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Journal of Physiology

Igor A Fernandes, Marcos P Rocha, Monique O Campos, João D Mattos, Daniel E Mansur, Helena N M Rocha, Paulo A C Terra, Vinícius P Garcia, Natália G Rocha, Niels H Secher, Antonio C L Nóbrega
This study investigated whether hypertension impairs isocapnic hypoxia (IH)-induced cerebral and skeletal muscle hyperemia to an extent that limits oxygen supply. Oxygen saturation (Oxymetry), mean arterial pressure (MAP, photoplethysmography), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneugraphy), and femoral (FA), internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) artery blood flow (BF, Doppler ultrasound) were quantified in 9 normotensive (NT, 40 ± 11 yrs., systolic (SP) 119 ± 7 mmHg and diastolic pressure (DP) 73 ± 6 mmHg) and 9 hypertensive men (HT, 44 ± 12 yrs...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Dean Perkins, Tony Dawkins, Mike Stembridge
It is well established that the intrauterine environment has the potential to determine the lifelong health of an organism. For example, prenatal stress can reduce gestational length and have negative downstream effects on endocrine and metabolic outcomes, which propagate across subsequent generations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jacob G McPherson, Albert Chen, Michael D Ellis, Jun Yao, C J Heckman, Julius P A Dewald
KEY POINTS: Activation of the shoulder abductor muscles in the arm opposite a unilateral brain injury causes involuntary increases in elbow, wrist and finger flexion in the same arm, a phenomenon referred to as the flexion synergy. It has been proposed that flexion synergy expression is related to reduced output from ipsilesional motor cortex and corticospinal pathways. In this human subjects study, we provide evidence that the magnitude of flexion synergy expression is instead related to a progressive, task-dependent recruitment of contralesional cortex...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Ryan L Hoiland
Reductions in arterial oxygen content (CaO2 ) elicit increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) that are adequate to maintain convective delivery of oxygen to the brain in healthy humans (i.e. cerebral oxygen delivery, CDO2 ). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Gustavo Davanzo, Matheus Fragas
Almost thirty years ago the term programming was first used by Lucas (1991) to describe that the influence of nutrition stimuli during important phases of preterm development has future consequences in the organism's health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Andreas Boss, Linda Heskamp, Vincent Breukels, Lauren J Bains, Mark J van Uden, Arend Heerschap
The rate of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery (kPCr ) after exercise, characterizing muscle oxidative capacity, is traditionally assessed with unlocalized31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using a single surface coil. However, because of intramuscular variation in fibre type and oxygen supply, kPCr may be non-uniform within muscles. We tested this along the length of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 10 male volunteers. For this purpose we employed a 3T MR system with a31 P/1 H volume transmit coil combined with a home-built31 P phased-array receive probe, consisting of 5 coil elements covering the TA muscle length...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Steven A Romero, Austin D Hocker, Joshua E Mangum, Meredith J Luttrell, Douglas W Turnbull, Adam J Struck, Matthew R Ely, Dylan C Sieck, Hans C Dreyer, John R Halliwill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
E Contreras-Hernández, D Chávez, E Hernández, E Velázquez, P Reyes, J Bejar, M Martín, U Cortés, S Glusman, P Rudomin
Despite the profuse information on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the central sensitization produced by intense nociceptive stimulation, the changes in the patterns of functional connectivity between spinal neurones associated with the development of secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia remain largely unknown. Here we show that the state of central sensitization produced by the intradermal injection of capsaicin is associated with structured transformations in neuronal synchronization that lead to an enduring reorganization of the functional connectivity within a segmentally distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Golam Mezbah Uddin, Kim L Ho, Gary D Lopaschuk
Metabolic flexibility is compromised during myocardial hypoxia and the development of heart failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Etienne Myette-Côté, Helena Neudorf, Hossein Rafiei, Kieran Clarke, Jonathan Peter Little
The main objectives of this study were threefold: (1) To determine whether acute ingestion of K me ; (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate impacts plasma glucose levels during a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). (2) To compare changes in insulin concentrations and estimates of insulin sensitivity after acute K me supplementation. Twenty healthy participants (n = 10 males/females) aged between 18-35 years took part in a randomized crossover study. After an overnight fast, participants consumed a K me supplement (ΔG®; 0...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Andre Dagostin, Christopher Kushmerick, Henrique von Gersdorff
Some afferent fibres in the auditory system can fire spikes spontaneously at tonic rates of up to 150 Hz without sound stimulation, while brief, sound-evoked bursts of spikes can reach frequencies of up to 1 kHz. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Nicolas Demaurex, Stephanie Saul
STIM proteins regulate store-operated Ca2+entry (SOCE) in innate and adaptive immune cells and participate to the Ca2+signals that control the functions of neutrophils, the first line of host defence against bacterial and fungal infections. Loss of function experiments in animal and cellular models indicate that both STIM1 and STIM2 regulate neutrophil functions, but the complexity of the SOCE machinery and the versatility of neutrophils complicate the evaluation of the results. This review aims to summarize the latest progress in the field with a special attention to the details of the experimental designs...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Mahdieh Godazgar, Quan Zhang, Margarita V Chibalina, Patrik Rorsman
Pancreatic β-cells are equipped with voltage-gated Na+channels that undergo biphasic voltage-dependent steady-state inactivation. A small Na+current component (10-15%) inactivates over physiological membrane potentials and contributes to action potential firing. However, the major Na+channel component is completely inactivated at -90 to -80 mV and is therefore inactive in the β-cell. It has been proposed that the biphasic inactivation reflects the contribution of different NaVα-subunits. We tested this possibility by expression of TTX-resistant variants of the NaVsubunits found in β-cells (NaV1...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Harrison T Finn, Simon C Gandevia, Janet L Taylor
We have with great interest read the paper by Ruggiero and colleagues, which explored the effects of acclimatization to hypoxia on motoneurone excitability during fatigue (Ruggiero et al. 2017) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kilian B Kennel, Julius Burmeister, Martin Schneider, Cormac T Taylor
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) co-ordinates the adaptive transcriptional response to hypoxia in metazoan cells. The hypoxic sensitivity of HIF is conferred by a family of oxygen-sensing enzymes termed HIF hydroxylases. This family consists of three prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) and a single asparagine hydroxylase termed factor inhibitor HIF (FIH). It has recently become clear that HIF hydroxylases are functionally non-redundant and have discreet but overlapping physiologic roles. Furthermore, altered abundance or activity of these enzymes is associated with a number of pathologies...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
M Kollarik, H Sun, R A Herbstsomer, F Ru, M Kocmalova, S N Meeker, B J Undem
The action potential (AP) initiation in the nerve terminals and AP conduction along the axons do not necessarily depend on the same subtypes of Na V 1s. We evaluated the role of tetrodotoxin(TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant Na V 1s in vagal afferent nociceptor nerves derived from jugular and nodose ganglia innervating the respiratory system. Single cell RT-PCR was performed on vagal afferent neurons retrogradely labelled from the guinea pig trachea. Virtually all the jugular neurons expressed the TTX-sensitive channel Na V 1...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Ala Morshedian, Michael L Woodruff, Gordon L Fain
Recoverin is a small molecular-weight, calcium-binding protein in rod outer segments which binds to G-protein receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) and can alter the rate of rhodopsin phosphorylation. A change in phosphorylation should change the lifetime of light-activated rhodopsin and the gain of phototransduction, but deletion of recoverin has little effect on the sensitivity of rods either in the dark or in dim-to-moderate background light. We describe two additional functions perhaps of greater physiological significance...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Sarah J Lucas, Christophe B Michel, Vincenzo Marra, Joshua L Smalley, Matthias H Hennig, Bruce P Graham, Ian D Forsythe
The synapse has high energy demands, which increase during intense activity. Presynaptic ATP production depends on substrate availability and usage will increase during activity, which in turn could influence transmitter release and information transmission. We investigated transmitter release at the mouse calyx of Held synapse using glucose or lactate (10, 1 or 0 mm) as the extracellular substrates while inducing metabolic stress. High frequency stimulation (HFS) and recovery paradigms evoked trains of EPSCs monitored under voltage-clamp...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Tae Sik Sung, Sung Jin Hwang, Sang Don Koh, Yulia Bayguinov, Lauen E Peri, Peter J Blair, Timothy I Webb, David M Pardo, Jason R Rock, Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward
Enteric motor neurotransmission is essential for normal gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Controversy exists regarding the cells and ionic conductance(s) that mediate post-junctional neuroeffector responses to motor neurotransmitters. Isolated intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from murine fundus muscles were used to determine the conductances activated by carbachol (CCh) in each cell-type. The calcium-activated chloride conductance (CaCC), Ano1 is expressed by ICC-IM but not resolved in SMCs, and CCh activated a Cl- conductance in ICC-IM and a non-selective cation conductance (NSCC) in SMCs...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Anne R Meyer, James R Goldenring
The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by the emergence of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. In particular, intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) have been associated with the pathological progression to intestinal-type gastric cancer. The development of SPEM represents a physiological response to damage that recruits reparative cells to sites of mucosal injury. Metaplastic cell lineages are characterized by mucus secretion, adding a protective barrier to the epithelium...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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