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Journal of Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211122/prolactin-regulation-of-oxytocin-neurone-activity-in-pregnancy-and-lactation
#1
Rachael A Augustine, Sharon R Ladyman, Gregory T Bouwer, Yousif Alyousif, Tony J Sapsford, Victoria Scott, Ilona C Kokay, David R Grattan, Colin H Brown
Secretion of prolactin for milk synthesis and oxytocin for milk secretion is required for successful lactation. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits oxytocin neurones but this effect would be counterproductive during lactation when secretion of both hormones is required for synthesis and delivery of milk to the new-born. Hence, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) prolactin on oxytocin neurones in urethane-anaesthetised virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Prolactin (2 μg) consistently inhibited oxytocin neurones in virgin and pregnant rats (by 1...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211069/mglur1-enhances-efferent-inhibition-of-inner-hair-cells-in-the-developing-rat-cochlea
#2
Zhanlei Ye, Juan D Goutman, Sonja J Pyott, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Just before the onset of hearing, the inner hair cells (IHCs) receive inhibitory efferent input from cholinergic medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons originating in the brainstem. This input may serve a role in the maturation of the ascending (afferent) auditory system by inhibiting spontaneous activity of the IHCs. To investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating these IHC efferent synapses, we combined electrical stimulation of the efferent fibres with patch clamp recordings from the IHCs to measure efferent synaptic strength...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205229/linking-myofilaments-to-sudden-cardiac-death-recent-advances
#3
Sabine Huke
The major goal of this focused review is to highlight some of the open questions and recent advances about how a mutation in a myofilament protein leads to an increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). The link between myofilaments and SCD is known for over 25 years, but identifying mutation carriers at risk for SCD is still a challenge and currently the only effective prevention is implantation of a defibrillator (ICD). In addition to recognized risk factors, other contributing factors need to be considered and assessed, e...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205228/noradrenergic-inhibition-of-presynaptic-trpv1-channels-a-new-pathway-of-pain-control
#4
Emilio Carbone
Chronic pain is a major health problem that heavily conditions life quality and results in a huge socio-economic cost. Currently available drugs and therapies are often inadequate for treating pain in many patients, particularly when "acute" pain converts to a "chronic" state This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205210/urinary-sodium-and-calcium-excretion-via-endothelin-1-do-they-part
#5
R Todd Alexander
Sodium ingestion and urinary sodium excretion is tightly coupled to urinary calcium excretion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205211/unraveling-a-novel-mechanism-for-the-up-regulation-of-connexin43-gap-junctions-between-cells-derived-from-the-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Juan C Sáez
Endothelial cells from different vascular territories in mammals express at least three connexins (Cxs: Cx37, Cx40 and Cx43), which are protein subunits of gap junction channels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195313/neuronal-sodium-channels-emerging-components-of-the-nano-machinery-of-cardiac-calcium-cycling
#7
Rengasayee Veeraraghavan, Sándor Györke, Przemysław B Radwański
Excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is the bridge between cardiac electrical activation and mechanical contraction. It is driven by the influx of Ca(2+) across the sarcolemma triggering Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) - a process termed Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) - followed by re-sequestration of Ca(2+) into the SR. The sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) inextricably couples the cycling of Ca(2+) and Na(+) in cardiac myocytes. Thus, influx of Na(+) via voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV ) has emerged as an important regulator of CICR both in health and in disease...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194805/fetal-adaptations-in-insulin-secretion-result-from-high-catecholamines-during-placental-insufficiency
#8
Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194788/protein-kinase-a-regulates-c-terminally-truncated-cav-1-2-in-xenopus-oocytes-roles-of-n-and-c-termini-of-the-%C3%AE-1c-subunit
#9
Shimrit Oz, Ines Pankonien, Anouar Belkacemi, Veit Flockerzi, Enno Klussmann, Hannelore Haase, Nathan Dascal
β-Adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca(2+) currents via L-type, voltage-gated CaV 1.2 channels, strengthening cardiac contraction. The signaling via β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) involves elevation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). However, how PKA affects the channel remains controversial. Recent studies in heterologous systems and genetically engineered mice stress the importance of the posttranslational proteolytic truncation of distal C-terminus (dCT) of the main (α1C ) subunit...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194754/requirement-of-extracellular-ca-2-binding-to-specific-amino-acids-for-heat-evoked-activation-of-trpa1
#10
Erkin Kurganov, Shigeru Saito, Claire T Saito, Makoto Tominaga
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a homotetrameric nonselective cation-permeable channel that has six transmembrane domains and cytoplasmic N- and C-termini. The N-terminus is characterized by an unusually large number of ankyrin repeats. Although the 3-dimensional structure of human TRPA1 has been determined, and TRPA1 channels from insects to birds are known to be activated by heat stimulus, the mechanism for temperature-dependent TRPA1 activation is unclear. We previously reported that extracellular Ca(2+) , but not intracellular Ca(2+) , plays an important role in heat-evoked TRPA1 activation in green anole lizards (gaTRPA1)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191635/the-role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cardiac-biology-classic-concepts-and-emerging-roles
#11
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, the mechanical protection of coronaries, the innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological (EP) and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190266/perinatal-nicotine-exposure-impairs-the-maturation-of-glutamatergic-inputs-in-the-auditory-brainstem
#12
Veronika J Baumann, Ursula Koch
Maternal smoking causes chronic nicotine exposure during early development and results in auditory processing deficits including delayed speech development and learning difficulties. Using a mouse model of chronic, perinatal nicotine exposure we explored to what extent synaptic inputs to granule cells in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus are affected by developmental nicotine treatment. These neurons receive one large calyx-like input from octopus cells in the cochlear nucleus and play a role in sound pattern analysis, including speech sounds...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188951/the-influence-of-adrenergic-stimulation-on-sex-differences-in-left-ventricular-twist-mechanics
#13
Alexandra M Williams, Rob E Shave, William S Cheyne, Neil D Eves
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in LV mechanics exist at rest and during acute physiological stress. Differences in cardiac autonomic and adrenergic control may contribute to sex differences in LV mechanics and LV hemodynamics. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate sex differences in LV mechanics with altered adrenergic stimulation achieved through post handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) and β1 -adrenergic receptor (AR) blockade. METHODS AND RESULTS: 20 males (23 ± 5 yr) and 20 females (22 ± 3 yr) were specifically matched for LV length (males: 8...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188627/dose-dependency-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-implications-for-neuroplasticity-induction-in-health-and-disease
#14
Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre
There has been a rapid growth in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and modulate human brain function over the past decade. An example of this is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which involves the application of weak electrical currents between at least two electrodes placed over the scalp. When applied to the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS can induce lasting polarity-dependent changes in excitability, with facilitation following anodal stimulation and suppression following cathodal...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185284/exercise-trainability-contexts-and-consequences
#15
Michael J Joyner
Systematic and regular changes in physical activity - known as exercise training - evoke a host of short and long term physiological adaptations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185290/computational-analysis-of-the-human-sinus-node-action-potential-model-development-and-effects-of-mutations
#16
Alan Fabbri, Matteo Fantini, Ronald Wilders, Stefano Severi
The sinoatrial node (SAN) is the normal pacemaker of the mammalian heart.  Over several decades, a large amount of data on the ionic mechanisms underlying the spontaneous electrical activity of SAN pacemaker cells has been obtained, mostly in experiments on single cells isolated from rabbit SAN. This wealth of data has allowed the development of mathematical models of the electrical activity of rabbit SAN pacemaker cells. Our aim was to construct a more comprehensive model of the electrical activity of a human SAN pacemaker cell, using recently obtained electrophysiological data from human SAN pacemaker cells...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181690/calcium-mediated-cellular-triggered-activity-in-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Dobromir Dobrev, Xander H T Wehrens
Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered cardiac arrhythmia, the basic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain incompletely understood. During the past decade or so, it has become clear that alterations in intracellular Ca(2+) handling may play a role in the pathogenesis of AF. Studies in small and large animal models, as well as atrial samples from patients with different forms of AF have implicated ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) dysfunction and enhanced spontaneous Ca(2+) release events from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) as a potential cause of proarrhythmic cellular ectopic (triggered) activity in AF...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181236/ca-2-tunneling-through-the-er-lumen-as-a-mechanism-for-delivering-ca-2-entering-via-store-operated-ca-2-channels-to-specific-target-sites
#18
Ole H Petersen, Raphael Courjaret, Khaled Machaca
Ca(2+) signalling is perhaps the most universal and versatile mechanism regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Because of the many different calcium-binding proteins distributed throughout cells, signalling precision requires localized rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. In electrically non-excitable cells, for example epithelial cells, this is achieved by primary release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum via Ca(2+) release channels placed close to the physiological target. Because any rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration activates Ca(2+) extrusion, and in order for cells not to run out of Ca(2+) , there is a need for compensatory Ca(2+) uptake from the extracellular fluid...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181258/cardiac-diastolic-and-autonomic-dysfunction-are-aggravated-by-central-chemoreflex-activation-in-hfpef-rats
#19
Camilo Toledo, David C Andrade, Claudia Lucero, Alexis Arce-Alvarez, Hugo S Díaz, Valentín Aliaga, Harold D Schultz, Noah J Marcus, Mónica Manríquez, Marcelo Faúndez, Rodrigo Del Rio
Heart failure (HF) patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) display irregular breathing, sympatho-vagal imbalance, arrhythmias, and diastolic dysfunction. It has been shown that tonic activation of central and peripheral chemoreflex pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of HF with reduced ejection fraction. In contrast, no studies to date have addressed chemoreflex function or its effect on cardiac function in HFpEF. Therefore, we tested whether peripheral and central chemoreflexes are hyperactive in HFpEF and if chemoreflex activation exacerbates cardiac dysfunction and autonomic imbalance...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181254/where-s-your-head-at-an-illusion-of-head-orientation-which-reveals-dissociation-of-proprioceptive-signals-for-balance-versus-perception
#20
Raymond F Reynolds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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