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International Journal of Neuroscience

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October 26, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Vineeta Gupta, Nasreen Ghazi Ansari, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Sanjay Khattri
BACKGROUND: Various uses of metals in industries, including the domestic sphere, agriculture, medicine, and technology, have led to their wide distribution in the environment. These result in raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Because of their high degree of toxicity, Cd, Cr, and Pb are some of the priority metals that are of public health significance. The levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni were measured in Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 40 patients and 40 healthy controls, and stored at -80 °C until assayed...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Mingming Zhao, Caiyou Hu, Zhixin Wu, Yu Chen, Zhengming Li, Mingsheng Zhang
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a new exercise training regimen, i.e. coordination and manipulation therapy (CMT), on motor, balance, and cardiac functions in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided 36 PD patients into the CMT (n = 22) and control (n = 14) groups. The patients in the CMT group performed dry-land swimming (imitation of the breaststroke) and paraspinal muscle stretching for 30 min/workday for 1 year. The control subjects did not exercise regularly...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Jie Lin, Binbin Xue, Xiang Li, Junhui Xia
Monoclonal-antibody has been used for patients with autoimmune disorders for several years, and efficacy and safety were appreciated for these patients. Neuromyelitis optica specturm disorder (NMOSD) has been defined as an autoimmune demyelination disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with a course of relapse-remission. Treatment of prevention is important for patients with NMOSD because of the increased disability after several attacks. Multiple factors were involved in the pathogenesis of NMOSD. Currently, targeting specific factor was favored in the research into the treatment for NMOSD...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
A Jamroz-Wiśniewska, J Bełtowski, H Bartosik-Psujek, G Wójcicka, K Rejdak
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) is a cyclic thioester of homocysteine (Hcy) contributing to the toxicity of this amino acid. HTL spontaneously reacts with protein lysine residues leading to altered properties of target proteins and induction of immune response. HTL is hydrolyzed to Hcy by plasma enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Although both Hcy and PON1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), protein modification by HTL in this disease has not been studied so far...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Aneeqa Noor, Saadia Zahid
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is one of the key proteins involved in formation of neural soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes, which are responsible for the calcium-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitters - a major step in neurotransmission and the key to normal functioning of brain. Several studies have reported abnormalities in its expression and structure and highlighted it as an important player in pathology of various neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficient hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy and few others...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Kavelin Rumalla, Keerthi T Gondi, Adithi Y Reddy, Manoj K Mittal
PURPOSE: The goal of our study was to determine if patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are more susceptible to hospitalization for traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried (2004-2011) to identify cohorts of patients with PD (N = 1 047 656) and without PD (N = 115 95 173). The age range of the study population was 60-89 years. The incidence of TBI among patients with PD was compared to the incidence of TBI in patients without PD...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Xiaochuan Huo, Bin Jiang, Zhenghong Chen, Xiaojuan Ru, Haixin Sun, Dongling Sun, Di Li, Wenzhi Wang
OBJECTIVES: The present study analyzed the hospital charges for stroke patients in China and determined the factors associated with hospital costs. METHODS: Medical records of hospitalized patients with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke were collected from 121 hospitals in Beijing (2012). Distribution characteristics of hospital charges for different stroke types, hospital levels and types were studied. Factors influencing total hospital charges were analyzed...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Ya-Ping Yan, Bo Zhang, Yan-Fang Mao, Zhang-Yu Guo, Jun Tian, Guo-Hua Zhao, Jia-Li Pu, Wei Luo, Zhi-Yuan Ouyang, Bao-Rong Zhang
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) comprises a heterogeneous group of movement disorders. A limited number of studies of Chinese patients with DRD have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the clinical and genetic features of 12 Chinese DRD families. Point mutation analysis of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and sepiapterin reductase (SPR) genes was conducted by direct sequencing. In addition, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification targeting GCH1 and TH was performed in "mutation-free" patients...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Tao-Ran Li, Yan-Jie Jia, Qun Wang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Rui-Juan Lv
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are novel endogenous non-coding RNAs characterized by the presence of a covalent bond linking the 3' and 5' ends generated by backsplicing. In this review, we summarize a number of the latest theories regarding the biogenesis, properties and functions of circRNAs. Specifically, we focus on the advancing characteristics and functions of circRNAs in the brain and neurological diseases. CircRNAs exhibit the characteristics of species conservation, abundance and tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression in the brain...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Anna Lis-Święty, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło, Hubert Arasiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Localized scleroderma (LoS) of the face and head is often associated with neurologic manifestations and/or imaging abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS). CASE SERIES: We present an analysis of 20 cases of LoS affecting the face and head. The CNS symptoms and/or abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in 12 patients (60%). In addition to the mild and unspecific disorders (e...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Liya Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Jihong Tang, Yan Li
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the recurrence rate after first spontaneous epileptic seizure in pediatric patients, and determine the related risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 190 infants (aged between 1 month and 3 years) admitted after first spontaneous epileptic seizure to Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital between April 2009 and April 2011 were retrospectively analyzed; patients were followed-up until April 2014. The recurrence rate and risk factors of recurrence were analyzed based on central nervous system imaging data (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental quotient assessment...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Yanyan Tang, Yunfei Wei, Ziming Ye, Chao Qin
The presence of Th1 and Th17 cells have been observed as major inducers in inflammation and immune responses associated stenting. However, there is rare data on the impact of Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine after cerebral stent implantation. Here, we performed the statistical analysis to firstly evaluate the variation of the Th17, Th1 cells and their related cytokines, CXCL16 and homocysteine in the peripheral blood of patients with cerebral stenting. The flow cytometry were used to detect the proportion of Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Jaime Masjuan, Alicia DeFelipe
Patients with atrial fibrillation and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack exhibit a very high risk of recurrence. Secondary prevention with oral anticoagulants is mandatory. Overall, clinical guidelines recommend the use of target-specific oral anticoagulants over vitamin K antagonists for secondary prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, many patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke are not receiving the appropriate antithrombotic treatment, perhaps due to the perceived risks of anticoagulation including the risk of hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic stroke...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Fen Yang, Wenqian Shi, Jin Shi, Yingqian Zhang, Yanwei Yin, Huiping Shi, DaWei Chen
PURPOSE/AIM OF THE STUDY: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an important marker for assessing cerebrovascular disease. This study assessed the CVR by perfusion computed tomography (CT) and CO2 inhalation tests in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with unilateral MCA stenosis disease diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of stenosis: severe and moderate...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Francesco Corallo, Maria Cristina De Cola, Viviana Lo Buono, Angela Marra, Rosaria De Luca, Antonia Trinchera, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
AIM OF THE STUDY: Cranioplasty is the surgical repair of skull defects, which commonly is performed after traumatic skull injuries due to tumor removal or decompressive craniectomy. Several studies reported improvement in cognitive functions following cranioplasty in patients with severe brain damage. The reasons why exist such clinical improvement is not completely understood, although the increase in cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics with the potential improvement of local and global cerebral hemodynamics, blood flow and metabolism may play a pivotal role...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
N K Kharwar, K N Prasad, K Singh, V K Paliwal, D R Modi
PURPOSE: Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of peripheral nervous system (PNS). Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) polymorphisms with higher expression levels have already been studied in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the possible role of IL-17 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms in GBS remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated IL-17 (His161Arg, Glu126Gly) and ICAM-1 (Gly241Arg) polymorphisms...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Jinbei Yu, Nan Luo, Zan Wang, Weihong Lin
PURPOSE: To investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment and the efficacy and adverse effects of phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China. METHODS: A total of 2192 patients diagnosed with convulsive epilepsy were recruited from seven different rural regions in Jilin Province, China to investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment, and 1379 of them were enrolled in a standard phenobarbital therapy trial. Patients were selected according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and medical records for all patients were collected and analyzed before the standard treatment was started...
September 4, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Evangelos Anagnostou, Michael Vikelis, Elias Tzavellas, Apostolia Ghika, Ioanna Kouzi, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Evangelia Kararizou
OBJECTIVES: Although photophobia is a well-known symptom in various disorders, it has rarely been studied explicitly and its definition in a clinical setting can be somewhat elusive. Here, we assessed photophobia with a common psychometric tool in different conditions, in which light intolerance is considered part of the syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken in patients with migraine (MH), cluster headache (CH), tension-type headache (TH), essential blepharospasm (BS) and major depression (MD)...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Fangfang Xie, Wu Xing, Xiaoyi Wang, Weihua Liao, Wei Shi
: A disturbance in the level of consciousness is a classical clinical sign of several seizure types. Recent studies have shown that altered states of consciousness in seizures are associated with structural and functional changes of several brain regions. Prominent among these are the thalamus, the brain stem, and the default mode network (DMN), which is part of the consciousness system. Our study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate these brain regions in patients with three different types of epilepsies that are associated with altered consciousness: complex partial seizures (CPS),primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) or secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCS)...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
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