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Veterinary Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438114/small-ruminant-lentiviruses-strain-variation-viral-tropism-and-host-genetics-influence-pathogenesis
#1
M A Highland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438113/hopping-over-red-leg-the-metamorphosis-of-amphibian-pathology
#2
Allan P Pessier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438112/h3n2-canine-influenza-virus-infection-in-a-dog
#3
C E Watson, C Bell, K Toohey-Kurth
In 2015, H3N2 canine influenza emerged in dogs in the greater Chicago area. During this time, a 10-year-old German Shepherd dog presented to the referring veterinarian with lethargy and coughing that quickly progressed to death. This report describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions and the molecular testing performed to identify the novel North American H3N2 strain of canine influenza. The larynx, pharynx, and trachea were covered by a fibrinonecrotic membrane. Bilaterally, the lungs had multifocal subpleural necrosis of the caudal lung lobes with hemorrhage, congestion, and pulmonary edema...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438111/pathology-of-naturally-occurring-bacillary-hemoglobinuria-in-cattle
#4
M A Navarro, F Dutra, C Briano, A Romero, M Persiani, J C Freedman, E Morrell, J Beingesser, F A Uzal
Clostridium haemolyticum causes bacillary hemoglobinuria (BH), an infectious and usually fatal disease that occurs mostly in cattle, which is clinically characterized by jaundice, hemoglobinuria, and anemia. The trematode Fasciola hepatica has been commonly reported as the main predisposing factor that triggers this condition. The authors evaluated 20 naturally occurring cases of bovine BH to characterize the pathology and pathogenesis of the disease. Grossly, the most consistent finding was a large, frequently single focus of necrosis surrounded by a red to purple halo, observed most frequently on the parietal surface of the right and left hepatic lobes...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438110/temporal-progression-of-lesions-in-guinea-pigs-infected-with-lassa-virus
#5
T M Bell, C I Shaia, J J Bearss, M E Mattix, K A Koistinen, S P Honnold, X Zeng, C D Blancett, G C Donnelly, J D Shamblin, E R Wilkinson, K A Cashman
Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438109/practical-stereology-applications-for-the-pathologist
#6
Danielle L Brown
Qualitative histopathology is the gold standard for routine examination of morphological tissue changes in the regulatory or academic environment. The human eye is exceptional for pattern recognition but often cannot detect small changes in quantity. In cases where detection of subtle quantitative changes is critical, more sensitive methods are required. Two-dimensional histomorphometry can provide additional quantitative information and is quite useful in many cases. However, the provided data may not be referent to the entire tissue and, as such, it makes several assumptions, which are sources of bias...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438108/17-aag-and-apoptosis-autophagy-and-mitophagy-in-canine-osteosarcoma-cell-lines
#7
M Massimini, C Palmieri, R De Maria, M Romanucci, D Malatesta, M De Martinis, L Maniscalco, A Ciccarelli, L Ginaldi, P Buracco, L Bongiovanni, L Della Salda
Canine osteosarcoma is highly resistant to current chemotherapy; thus, clarifying the mechanisms of tumor cell resistance to treatments is an urgent need. We tested the geldanamycin derivative 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) prototype of Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibitors in 2 canine osteosarcoma cell lines, D22 and D17, derived from primary and metastatic tumors, respectively. With the aim to understand the interplay between cell death, autophagy, and mitophagy, in light of the dual effect of autophagy in regulating cancer cell viability and death, D22 and D17 cells were treated with different concentrations of 17-AAG (0...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178429/variations-in-histiocytic-differentiation-of-cell-lines-from-canine-cerebral-and-articular-histiocytic-sarcomas
#8
A Thongtharb, K Uchida, J K Chambers, H Nakayama
Two newly established canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) cell lines, designated as PWC-HS01 and FCR-HS02, were obtained from brain and articular tumors, respectively. These 2 HS cell lines had phagocytic ability and modal chromosome aberrations. Although morphologic features of both HS cells were similar, immunocytochemical examinations revealed that the PWC-HS01 cell line expressed both dendritic cell (ie, S100, CD208, CD1, and CD4) and macrophage (ie, CD68, CD163, and CD204) markers. In contrast, the FCR-HS02 cell line was immunonegative for CD204 and CD68 but consistently positive for the dendritic cell markers...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129098/expression-of-kidney-injury-molecule-1-in-healthy-and-diseased-feline-kidney-tissue
#9
S K Bland, C W Schmiedt, M E Clark, J DeLay, D Bienzle
Sensitive markers to detect acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats are lacking. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is a promising marker of acute tubular injury in humans, and sequence and structure of feline KIM-1 have been determined. KIM-1 is shed into urine of cats with natural AKI. The objectives of this study were to characterize temporal and cellular expression of KIM-1 in kidneys from cats without and with experimental and natural AKI using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Tissue sections from 8 cats without kidney disease, 3 to 4 cats with experimentally induced AKI on each day 1, 3, 6, and 12 after unilateral ischemia/reperfusion, and 9 cats with natural AKI were assessed...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129097/expression-of-phosphorylated-kit-in-canine-mast-cell-tumor
#10
C H C Halsey, D H Thamm, K M Weishaar, J H Burton, J B Charles, D L Gustafson, A C Avery, E J Ehrhart
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common canine skin tumor and exhibits variable biologic behavior. Signaling through the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cellular proliferation and survival and has been shown to play a role in MCT progression. Despite investigations into numerous biomarkers and the proposal of several grading schemas, no single marker or grading system can accurately predict outcome in canine MCT. The first aim of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical assay to measure phosphorylated KIT (pKIT) to investigate its association with 2 commonly used grading systems and other established prognostic markers for canine MCT...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129094/osteochondrosis-synovial-fossae-and-articular-indentations-in-the-talus-and-distal-tibia-of-growing-domestic-pigs-and-wild-boars
#11
P E Etterlin, S Ekman, R Strand, K Olstad, C J Ley
Articular osteochondrosis (OC) often develops in typical locations within joints, and the characterization of OC distribution in the pig tarsus is incomplete. Prevalence of OC is high in domestic pigs but is presumed to be low in wild boars. Postmortem and computed tomography (CT) examinations of the talus and distal tibia from 40 domestic pigs and 39 wild boars were evaluated for the locations and frequencies of OC, synovial fossae, and other articular indentations, and frequency distribution maps were made...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113038/nuclear-glycogen-inclusions-in-canine-parietal-cells
#12
S Silvestri, E Lepri, C Dall'Aglio, M C Marchesi, G Vitellozzi
Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113037/small-ruminant-lentiviruses-in-sheep-pathology-and-tropism-of-2-strains-using-the-bone-marrow-route
#13
P Pinczowski, L Sanjosé, M Gimeno, H Crespo, I Glaria, B Amorena, D de Andrés, M Pérez, R Reina, L Luján
The objective of this work was to comparatively study the tissue tropism and the associated pathology of 2 autochthonous small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) field strains using an experimental infection in sheep through the bone marrow. Fifteen male, SRLV-free lambs of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were inoculated with strain 697 (nervous tissue origin, animals A1-A6), with strain 496 (articular origin, animals B1-B6), or with uninfected culture medium (C1-C3). Clinical, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluations were performed periodically...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113036/clinical-and-histopathologic-characterization-of-canine-chronic-ulcerative-stomatitis
#14
J G Anderson, S Peralta, A Kol, P H Kass, B Murphy
Canine chronic ulcerative stomatitis, also known as chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis, is a painful condition of the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are commonalities in clinical and radiographic features among patients, whether the histopathologic evaluation might inform the pathogenesis, and whether the condition appears similar to human oral mucosal diseases. To do this, we prospectively collected clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic data from 20 dogs diagnosed with the disease...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060678/canine-central-nervous-system-neoplasm-phenotyping-using-tissue-microarray-technique
#15
I Spitzbarth, F Heinrich, V Herder, T Recker, P Wohlsein, W Baumgärtner
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060677/pathogenesis-of-frog-virus-3-ranavirus-iridoviridae-infection-in-wood-frogs-rana-sylvatica
#16
M J Forzán, K M Jones, E Ariel, R J Whittington, J Wood, R J Frederick Markham, P-Y Daoust
Wood frogs ( Rana sylvatica) are highly susceptible to infection with Frog virus 3 (FV3, Ranavirus, Iridoviridae), a cause of mass mortality in wild populations. To elucidate the pathogenesis of FV3 infection in wood frogs, 40 wild-caught adults were acclimated to captivity, inoculated orally with a fatal dose of 10(4.43) pfu/frog, and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 9, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Mild lesions occurred sporadically in the skin (petechiae) and bone marrow (necrosis) during the first 2 dpi...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055330/hepatic-lipodystrophy-in-galloway-calves
#17
M Wieland, S Mann, A Hafner-Marx, A Ignatius, M Metzner
Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005495/growth-plate-lesions-of-fattening-bulls
#18
M Levi, K E Dittmer, A Gentile, A Beltrame, M Bolcato, M Morgante, E Fiore, C Benazzi
Lameness related to growth plate lesions is an important problem in the beef industry. This article describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in the distal metatarsal physis of bulls from an association of farmers in northeastern Italy. The metatarsal bones of 62 bulls (12 with severe lameness and 50 without lameness), average age 16.44 ± 1.72 months, were examined at the abattoir. The animals came from the same geographic area and shared intensive husbandry practices and a diet based on maize starch...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005494/glomerular-lesions-in-proteinuric-miniature-schnauzer-dogs
#19
E Furrow, G E Lees, C A Brown, R E Cianciolo
Miniature Schnauzer dogs are predisposed to idiopathic hypertriglyerceridemia, which increases risk for diseases such as pancreatitis and gallbladder mucocele. Recently, elevated triglyceride concentrations have been associated with proteinuria in this breed, although it is difficult to determine which abnormality is primary. Retrospective review of renal tissue from 27 proteinuric Miniature Schnauzers revealed that 20 dogs had ultrastructural evidence of osmophilic globules consistent with lipid in glomerular tufts...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005493/vasa-vasorum-arteriopathy-relationship-with-systemic-arterial-hypertension-and-other-vascular-lesions-in-cats
#20
R Kohnken, B A Scansen, C Premanandan
The vasa vasorum is a delicate network of small arterioles that supplies nutrients to the adventitia and outer media of large arteries. In humans, dysfunction of the vasa vasorum contributes to the pathogenesis of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis. Twenty-four cats from 1 to 18 years of age were prospectively evaluated. Cases were divided into 3 cohorts-with systemic hypertension, without systemic hypertension, and uncertain. Histologic sections of the aorta and main pulmonary artery, as well as sections of kidney and lung, were blindly examined by 2 pathologists...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
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