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Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650070/the-human-ventilatory-response-to-stress-rate-or-depth
#1
Michael J Tipton, Abbi Harper, Julian F R Paton, Joseph T Costello
Many stressors cause an increase in ventilation in humans. This is predominantly reported as an increase in minute ventilation (V̇E ). But, the same V̇E can be achieved by a wide variety of changes in the depth (tidal volume, VT ) and number of breaths (respiratory frequency, ƒR). This review investigates the impact of stressors including: cold, heat, hypoxia, pain and panic on the contributions of ƒR and VT to V̇E to see if they differ with different stressors. Where possible we also consider the potential mechanisms that underpin the responses identified, and propose mechanisms by which differences in ƒR and VT are mediated...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643939/what-are-the-benefits-of-being-big
#2
Matthijs K C Hesselink, Sabine Daemen, Nynke van Polanen, Anne Gemmink
Like all eukaryotic cell types, skeletal muscle can store free fatty acids (FFA) as triacylglycerol (TG) in lipid droplets (LDs), which in three dimensions can be viewed as balls of lipid ranging in size. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643899/lack-of-adaptation-during-prolonged-split-belt-locomotion-in-the-intact-and-spinal-cat
#3
Victoria Kuczynski, Alessandro Telonio, Yann Thibaudier, Marie-France Hurteau, Charline Dambreville, Etienne Desrochers, Adam Doelman, Tayler Ross, Alain Frigon
In humans, gait adapts to prolonged walking on a split-belt treadmill, where one leg steps faster than the other, by gradually restoring the symmetry of interlimb kinematic variables, such as double support periods and step lengths, and by reducing muscle activity (EMG, electromyography). The adaptation is also characterized by reversing the asymmetry of interlimb variables observed during the early split-belt period when returning to tied-belt locomotion, termed an after-effect. To determine if cats adapt to prolonged split-belt locomotion and to assess if spinal locomotor circuits participate in the adaptation, we measured interlimb variables and EMG in intact and spinal-transected cats before, during and after 10 min of split-belt locomotion...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643877/cerebral-haemodynamic-response-to-somatosensory-stimulation-in-neonatal-lambs
#4
Shinji Nakamura, David W Walker, Flora Y Wong
The neurovascular coupling response has been defined for the adult brain but in the neonate non-invasive measurement of local cerebral perfusion using NIRS or BOLD fMRI have yielded variable and inconsistent results, including negative responses suggesting decreased perfusion and localised tissue tissue hypoxia. Also, the impact of permissive hypercapnia (Pa CO2  > 50 mmHg) in the management of neonates on cerebrovascular responses to somatosensory input is unknown. Using NIRS to measure changes in cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin (ΔoxyHb, ΔdeoxyHb) in 8 anaesthetised newborn lambs, we studied the cerebral haemodynamic functional response to left median nerve stimulation using stimulus trains of 1...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640508/intraglomerular-gap-junctions-enhance-interglomerular-synchrony-in-a-sparsely-connected-olfactory-bulb-network
#5
Frederic Pouille, Thomas S McTavish, Lawrence E Hunter, Diego Restrepo, Nathan E Schoppa
A dominant feature of the olfactory bulb response to odour is fast synchronized oscillations at beta (15-40 Hz) or gamma (40-90 Hz) frequencies, thought to be involved in integration of olfactory signals. Mechanistically, the bulb presents an interesting case study for understanding how beta/gamma oscillations arise. Fast oscillatory synchrony in the activity of output mitral cells (MCs) appears to result from interactions with GABAergic granule cells (GCs), yet the incidence of MC-GC connections is very low, around 4%...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640419/to-regulate-or-not-to-regulate-the-devious-history-of-cerebral-blood-flow-control
#6
Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie
Huxley (1825-1895) demonstrated his scientific perspective through his extensive experience in science communication, and his numerous thought-provoking, eloquent quotes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639688/pronounced-limb-and-fibre-type-differences-in-subcellular-lipid-droplet-content-and-distribution-in-elite-skiers-before-and-after-exhaustive-exercise
#7
Han-Chow E Koh, Joachim Nielsen, Bengt Saltin, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Niels Ørtenblad
Although the intramyocellular lipid pool is an important energy store during prolonged exercise, our knowledge concerning its metabolism is still incomplete. Here, quantitative electron microscopy was used to examine subcellular distribution of lipid droplets in type 1 and 2 fibres of the arm and leg muscles before and after one hour of exhaustive exercise. Intermyofibrillar lipid droplets accounted for 85-97% of the total volume fraction, while the subsarcolemmal pool made up 3-15%. Before exercise, the volume fractions of intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal lipid droplets were 4- to 6-fold higher in leg than in arm muscles (P < 0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627017/functional-expression-of-calcium-permeable-canonical-transient-receptor-potential-4-containing-channels-promotes-migration-of-medulloblastoma-cells
#8
Wei-Chun Wei, Wan-Chen Huang, Yu-Ping Lin, Esther B E Becker, Olaf Ansorge, Veit Flockerzi, Daniele Conti, Giovanna Cenacchi, Maike D Glitsch
Aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) signalling contributes to the formation and progression of a range of distinct pathologies including cancers. Rises in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration occur in response to Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which can be mobilised in response to activation of cell surface receptors. OGR1 (Ovarian cancer G protein coupled Receptor 1, aka GPR68) is a proton-sensing Gq -coupled receptor that is most highly expressed in cerebellum...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626995/-synaptic-autocontrol
#9
José Bargas
Dalés principle, as stated by the English neuroscientist Henry Dale, posited that a presynaptic neuron will have the same chemical action on all its connections regardless of the class of target cell. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626870/the-chicken-or-the-egg-sildenafil-therapy-for-fetal-cardiovascular-dysfunction-during-hypoxic-development-studies-in-the-chick-embryo
#10
Ryan T Sless, Nathaniel E Hayward, Paul M Ryan
Chronic hypoxia in the gestating fetus is a common occurrence which invariably leads to a variety of adverse events such as premature delivery, pulmonary hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal/adult cardiovascular dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621434/eea1-restores-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-in-hippocampal-neurons-from-rett-syndrome-mice
#11
Xin Xu, Lucas Pozzo-Miller
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Deletion of Mecp2 in mice results in an imbalance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which affects "Hebbian" long-term synaptic plasticity. Since the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms, we examined the role of MeCP2 in homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) at excitatory synapses...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621020/conservation-of-alternative-splicing-in-sodium-channels-reveals-evolutionary-focus-on-release-from-inactivation-and-structural-insights-into-gating
#12
A Liavas, G Lignani, S Schorge
Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for neuronal activity, and highly intolerant to variation. Even mutations that cause subtle changes in the activity these channels are sufficient to cause devastating inherited neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and pain. However, these channels do vary in healthy tissue. Alternative splicing modifies sodium channels, but the functional relevance and adaptive significance of this splicing remain poorly understood. Here we use a conserved alternate exon encoding part of the first domain of sodium channels to compare how splicing modifies different channels, and to ask whether the functional consequences of this splicing have been preserved in different genes...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620941/endothelial-mechanotransduction-proteins-and-vascular-function-are-altered-by-dietary-sucrose-supplementation-in-healthy-young-male-subjects
#13
Lasse Gliemann, Nicolai Rytter, Mads Lindskrog, Martina H Lundberg Slingsby, Thorbjörn Åkerström, Lykke Sylow, Erik A Richter, Ylva Hellsten
Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, twelve young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day(-1) for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618000/in-vivo-analysis-of-synaptic-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-unravels-the-efficacy-of-excitatory-inputs
#14
Yasmin Yarden-Rabinowitz, Yosef Yarom
It is commonly agreed that the main function of the cerebellar system is to provide well-timed signals used for the execution of motor commands or prediction of sensory inputs. This function is manifested as a temporal sequence of spiking that should be expressed in the cerebellar nuclei projection neurons (CN). Whether spiking activity is generated by excitation or release from inhibition is still a hotly debated issue. In an attempt to resolve this debate, we recorded intracellularly from CN neurons in anaesthetized mice and performed an analysis of synaptic activity that yielded a number of important observations...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617952/systolic-ca-2-i-regulates-diastolic-levels-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#15
R Sankaranarayanan, K Kistamas, D J Greensmith, L A Venetucci, D A Eisner
[Ca(2+) ]i must be low enough in diastole so that the ventricle is relaxed and can refill with blood. Interference with this will impair relaxation. The factors responsible for regulation of diastolic [Ca(2+) ]i , in particular the relative roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and surface membrane are unclear. We investigated the effects on diastolic [Ca(2+) ]i that result from the changes of Ca cycling known to occur in heart failure. Experiments were performed using Fluo-3 in voltage-clamped rat ventricular myocytes...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612936/sensory-feedback-from-the-urethra-evokes-state-dependent-lower-urinary-tract-reflexes-in-rat
#16
Zachary C Danziger, Warren M Grill
Lower urinary tract reflexes are mediated by peripheral afferents from the bladder (primarily in the pelvic nerve) and the urethra (in the pudendal and pelvic nerves) to maintain continence or initiate micturition. If fluid enters the urethra at low bladder volumes, reflexes relax the bladder and evoke external urethral sphincter (EUS) contraction (guarding reflex) to maintain continence. Conversely, urethral flow at high bladder volumes, excites the bladder (micturition reflex) and relaxes the EUS (augmenting reflex)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605113/muscle-carnitine-availability-plays-a-central-role-in-regulating-fuel-metabolism-in-the-rodent
#17
Craig Porter, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Despina Constantin, Brendan Leighton, Simon M Poucher, Paul L Greenhaff
The body carnitine pool is primarily confined to skeletal muscle, where it regulates carbohydrate (CHO) and fat usage. Mildronate (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate) inhibits carnitine synthesis and tissue uptake, but the impact of carnitine depletion on whole-body fuel selection, muscle fuel metabolism and its molecular regulation is under-investigated. Male lean Zucker rats received water (control, n = 8) or mildronate-supplemented water (mildronate, n = 8) for 10 days (1.6 g kg(-1) body mass (bm)(...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605042/how-many-phosphoproteins-does-it-take-to-make-muscle-grow
#18
Jatin G Burniston
Understanding how exercise causes muscles to adapt is fundamental to improving our health, quality-of-life and longevity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605038/the-baroreflex-effectiveness-index-as-an-early-marker-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-heart-failure
#19
Joseph C Watso, Matthew C Babcock, Kamila U Migdal, Austin T Robinson
Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem worldwide, associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598505/paving-the-way-for-bartter-syndrome-type-3-drug-discovery-a-hope-from-basic-research
#20
Paola Imbrici, Diana Conte, Antonella Liantonio
Understanding the genetic background and the molecular mechanisms of inherited kidney channelopathies is essential to definition of targeted therapeutic approaches for affected patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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