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International Journal of Neuroscience

Yongli He, Zhiyou Cai, Yangmei Chen
The S-100β levels are associated with a variety of acute disorders and other chronic diseases, such as head injury, stroke, metastatic melanoma, cardiac surgery, bone fractures, burns and contusions. The serum S-100β levels seem to increase with the volume of tissue damage. The higher serum S-100β levels have been observed after brain damage or stroke. A number of studies have evidenced the clinical value of S-100β in the diagnosis and prognosis of stroke while the S-100β marker is elevated in the peripheral blood during the acute phase of stroke...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Jolana Markovà, Ute Essner, Bülent Akmaz, Marcella Marinelli, Christiane Trompke, Arnd Lentschat, Carlos Vila Silván
Purpose/aim: To evaluate the efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]:cannabidiol [CBD] oromucosal spray (Sativex®) as add-on therapy to optimized standard antispasticity treatment in patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. METHODS: Sativex as Add-on therapy Vs. further optimized first-line ANTispastics (SAVANT) was a two-phase trial. In Phase A, eligible patients received add-on THC:CBD spray for 4 weeks to identify initial responders (≥ 20% improvement from baseline in spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale [NRS] score)...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
E Samokhina, Alexander Samokhin
Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease characterized by spontaneous episodes of abnormal, simultaneous firing of a neuronal population and disturbances of consciousness (so-called seizures) of unknown cause. Antiepileptic drugs are only symptomatic treatment, and there is a strong demand for the search of an alternative treatment of epilepsy. For this purpose, animal models of epilepsy are an important prerequisite. There are various animal models with chronic brain dysfunctions thought to reflect the processes underlying human epilepsy...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Chooza Moon, Kelsey E Melah, Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Lisa C Bratzke
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Individuals with heart failure (HF) have a high frequency of sleep problems. Patients with HF present with structural brain changes different from normal aging including reductions in brain volume, increases in white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and reduced cerebral blood flow. These structural changes in the brain may explain the pathophysiology of sleep and daytime problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether multimodal imaging data are related to self-reported sleep problems and daytime sleepiness in older adults with HF...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Carlos Henrique Xavier, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Elder Sales da Silva, Danielle Ianzer, Diego Basile Colugnati, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Marco Antonio Peliky Fontes
Many particularities concerning interhemispheric differences still need to be explored and unveiled. Functional and anatomical differential features found between left and right brain sides are best known as asymmetries and are consequence of the unilateral neuronal recruitment or predominance that is set to organize some function. The outflow from different neural pathways involved in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system may route through asymmetrically relayed efferences (ipsilateral/lateralized and/or contralateral)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Taner Arpaci
OBJECTIVE: Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus (APSS) is a developmental anatomic variation but may be confused with serious diseases of the skull base. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of APSS in pediatric patients with haemotologic diseases like sickle cell anemia (SCA), thalassemia and leukemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eight pediatric patients (43 girl, 65 boy; age range, 4-18 years; median age, 13 years) with haemotologic diseases who underwent at least one magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and neck between 2010-2017 in a single instution were included...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Mojtaba Rismanchi
OBJECTIVES: Functioning, but injured cerebral connections are hypothesized to inhibit cortical plasticity. Study of neural networks can validate this hypothesis, and provide further practical clues for clinical and surgical options to restore function in eloquent brain areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cortical lesions in eloquent areas were simulated by means of artificial neural networks. Next, functional restoration of these networks after lesional bypass was studied...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Doungporn Ruthirago, Parunyou Julayanont, Amputch Karukote, Mohamed Shehabeldin, Kenneth Nugent
Patients with epilepsy have a significantly higher risk of death than the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of sudden death among patients with epilepsy. Despite on-going research, there are still deficits in our knowledge about the mechanisms, genetic factors, and prevention of SUDEP. Current evidence suggests that cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory dysfunction, and brainstem arousal system dysfunction are the major mechanisms of SUDEP, and animal models support the role of neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and adenosine, in pathophysiology of SUDEP...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Siamak Sheikhi, Ehsan Saboory, Gholam Hosein Farjah
It is estimated that 109 bits/s information are processed in the human brain. The transmission of this huge amount of information requires all connections in the brain to be highly accurate and have order. The current study attempted to present a new aspect of order and proportion in the ultra-structure of the human brain and to calculate the degree of neural interdependence between the two hemispheres. In this model, intensity of interdependence of the brain to hemispheres is estimated to be equal to the mathematical proportion of number of neurons in cerebral cortex divided by 2 (number of hemispheres), divided by number of nerve fibers in the human corpus callosum...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Ophélie Pila, Christophe Duret, Jean-Michel Gracies, Gerard E Francisco, Nicolas Bayle, Émilie Hutin
PURPOSE: To assess functional status and robot-based kinematic measures four years after subacute robot-assisted rehabilitation in hemiparesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with stroke-induced hemiparesis participated in a ≥3-month upper limb combined program of robot-assisted and occupational therapy from two months post-stroke, and received community-based therapy after discharge. Four years later, nineteen (86%) participated in this long-term follow-up study...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Chhavi Sharma, Pooja Suhalka, Maheep Bhatnagar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study were: (1) To evaluate neuroprotective effect of Resveratrol and Curcumin on NADPH-d (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase) activity in neuronal cell in sub regions of mice brain (2) To evaluate the effects on antioxidant status, and (3) To evaluate the protective effects of phytochemicals on learning and memory following fluoride exposure. METHOD: Young Mice (one month old, B.W. 30±5mg) were provided to 120 ppm sodium fluoride dissolved in drinking water...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Esme Ekizoglu, Oguzhan Coban, Cagri Ulukan, Duygu Gezen Ak, Erdinç Dursun, Erdem Tuzun, Betul Baykan
IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by an inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, affecting multiple organs. This report describes a case who was diagnosed with IgG4-RD, having cerebral venous thrombosis and a subsequent acute ischemic stroke of undetermined cause. The 47-year-old woman presented with headache, visual disturbance and eyelid swelling and two years later she was admitted with acute attacks of mild left lower limb sensory-motor monoparesis. Indirect immunohistochemistry assay showed elevated level of IgG4, labeling neurons of the central nervous system, suggesting an immunological process possibly affecting vascular structures...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Qifeng Sun, Dechun Zhao, Shanshan Cheng, Xiaorong Hou, Xing Zhao, Yin Tian
OBJECTIVE: Local field potential (LFP) of a patient with Parkinson's disease often shows abnormal oscillation phenomenon. Extracting and studying this phenomenon and designing adaptive deep brain stimulation (DBS) control library have great significance in the treatment of disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper has designed a feature extraction method based on modified empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which extracts the abnormal oscillation signal in the time domain to increase the overall performance...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Morgana M Novaes, Fernanda Palhano-Fontes, Andre Peres, Kelley Mazzetto-Betti, Maristela Pelicioni, Kátia C Andrade, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Octavio Pontes-Neto, Draulio Araujo
BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy (MT) is becoming an alternative rehabilitation strategy for various conditions, including stroke. Although recent studies suggest the positive benefit of MT in chronic stroke motor recovery, little is known about its neural mechanisms. PURPOSE: To identify functional brain changes induced by a single MT intervention in ischemic stroke survivors, assessed by both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Mohd Aizuddin Mohd Lazaldin, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Nor Salmah Bakar, Puneet Agarwal, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
PURPOSE: Amyloid beta (Aβ) is known to contribute to the pathophysiology of retinal neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. Effects of intravitreal Aβ(1-42) on retinal and optic nerve morphology in animal models have widely been studied but not those of Aβ(1-40). Hence, we evaluated the time- and dose-related effects of intravitreal Aβ(1-40) on retinal and optic nerve morphology. Since oxidative stress and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with Aβ-induced neuronal damage, we also studied dose and time-related effects of Aβ(1-40) on retinal oxidative stress and BDNF levels...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Huan Liu, Youting Guo, Tongwang Yang, Zhicheng Fan, Minhao Huang, Shuqin Liang, Chunhong Liu
BACKGROUND: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most widely used phthalate esters. The application of DEHP has caused serious environmental pollution and posed a threat to human health. METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, DEHP group (500 mg/kg DEHP), low GABA (Gama-aminobutyric acid) group (500 mg/kg DEHP and 1 mg/kg GABA), medium GABA group (500 mg/kg DEHP and 2 mg/kg GABA) and high GABA group (500 mg/kg DEHP and 4 mg/kg GABA)...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Hala A Shaheen, Sayed S Sayed, Lamiaa I Daker, Hossam Eldin AbdelAziz, Mohamed A Taha
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that vitamin D influences the immunoregulation and subsequently affects the risk for conversion of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS). There is little information regarding the relationship between levels of vitamin D and CIS conversion to MS in Egyptian patients. OBJECTIVE: It is to study contribution of vitamin D deficiency to conversion of CIS to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) and correlation of vitamin D level to cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Valencia Fernandes, Dilip Sharma, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
AIM OF THE STUDY: Astrogliosis is a key contributor for many neurological disorders involving apoptosis, neuroinflammation and subsequent neuronal death. Silibinin, a polyphenol isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been shown to suppress the astrocyte activation in various neurodegenerative disorders and also exhibit a neuroprotective role in neuroinflammation-driven oxidative damage. The present study was designed with an aim to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Silibinin against LPS induced oxido-inflammatory cascade and astrocyte activation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Jingzhe Han, Ye Ji, Guomei Ma, Zhilei Kang
The persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is the second most common persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis. We present a rare case of an 82-year-old woman who diagnosed as acute cerebral infarction three times in both the anterior and posterior circulation territories with a right-sided PPHA and ipsilateral carotid artery dissection (CAD). Microembolus monitoring results suggested that microembolic caused by CAD associated with PPHA should be recognized as a possible cause of multiple infarctions in both the anterior and posterior circulation territories...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
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