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Applied Ergonomics

Sunwook Kim, Maury A Nussbaum, Mohammad Iman Mokhlespour Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi Alemi, Saad Alabdulkarim, Ehsan Rashedi
Use of exoskeletal vests (designed to support overhead work) can be an effective intervention approach for tasks involving arm elevation, yet little is known on the potential beneficial impacts of their use on physical demands and task performance. This laboratory study (n = 12) evaluated the effects of a prototype exoskeletal vest during simulated repetitive overhead drilling and light assembly tasks. Anticipated or expected benefits were assessed, in terms of perceived discomfort, shoulder muscle activity, and task performance...
March 7, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Judith Tiferes, Ahmed A Hussein, Ann Bisantz, D Jeffery Higginbotham, Mohamed Sharif, Justen Kozlowski, Basel Ahmad, Ryan O'Hara, Nicole Wawrzyniak, Khurshid Guru
Communication breakdowns in the operating room (OR) have been linked to errors during surgery. Robot-assisted surgery (RAS), a new surgical technology, can lead to new challenges in communication owing to the remote location of the surgeon away from the patient and bedside assistants. Nevertheless, few studies have studied communication strategies during RAS. In this study, 11 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies were recorded and the interaction events between the surgeon and two bedside surgical team members were categorized by modality (verbal/nonverbal), topic, and pair (sender and receiver)...
March 7, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Sunwook Kim, Maury A Nussbaum, Mohammad Iman Mokhlespour Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi Alemi, Bochen Jia, Ehsan Rashedi
Adopting a new technology (exoskeletal vest designed to support overhead work) in the workplace can be challenging since the technology may pose unexpected safety and health consequences. A prototype exoskeletal vest was evaluated for potential unexpected consequences with a set of evaluation tests for: usability (especially, donning & doffing), shoulder range of motion (ROM), postural control, slip & trip risks, and spine loading during overhead work simulations. Donning/doffing the vest was easily done by a wearer alone...
March 7, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Eoin J White, Muireann McMahon, Michael T Walsh, J Calvin Coffey, Leonard W O'Sullivan
The aim of this study was to quantify laparoscopic instrument use and actions of both limbs during a sample of common colorectal surgical procedures. A method was devised using Observer XT software to code video recordings. Anonymised HD video recordings of nine laparoscopic colorectal procedures performed by a single surgeon were analysed. We determined the percentage and frequency of instrument use and limb actions throughout the total laparoscopic surgical duration, as well as the duration of instrument inactivity...
March 5, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Katherine L Forsyth, Emily A Hildebrand, M Susan Hallbeck, Russell J Branaghan, Renaldo C Blocker
Preoperative briefings have been proven beneficial for improving team performance in the operating room. However, there has been minimal research regarding team briefings in specific surgical domains. As part of a larger project to develop a briefing structure for gynecological surgery, the study aimed to better understand the current state of pre-operative team briefings in one department of an academic hospital. Twenty-four team briefings were observed and video recorded. Communication was analyzed and social network metrics were created based on the team member verbal interactions...
February 24, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
R Varadaraju, J Srinivasan
The clothing design based on sweat distribution pattern is called as body mapping clothing. Comparisons of three designs of body mapped and one conventional design of T-shirt was done in a wearer testing at a controlled chamber of 33 °C and 60% relativity humidity in a treadmill at 12 km/h for 40 min followed by 10 min resting. It is concluded that with the full body mapped T-shirt the increase in skin temperature is reduced in the chest area, shoulder, the body back by 47%,44% and 55% respectively; the increase in skin micro climate relative humidity is reduced in the chest area, shoulder, the body back by 54%,39...
February 22, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Ken Catchpole, Ann Bisantz, M Susan Hallbeck, Matthias Weigl, Rebecca Randell, Merrick Kossack, Jennifer T Anger
This article reviews studies conducted "in the wild" that explore the "ironies of automation" in Robotic Assisted Surgery (RAS). Workload may be reduced for the surgeon, but increased for other team members, with postural stress relocated rather than reduced, and the introduction of a range of new challenges, for example, in the need to control multiple arms, with multiple instruments; and the increased demands of being physically separated from the team. Workflow disruptions were not compared with other surgeries; however, the prevalence of equipment and training disruptions differs from other types of surgeries...
February 22, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Kristina Karstad, Reiner Rugulies, Jørgen Skotte, Pernille Kold Munch, Birgit A Greiner, Alex Burdorf, Karen Søgaard, Andreas Holtermann
The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the reliability of the "Danish observational study of eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorders" (DOSES) observation instrument to assess physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in eldercare work. During 1.5 years, sixteen raters conducted 117 inter-rater observations from 11 nursing homes. Reliability was evaluated using percent agreement and Gwet's AC1 coefficient. Of the 18 examined items, inter-rater reliability was excellent for 7 items (AC1>0...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Luca Orlandi, Benjamin Brooks
This paper investigates the effects of shiphandling manoeuvres on mental workload and physiological reactions in ten marine pilots. Each pilot performed four berthings in a ship simulator. Those berthings were differentiated by two factors, level of difficulty and familiarity with the port. Each berthing could also be divided into five phases, three during the execution and two resting periods, one before and one after the execution (dedicated to baseline physiological data collection). Mental workload was measured through two self assessment scales: the NASA TLX and a Likert scale...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Hyun K Kim, Jaehyun Park, Yeongcheol Choi, Mungyeong Choe
This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Jongryun Roh, Joonho Hyeong, Sayup Kim
In this study, foldable bicycles were evaluated in terms of their usability. Four types of folding mechanisms were identified depending on the number of pivots and the pivot axis direction: single lateral pivot (SLP), single vertical pivot, dual lateral pivot, and combined vertical-lateral pivot. Next, four bicycles-one each of these four types-were selected as test specimens. Ten subjects performed folding and unfolding tasks on each of these bicycles, and three-dimensional body motions and ground reaction forces were measured...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Marco Costa, Andrea Simone, Valeria Vignali, Claudio Lantieri, Nicola Palena
The distance of first-fixation to vertical road signs was assessed in 22 participants while driving a route of 8.34 km. Fixations to road signs were recorded by a mobile eye-movement-tracking device synchronized to GPS and kinematic data. The route included 75 road signs. First-fixation distance and fixation duration distributions were positively skewed. Median distance of first-fixation was 51 m. Median fixation duration was 137 ms with a modal value of 66 ms. First-fixation distance was linearly related to speed and fixation duration...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Sarah M Coppola, Michael Y C Lin, John Schilkowsky, Pedro M Arezes, Jack T Dennerlein
Tablet computers' hardware and software designs may affect upper extremity muscle activity and postures. This study investigated the hypothesis that forearm muscle activity as well as wrist and thumb postures differ during simple gestures across different tablet form factors and touchscreen locations. Sixteen adult (8 female, 8 male) participants completed 320 tablet gestures across four swipe locations, with various tablet sizes (8″ and 10"), tablet orientations (portrait and landscape), swipe orientations (vertical and horizontal), and swipe directions (medial and radial)...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Shota Yamanaka, Homei Miyashita
Human performance modeling is a core topic in ergonomics. In addition to deriving models, it is important to verify the kinds of tasks that can be modeled. Drury's law is promising for path tracking tasks such as navigating a path with pens or driving a car. We conducted an experiment based on the observation that paper-cutting tasks using scissors resemble such tasks. The results showed that cutting arc-like paths (1/4 of a circle) showed an excellent fit with Drury's law (R2  > 0.98), whereas cutting linear paths showed a worse fit (R2  > 0...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Shi-Jian Luo, Ge Shu, Yan Gong
Individual finger force (FF) in a grip task is a vital concern in rehabilitation engineering and precise control of manipulators because disorders in any of the fingers will affect the stability or accuracy of the grip force (GF). To understand the functions of each finger in a dynamic grip exertion task, a GF following experiment with four individual fingers without thumb was designed. This study obtained four individual FFs from the distal phalanges with a cylindrical handle in dynamic GF following tasks...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Ali Shahvarpour, Richard Preuss, Michael J L Sullivan, Alessia Negrini, Christian Larivière
Workers with low back pain (LBP) may benefit from wearing a lumbar belt (LB), but the biomechanical and psychological mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Two types of flexible LB (extensible and non-extensible) were compared to a control condition (no LB) regarding pain-related (pain, fear of pain and catastrophizing) and biomechanical (range of motion - ROM) outcomes related to two tasks: maximal trunk flexion-extension and manual material handling. Healthy controls and participants with LBP were tested...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Aaron P J Roberts, Neville A Stanton, Daniel T Fay
This is a world's first-of-a-kind study providing empirical evidence for understanding submarine control room performance when completing higher and lower demand Dived Tracking (DT) scenarios. A submarine control room simulator was built, using a non-commercial version of Dangerous Waters as the simulation engine. The creation of networked workstations allowed a team of nine operators to perform tasks completed by submarine command teams during DT. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method was used to model the social, task and information networks and describe command team performance...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Tyler Rose, Chang S Nam, Karen B Chen
Virtual reality (VR) shows promise in the application of healthcare and because it presents patients an immersive, often entertaining, approach to accomplish the goal of improvement in performance. Eighteen studies were reviewed to understand human performance and health outcomes after utilizing VR rehabilitation systems. We aimed to understand: (1) the influence of immersion in VR performance and health outcomes; (2) the relationship between enjoyment and potential patient adherence to VR rehabilitation routine; and (3) the influence of haptic feedback on performance in VR...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Michal Glinka, Sabrina Metzger, Daniel Viggiani, Jack Callaghan
This study investigated how task demands affect postural behaviour during standing. Twenty-four participants completed three different 12-min tasks: (1) a cognitive task that involved answering questions based on a written passage; (2) a light manual assembly task; and (3) standing quietly with no secondary task. The manual task was associated with the lowest amount of postural movement and a more static pose than the other two conditions. Specifically, postural variability of the lumbar (F = 5.8; p = 0...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
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