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International Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504037/plasma-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-a-possible-biomarker-for-differential-diagnosis-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#1
N D Josviak, M S Batistela, R K M Souza, N R Wegner, G F Bono, C D Sulzbach, D P Simão-Silva, M R Piovezan, R L R Souza, L Furtado-Alle
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme encoded by BCHE gene, responsible for catalyzing the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. K and -116A BCHE variants were associated with decrease in plasma BChE activity, and their influence has been investigated in diseases with a cholinergic deficit such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In order to check the influence of BCHE genetic variants on enzymatic activity, all patients and controls were genotyped for K and -116A variants. We found lower plasma BChE activity in DLB patients compared to elderly controls and to AD independent of the presence of K or -116A variants...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478699/management-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-neurology-clinic
#2
Arina Madan, Sudeshna Ray, Daniel Burdick, Pinky Agarwal
This clinical review aims to evaluate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and the current treatment options available for these symptoms in a neurology setting. The review also addresses when referral to urology is appropriate. A literature search was conducted using the keywords `LUTS`, `non-motor symptoms', `overactive bladder`, `Parkinson's disease` and `urinary symptoms` using the Medline/Pubmed search engine. Data collected ranged from 2000 to present with emphasis on recent publications...
May 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464695/mesenchymal-stem-cells-maintain-the-microenvironment-of-central-nervous-system-by-regulating-the-polarization-of-macrophages-microglia-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Chao Xu, Feng Fu, Xiaohong Li, Sai Zhang
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), which are regarded as promising candidates for cell replacement therapies, are able to regulate immune responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary immune response following the mechanical injury is the essential factor leading to the necrosis and apoptosis of neural cells during and after the cerebral edema has subsided and there is lack of efficient agent that can mitigate such neuroinflammation in the clinical application. By means of three molecular pathways (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6), and progesterone receptor (PR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR)), MSCs induce the activation of macrophages/microglia and drive them polarize into the M2 phenotypes, which inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes tissue repair and nerve regeneration...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463574/temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-post-silent-period-electromyographic-bursting-in-low-back-muscles-comparison-between-persons-with-and-without-low-back-pain
#4
Emma Burns, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun
Purpose/aim: Recently, a novel measure of cortical disinhibition was identified using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This measure, described as post silent period electromyographic (EMG) bursting, may inform on the corticomotor control of movement in health and disease, however it has not been investigated for muscles outside the hand or in musculoskeletal conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of 'EMG bursting' in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP)...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460588/neuromelanin-in-parkinsonian-disorders-an-update
#5
Antonio Martin-Bastida, Sara Pietracupa, Paola Piccini
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment that accumulates linearly with ageing in Substantia Nigra (SN) and Locus Coeruleus (LC). Dual protective and toxic role of NM has been hypothesized according to its intra or extraneuronal deposition. Melanised dopaminergic neurons in SN and LC seem to have special vulnerability to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Paramagnetic properties of NM due to its association to metals like iron induce T1 prolongation; hence measurement of SN-sensitive contrast could be a useful diagnostic biomarker in neurodegenerative disease like PD and other atypical parkinsonisms...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436759/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Zhongju Shi, Hengxing Zhou, Lu Lu, Xueying Li, Zheng Fu, Jun Liu, Yi Kang, Zhijian Wei, Bin Pan, Lu Liu, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves serious damage that can result in abnormal or absent motor and sensory functions and a disruption of autonomic function, and a series of pathological reactions occur after the injury. As a type of small non-coding RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been verified to inhibit gene expression via posttranscriptional regulation. This review mainly focuses on recent advances regarding the roles of miRNAs following SCI. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were adopted...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385058/postural-sway-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-and-concurrent-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#7
Linda D'Silva, Patricia M Kluding, Susan L Whitney, Hongying Dai, Marcio Santos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diabetes has been shown to affect the peripheral vestibular end organs and is associated with an increase in the frequency of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). People with diabetes have higher postural sway; however, the impact of symptomatic BPPV on postural sway in individuals with diabetes is unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine postural sway in people with type 2 diabetes who have symptomatic, untreated BPPV (BPPVDM)...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140735/risk-factors-affecting-prognosis-in-infantile-spasm
#8
Gulen Gul Mert, Mihriban Ozlem Herguner, Faruk Incecik, Sakir Altunbasak, Duygu Sahan, Ilker Unal
AIM: To assess risk factors that affect epilepsy prognosis and neurodevelopmental outcome and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with infantile spasm. METHODS: In this study, demographics, treatment modalities, etiologies, risk factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome and epilepsy prognosis were assessed retrospectively at the end of a minimum 24-months follow-up of 104 patients diagnosed with infantile spasm from May 2012 to October 2015. RESULTS: Neonatal seizure during neonatal period, abnormal head circumference, young age at the time of presentation and early gestational age, symptomatic etiology, abnormal initial examination and abnormal development test at the time of diagnosis, consanguinity, the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond and magnetic resonance imaging finding were found to be statistically significant for poor prognosis in terms of neurodevelopment (p < 0...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281852/the-patterns-of-eeg-changes-in-early-onset-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#9
Xuetao He, Yuhu Zhang, Jieling Chen, Chunge Xie, Rong Gan, Rong Yang, Limin Wang, Kun Nie, Lijuan Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of brain activity changes in early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients and its relationship with the severity of disease and motor deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed in a sample of 52 nondemented EOPD patients and 20 healthy controls with similar age. All patients underwent a battery to assess PD severity and motor deterioration. The EEG data were rated by visual and quantitative analyses with the grant total EEG (GTE) score and NicoletOne Software...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332424/neuroprotective-effect-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-on-patients-with-radiation-induced-brain-injury-a-clinical-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Xiaoni Zhang, Yi Li, Xiangpen Li, Xiaoming Rong, Yamei Tang, Ying Peng
PURPOSE: To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) on patients with radiation-induced brain injury, a hospital-based, clinical retrospective cohort study was conducted. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data was collected on patients diagnosed with radiation-induced brain injury from January 2009 to January 2015 in Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital. All patients enrolled have received cranial radiotherapy and were diagnosed with radiation-induced brain injury...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316267/efficacy-of-a-computer-based-cognitive-training-program-in-older-people-with-subjective-memory-complaints-a-randomized-study
#11
Angela J Pereira-Morales, Andrés F Cruz Salinas, Jairo Aponte Melo, Francisco Pereira Manrique
OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of computer-assisted cognitive training in healthy older adults with subjective memory complaints. METHODS: 40 older adults, mean age (standard Deviation) = 66.4 (5.6) with subjective memory complaints, were included in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to an Integrated Psychostimulation Program (IPP) (N = 17), a Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) (N = 12) or a control group (N = 11)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288541/risk-of-subsequent-cancer-among-pediatric-adult-and-elderly-patients-following-a-primary-diagnosis-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-population-based-study-of-the-seer-database
#12
Xuezhen Li, Yanbin Li, Yang Cao, Li Peiliang, Bo Liang, Jidian Sun, Enshan Feng
Purpose/aim of the study: Our objective was to determine the risk of a subsequent malignancy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with a primary diagnosis of GBM were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Patients were divided into 3 age groups: pediatric, ≤ 19 years of age; adult, 20-59 years; elderly, ≥ 60 years. Outcomes were overall survival and incidence of second cancer. RESULTS: A total of 24,348 patients with primary GBM were identified during the period from 2004-2013; 349 pediatric, 9,841 adults, and 14,518 elderly...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270030/mean-platelet-volume-platelet-count-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-90-day-outcome-in-large-artery-atherosclerosis-stroke-patients
#13
Weiwei Quan, Zhibo Chen, Xuezhi Yang, Jia Li, Xiang Li, Yiyun Weng, Youyu Li, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies reported a lower platelet count (PC) level and a higher mean platelet volume (MPV) level in severe ischemic stroke. We define MPV/PC as the platelet ratio (PR). This study investigates the relationship between PR and 90-day outcome of large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 338 LAA patients in two hospitals by looking up the electronic medical record (EMR). The 90-day functional outcome was divided into good and poor according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680606/monoclonal-antibody-therapy-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-current-and-future
#14
Jie Lin, Binbin Xue, Xiang Li, Junhui Xia
Monoclonal-antibody has been used for patients with autoimmune disorders for several years, and efficacy and safety were appreciated for these patients. Neuromyelitis optica specturm disorder (NMOSD) has been defined as an autoimmune demyelination disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with a course of relapse-remission. Treatment of prevention is important for patients with NMOSD because of the increased disability after several attacks. Multiple factors were involved in the pathogenesis of NMOSD. Currently, targeting specific factor was favored in the research into the treatment for NMOSD...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671515/processes-of-plasma-protein-n-homocysteinylation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
A Jamroz-Wiśniewska, J Bełtowski, H Bartosik-Psujek, G Wójcicka, K Rejdak
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) is a cyclic thioester of homocysteine (Hcy) contributing to the toxicity of this amino acid. HTL spontaneously reacts with protein lysine residues leading to altered properties of target proteins and induction of immune response. HTL is hydrolyzed to Hcy by plasma enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Although both Hcy and PON1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), protein modification by HTL in this disease has not been studied so far...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669631/th1-th17-cxcl16-and-homocysteine-elevated-after-intracranial-and-cervical-stent-implantation
#16
Yanyan Tang, Yunfei Wei, Ziming Ye, Chao Qin
The presence of Th1 and Th17 cells has been observed as major inducers in inflammation and immune responses associated stenting. However, there is rare data on the impact of Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine after cerebral stent implantation. Here, we performed the statistical analysis to first evaluate the variation of the Th17and Th1 cells and their related cytokines, CXCL16 and homocysteine in the peripheral blood of patients with cerebral stenting. The flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619486/a-novel-tyrosine-hydroxylase-variant-in-a-group-of-chinese-patients-with-dopa-responsive-dystonia
#17
Ya-Ping Yan, Bo Zhang, Yan-Fang Mao, Zhang-Yu Guo, Jun Tian, Guo-Hua Zhao, Jia-Li Pu, Wei Luo, Zhi-Yuan Ouyang, Bao-Rong Zhang
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) comprises a heterogeneous group of movement disorders. A limited number of studies of Chinese patients with DRD have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the clinical and genetic features of 12 Chinese DRD families. Point mutation analysis of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and sepiapterin reductase (SPR) genes was conducted by direct sequencing. In addition, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification targeting GCH1 and TH was performed in "mutation-free" patients...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619342/circular-rna-a-new-star-in-neurological-diseases
#18
Tao-Ran Li, Yan-Jie Jia, Qun Wang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Rui-Juan Lv
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are novel endogenous non-coding RNAs characterized by the presence of a covalent bond linking the 3' and 5' ends generated by backsplicing. In this review, we summarize a number of the latest theories regarding the biogenesis, properties and functions of circRNAs. Specifically, we focus on the advancing characteristics and functions of circRNAs in the brain and neurological diseases. CircRNAs exhibit the characteristics of species conservation, abundance and tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression in the brain...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609482/early-vs-late-cranioplasty-what-is-better
#19
Francesco Corallo, Maria Cristina De Cola, Viviana Lo Buono, Angela Marra, Rosaria De Luca, Antonia Trinchera, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
AIM OF THE STUDY: Cranioplasty is the surgical repair of skull defects, which commonly is performed after traumatic skull injuries due to tumor removal or decompressive craniectomy. Several studies reported improvement in cognitive functions following cranioplasty in patients with severe brain damage. The reasons why exist such clinical improvement is not completely understood, although the increase in cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics with the potential improvement of local and global cerebral hemodynamics, blood flow, and metabolism may play a pivotal role...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595159/polymorphisms-of-il-17-and-icam-1-and-their-expression-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#20
N K Kharwar, K N Prasad, K Singh, V K Paliwal, D R Modi
PURPOSE: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of peripheral nervous system. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) polymorphisms with higher expression levels have already been studied in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the possible role of IL-17 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms in GBS remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated IL-17 (His161Arg and Glu126Gly) and ICAM-1 (Gly241Arg) polymorphisms...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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