Clark, J DeLay, D Bienzle
Sensitive markers to detect acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats are lacking. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a promising marker of acute tubular injury in humans, and sequence and structure of feline KIM-1 have been determined. KIM-1 is shed into urine of cats with natural AKI. The objectives of this study were to characterize temporal and cellular expression of KIM-1 in kidneys from cats without and with experimental and natural AKI using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Tissue sections from 8 cats without kidney disease, 3 to 4 cats with experimentally induced AKI on each day 1, 3, 6, and 12 after unilateral ischemia/reperfusion, and 9 cats with natural AKI were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129097/expression-of-phosphorylated-kit-in-canine-mast-cell-tumor
#7
C H C Halsey, D H Thamm, K M Weishaar, J H Burton, J B Charles, D L Gustafson, A C Avery, E J Ehrhart
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common canine skin tumor and exhibits variable biologic behavior. Signaling through the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cellular proliferation and survival and has been shown to play a role in MCT progression. Despite investigations into numerous biomarkers and the proposal of several grading schemas, no single marker or grading system can accurately predict outcome in canine MCT. The first aim of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical assay to measure phosphorylated KIT (pKIT) to investigate its association with 2 commonly used grading systems and other established prognostic markers for canine MCT...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129096/characterization-of-anti-dal-alloantibodies-following-sensitization-of-two-dal-negative-dogs
#8
S Goulet, M C Blais
Since its discovery, the immunogenicity of the Dal blood type has not been further investigated. The aim of this study was to better characterize anti- Dal alloantibodies produced following sensitization of Dal-negative dogs, notably their rate of appearance, the agglutination titer over time, and their immunoglobulin class. A secondary objective was to obtain polyclonal anti- Dal alloantibodies to increase the availability of Dal blood typing. Of 100 healthy laboratory Beagles tested, 2 Dal-negative dogs were identified as recipients...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129095/t-lymphocytes-in-histiocytic-sarcomas-of-flat-coated-retriever-dogs
#9
A Marcinowska, F Constantino-Casas, T Williams, T Hoather, B Blacklaws, J Dobson
Flat-Coated Retriever dogs are predisposed to the development of histiocytic sarcoma (HS), a poorly differentiated, highly malignant neoplasm. The authors have previously documented a significant lymphocytic infiltrate in such tumors. The objective of this study was to examine the presence and expression of regulatory T cells in HS tumor samples. Forty tumors were included in this study. All tumors were immunolabeled for CD3, CD79a, CD25, CD45RA, and FOXP3. The proportion of positive cells was compared between tumors presenting as a localized primary soft tissue mass (soft tissue origin HS) and disseminated HS affecting viscera, especially the spleen (splenic origin HS)...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129094/osteochondrosis-synovial-fossae-and-articular-indentations-in-the-talus-and-distal-tibia-of-growing-domestic-pigs-and-wild-boars
#10
P E Etterlin, S Ekman, R Strand, K Olstad, C J Ley
Articular osteochondrosis (OC) often develops in typical locations within joints, and the characterization of OC distribution in the pig tarsus is incomplete. Prevalence of OC is high in domestic pigs but is presumed to be low in wild boars. Postmortem and computed tomography (CT) examinations of the talus and distal tibia from 40 domestic pigs and 39 wild boars were evaluated for the locations and frequencies of OC, synovial fossae, and other articular indentations, and frequency distribution maps were made...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129093/immune-mediated-muscle-diseases-of-the-horse
#11
S A Durward-Akhurst, S J Valberg
In horses, immune-mediated muscle disorders can arise from an overzealous immune response to concurrent infections or potentially from an inherent immune response to host muscle antigens. Streptococcus equi ss. equi infection or vaccination can result in infarctive purpura hemorrhagica (IPH) in which vascular deposition of IgA-streptococcal M protein complexes produces ischemia and complete focal infarction of skeletal muscle and internal organs. In Quarter Horse-related breeds with immune-mediated myositis, an apparent abnormal immune response to muscle antigens results in upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class (MHC) I and II on muscle cell membranes, lymphocytic infiltration of lumbar and gluteal myofibers, and subsequent gross muscle atrophy...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113038/nuclear-glycogen-inclusions-in-canine-parietal-cells
#12
S Silvestri, E Lepri, C Dall'Aglio, M C Marchesi, G Vitellozzi
Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113037/small-ruminant-lentiviruses-in-sheep
#13
P Pinczowski, L Sanjosé, M Gimeno, H Crespo, I Glaria, B Amorena, D de Andrés, M Pérez, R Reina, L Luján
The objective of this work was to comparatively study the tissue tropism and the associated pathology of 2 autochthonous small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) field strains using an experimental infection in sheep through the bone marrow. Fifteen male, SRLV-free lambs of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were inoculated with strain 697 (nervous tissue origin, animals A1-A6), with strain 496 (articular origin, animals B1-B6), or with uninfected culture medium (C1-C3). Clinical, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluations were performed periodically...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113036/clinical-and-histopathologic-characterization-of-canine-chronic-ulcerative-stomatitis
#14
J G Anderson, S Peralta, A Kol, P H Kass, B Murphy
Canine chronic ulcerative stomatitis, also known as chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis, is a painful condition of the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are commonalities in clinical and radiographic features among patients, whether the histopathologic evaluation might inform the pathogenesis, and whether the condition appears similar to human oral mucosal diseases. To do this, we prospectively collected clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic data from 20 dogs diagnosed with the disease...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113035/aerosol-generation-during-bone-sawing-procedures-in-veterinary-autopsies
#15
L Wenner, U Pauli, K Summermatter, H Gantenbein, B Vidondo, H Posthaus
Bone-sawing procedures are routinely performed during veterinary and human autopsies and represent an important source for infectious aerosols. Here we investigate the generation of aerosols during bone-sawing procedures using 5 different saws regularly used in veterinary and human pathology. In particular, the electrical bone band saw produced vast amounts of aerosolized particles less than 5 µm in diameter, which spread rapidly throughout the entire autopsy hall, leading to an exposure of all personnel. Other sawing devices tested were a diamond-coated cut grinder, an oscillating saw, a reciprocating saw, and a hand bone saw...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060678/canine-central-nervous-system-neoplasm-phenotyping-using-tissue-microarray-technique
#16
I Spitzbarth, F Heinrich, V Herder, T Recker, P Wohlsein, W Baumgärtner
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060677/pathogenesis-of-frog-virus-3-ranavirus-iridoviridae-infection-in-wood-frogs-rana-sylvatica
#17
M J Forzán, K M Jones, E Ariel, R J Whittington, J Wood, R J Frederick Markham, P-Y Daoust
Wood frogs ( Rana sylvatica) are highly susceptible to infection with Frog virus 3 (FV3, Ranavirus, Iridoviridae), a cause of mass mortality in wild populations. To elucidate the pathogenesis of FV3 infection in wood frogs, 40 wild-caught adults were acclimated to captivity, inoculated orally with a fatal dose of 10(4.43) pfu/frog, and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 9, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Mild lesions occurred sporadically in the skin (petechiae) and bone marrow (necrosis) during the first 2 dpi...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055330/hepatic-lipodystrophy-in-galloway-calves
#18
M Wieland, S Mann, A Hafner-Marx, A Ignatius, M Metzner
Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267425/book-review-atlas-of-histology-of-the-juvenile-rat-atlas-of-histology-of-the-juvenile-rat-parker-george-a-picut-catherine-a-editors-academic-press-elsevier-cambridge-ma-2016-150-hardcover-or-ebook-isbn-978-0-12-802682-3
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207378/book-review-atlas-of-histology-of-the-juvenile-rat-atlas-of-histology-of-the-juvenile-rat-parker-george-a-picut-catherine-a-editors-academic-press-elsevier-cambridge-ma-2016-150-hardcover-or-ebook-isbn-978-0-12-802682-3
#20
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