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Applied Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195844/cusp-catastrophe-models-for-cognitive-workload-and-fatigue-in-teams
#1
Stephen J Guastello, Anthony N Correro, David E Marra
The use of two cusp catastrophe models has been effective for untangling the effects of cognitive workload, fatigue, and other complications on the performance of individuals. This study is the first to use the two models to separate workload and fatigue effects on team performance. In an experiment involving an emergency response simulation, 360 undergraduates were organized into 44 teams. Workload was varied by team size, number of opponents, and time pressure. The cusp models for workload and fatigue were more accurate for describing trends in team performance criteria compared to linear alternatives...
September 5, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121119/simulating-the-influence-of-physical-overload-on-assembly-line-performance-a-case-study-in-an-automotive-electrical-component-plant
#2
Diego Luiz de Mattos, Rafael Ariente Neto, Eugenio Andrés Díaz Merino, Fernando Antônio Forcellini
Although the workstations of a Brazilian automotive electrical harness production line are set close to TAKT time (the production rate required to meet demand), factory performance is compromised regarding: (i) sick leaves due to occupational disease (105 employees last year) and (ii) a production rate at only 42% of capacity. Our objective was to simulate the performance of a production line balanced against physical overload by the addition of an extra workstation. Based on ergonomic work analysis, the study applied System Dynamics at the global observation stage to obtain a systemic interpretation of the factors involved in production line performance...
August 15, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103905/multiscale-movement-coordination-dynamics-in-collaborative-team-problem-solving
#3
Travis J Wiltshire, Sune Vork Steffensen, Stephen M Fiore
During collaborative problem solving (CPS), coordination occurs at different spatial and temporal scales. This multiscale coordination should play a functional role in facilitating effective collaboration. To evaluate this, we conducted a study of computer-based CPS with 42 dyadic teams. We used cross-wavelet coherence to examine movement coordination, extracted from videos, at several scales, and tested whether the observed coordination was greater than expected due to chance and due to task demands. We found that coordination at scales less than 2s was greater than chance and at most scales (except 16s, 1m, and 2m), was greater than expected due to task demands...
August 10, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055764/the-complexity-of-human-performance-variability-on-watch-standing-task
#4
Waldemar Karwowski, David Kern, Atsuo Murata, Tareq Ahram, Edgar Gutiérrez, Nabin Sapkota, Tadeusz Marek
The primary objective of this study was to examine the complexity of human temporal variability of topside roving watch task in naval operations concerning the reported times of ship status and to explore the potential presence of chaotic behavior and fractal properties of the reported log times. Topside rover reporting time intervals recorded in the deck logs of the USS Jason Dunham over the 2013-2015 period were analyzed to understand the underlying complexity of the watch standing task that is critical to the success of naval operations...
July 25, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041829/the-humane-use-of-human-beings
#5
P A Hancock
The closing of loops exerts magical effects. This powerful act sculpts both the structural form and the functional expression of the systems which accrue from this ultimate connection. Systems and societies are each erected upon, and composed of, such intricate webs of self-correcting and self-shaping influences. However, without appropriate feedback regulation, these loops can become, in a utilitarian sense, dysfunctional. This is as true for social architectures as it is for any intentionally designed technological system...
July 21, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033038/a-study-of-the-individual-activity-of-professional-volleyball-players-situation-assessment-and-sensemaking-under-time-pressure
#6
Michel Récopé, Hélène Fache, Joffrey Beaujouan, Fabien Coutarel, Géraldine Rix-Lièvre
The aim of this study is to understand interindividual differences in defensive behaviour in elite volleyball players facing similar game situations. This recurrent observation leads us to adopt an activity-centred ergonomic approach. Two case studies are conducted in naturalistic contexts. In the first, thirty-one professional players are observed in order to account for typical forms of behaviour in relation to certain specific sets of game situations. Two characteristic populations are distinguished. The second study uses observations and self-confrontation interviews with twelve players representative of each population in order to characterise their situation assessment...
July 19, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031520/the-heuristic-version-of-cognitive-work-analysis-a-first-application-to-medical-emergency-situations
#7
Thierry Morineau, John M Flach
Cognitive Work Analysis is an original method that seeks to describe work systems made up of nested sets of constraints, from ecological constraints imposed by the work domain to cognitive constraints. This top-down approach starts with a work domain model in order to analyze and specify contexts of activity. To complement this method, we propose a bottom-up version of Cognitive Work Analysis focusing on contexts of activity and depicting how operators adapt to the ecological constraints. Based on Rasmussen's Dynamic Safety Model, the ecological constraints involved are those bounding the workspace in which operators dynamically navigate with control loops, strategies, work organization, and competencies...
July 18, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029770/enactments-and-the-design-of-trail-running-equipment-an-example-of-carrying-systems
#8
Nadège Rochat, Denis Hauw, Ludovic Seifert
Sports equipment brands have increasingly turned to experience-centered design, meaning the integration of users' activity into the design process. From an enactive perspective, this research investigated two entries of collecting and analyzing interactions between trail runners and their equipment. The paper articulates two studies. Study 1 analyzed traces of enactments on online forums and showed that trail runners reported the issues they enacted while running and reflexively posted the traces of their activity by highlighting the flaws in their carrying systems...
July 17, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960648/surgical-team-workload-comparison-for-4-port-and-single-port-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-procedures
#9
Bethany R Lowndes, Amro M Abdelrahman, Cornelius A Thiels, Amani O Mohamed, Andrea L McConico, Juliane Bingener, M Susan Hallbeck
Advanced minimally invasive procedures may cause postural constraints and increased workload and stress for providers. This study compared workload and stress across surgical team roles for 48 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (4-port vs single-port) using a task load index (NASA-TLX), a procedural difficulty question, and salivary stress hormones. Statistical analyses were performed based on the presence intra-cluster correlation within team roles, at α=0.05. The single-port technique resulted in an 89% increase in physical workload for the surgeon and 63% increase for the assistant (both p<0...
June 27, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098645/mental-workload-is-reflected-in-driver-behaviour-physiology-eye-movements-and-prefrontal-cortex-activation
#10
Hannah J Foy, Peter Chapman
Mental workload is an important factor during driving, as both high and low levels may result in driver error. This research examined the mental workload of drivers caused by changes in road environment and how such changes impact upon behaviour, physiological responses, eye movements and brain activity. The experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to record prefrontal cortex activation associated with changes in mental workload during simulated driving. Increases in subjective ratings of mental workload caused by changes in road type were accompanied by increases in skin conductance, acceleration signatures and horizontal spread of search...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098644/effect-of-in-seat-exercising-on-comfort-perception-of-airplane-passengers
#11
Joyce M A Bouwens, Luisa Fasulo, Suzanne Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Udo W Schultheis, Alessandro Naddeo, Peter Vink
Sitting still for extended periods of time can lead to physical discomfort and even serious health risks. Due to safety regulations, reducing passenger' sitting time in aircrafts is not feasible. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study, in where an interactive airplane seat was compared with a current economy class seat. Participants used both seats for 3.5 h, and performed significantly more in-seat movements when using the interactive seating system. Furthermore, this interactive seat predominantly lead to significantly better comfort experiences and reduced discomfort experiences, however no significant differences have been found in self-reported localized musculoskeletal discomfort...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098643/production-quality-and-human-factors-engineering-a-systematic-review-and-theoretical-framework
#12
REVIEW
Ahmet Kolus, Richard Wells, Patrick Neumann
The purpose of this paper is to systematically examine available empirical evidence on the impact of human factors (HF) in the design and management of manufacturing operations on system quality performance. A systematic review was conducted to map the linkages between the human-system fit in the design of operations systems (OS) with production quality. A total of 73 empirical studies were identified linking HF to OS performance in manufacturing. Quality risk factors included HF aspects in product design, process design and workstation design of the manufacturing OS...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098642/armrests-and-back-support-reduced-biomechanical-loading-in-the-neck-and-upper-extremities-during-mobile-phone-use
#13
Kartheek Reddy Syamala, Ravi Charan Ailneni, Jeong Ho Kim, Jaejin Hwang
Mobile phone use is known to be associated with musculoskeletal pain in the neck and upper extremities because of related physical risk factors, including awkward postures. A chair that provides adequate support (armrests and back support) may reduce biomechanical loading in the neck and shoulder regions. Therefore, we conducted a repeated-measures laboratory study with 20 participants (23 ± 1.9 years; 10 males) to determine whether armrests and back support during mobile phone use reduced head/neck flexion, gravitational moment, and muscle activity in the neck and shoulder regions...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098641/bio-mathematical-fatigue-models-predict-sickness-absence-in-hospital-nurses-an-18-months-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Knar Sagherian, Shijun Zhu, Carla Storr, Pamela S Hinds, Debra Derickson, Jeanne Geiger-Brown
This study examined the associations between bio-mathematical fatigue-risk scores and sickness absence (SA) in hospital nurses over 18 months. Work schedules and SA data were extracted from the hospital's attendance system. Fatigue-risk scores were generated for work days using the Fatigue Audit InterDyne (FAID) and Fatigue Risk Index (FRI). Over the study period, 5.4% of the shifts were absence shifts. FAID-fatigue ranged from 7 to 154; scores for a standard 9-5 work schedule can range from 7 to 40. Nurses with high FAID-scores were more likely to be absent from work when compared to standard FAID-scores (41-79, OR = 1...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098640/clothing-comfort-during-physical-exercise-determining-the-critical-factors
#15
Margherita Raccuglia, Benjamin Sales, Christian Heyde, George Havenith, Simon Hodder
Clothing comfort is determined by multiple material and design factors. Wetness at the skin-clothing interface mainly impacts wear comfort. The current study investigated the combined effect of fabric contact area, fabric absolute sweat content and fabric moisture saturation percentage on wetness and stickiness sensations, during exercise. Moreover, factors causing wear (dis)comfort during exercise were identified. Higher fabric saturation percentage induced greater stickiness sensation, despite lower fabric contact area and absolute sweat content (typically associated with lower stickiness)...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098639/comparative-usability-evaluation-of-consultation-order-templates-in-a-simulated-primary-care-environment
#16
April Savoy, Himalaya Patel, Mindy E Flanagan, Joanne K Daggy, Alissa L Russ, Michael Weiner
Communication breakdowns in the referral process negatively impact clinical workflow and patient safety. There is a lack of evidence demonstrating the impact of published design recommendations addressing contributing issues with consultation order templates. This study translated the recommendations into a computer-based prototype and conducted a comparative usability evaluation. With a scenario-based simulation, 30 clinicians (referrers) participated in a within-group, counterbalanced experiment comparing the prototype with their present electronic order entry system...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098638/from-the-seat-to-the-system-re-designing-a-tram-drivers-workstation-combining-technical-and-contextual-aspects
#17
Dimitris Nathanael, Nicolas Marmaras
Through the detailed account of a design case-study, the paper aims to demonstrate how the activity-oriented approach promotes a systems perspective in ergonomics interventions. Specifically, by presenting an activity-oriented re-design of a tram drivers' workstation, it is shown: (i) how technical and contextual aspects were jointly considered, (ii) how their combination affects workers' activity in a non-trivial manner, and (iii) how this system level view helped generate feasible and sustainable design solutions...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098637/workstation-configuration-and-container-type-influence-upper-limb-posture-in-grocery-bagging
#18
Angelica E Lang, Jacquelyn M Maciukiewicz, Meghan E Vidt, Sylvain G Grenier, Clark R Dickerson
INTRODUCTION: Repetitive movements and awkward postures are two persistent injury risk factors for grocery store cashiers. Due to the recent rise in popularity of environmentally-friendly grocery bagging options, current recommendations for cashiers are likely outdated. Correspondingly, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of cashier-specific work demands, workstation configuration, and container type on upper limb postures during typical job activities. METHODS: Fifteen experienced cashiers bagged groceries at varying combinations of workstation height (low, medium, high) and container type (reusable bins, reusable bags, plastic bags)...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098636/spatial-dependency-of-shoulder-muscle-demand-during-dynamic-unimanual-and-bimanual-pushing-and-pulling
#19
Daniel C McFarland, Michael N Poppo, Emily M McCain, Katherine R Saul
Work involving extensive pushing and pulling is associated with higher frequency of shoulder complaints. While reports of shoulder muscle demand during submaximal isometric tasks are abundant, dynamic submaximal push-pull exertions are not well understood. We evaluated how muscle demand (weighted EMG average) of surface glenohumeral muscles varies with task type and target. Seventeen healthy young adults performed seated unimanual and bimanual pushes and pulls to 3 thoracohumeral elevations (20°, 90°, 170°) and 4 elevation planes (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°) with loading at 15% of isometric push-pull capacity...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098635/cardiorespiratory-responses-to-heavy-military-load-carriage-over-complex-terrain
#20
David P Looney, William R Santee, Laurie A Blanchard, Anthony J Karis, Alyssa J Carter, Adam W Potter
This study examined complex terrain march performance and cardiorespiratory responses when carrying different Soldier loads. Nine active duty military personnel (age, 21 ± 3 yr; height, 1.72 ± 0.07 m; body mass (BM), 83.4 ± 12.9 kg) attended two test visits during which they completed consecutive laps around a 2.5-km mixed terrain course with either a fighting load (30% BM) or an approach load (45% BM). Respiratory rate and heart rate data were collected using physiological status monitors. Training impulse (TRIMP) scores were calculated using Banister's formula to provide an integrated measure of both time and cardiorespiratory demands...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
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