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Applied Ergonomics

Paul M Salmon, Anne-Claire Macquet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Stephen J Guastello, Anthony N Correro, David E Marra
The use of two cusp catastrophe models has been effective for untangling the effects of cognitive workload, fatigue, and other complications on the performance of individuals. This study is the first to use the two models to separate workload and fatigue effects on team performance. In an experiment involving an emergency response simulation, 360 undergraduates were organized into 44 teams. Workload was varied by team size, number of opponents, and time pressure. The cusp models for workload and fatigue were more accurate for describing trends in team performance criteria compared to linear alternatives...
September 5, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Hannah J Foy, Peter Chapman
Mental workload is an important factor during driving, as both high and low levels may result in driver error. This research examined the mental workload of drivers caused by changes in road environment and how such changes impact upon behaviour, physiological responses, eye movements and brain activity. The experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to record prefrontal cortex activation associated with changes in mental workload during simulated driving. Increases in subjective ratings of mental workload caused by changes in road type were accompanied by increases in skin conductance, acceleration signatures and horizontal spread of search...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Joyce M A Bouwens, Luisa Fasulo, Suzanne Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Udo W Schultheis, Alessandro Naddeo, Peter Vink
Sitting still for extended periods of time can lead to physical discomfort and even serious health risks. Due to safety regulations, reducing passenger' sitting time in aircrafts is not feasible. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study, in where an interactive airplane seat was compared with a current economy class seat. Participants used both seats for 3.5 h, and performed significantly more in-seat movements when using the interactive seating system. Furthermore, this interactive seat predominantly lead to significantly better comfort experiences and reduced discomfort experiences, however no significant differences have been found in self-reported localized musculoskeletal discomfort...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Ahmet Kolus, Richard Wells, Patrick Neumann
The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine available empirical evidence on the impact of human factors (HF) in the design and management of manufacturing operations on system quality performance. A systematic review was conducted to map the linkages between the human-system fit in the design of operations systems (OS) with production quality. A total of 73 empirical studies were identified linking HF to OS performance in manufacturing. Quality risk factors included HF aspects in product design, process design and workstation design of the manufacturing OS...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Kartheek Reddy Syamala, Ravi Charan Ailneni, Jeong Ho Kim, Jaejin Hwang
Mobile phone use is known to be associated with musculoskeletal pain in the neck and upper extremities because of related physical risk factors, including awkward postures. A chair that provides adequate support (armrests and back support) may reduce biomechanical loading in the neck and shoulder regions. Therefore, we conducted a repeated-measures laboratory study with 20 participants (23 ± 1.9 years; 10 males) to determine whether armrests and back support during mobile phone use reduced head/neck flexion, gravitational moment, and muscle activity in the neck and shoulder regions...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Knar Sagherian, Shijun Zhu, Carla Storr, Pamela S Hinds, Debra Derickson, Jeanne Geiger-Brown
This study examined the associations between bio-mathematical fatigue-risk scores and sickness absence (SA) in hospital nurses over 18 months. Work schedules and SA data were extracted from the hospital's attendance system. Fatigue-risk scores were generated for work days using the Fatigue Audit InterDyne (FAID) and Fatigue Risk Index (FRI). Over the study period, 5.4% of the shifts were absence shifts. FAID-fatigue ranged from 7 to 154; scores for a standard 9-5 work schedule can range from 7 to 40. Nurses with high FAID-scores were more likely to be absent from work when compared to standard FAID-scores (41-79, OR = 1...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Margherita Raccuglia, Benjamin Sales, Christian Heyde, George Havenith, Simon Hodder
Clothing comfort is determined by multiple material and design factors. Wetness at the skin-clothing interface mainly impacts wear comfort. The current study investigated the combined effect of fabric contact area, fabric absolute sweat content and fabric moisture saturation percentage on wetness and stickiness sensations, during exercise. Moreover, factors causing wear (dis)comfort during exercise were identified. Higher fabric saturation percentage induced greater stickiness sensation, despite lower fabric contact area and absolute sweat content (typically associated with lower stickiness)...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
April Savoy, Himalaya Patel, Mindy E Flanagan, Joanne K Daggy, Alissa L Russ, Michael Weiner
Communication breakdowns in the referral process negatively impact clinical workflow and patient safety. There is a lack of evidence demonstrating the impact of published design recommendations addressing contributing issues with consultation order templates. This study translated the recommendations into a computer-based prototype and conducted a comparative usability evaluation. With a scenario-based simulation, 30 clinicians (referrers) participated in a within-group, counterbalanced experiment comparing the prototype with their present electronic order entry system...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Dimitris Nathanael, Nicolas Marmaras
Through the detailed account of a design case-study, the paper aims to demonstrate how the activity-oriented approach promotes a systems perspective in ergonomics interventions. Specifically, by presenting an activity-oriented re-design of a tram drivers' workstation, it is shown: (i) how technical and contextual aspects were jointly considered, (ii) how their combination affects workers' activity in a non-trivial manner, and (iii) how this system level view helped generate feasible and sustainable design solutions...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Angelica E Lang, Jacquelyn M Maciukiewicz, Meghan E Vidt, Sylvain G Grenier, Clark R Dickerson
INTRODUCTION: Repetitive movements and awkward postures are two persistent injury risk factors for grocery store cashiers. Due to the recent rise in popularity of environmentally-friendly grocery bagging options, current recommendations for cashiers are likely outdated. Correspondingly, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of cashier-specific work demands, workstation configuration, and container type on upper limb postures during typical job activities. METHODS: Fifteen experienced cashiers bagged groceries at varying combinations of workstation height (low, medium, high) and container type (reusable bins, reusable bags, plastic bags)...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Daniel C McFarland, Michael N Poppo, Emily M McCain, Katherine R Saul
Work involving extensive pushing and pulling is associated with higher frequency of shoulder complaints. While reports of shoulder muscle demand during submaximal isometric tasks are abundant, dynamic submaximal push-pull exertions are not well understood. We evaluated how muscle demand (weighted EMG average) of surface glenohumeral muscles varies with task type and target. Seventeen healthy young adults performed seated unimanual and bimanual pushes and pulls to 3 thoracohumeral elevations (20°, 90°, 170°) and 4 elevation planes (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°) with loading at 15% of isometric push-pull capacity...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
David P Looney, William R Santee, Laurie A Blanchard, Anthony J Karis, Alyssa J Carter, Adam W Potter
This study examined complex terrain march performance and cardiorespiratory responses when carrying different Soldier loads. Nine active duty military personnel (age, 21 ± 3 yr; height, 1.72 ± 0.07 m; body mass (BM), 83.4 ± 12.9 kg) attended two test visits during which they completed consecutive laps around a 2.5-km mixed terrain course with either a fighting load (30% BM) or an approach load (45% BM). Respiratory rate and heart rate data were collected using physiological status monitors. Training impulse (TRIMP) scores were calculated using Banister's formula to provide an integrated measure of both time and cardiorespiratory demands...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Jouh Yeong Chew, Koichi Ohtomi, Hiromasa Suzuki
A prediction model is used to predict subjective responses of crane operators with respect to different designs of In-Vehicle Visual Support (IVVS). Selected gaze metrics are used as objective metrics to minimize prejudice, which is commonly caused by subjective measures. Experiments are carried out using crane simulator to measure glance behavior of novice operators and the 3D perspective projection method is used for autonomous mapping of gaze fixations to dynamic Area-of-Interests (AOIs). Subjective responses, such as operators' emotion and usability of IVVS, are evaluated using the Likert scale of the Semantic Differential method...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Modi Owied Al-Moteri, Mark Symmons, Simon Cooper, Virginia Plummer
Eye-tracking methodology was used to investigate lapses in the appropriate treatment of ward patients due to not noticing critical cues of deterioration. Forty nursing participants with different levels of experience participated in an interactive screen-based simulation of hypovolemic shock. The results show that 65% of the participants exhibited at least one episode of non-fixation on clinically relevant, fully visible cues that were in plain sight. Thirty-five percent of participants dwelt for sufficient time (>200 ms) on important cues for perception to take place, but no action followed, indicating they had pattern-matching failure...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Michael T Pascale, Penelope Sanderson, David Liu, Ismail Mohamed, Nicola Stigter, Robert G Loeb
OBJECTIVE: To compare people's ability to detect peripherally presented stimuli on a monocular head-worn display (HWD) versus a conventional screen. BACKGROUND: Visual attention capture has been systematically investigated, but not with respect to HWDs. How stimulus properties affect attention capture is likely to be different on an HWD when compared to a traditional computer display. METHOD: Participants performed an ongoing perceptual task and attempted to detect stimuli that were displayed peripherally on either a computer monitor or a monocular HWD...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Kasper Edwards, Jörgen Winkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Jie Xu, Shilo Anders, Arisa Pruttianan, Daniel France, Nathan Lau, Julie A Adams, Matthew B Weinger
We reviewed the available literature on measuring human performance to evaluate human-system interfaces (HSIs), focused on high-fidelity simulations of industrial process control systems, to identify best practices and future directions for research and operations. We searched the available literature and then conducted in-depth review, structured coding, and analysis of 49 articles, which described 42 studies. Human performance measures were classified across six dimensions: task performance, workload, situation awareness, teamwork/collaboration, plant performance, and other cognitive performance indicators...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Linda Victoria Rolfö
Many organizations relocate to activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) and the results are mixed. This study aims at identifying factors in the design and implementation process that contribute to perceived performance and environmental satisfaction with A-FOs. A company with 50 employees was studied using interviews, questionnaires and documentation before and after relocation. The results showed that process factors such as objectives, financial and time resources, employee participation and empowerment, and methodological approach contributed to the outcomes...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Xuguang Wang, Michelle Cardoso, Georges Beurier
Designing one seat for multi-sitters and multi-activities is challenging especially in a very restrained aircraft economy class cabin. In this paper, the effects of seat parameters and sitters' anthropometric dimensions on seat profile and optimal compressed seat pan surface were studied using a newly built multi-adjustable experimental seat. The 'optimal' seat pan contact surface was obtained by controlling the height of 52 cylinders so that the normal contact force was distributed to all cylinders as evenly as possible...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
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