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Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691876/waking-up-too-early-the-consequences-of-preterm-birth-on-sleep-development
#1
Laura Bennet, David W Walker, Rosemary S C Horne
Good quality sleep of sufficient duration is vital for optimal physiological function and our health. Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired neurocognitive function and emotional control, and increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases, obesity and cancer. Sleep develops during fetal life with the emergence of a recognisable pattern of sleep states in the preterm fetus associated with the development, maturation, and connectivity within neural networks in the brain. Despite the physiological importance of sleep, surprisingly little is known about how sleep develops in individuals born preterm...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687896/what-s-off-key-in-the-brain-of-musicians-with-focal-task-specific-dystonia
#2
Claire J Cadwallader, Dylan Curtin, Eleanor M Taylor, James P Coxon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682760/protective-role-of-parkin-in-skeletal-muscle-contractile-and-mitochondrial-function
#3
Gilles Gouspillou, Richard Godin, Jérome Piquereau, Martin Picard, Mahroo Mofarrahi, Jasmin Mathew, Fennigje M Purves-Smith, Nicolas Sgarioto, Russell T Hepple, Yan Burelle, Sabah Na Hussain
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase encoded by the Park2 gene, has been implicated in the regulation of mitophagy, a quality control process whereby defective mitochondria are degraded. The exact physiological significance of Parkin in regulating mitochondrial function and contractility in skeletal muscle remains largely unexplored. Using Park2-/- mice, we show that Parkin ablation causes a decrease in muscle specific force, a severe decrease in mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial uncoupling and an increased susceptibility to opening of the permeability transition pore...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676801/prolonged-prenatal-hypoxia-selectively-disrupts-collecting-duct-patterning-and-postnatal-function-in-male-mouse-offspring
#4
Sarah L Walton, Reetu R Singh, Melissa H Little, Josephine Bowles, Joan Li, Karen M Moritz
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: In this study we investigated whether hypoxia during late pregnancy impairs kidney development in mouse offspring, and also whether this has long-lasting consequences affecting kidney function in adulthood. Hypoxia disrupted growth of the kidney, particularly the collecting duct network, in juvenile male offspring. By mid-late adulthood, these mice developed early signs of kidney disease, notably a compromised response to water deprivation. Female offspring showed no obvious signs of impaired kidney development and did not develop kidney disease, suggesting a underlying protection mechanism from the hypoxia insult...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676799/-stiffening-the-sinews-of-the-heart
#5
D Geoffrey, G C Clarke, P W Nathanielsz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676798/afferent-neural-feedback-overrides-the-modulating-effects-of-arousal-hypercapnia-and-hypoxemia-on-neonatal-cardio-respiratory-control
#6
Kathleen J Lumb, Jennifer M Schneider, Thowfique Ibrahim, Anita Rigaux, Shabih U Hasan
KEY POINTS: Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676796/sympathetic-control-of-cardiac-output-by-norepinephrine-quasi-synaptic-quantal-release-or-interstitial-diffusion-and-spill-over
#7
Philipp Sasse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676466/cardiac-progenitor-cell-ion-currents-revealing-a-little-more-on-the-lesser-known
#8
Farid G Khalafalla, Mark A Sussman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667192/how-does-spinal-cord-injury-lead-to-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
D D Fuller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667190/age-related-changes-in-late-i-waves-influence-motor-cortex-plasticity-induction-in-older-adults
#10
George M Opie, John Cirillo, John G Semmler
KEYPOINTS SUMMARY: The response to neuroplasticity interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is reduced in older adults, which may be due, in part, to age-related alterations in interneuronal (I-wave) circuitry. The current study investigated age-related changes in interneuronal characteristics and whether they influence motor cortical plasticity in older adults. While I-wave recruitment was unaffected by age, there was a shift in the temporal characteristics of the late, but not early I-waves...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667182/breathing-regulation-and-blood-gas-homeostasis-after-near-complete-lesions-of-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-in-adult-rats
#11
George M P R Souza, Roy Kanbar, Daniel S Stornetta, Stephen B G Abbott, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is one of several CNS nuclei that contribute, in various capacities (e.g. CO2 detection, neuronal modulation) to the central respiratory chemoreflex (CRC). Here we test how important the RTN is to PCO2 homeostasis and breathing during sleep or wake. RTN Nmb positive neurons were killed with targeted microinjections of substance-P-saporin conjugate in adult rats. Under normoxia, rats with large RTN lesions (92 ± 4 % cell loss) had normal blood pressure (BP) and arterial pH but were hypoxic (-8 mmHg PaO2 ) and hypercapnic (+10 mmHg PaCO2 )...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665013/planhab-hypoxia-does-not-worsen-the-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-induced-by-bed-rest-alone
#12
Desy Salvadego, Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Lorenza Brocca, Stefano Lazzer, Irene Mavelli, Jörn Rittweger, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Bruno Grassi
KEY POINTS: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O2 delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665012/wavelet-pressure-reactivity-index-a-validation-study
#13
Xiuyun Liu, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, Danilo Cardim, Manuel Cabeleira, Peter J Hutchinson, Xiao Hu, Peter Smielewski, Ken Brady
KEY POINTS: The brain is vulnerable to damage from too little or too much blood flow. A physiological mechanism called cerebral autoregulation (CA) exists to maintain stable blood flow even if cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is changing. A robust method for assessing CA is not yet available. There are still some problems with the traditional measure, the pressure reactivity index (PRx). We introduced a new method, wavelet transform method (wPRx) to assess CA using data from two sets of controlled hypotension experiments in piglets: One set with artificially manipulated ABP oscillations; the other group were spontaneous ABP waves...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663410/the-negotiated-equilibrium-model-of-spinal-cord-function
#14
Jonathan R Wolpaw
The belief that the spinal cord is hardwired is no longer tenable. Like the rest of the CNS, the spinal cord changes during growth and aging, when new motor behaviours are acquired, and in response to trauma and disease. This paper describes a new model of spinal cord function that reconciles its recently appreciated plasticity with its long recognized reliability as the final common pathway for behaviour. According to this model, the substrate of each motor behaviour comprises brain and spinal plasticity: the plasticity in the brain induces and maintains the plasticity in the spinal cord...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663403/smoke-induced-neuromuscular-junction-degeneration-precedes-the-fibre-type-shift-and-atrophy-in-copd
#15
Sophia Kapchinsky, Madhusudanarao Vuda, Kayla Miguez, Daren Elkrief, Angela R de Souza, Carolyn J Baglole, Sudhakar Aare, Norah J MacMillan, Jacinthe Baril, Paul Rozakis, Vita Sonjak, Charlotte Pion, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Jose A Morais, R Thomas Jagoe, Jean Bourbeau, Tanja Taivassalo, Russell T Hepple
A neurological basis for the fast fibre shift and atrophy seen in limb muscle of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been considered previously. The objective of our study was: (i) to determine if denervation contributes to fast fibre shift and muscle atrophy in COPD; and (ii) to assess using a preclinical smoking mouse model whether chronic tobacco smoke (TS) exposure could initiate denervation by causing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from severe COPD patients (n = 10 with low fat free mass index [FFMI], 65 y; n = 15 normal FFMI, 65 y) and healthy age- and activity-matched non-smoker control subjects (CON; n = 11, 67 y), to evaluate morphological and transcriptional markers of denervation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663391/intestinal-electrolyte-and-fluid-secretion-a-model-in-trouble
#16
LETTER
L P Cid, T J Jentsch, F V Sepúlveda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660821/like-sheep-like-humans-right-ventricular-remodelling-in-a-preterm-born-ovine-model
#17
Afifah Mohamed, Paul Leeson, Adam J Lewandowski
Preterm birth affects more than 10% of births worldwide, with over 80% of these individuals born moderately preterm; between 32-36 weeks' gestation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660141/carbonic-anhydrase-is-not-a-relevant-nitrite-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-in-the-lung
#18
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, acetazolamide and its structurally similar analogue, methazolamide prevent or reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and humans in vivo, by a mechanism unrelated to CA inhibition. In rodent blood and isolated blood vessels, Aamand et al. (2009) reported that inhibition of CA led to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and vascular relaxation in vitro. We tested the physiological relevance of augmented NO generation by CA from nitrite with acetazolamide in anaesthetized pigs during alveolar hypoxia in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660115/a-working-model-for-hypothermic-neuroprotection
#19
Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Christopher A Lear, Sandra E Juul, Frances Northington, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Therapeutic hypothermia significantly improves survival without disability in near-term and full-term newborns with moderate-severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. However, hypothermic neuroprotection is incomplete. The challenge now is to find ways to further improve outcomes. One major limitation to progress is that the specific mechanisms of hypothermia are only partly understood. Evidence supports the concept that therapeutic cooling suppresses multiple extracellular death signals, including intracellular pathways of apoptotic and necrotic cell death and inappropriate microglial activation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659033/gna11-differentially-mediates-fgf2-and-vegfa-induced-cellular-responses-in-human-fetoplacental-endothelial-cells
#20
Qing-Yun Zou, Ying-Jie Zhao, Hua Li, Xiang-Zhen Wang, Ai-Xia Liu, Xin-Qi Zhong, Qin Yan, Yan Li, Chi Zhou, Jing Zheng
During pregnancy, fetoplacental angiogenesis is dramatically increased in association with rapidly elevated blood flows. Any disruption of fetoplacental angiogenesis may lead to pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) are crucial regulators of fetoplacental angiogenesis. G protein α subunits q (GNAq) and 11 (GNA11), two members of Gαq/11 subfamily are involved in mediating vascular growth and basal blood pressure...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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