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Veterinary Pathology

Jeff L Caswell, Laura L Bassel, Jamie L Rothenburger, Andrea Gröne, Jan M Sargeant, Amanda P Beck, Stina Ekman, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Thijs Kuiken, Elise E B LaDouceur, David K Meyerholz, Francesco C Origgi, Horst Posthaus, Simon L Priestnall, Lorenzo Ressel, Leslie Sharkey, Leandro B C Teixeira, Kazuyuki Uchida, Jerrold M Ward, Joshua D Webster, Jyoji Yamate
Observational studies are a basis for much of our knowledge of veterinary pathology, yet considerations for conducting pathology-based observational studies are not readily available. In part 1 of this series, we offered advice on planning and carrying out an observational study. Part 2 of the series focuses on methodology. Our general recommendations are to consider using already-validated methods, published guidelines, data from primary sources, and quantitative analyses. We discuss 3 common methods in pathology research-histopathologic scoring, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction-to illustrate principles of method validation...
September 18, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Billie Beckwith-Cohen, Allison Hoffman, Gillian J McLellan, Richard R Dubielzig
Feline neovascular vitreoretinopathy (FNV) is a newly recognized rare condition affecting kittens and young domestic cats. This study investigated the clinical and pathologic findings in 22 cats with FNV. In affected cats, ophthalmoscopy of the fundus (when visible) revealed avascular peripheral retinae and epiretinal vascular membranes. Frequent nonspecific clinical findings were buphthalmos ( n = 21), medically uncontrollable glaucoma ( n = 22), and lenticular abnormalities ( n = 13). Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) was detected clinically in affected cats ( n = 6)...
September 16, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Patricia A Pesavento, Cristina W Cunha, Hong Li, Kenneth Jackson, Donal O'Toole
A constraint on understanding the pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is the limited number of tools to localize infected cells. The amount of detectable virus, visualized in the past either by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization (ISH), has been modest in fixed or frozen tissues. This complicates our understanding of the widespread lymphoid proliferation, epithelial necrosis/apoptosis, and arteritis-phlebitis that characterize MCF. In this work, we developed a probe-based in situ hybridization assay targeting 2 ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) genes, as well as their respective transcripts, in formalin-fixed tissues...
September 16, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Kerriann M Casey, Amanda L Johnson, Melea N Hunrath, Jenelle K Fraser, Nicole C McCowan, Katherine Wasson, Rosalinda A Doty, Stephen M Griffey, Denise M Imai
Beginning in 2015, athymic nude sentinel mice from conventional, medium-, and high-security facilities presented to the Comparative Pathology Laboratory (CPL) with weight loss, diarrhea, and/or rectal prolapse. Regardless of whether clinical signs were present or absent, the gross observation of ceco-colonic thickening corresponded histologically to pleocellular typhlocolitis with mucosal hyperplasia and lamina proprial multinucleated cells. A subset of affected sentinels exhibited granulomatous serositis and hepatosplenic necrosis with multinucleated cells...
September 16, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Aslı Mete, Krysta H Rogers, Rebecca Wolking, Daniel S Bradway, Terra Kelly, Melanie Piazza, Beate Crossley
Twenty-two feral rock pigeons ( Columba livia) from 10 counties in California with ataxia, torticollis, and difficulty standing and flying were admitted to rehabilitation centers in late winter and spring of 2017 and died or were euthanized. Common necropsy findings included thin body condition, generalized deep red discoloration of organs, and hemorrhagic subcutaneous neck tissues. Meningoencephalitis was observed microscopically in 16 pigeons, and 3 also had protozoal schizonts in the brain. The most consistently affected regions of the brain were cerebellum and brainstem...
September 16, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Terry R Spraker, Tetiana A Kuzmina, Eugene T Lyons, Robert L DeLong, Claire Simeone, D N Rao Veeramachaneni
A field study addressing causes of mortality in freshly dead northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866) was conducted on San Miguel Island, California, in February 2015. Necropsies were performed on 18 pups ranging in age from stillbirths to approximately 7 to 8 weeks. The primary gross diagnoses in these pups included trauma, myopathy, starvation/emaciation, infections, congenital anomalies, and perinatal mortality. However, 6 (33%) had a previously unrecognized myopathy characterized by multiple white streaks that were most obvious within the inner layer of the abdominal wall and the small innermost ventral intercostal muscles...
September 16, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Patricia A Pesavento, Rahul B Dange, M Carmen Ferreras, Akbar Dasjerdi, Valentin Pérez, Anna LaRoca, Julio Benavides Silván, Santiago Diab, Kenneth Jackson, Ida L Phillips, Hong Li, Cristina W Cunha, Mark Wessels
Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is one of the gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus that can cause malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in ungulates. Sheep are the adapted host for OvHV-2 and it is generally assumed that infection is not associated with disease in this species. However, cases of "polyarteritis nodosa" or idiopathic systemic necrotizing vasculitis reported in sheep are similar to vascular lesions in clinically susceptible species with MCF. Using a recently developed in situ hybridization (ISH) method, we were able to identify OvHV-2 nucleic acids within lesions and correlate the viral distribution with systemic necrotizing vasculitis in 9 sheep, including both naturally and experimentally OvHV-2-infected animals...
September 10, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Justin J Greenlee
Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease of sheep and goats. Scrapie is a protein misfolding disease where the normal prion protein (PrPC ) misfolds into a pathogenic form (PrPSc ) that is highly resistant to enzymatic breakdown within the cell and accumulates, eventually leading to neurodegeneration. The amino acid sequence of the prion protein and tissue distribution of PrPSc within affected hosts have a major role in determining susceptibility to and potential environmental contamination with the scrapie agent...
September 10, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Laura Bongiovanni, Francesca Caposano, Mariarita Romanucci, Valeria Grieco, Daniela Malatesta, Chiara Brachelente, Marcella Massimini, Cinzia Benazzi, Rachel E Thomas, Leonardo Della Salda
Canine prostatic carcinoma is a relevant model for human prostatic carcinoma. Survivin is proposed as a biomarker of malignancy in human prostatic cancer. Sox9 is a stem cell marker required for prostate development and expressed in several adult tissues. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the patterns and expression levels of 2 putative stem cell markers, survivin and Sox9, in canine benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic carcinoma to investigate their potential as stem cell markers. Immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies was performed on 3 samples of normal prostate gland, 18 samples of canine BPH, and 16 samples of prostatic carcinoma...
August 21, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Gillian C Shaw, May P Y Tse, Andrew D Miller
Portuguese Water Dog breeders and veterinary ophthalmologists recognize microphthalmia with multiple congenital ocular anomalies. Fifteen Portuguese Water Dog puppies (<8 weeks of age; 8 females, 7 males) and 1 adult (5 years old; castrated male) with microphthalmia were examined. The 2 most common abnormalities were microphthalmia (31/32 eyes; 97%) and lens abnormality (congenital cataract or aphakia; 32/32 eyes; 100%). Other common histologic lesions included lack of both a ciliary cleft and trabecular meshwork (15/32 eyes; 47%) and abnormal relationship of anterior segment structures (15/32 eyes; 47%)...
August 21, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
David K Meyerholz, Nathan L Tintle, Amanda P Beck
Histopathology remains an important source of descriptive biological data in biomedical research. Recent petitions for enhanced reproducibility in scientific studies have elevated the role of tissue scoring (semiquantitative and quantitative) in research studies. Effective tissue scoring requires appropriate statistical analysis to help validate the group comparisons and give the pathologist confidence in interpreting the data. Each statistical test is typically founded on underlying assumptions regarding the data...
August 21, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Christof A Bertram, Kerstin Müller, Lesley Halter, Christiane Nastarowitz-Bien, Anne-Katrin Schink, Antina Lübke-Becker, Ellen von Czapiewski, Robert Klopfleisch
Acquired outpouches of the intestinal tract are referred to as pseudodiverticula or false pulsion diverticula. In contrast to true diverticula, in which the wall contains all layers of the intestinal tract, the wall of pseudodiverticula lacks the tunica muscularis. Smooth muscle hypertrophy of the small intestine is commonly considered a cause of pseudodiverticulosis in animals due to increased intraluminal pressure. This study reports pseudodiverticula associated with idiopathic smooth muscle hypertrophy of the small intestine in lagomorphs...
August 21, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Ramona Graf, Andreas Pospischil, Franco Guscetti, Daniela Meier, Monika Welle, Martina Dettwiler
Data collected in animal cancer registries comprise extensive and valuable information, even more so when evaluated in context with precise population data. The authors evaluated 11 740 canine skin tumors collected in the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry from 2008-2013, considering data on breed, sex, age, and anatomic locations. Their incidence rate (IR) per 100 000 dogs/year in the Swiss dog population was calculated based on data from the official and mandatory Swiss dog registration database ANIS. The most common tumor types were mast cell tumors (16...
August 21, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Sophie Degner, Heinz-Adolf Schoon, Claudia Laik-Schandelmaier, Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Sandra Schöniger
In breast cancer of women, the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) status has prognostic and therapeutic significance. The aim of this study was (1) to characterize by immunohistochemistry the expression of ERα and PR in nonneoplastic and neoplastic mammary gland tissue of pet rabbits and (2) to correlate the ERα/PR status and histological features. All 124 rabbits included in this study had a mammary tumor; in addition, 2 rabbits had lobular hyperplasia and 25 had multiple cysts. Of the 124 neoplasms, 119 (96%) were carcinoma, 2 (2%) were carcinoma in situ, and 3 (2%) were adenoma...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Hannah Pischon, Anne Petrick, Matthias Müller, Nils Köster, Jörg Pietsch, Lars Mundhenk
Contaminated honey is a common cause of grayanotoxin intoxication in humans. Intoxication of animals, especially cattle, is usually due to ingestion of plants of the Ericaceae family, such as Rhododendron. Here, we report the ingestion of Pieris japonica as the cause of grayanotoxin I intoxication in 2 miniature pigs that were kept as pets. The pigs showed sudden onset of pale oral mucosa, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypersalivation, tremor, and ataxia that progressed to lateral recumbency. The pathological examination of one pig revealed no specific indications for intoxication except for the finding of plant material of Pieris japonica in the intestine...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Keith Koistinen, Lisa Mullaney, Todd Bell, Sherif Zaki, Aysegul Nalca, Ondraya Frick, Virginia Livingston, Camenzind G Robinson, J Scot Estep, K Lance Batey, Edward J Dick, Michael A Owston
Coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates has been sporadically reported in the literature. This study describes 22 cases of coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates within an endemic region, and 79 cases of coccidioidomycosis from the veterinary literature are also reviewed. The 22 cases included baboons ( n = 10), macaques ( n = 9), and chimpanzees ( n = 3). The majority died or were euthanized following episodes of dyspnea, lethargy, or neurologic and locomotion abnormalities. The lungs were most frequently involved followed by the vertebral column and abdominal organs...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Mun Keong Kok, James K Chambers, Siew Mei Ong, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
The diagnosis of cutaneous epithelial tumors (CETs) in dogs is based on predominant histological differentiation patterns. However, the expression of a broad panel of antigens has not been comprehensively examined with immunohistochemistry. The present study aims to establish a comprehensive expression profile and identify useful diagnostic markers for each CET type. Cytokeratin (CK), stem cell, and other associated markers were immunohistochemically examined in 110 canine CETs. Among these, CK16 was useful for differentiating between basal and squamous cell carcinomas...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Pompei Bolfa, Susyn J Kelly, Hannah C Wells, Katie H Sizeland, Erin M Scott, Nigel Kirby, Stephen Mudie, Anibal G Armien, Richard G Haverkamp, Patrick J Kelly
The authors used microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis (SAXS) to describe lesions macroscopically typical of tropical keratopathy ("Florida spots") from 6 cats on St Kitts. Microscopically, there were varying degrees of epithelial hyperplasia and thinning of the cornea (by 4% to 18%) due to loss of corneal stroma associated with dense accumulations of collagen in the superficial stroma. The collagen fibrils in lesions were wider and had more variable diameters (39...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Erica L Noland, Stefan M Keller, Matti Kiupel
Canine nonepitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (NECTCL) are poorly characterized. In humans, a number of distinct subtypes of NECTCL have been recognized, including subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL). Five dogs with subcutaneous T-cell lymphomas histologically similar to SPTCL in humans are herein described. The mean age was 8.5 years (5.5 to 12 years). No breed or sex predilection was identified in this small cohort. Two dogs presented with an acute onset of multiple skin masses and 3 dogs had solitary masses with subsequent development of multiple smaller masses within 0...
August 2, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
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