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Journal of Physiology

Carly M Knuth, Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Paula M Miotto, Anders Gudiksen, David C Wright
KEY POINTS: Mammals defend against cold-induced reductions in body temperature through both shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The activation of non-shivering thermogenesis is primarily driven by uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue and to a lesser degree by the browning of white adipose tissue. Endurance exercise has also been shown to increase markers of white adipose tissue browning. This study aimed to determine whether prior exercise training would alter the response to a cold challenge and if this would be associated with differences in indices of non-shivering thermogenesis...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Mark Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Elisa Karen Silva Ramos, Paola Visnardi Fassina, Michelle Andrade Lemos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Alison J Forhead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Heather L Petrick, Kaitlyn M J H Dennis, Paula M Miotto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Hojun Lee, Kijeong Kim, Boa Kim, Junchul Shin, Sudarsan Rajan, Jingwei Wu, Xiongwen Chen, Michael D Brown, Sukho Lee, Joon-Young Park
KEY POINTS: Referring to the muscle memory theory, previously trained muscles acquire strength and volume much faster than naive muscles. Using extreme experimental models such as synergist ablation or steroid administration, previous studies have demonstrated that the number of nuclei increases when a muscle becomes enlarged, which serves as a cellular muscle memory mechanism for the muscle. In the present study, we found that, when rats were subjected to physiologically relevant resistance training, the number of myonuclei increased and was retained during a long-term detraining period...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
D Joe Millward, Ken Smith
The nutritional regulation of protein and amino acid balance in human skeletal muscle carried out by the authors with Mike Rennie is reviewed in the context of a simple physiological model for the regulation of the maintenance and growth of skeletal muscle, the "Bag Theory." Beginning in London in the late 1970s the work has involved the use of stable isotopes to probe muscle protein synthesis and breakdown with two basic experimental models, primed-dose continuous tracer infusions combined with muscle biopsies and arterio-venous (A-V) studies across a limb, most often the leg, allowing both protein synthesis and breakdown as well as net balance to be measured...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Xavier Alexander Lee, Neal Ingraham Callaghan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Simranjit K Sidhu, Joshua C Weavil, Taylor S Thurston, Dorothea Rosenberger, Jacob E Jessop, Eivind Wang, Russell S Richardson, Chris J McNeil, Markus Amann
We investigated the influence of group III/IV muscle afferents in attenuating corticospinal excitability during cycling exercise and focused on GABAB neuron-mediated inhibition as a potential underlying mechanism. Both under control-conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl (FENT) impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents, subjects (n = 11) cycled at a comparable vastus-lateralis electromyography signal (EMG) (∼0.26 mV) before (PRE; 100 W) and immediately after (POST; 90 ± 2 W) fatiguing constant-load cycling exercise (80% Wpeak; 221 ± 10 W; ∼8 min)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kimberly A Smith, Paul T Schumacker
When lung cells experience hypoxia, the functional response, termed hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, activates a multitude of pathways with the goal of optimizing gas exchange. While previously controversial, overwhelming evidence now suggests that increased reactive oxygen species - produced at complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and released into the intermembrane space - is the cellular oxygen signal responsible for triggering hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate many downstream targets which ultimately lead to increased intracellular ionized calcium concentration and contraction of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Gerald Grandl, Leon Straub, Carla Rudigier, Myrtha Arnold, Stephan Wueest, Daniel Konrad, Christian Wolfrum
KEY POINTS: A ketogenic diet is known to lead to weight loss and is considered metabolically healthy; however there are conflicting reports on its effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity. KD fed animals appear metabolically healthy in the fasted state after 3 days of dietary challenge, whereas obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) fed animals show elevated insulin levels. A glucose challenge reveals that both KD and HFD fed animals are glucose intolerant. Glucose intolerance correlates with increased lipid oxidation and lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER); however, all animals respond to glucose injection with an increase in RER...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Shinichiro Kume, Takushi Shimomura, Michihiro Tateyama, Yoshihiro Kubo
KEY POINTS: In the hERG channel, both the EAG domain in the N-terminal and the CNBH domain in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region are known to contribute to the characteristic slow deactivation. Mutations of Phe860 in the CNBH domain, reported to fill the cyclic nucleotide (CN) binding pocket, accelerate the deactivation and decrease the FRET efficiencies between the EAG and CNBH domains. An electrostatic interaction between Arg696 and Asp727 in the C-linker domain, critical for HCN and CNG channels, is not formed in the hERG channel...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Cédric Lenoir, Maxime Algoet, André Mouraux
KEY POINTS: Deep continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the right operculo-insular cortex delivered with a double cone coil selectively impairs the ability to perceive thermonociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fiber thermonociceptors without concomitantly affecting the ability to perceive innocuous warm, cold or vibrotactile sensations. Unlike deep cTBS, superficial cTBS of the right operculum delivered with a figure-of-eight coil does not affect the ability to perceive thermonociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fiber thermonociceptors...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Hannah G Caldwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kerry S McDonald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Rasmus Kordt Christensen, Rodolfo Delgado-Lezama, Raúl E Russo, Barbara Lykke Lind, Emanuel Loeza Alcocer, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Gabriela Fabbiani, Nicole Schmitt, Martin Lauritzen, Anders Victor Petersen, Eva Meier Carlsen, Jean-François Perrier
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: GABA is an essential molecule for sensory information processing. It is usually assumed to be released by neurons. Here we show that in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, astrocytes respond to glutamate by releasing GABA. Our findings suggest a novel role for astrocytes in somatosensory information processing. ABSTRACT: Astrocytes participate in neuronal signalling by releasing gliotransmitters in response to neurotransmitters. We investigated if astrocytes from the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of adult red-eared turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) release GABA in response to glutamatergic receptor activation...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Skyler Jackman, Henrique von Gersdorff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Calvin Wu, Susan E Shore
In the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first central site for coding sound location, numerous multisensory projections and their modulatory effects have been reported. However, multisensory influences on sound location processing in the CN remain unknown. The principal output neurons of the dorsal CN, fusiform cells, encode spatial information through frequency-selective responses to directional-dependent spectral features. Here, single-unit recordings from the guinea pig CN revealed transient alterations by somatosensory and vestibular stimulation in fusiform-cell spatial coding...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Stella Koutsikou, Robert Merrison-Hort, Edgar Buhl, Andrea Ferrario, Wen-Chang Li, Roman Borisyuk, Stephen R Soffe, Alan Roberts
Many motor responses to sensory input, like locomotion or eye movements, are much slower than reflexes. Can simpler animals provide fundamental answers about the cellular mechanisms for motor decisions? Can we observe the 'accumulation' of excitation to threshold proposed to underlie decision making elsewhere? We explore how somatosensory touch stimulation leads to the decision to swim in hatchling Xenopus tadpoles. Delays measured to swimming in behaving and immobilized tadpoles are long and variable. Activity in their extensively studied sensory and sensory pathway neurons is too short-lived to explain these response delays...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kara Goss
Development of the pulmonary circulation is a critical component of fetal lung development, and continues throughout infancy and childhood, marking an extended window of susceptibility to vascular maldevelopment and maladaptation. Perinatal vascular insults may result in abnormal vascular structure or function, including decreased angiogenic signaling and vascular endowment, impaired vasoreactivity through increased pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction and remodeling, or enhanced genetic susceptibility to pulmonary vascular disease through epigenetic modifications or germline mutations...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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