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Applied Ergonomics

Jia-Hua Lin, Alex Kirlik, Xu Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Camilla Grane
Highly automated driving will change driver's behavioural patterns. Traditional methods used for assessing manual driving will only be applicable for the parts of human-automation interaction where the driver intervenes such as in hand-over and take-over situations. Therefore, driver behaviour assessment will need to adapt to the new driving scenarios. This paper aims at simplifying the process of selecting appropriate assessment methods. Thirty-five papers were reviewed to examine potential and relevant methods...
August 30, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Patrick G Dempsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Amanda Clacy, Natassia Goode, Rachael Sharman, Geoff P Lovell, Paul Salmon
AIM: The aim of the present study was to utilise a systems thinking approach to explore the perceived responsibilities for identifying and treating concussion held by different actors across the community rugby system (e.g., players, coaches, parents, medics, referees, and management), as well as their role-specific concussion management strategies. METHODS: A systems approach was taken to assess what different stakeholders within rugby systems perceive their roles to be regarding concussion identification and treatment...
July 4, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Walter Talamonti, Louis Tijerina, Mike Blommer, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Reates Curry, R Darin Ellis
This paper describes a new method, a 'mirage scenario,' to support formative evaluation of driver alerting or warning displays for manual and automated driving. This method provides driving contexts (e.g., various Times-To-Collision (TTCs) to a lead vehicle) briefly presented and then removed. In the present study, during each mirage event, a haptic steering display was evaluated. This haptic display indicated a steering response may be initiated to drive around an obstacle ahead. A motion-base simulator was used in a 32-participant study to present vehicle motion cues similar to the actual application...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
George M Sammonds, Neil J Mansfield, Mike Fray
During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmill. The results show a reduction in driver discomfort during the break for all 3 conditions, but the effectiveness of the break was dependent on activity undertaken...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Maryam Zahabi, Patricia Machado, Mei Ying Lau, Yulin Deng, Carl Pankok, Joseph Hummer, William Rasdorf, David B Kaber
The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of driver age, ramp signage configuration, including number of panels, logo format and sign familiarity, on driver performance and attention allocation when exiting freeways. Sixty drivers participated in a simulator study and analysis of variance models were used to assess response effects of the controlled manipulations. Results revealed elderly drivers to demonstrate worse performance and conservative control strategies as compared to middle-aged and young drivers...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jung Hyup Kim, Xiaonan Yang
This laboratory experiment was designed to use fractal dimension as a new method to analyze pupil dilation to evaluate the level of complexity in a multitasking environment. By using the eye-head integrated tracking system, we collected both pupil responses and head positions while participants conducted both process monitoring task and Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB-II) tasks. There was a significant effect of scenario complexity on a composite index of multitasking performance (Low Complexity » High Complexity)...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jin Tao, Niu Yafeng, Zhou Lei
The rapid growth of attention to visual warnings is a representation of the adaptive behavior of humans. However, the ways warning icons attract attention in the cognition context has yet to be clarified. This research aims to investigate cognitive mechanism of warning icons under various perceptual loads. The results of Experiment A, whose average attentional capture effect of the warning icons (69 ms) was significantly higher than that of the ordinary icons (35 ms), show that compared with ordinary icons, warning icons are prioritized in processing under both high and low perceptual loads...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Erin K Howie, Pieter Coenen, Amity C Campbell, Sonia Ranelli, Leon M Straker
Young children (ages 3 to 5) are using mobile touchscreen technology, including tablet computers, yet little is known on the potential musculoskeletal and physical activity implications of its use. This within-subject laboratory study (n = 10) examined head, trunk and arm postures, upper trapezius muscle activity, and total body and upper limb physical activity during playing with tablets compared to during TV watching and playing with non-screen toys. Overall, this study found that during tablet play children had greater mean head, trunk and upper arm angles compared to both TV watching and toy play...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Johanna M Silvennoinen, Tuomo Kujala, Jussi P P Jokinen
In-car infotainment systems require icons that enable fluent cognitive information processing and safe interaction while driving. An important issue is how to find an optimised set of icons for different functions in terms of semantic distance. In an optimised icon set, every icon needs to be semantically as close as possible to the function it visually represents and semantically as far as possible from the other functions represented concurrently. In three experiments (N = 21 each), semantic distances of 19 icons to four menu functions were studied with preference rankings, verbal protocols, and the primed product comparisons method...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jing Qiao, Lishan Sun, Xiaoming Liu, Jian Rong
The rapid increase in the volume of subway passengers in Beijing has necessitated higher requirements for the safety and efficiency of subway corridors. Speed dispersion is an important factor that affects safety and efficiency. This paper aims to analyze the management control methods for reducing pedestrian speed dispersion in subways. The characteristics of the speed dispersion of pedestrian flow were analyzed according to field videos. The control measurements which were conducted by placing traffic signs, yellow marking, and guardrail were proposed to alleviate speed dispersion...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
C C Roossien, J Stegenga, A P Hodselmans, S M Spook, W Koolhaas, S Brouwer, G J Verkerke, M F Reneman
Prolonged sitting can cause health problems and musculoskeletal discomfort. There is a need for objective and non-obstructive means of measuring sitting behavior. A 'smart' office chair can monitor sitting behavior and provide tactile feedback, aiming to improve sitting behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the feedback signal on sitting behavior and musculoskeletal discomfort. In a 12-week prospective cohort study (ABCB design) among office workers (n = 45) was measured sitting duration and posture, feedback signals and musculoskeletal discomfort...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
A Hulme, P M Salmon, R O Nielsen, G J M Read, C F Finch
INTRODUCTION: There is a need for an ecological and complex systems approach for better understanding the development and prevention of running-related injury (RRI). In a previous article, we proposed a prototype model of the Australian recreational distance running system which was based on the Systems Theoretic Accident Mapping and Processes (STAMP) method. That model included the influence of political, organisational, managerial, and sociocultural determinants alongside individual-level factors in relation to RRI development...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jakob Rodseth, Edward P Washabaugh, Ali Al Haddad, Paula Kartje, Denise G Tate, Chandramouli Krishnan
Brake reaction time is a key component to studying driving performance and evaluating fitness to drive. Although commercial simulators can measure brake reaction time, their cost remains a major barrier to clinical access. Therefore, we developed open-source software written in C-sharp (C#) for measuring driving related reaction times, which includes a subject-controlled vehicle with straight-line dynamics and several testing scenarios. The software measures both simple and cognitive load based reaction times and can use any human interface device compliant steering wheel and pedals...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Ya-Hsien Ko
This study explored and identified the effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility. A total of 108 participants took part in the experiment. As designed, legibility was measured as a function of the following independent variables: four levels of luminance contrast, sixteen target/background colour combinations, two fonts, and three search times. The results showed that a luminance contrast of 18:1 provided readers with the best legibility. Yellow on black, yellow on blue, and white on blue were the three most legible colour combinations...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
O A Zielinska, C B Mayhorn, M S Wogalter
OBJECTIVE: The perceived hazard and rated importance of standard safety, fluorescent, and neon colors are investigated. BACKGROUND: Colors are used in warnings to enhance hazard communication. Red has consistently been rated as the highest in perceived hazard. Orange, yellow, and black are the next highest in connoted hazard; however, there is discrepancy in their ordering. Safety standards, such as ANSI Z535.1, also list colors to convey important information, but little research has examined the perceived importance of colors...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Benjamin Wolfe, Jonathan Dobres, Ruth Rosenholtz, Bryan Reimer
Applied research on driving and basic vision research have held similar views on central, fovea-based vision as the core of visual perception. In applied work, the concept of the Useful Field, as determined by the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test, divides vision between a "useful" region towards the center of the visual field, and the rest of the visual field. While compelling, this dichotomization is at odds with findings in vision science which demonstrate the capabilities of peripheral vision. In this paper, we examine driving research from this new perspective, and argue for the need for an updated understanding of how drivers acquire information about their operating environment using peripheral vision...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Kingsley Fletcher, Andrew Neal, Gillian Yeo
It is well established that an increase in cognitive task demands is associated with increased pupil diameter. However, the effect of increased motor task demands on pupil diameter is less clear. Previous research indicates that higher motor task complexity increases pupil diameter but suggests that higher motor task precision demands may decrease pupil diameter during task movement. The current study investigated the effect of increased motor task precision on pupil diameter using a Fitts' Law movement task to manipulate motor response precision...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Martin Kruusimagi, Sarah Sharples, Darren Robinson
Rising energy demands place pressure on domestic energy consumption, but savings can be delivered through home automation and engaging users with their heating and energy behaviours. The aim of this paper is to explore user experiences (UX) of living with an automated heating system regarding experiences of control, understanding of the system, emerging thermal behaviours, and interactions with the system as this area is not sufficiently researched in the existing homes setting through extended deployment. We present a longitudinal deployment of a quasi-autonomous spatiotemporal home heating system in three homes...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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