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Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#1
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422293/an-autocrine-atp-release-mechanism-regulates-basal-ciliary-activity-in-airway-epithelium
#2
Karla Droguett, Mariana Rios, Daniela V Carreño, Camilo Navarrete, Christian Fuentes, Manuel Villalón, Nelson P Barrera
Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, are locally released by the airway epithelium and stimulate ciliary activity in a [Ca(2+) ]i dependent manner after mechanical stimulation of ciliated cells. However, it is unclear if the released ATP is involved in regulating basal ciliary activity and mediating changes in ciliary activity in response to chemical stimulation. In this study we evaluated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ciliary beating forces in primary cultures from mouse tracheal epithelium, using videomicroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421606/role-of-mucosa-in-generating-spontaneous-activity-in-the-guinea-pig-seminal-vesicle
#3
Mitsue Takeya, Hikaru Hashitani, Tokumasa Hayashi, Ryuhei Higashi, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Makoto Takano
The role of the mucosa in generating the spontaneous activity of guinea-pig seminal vesicle (SV) was explored. Changes in contractility, membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics of SV smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were recorded using isometric tension recording, intracellular microelectrode recording and epi-fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, respectively. Mucosa-intact but not mucosa-denuded SV preparations generated TTX (1 μm)-resistant spontaneous phasic contractions that were abolished by nifedipine (3 μm)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418114/hearing-at-speech-frequencies-is-different-than-we-thought-commentary-on-recio-spinoso-a-oghalai-j-s-2017-sound-induced-vibrations-within-the-guinea-pig-cochlear-apex-j-physiol-in-press
#4
John J Guinan
The mechanics of hearing is understood better at high frequencies than at low frequencies (f < 4 kHz), in part because many experimental animals don't hear well at low frequencies (e.g. mice). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418100/a-surprisingly-big-role-for-big-k-bk-channels-in-retinal-horizontal-cells
#5
Wallace B Thoreson
Horizontal cells are lateral inhibitory neurons in the outer part of the retina that receive excitatory synaptic inputs from rod and cone photoreceptors and, in turn, make reciprocal inhibitory contacts back onto photoreceptor synapses This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418073/evolved-changes-in-the-intracellular-distribution-and-physiology-of-muscle-mitochondria-in-high-altitude-native-deer-mice
#6
Sajeni Mahalingam, Grant B McClelland, Graham R Scott
High-altitude natives that have evolved to live in hypoxic environments provide a compelling system to understand how animals can overcome impairments in oxygen availability. We examined whether these include changes in mitochondrial physiology or intracellular distribution that contribute to hypoxia resistance in high-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Mice from populations native to high- and low-altitudes were born and raised in captivity, and as adults were acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 4,300 m elevation)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409829/altitude-exposure-and-increased-heart-rate-the-role-of-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system
#7
Julia Attias, Julie Bieles, Philip Carvil, Charles Laing, Fiona Lewis, Oihane Jaka, Katie O'Brien, Prashant Ruchaya
Elevated heart rate (HR) has been demonstrated in response to acute hypoxia exposure, which is reportedly due to sympathetic nervous system activation (SNS) and concurrent withdrawal of parasympathetic nervous system activity (PSNS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409841/intracranial-pressure-in-outer-space-preparing-for-the-mission-to-mars
#8
Michael M Tymko, Lindsey M Boulet, Joseph Donnelly
The constant force of gravity is an often overlooked, yet profound, biophysical stress on the human body. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402052/vasopressin-casts-light-on-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#9
Takahiro Tsuji, Andrew J Allchorne, Meng Zhang, Chiharu Tsuji, Vicky A Tobin, Rafael Pineda, Androniki Raftogianni, Javier E Stern, Valery Grinevich, Gareth Leng, Mike Ludwig
In all animals, the transition between night and day engages a host of physiological and behavioural rhythms. These rhythms depend not on the rods and cones of the retina, but on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that detect the ambient light level in the environment. These project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus to entrain circadian rhythms that are generated within the SCN. The neuropeptide vasopressin has an important role in this entrainment. Many SCN neurons express vasopressin, and it has been assumed that the role of vasopressin in the SCN reflects the activity of these cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390060/chronic-heat-exposure-for-health-and-exercise-performance-cardiovascular-research-heats-up
#10
Kyle M A Thompson, Alexandra M Coates, Anthony V Incognito, Alanna K Whinton
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a method used to measure endothelial-dependent vasodilation, quantified by the change in conduit artery luminal diameter during post-occlusive hyperemia This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387936/the-plasticity-of-descending-controls-in-pain-translational-probing
#11
Kirsty Bannister, A H Dickenson
Descending controls, comprising pathways that originate in midbrain and brainstem regions and project onto the spinal cord, have long been recognized as key links in the multiple neural networks that interact to produce the overall pain experience. There is clear evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that both peripheral and central sensitisation play important roles in determining the level of pain perceived. Much emphasis has been put on spinal cord mechanisms in central excitability, but it now becoming clear that spinal hyperexcitability can be regulated by descending pathways from the brain that originate from predominantly noradrenergic and serotonergic systems...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387457/dampened-activity-of-ryanodine-receptor-channels-in-mutant-skeletal-muscle-lacking-tric-a
#12
Sam El-Ajouz, Elisa Venturi, Katja Witschas, Matthew Beech, Abigail D Wilson, Chris Lindsay, David Eberhardt, Fiona O'Brien, Tsunaki Iida, Miyuki Nishi, Hiroshi Takeshima, Rebecca Sitsapesan
TRIC-A is a major component of the nuclear and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is localised closely with RyR channels in the SR terminal cisternae. The skeletal muscle of Tric-a KO mice is characterised by Ca(2+) overloaded and swollen SR and by changes in the properties of SR Ca(2+) release. We therefore investigated if RyR1 gating behaviour is modified in the SR from Tric-a KO mice by incorporating native RyR1 into planar phospholipid bilayers under voltage-clamp conditions...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386941/how-do-electrical-synapses-regulate-their-strength
#13
Dominique Debanne, Michaël Russier
Neuronal communication in the central nervous system is ensured by synapses through which neuronal events can be transmitted from one cell to the next. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383826/ptdins-4-5-p2-pip2-modulates-afterhyperpolarizations-in-oxytocin-neurons-of-the-supraoptic-nucleus
#14
Matthew K Kirchner, Robert C Foehring, Lie Wang, Giri Kumar Chandaka, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Oxytocin- (OT) and vasopressin- (VP) secreting magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) display calcium-dependent afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following a train of action potentials that are critical to shaping the firing patterns of these cells. Previous work demonstrated that the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) enabled the slow AHP component (sAHP) in cortical pyramidal neurons. We investigated whether this phenomenon occurred in OT and VP neurons of the SON. Using whole cell recordings in coronal hypothalamic slices from adult female rats, we demonstrated that inhibition of PIP2 synthesis with wortmannin robustly blocked both the ImAHP and IsAHP of OT, but not VP neurons with high affinity...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382742/mechanical-tuning-and-amplification-within-the-apex-of-the-guinea-pig-cochlea
#15
Alberto Recio-Spinoso, John S Oghalai
The popular notion of mammalian cochlear function is that auditory nerves are tuned to respond best to different sound frequencies because basilar membrane vibration is mechanically tuned to different frequencies along its length. However, this concept has only been demonstrated in regions of the cochlea tuned to frequencies >7 kHz, not in regions sensitive to lower frequencies where human speech is encoded. Here, we overcame historical technical limitations and non-invasively measured sound-induced vibrations at four locations distributed over the apical two turns of the guinea pig cochlea...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382659/increased-firing-of-lateral-habenula-neurons-mediates-ethanol-aversion-potential-implications-for-substance-use-disorders
#16
Gabor Egervari, Tanni Rahman
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by craving, loss of control over intake and continued use despite negative consequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382681/a-western-style-obesogenic-diet-alters-maternal-metabolic-physiology-with-consequences-for-fetal-nutrient-acquisition-in-mice
#17
Barbara Musial, Owen R Vaughan, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Peter Voshol, Susan E Ozanne, Abigail L Fowden, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
KEY POINTS: In the Western world, obesogenic diets containing high fat and high sugar (HFHS) are commonly consumed during pregnancy, although their effects on the metabolism of the mother, in relation to feto-placental glucose utilization and growth, are unknown. In the present study, the consumption of an obesogenic HFHS diet compromised maternal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in late pregnancy in association with dysregulated lipid and glucose handling by the dam. These maternal metabolic changes induced by HFHS feeding were related to altered feto-placental glucose metabolism and growth...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378516/how-do-horizontal-cells-talk-to-cone-photoreceptors-different-levels-of-complexity-at-the-cone-horizontal-cell-synapse
#18
Camille A Chapot, Thomas Euler, Timm Schubert
The first synapse of the retina plays a fundamental role in the visual system. Due to its importance, it is critical that it encodes information from the outside world with the greatest accuracy and precision possible. Cone photoreceptor axon terminals contain many individual synaptic sites, each represented by a presynaptic structure called a "ribbon". These synapses are both highly sophisticated and conserved. Each ribbon relays the light signal to one ON cone bipolar cell and several OFF cone bipolar cells, while two dendritic processes from a GABAergic interneuron, the horizontal cell, modulate the cone output via parallel feedback mechanisms...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378500/nmda-receptor-independent-ltp-in-hippocampal-interneurons
#19
Toshiya Manabe
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the hippocampus has been regarded as a neural basis of memory formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378360/an-increased-extrasynaptic-nmda-tone-inhibits-a-type-k-current-and-increases-excitability-of-hypothalamic-neurosecretory-neurons-in-hypertensive-rats
#20
Meng Zhang, Vinicia C Biancardi, Javier E Stern
We recently showed that a functional coupling between extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (eNMDARs) and the A-type K(+) current (IA ) influences the firing activity of hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (MNCs), as well as homeostatic adaptive responses to a physiological challenge. Here, we aimed to determine whether changes in the eNMDAR-IA coupling also contributed to exacerbated MNCs activity during disease states. We used a combination of patch-clamp electrophysiology and real-time PCR in MNCs in sham and renovascular hypertensive rats (RVH)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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