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Journal of Physiology

Benjamin L Murphy-Baum, W Rowland Taylor
The twenty to thirty types of ganglion cell in the mammalian retina represent parallel signalling pathways that convey different information to the brain. Alpha ganglion cells are selective for high temporal frequencies in visual inputs, which makes them particularly sensitive to rapid motion. Although alpha ganglion cells have been studied in several species, the synaptic basis for their selective temporal tuning remains unclear. Here, we analyse excitatory synaptic inputs to transient OFF alpha ganglion cells (t-OFF α GCs) in the rabbit retina...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Mario Carta, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Adam Gorlewicz, Nelson Rebola, Christophe Mulle
Single neurons express NMDARs with distinct subunit composition and biophysical properties which can be segregated in an input-specific manner. The dynamic control of the heterogeneous distribution of synaptic NMDARs is crucial to control input-dependent synaptic integration and plasticity. In hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells (CA3 PCs) from mice of both sexes, we found that mossy fibre (Mf) synapses display a markedly lower proportion of GluN2B containing NMDARs than associative/commissural synapses. The mechanism involved in such heterogeneous distribution of GluN2B subunits is not known...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Stuart Goodall
Fatigue is a universal and daily phenomenon that involves a myriad of complex mechanisms ultimately characterised as an exercise-induced decrease in the maximal force produced by a muscle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Ryan J Rakoczy, Christopher N Wyatt
The molecular underpinnings of the oxygen-sensitivity of the carotid body Type I cells are becoming better defined as research begins to identify potential interactions between previously separate theories. Nevertheless, the field of oxygen-chemoreception still presents the general observer with a bewildering array of potential signalling pathways by which a fall in oxygen levels might initiate Type I cell activation. The purpose of this brief review is to address five of the current oxygen-sensing hypotheses...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Philipe R F Mendonça, Victoria Kyle, Shel-Hwa Yeo, William H Colledge, Hugh P C Robinson
Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus are critically involved in reproductive function, via their effect on GnRH neuron activity and consequent gonadotropin release. Kisspeptin neurons show an intrinsic irregularity of firing, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. To address this, we carried out targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Kiss1Arc ), in brain slices isolated from adult male Kiss-Cre:tdTomato mice. Cells fired irregularly in response to constant current stimuli, with a wide range of spike time variability, and prominent subthreshold voltage fluctuations...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Tamas Balla
Discovery of the STIM1 and Orai proteins as the principal components of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has drawn attention to contact sites between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Such contacts between adjacent membranes of different cellular organelles, primarily between the mitochondria and the ER, had already been known as the sites where Ca2+ released from the ER can be efficiently channeled to the mitochondria and also where phosphatidylserine synthesis and transfer takes place. Recent studies have identified contact sites between virtually every organelle and the ER and the functional importance of these small specialized membrane domains is increasingly recognized...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Echrak Hichri, Hugues Abriel, Jan P Kucera
It has been proposed that ephaptic interactions in intercalated discs, mediated by extracellular potentials, contribute to cardiac impulse propagation when gap junctional coupling is reduced. However, experiments demonstrating ephaptic effects on the cardiac Na+ current (INa ) are scarce. Furthermore, Na+ channels form clusters around gap junction plaques, but the electrophysiological significance of these clusters has never been investigated. In patch clamp experiments with HEK cells stably expressing human Nav 1...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Haisam Shah, Karmen Brar
With increasing age, the arterial system undergoes deterioration which contributes to cardiovascular disease; a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Y C Tzeng, R B Panerai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Y C Tzeng, R B Panerai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
David Simpson, Jurgen Claassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
David Simpson, Jurgen Claassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Scott M O'Grady
Intestinal anion secretion has been the focus of numerous investigations ever since the discovery of its essential role in diarrheal disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Xu Huang, Si Hyung Lee, Hongli Lu, Kenton M Sanders, Sang Don Koh
Membrane potentials of gastrointestinal (GI) muscles are important because voltage dependent Ca2+ channels in smooth muscle cells (SMC) provide the Ca2+ that triggers contraction. Regulation of membrane potential is complicated because SMC are electrically coupled to interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells. Activation of conductances in any of these cells affects the excitability of the syncytium. We explored the role of inward rectifier K+ conductances in colonic ICC that might contribute to regulation of membrane potential...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
David J Beech
Piezo1 channels are newly discovered ion channels which have come to the fore as players in endothelial biology. They have a key role as sensors of shear stress, a frictional force which arises in vascular biology because of blood flow. Endothelial Piezo1 channels are critical in murine embryonic development, just after the heart starts to beat and drive blood into the nascent endothelial network. In contrast they are not critical at the adult stage but they are important for performance in whole body physical activity where they have a vascular bed-specific effect to cause mesenteric resistance artery vasoconstriction, achieved through opposition to the vasodilatory mechanism of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Daniel Parthier, Thomas Kuner, Christoph Körber
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are released at the active zone (AZ), a specialized region of the presynaptic plasma membrane organized by a highly interconnected network of multi-domain proteins called cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ). Two core components of the CAZ are the large, highly homologous scaffolding proteins Bassoon and Piccolo, whose function is not well understood. In order to investigate their role in synaptic transmission, we established the shRNA-mediated in vivo knock-down (KD) of Bassoon and Piccolo at the rat calyx of Held synapse...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Miranda A Mathews, Fatema Mohammed Ali, Rajiv Wijesinghe, Aaron J Camp
In its most rudimentary form, information processing in the nervous system is typically bi-directional. Sensory afferent neurons relay sensory information to the central nervous system while efferent pathways carry processed nerve impulses to peripheral targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 30, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Paul D Marasco
We interact with, interpret, and understand the world around us through our senses. We see our environment, touch the things in it, feel the ground beneath our feet, and know how we move within our surroundings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 30, 2017: Journal of Physiology
John Gilchrist, Frank Bosmans
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channel gating is a complex phenomenon which involves a distinct contribution of four integral voltage-sensing domains (VSDI, VSDII, VSDIII, and VSDIV). Utilizing accrued pharmacological and structural insights, we build on an established chimera approach to introduce animal toxin sensitivity in each VSD of an acceptor channel by transferring in portable S3b-S4 motifs from the four VSDs of a toxin-susceptible donor channel (NaV 1.2). By doing so, we observe that in NaV 1.8, a relatively unexplored channel subtype with distinctly slow gating kinetics, VSDI-III participate in channel opening whereas VSDIV can regulate opening as well as fast inactivation...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Javier T Gonzalez, Judith D Richardson, Enhad A Chowdhury, Francoise Koumanov, Geoffrey D Holman, Scott Cooper, Dylan Thompson, Kostas Tsintzas, James A Betts
This experiment assessed molecular responses of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) to 6 weeks of morning fasting. Forty-eight, healthy lean (n = 29) and obese (n = 20) adults provided SCAT biopsies before and after six weeks of morning fasting (FAST; 0 kcal until 1200 h) or daily breakfast consumption (BFAST; ≥700 kcal before 1100 h). Biopsies were analysed for mRNA levels of selected genes, and GLUT4 and Akt protein content. Basal and insulin-stimulated Akt activation and tissue glucose uptake rates were also determined...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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