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International Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625092/factors-affecting-outcome-in-ocular-myasthenia-gravis
#1
Marco Mazzoli, Alessandra Ariatti, Franco Valzania, Shaniko Kaleci, Manuela Tondelli, Paolo F Nichelli, Giuliana Galassi
AIM OF THE STUDY: 50% to 60% of patients with ocular Myasthenia Gravis (OMG) progress to generalized disease (GMG) within 2 years.Aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 and January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR-Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562144/the-behavioral-deficits-and-cognitive-impairment-are-correlated-with-decreased-igf-ii-and-erk-in-depressed-mice-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#2
Ya Li, Yajing Chen, Xiaoxiao Gao, Zhongqiu Zhang
AIM: To investigate the behavioral deficits, cognitive impairment and possible mechanisms induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in mice of different ages. METHODS: The behaviors and cognition were tested using the open field test, tail suspension test and the Morris water maze. The changes in the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphorylation (p-ERK) in the hippocampus (HP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562156/neuritin-attenuates-early-brain-injury-in-rats-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Hang Zhang, Xuejun He, Yezhong Wang, Xiaokun Sun, Licang Zhu, Chao Lei, Jiangwen Yin, Xiaotian Li, Fandi Hou, Wengao He, Dong Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Early brain injury (EBI) is central to the pathological progress of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we determined if neuritin protects the brain against EBI in rats and discussed the role of apoptosis pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress in this neuroprotective route. METHODS: A total of 96 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, sham, SAH and SAH + neuritin groups. The rat SAH model was induced by injection 0.3 mL of nonheparinized arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556688/severe-and-rapidly-progressive-lafora-disease-associated-with-nhlrc1-mutation-a-case-report
#4
Sara Casciato, Stefano Gambardella, Addolorata Mascia, Pier Paolo Quarato, Alfredo D'Aniello, Yana Ackurina, Veronica Albano, Francesco Fornai, Simona Scala, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
Lafora disease (LD), also known as progressive myoclonic epilepsy-2 (EPM2), is a rare, fatal autosomal recessive disorder typically starting during adolescence in otherwise neurologically normal individuals. It is clinically characterized by insidious of progressive neurological features including seizures, action myoclonus, visual hallucination, ataxia and dementia. Mutations in the laforin (EPM2A) gene on chromosome 6q24 or in the malin gene (NHLRC1) on chromosome 6p22 are responsible of LD phenotype. Diagnostic workup includes genetic analysis as well as axillary skin biopsy with evidence of typical periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive polyglucosan inclusion bodies (Lafora bodies) in the apocrine glands and/or in the eccrine duct...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581880/does-familial-mediterranean-fever-affect-cognitive-function-in-children-electrophysiological-preliminary-study
#5
Gonca Keskindemirci, Gökçer Eskikurt, Nuray Aktay Ayaz, Mustafa Çakan, Numan Ermutlu, Ümmühan İşoğlu Alkaç
OBJECTIVES: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a periodic autoinflammatory disease with subclinical inflammation occurring between attacks. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the cognitive function of children diagnosed with FMF that were under colchicine therapy and compare them with healthy controls through electrophysiologically event-related potentials (ERPs) study. METHODS: Twelve children with FMF and 12 healthy controls were included in the study...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535700/interactions-between-four-gene-polymorphisms-and-their-association-with-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-in-a-chinese-han-population
#6
Zhanyun Lv, Wenjing Tian, Qianqian Ma, Yanlei Hao, Yan Yang
The four previously reported Parkinson's disease (PD)-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - rs1775143, rs823114, rs2071746 and rs62063857 - have rarely been studied in Chinese Han populations. To examine the association between these SNPs and PD, we conducted a case-control study of 158 patients with PD and 210 controls. All participants were Chinese Han from Northern China. With covariate adjustment for clinical characteristics, logistic regression analysis revealed no differences in genotype or allele frequencies for the four SNPs...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478699/management-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-neurology-clinic
#7
Arina Madan, Sudeshna Ray, Daniel Burdick, Pinky Agarwal
This clinical review aims to evaluate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and the current treatment options available for these symptoms in a neurology setting. The review also addresses when referral to urology is appropriate. A literature search was conducted using the keywords 'LUTS', 'non-motor symptoms', 'overactive bladder', 'Parkinson's disease' and 'urinary symptoms' using the Medline/Pubmed search engine. Data collected ranged from 2000 to present with emphasis on recent publications...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504037/plasma-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-a-possible-biomarker-for-differential-diagnosis-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#8
N D Josviak, M S Batistela, R K M Souza, N R Wegner, G F Bono, C D Sulzbach, D P Simão-Silva, M R Piovezan, R L R Souza, L Furtado-Alle
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme encoded by BCHE gene, responsible for secondary hydrolysis of the acetylcholine. K and -116A BCHE variants were associated with decrease in plasma BChE activity, and their influence has been investigated in diseases with a cholinergic deficit such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In order to check the influence of BCHE genetic variants on enzymatic activity, all patients and controls were genotyped for K and -116A variants. We found lower plasma BChE activity in DLB patients compared to elderly controls and to AD independent of the presence of K or -116A variants...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464695/mesenchymal-stem-cells-maintain-the-microenvironment-of-central-nervous-system-by-regulating-the-polarization-of-macrophages-microglia-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Chao Xu, Feng Fu, Xiaohong Li, Sai Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are regarded as promising candidates for cell replacement therapies, are able to regulate immune responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary immune response following the mechanical injury is the essential factor leading to the necrosis and apoptosis of neural cells during and after the cerebral edema has subsided and there is lack of efficient agent that can mitigate such neuroinflammation in the clinical application. By means of three molecular pathways (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor-necrosis-factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6), and progesterone receptor (PR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR)), MSCs induce the activation of macrophages/microglia and drive them polarize into the M2 phenotypes, which inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes tissue repair and nerve regeneration...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463574/temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-post-silent-period-electromyographic-bursting-in-low-back-muscles-comparison-between-persons-with-and-without-low-back-pain
#10
Emma Burns, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun
Purpose/aim: Recently, a novel measure of cortical disinhibition was identified using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This measure, described as post-silent period electromyographic (EMG) bursting, may inform on the corticomotor control of movement in health and disease; however, it has not been investigated for muscles outside the hand or in musculoskeletal conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of "EMG bursting" in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP)...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460588/neuromelanin-in-parkinsonian-disorders-an-update
#11
Antonio Martin-Bastida, Sara Pietracupa, Paola Piccini
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment that accumulates linearly with aging in substantia nigra (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC). The dual protective and toxic role of NM has been hypothesized according to its intraneuronal or extraneuronal deposition. The melanized dopaminergic neurons in SN and LC seem to have special vulnerability to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). The paramagnetic properties of NM due to its association to metals like iron induce T1 prolongation; hence the measurement of SN-sensitive contrast could be a useful diagnostic biomarker in neurodegenerative disease like PD and other atypical parkinsonisms...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436759/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Zhongju Shi, Hengxing Zhou, Lu Lu, Xueying Li, Zheng Fu, Jun Liu, Yi Kang, Zhijian Wei, Bin Pan, Lu Liu, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves serious damage that can result in abnormal or absent motor and sensory functions and a disruption of autonomic function, and a series of pathological reactions occur after the injury. As a type of small non-coding RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been verified to inhibit gene expression via post-transcriptional regulation. This review mainly focuses on recent advances regarding the roles of miRNAs following SCI. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385058/postural-sway-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-and-concurrent-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#13
Linda J D'Silva, Patricia M Kluding, Susan L Whitney, Hongying Dai, Marcio Santos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: diabetes has been shown to affect the peripheral vestibular end organs and is associated with an increase in the frequency of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). People with diabetes have higher postural sway; however, the impact of symptomatic BPPV on postural sway in individuals with diabetes is unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine postural sway in people with type 2 diabetes who have symptomatic, untreated BPPV (BPPVDM)...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140735/risk-factors-affecting-prognosis-in-infantile-spasm
#14
Gulen Gul Mert, Mihriban Ozlem Herguner, Faruk Incecik, Sakir Altunbasak, Duygu Sahan, Ilker Unal
AIM: To assess risk factors that affect epilepsy prognosis and neurodevelopmental outcome and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with infantile spasm. METHODS: In this study, demographics, treatment modalities, etiologies, risk factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome and epilepsy prognosis were assessed retrospectively at the end of a minimum 24-months follow-up of 104 patients diagnosed with infantile spasm from May 2012 to October 2015. RESULTS: Neonatal seizure during neonatal period, abnormal head circumference, young age at the time of presentation and early gestational age, symptomatic etiology, abnormal initial examination and abnormal development test at the time of diagnosis, consanguinity, the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond and magnetic resonance imaging finding were found to be statistically significant for poor prognosis in terms of neurodevelopment (p < 0...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281852/the-patterns-of-eeg-changes-in-early-onset-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#15
Xuetao He, Yuhu Zhang, Jieling Chen, Chunge Xie, Rong Gan, Rong Yang, Limin Wang, Kun Nie, Lijuan Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of brain activity changes in early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients and its relationship with the severity of disease and motor deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed in a sample of 52 nondemented EOPD patients and 20 healthy controls with similar age. All patients underwent a battery to assess PD severity and motor deterioration. The EEG data were rated by visual and quantitative analyses with the grant total EEG (GTE) score and NicoletOne Software...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680606/monoclonal-antibody-therapy-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-current-and-future
#16
Jie Lin, Binbin Xue, Xiang Li, Junhui Xia
Monoclonal-antibody has been used for patients with autoimmune disorders for several years, and efficacy and safety were appreciated for these patients. Neuromyelitis optica specturm disorder (NMOSD) has been defined as an autoimmune demyelination disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with a course of relapse-remission. Treatment of prevention is important for patients with NMOSD because of the increased disability after several attacks. Multiple factors were involved in the pathogenesis of NMOSD. Currently, targeting specific factor was favored in the research into the treatment for NMOSD...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671515/processes-of-plasma-protein-n-homocysteinylation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
A Jamroz-Wiśniewska, J Bełtowski, H Bartosik-Psujek, G Wójcicka, K Rejdak
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) is a cyclic thioester of homocysteine (Hcy) contributing to the toxicity of this amino acid. HTL spontaneously reacts with protein lysine residues leading to altered properties of target proteins and induction of immune response. HTL is hydrolyzed to Hcy by plasma enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Although both Hcy and PON1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), protein modification by HTL in this disease has not been studied so far...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669631/th1-th17-cxcl16-and-homocysteine-elevated-after-intracranial-and-cervical-stent-implantation
#18
Yanyan Tang, Yunfei Wei, Ziming Ye, Chao Qin
The presence of Th1 and Th17 cells has been observed as major inducers in inflammation and immune responses associated stenting. However, there is rare data on the impact of Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine after cerebral stent implantation. Here, we performed the statistical analysis to first evaluate the variation of the Th17and Th1 cells and their related cytokines, CXCL16 and homocysteine in the peripheral blood of patients with cerebral stenting. The flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619486/a-novel-tyrosine-hydroxylase-variant-in-a-group-of-chinese-patients-with-dopa-responsive-dystonia
#19
Ya-Ping Yan, Bo Zhang, Yan-Fang Mao, Zhang-Yu Guo, Jun Tian, Guo-Hua Zhao, Jia-Li Pu, Wei Luo, Zhi-Yuan Ouyang, Bao-Rong Zhang
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) comprises a heterogeneous group of movement disorders. A limited number of studies of Chinese patients with DRD have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the clinical and genetic features of 12 Chinese DRD families. Point mutation analysis of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and sepiapterin reductase (SPR) genes was conducted by direct sequencing. In addition, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification targeting GCH1 and TH was performed in "mutation-free" patients...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619342/circular-rna-a-new-star-in-neurological-diseases
#20
Tao-Ran Li, Yan-Jie Jia, Qun Wang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Rui-Juan Lv
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are novel endogenous non-coding RNAs characterized by the presence of a covalent bond linking the 3' and 5' ends generated by backsplicing. In this review, we summarize a number of the latest theories regarding the biogenesis, properties and functions of circRNAs. Specifically, we focus on the advancing characteristics and functions of circRNAs in the brain and neurological diseases. CircRNAs exhibit the characteristics of species conservation, abundance and tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression in the brain...
August 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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