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Applied Ergonomics

Sang D Choi, Liangjie Guo, Donghun Kang, Shuping Xiong
Training balance and promoting physical activities in the elderly can contribute to fall-prevention. Due to the low adherence of conventional physical therapy, fall interventions through exergame technologies are emerging. The purpose of this review study is to synthesize the available research reported on exergame technology and interactive interventions for fall prevention in the older population. Twenty-five relevant papers retrieved from five major databases were critically reviewed and analyzed. Results showed that the most common exergaming device for fall intervention was Nintendo Wii, followed by Xbox Kinect...
November 5, 2016: Applied Ergonomics
Pierre Plantard, Hubert P H Shum, Anne-Sophie Le Pierres, Franck Multon
Evaluating potential musculoskeletal disorders risks in real workstations is challenging as the environment is cluttered, which makes it difficult to accurately assess workers' postures. Being marker-free and calibration-free, Microsoft Kinect is a promising device although it may be sensitive to occlusions. We propose and evaluate a RULA ergonomic assessment in real work conditions using recently published occlusion-resistant Kinect skeleton data correction. First, we compared postures estimated with this method to ground-truth data, in standardized laboratory conditions...
November 4, 2016: Applied Ergonomics
Carl Pankok, Maryam Zahabi, Wenjuan Zhang, Inchul Choi, Yi-Fan Liao, Chang S Nam, David Kaber
The objective of the study was to assess the effects of interruption task similarity and complexity on performance of a simulated industrial assembly operation. Eighteen participants performed a simulated industrial assembly operation, including one trial with no interruption and eight others presenting an interruption task. Interruption conditions comprised a full crossing of task similarity to the primary assembly operation (similar, dissimilar) and complexity (simple, complex) with replication for each participant...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Joakim Olander, Enrico Ronchi, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Daniel Nilsson
This work presents the result of a questionnaire study which investigates the design of dissuasive emergency signage, i.e. signage conveying a message of not utilizing a specific exit door. The work analyses and tests a set of key features of dissuasive emergency signage using the Theory of Affordances. The variables having the largest impact on observer preference, interpretation and noticeability of the signage have been identified. Results show that features which clearly negate the exit-message of the original positive exit signage are most effective, for instance a red X-marking placed across the entirety of the exit signage conveys a clear dissuasive message...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Elizabeth Reuter, Jorge D Camba
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a demanding and hazardous industry. Because of the changing roles in the emergency response system, EMS workers are increasingly expected to provide treatment and care in addition to transport, which increases their task load and susceptibility to harm. This paper serves to outline the EMS field from the worker's perspective with the purpose of understanding their views on health, safety, and the work environment, and identify where gaps in worker well-being are exposed. Through direct observation, field studies, and formal interviews with EMS professionals, we discuss where reluctance lies in addressing safety issues and the current efforts to address them...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Chao-Yang Yang, Cheng-Tse Wu
This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Kin Wai Michael Siu, Mei Seung Lam, Yi Lin Wong
Color has been more identified as a key consideration in ergonomics. Color conveys messages and is an important element in safety signs, as it provides extra information to users. However, very limited recent research has focused on children and their color association in the context of safety signs. This study thus examined how children use colors in drawing different safety signs and how they associate colors with different concepts and objects that appear in safety signs. Drawing was used to extract children's use of color and the associations they made between signs and colors...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
P Simeonov, H Hsiao, J Powers, D Ammons, T Kau, D Cantis, J Zwiener, D Weaver
This study evaluated the effect of an extension ladder "walk-through" top design on kinetic and kinematic behaviors and the outward destabilizing forces induced on the ladder during transitioning at elevation. Thirty-two male participants performed stepping tasks between a ladder top and a roof at simulated elevation in a surround-screen virtual-reality system. The experimental conditions included a "walk-through" and a standard ladder top section supported on flat and sloped roof surfaces. Three force platforms were placed under the ladder section and in the roof to measure propulsion forces during transitions...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Heather E Douglas, Magdalena Z Raban, Scott R Walter, Johanna I Westbrook
Multi-tasking is an important skill for clinical work which has received limited research attention. Its impacts on clinical work are poorly understood. In contrast, there is substantial multi-tasking research in cognitive psychology, driver distraction, and human-computer interaction. This review synthesises evidence of the extent and impacts of multi-tasking on efficiency and task performance from health and non-healthcare literature, to compare and contrast approaches, identify implications for clinical work, and to develop an evidence-informed framework for guiding the measurement of multi-tasking in future healthcare studies...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Karl Grainger, Zoe Dodson, Thomas Korff
Bicycling is a popular activity for children. In order for children to enjoy cycling and to minimize injury, it is important that they are positioned appropriately on the bicycle. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify a suitable bicycle setup for children aged between 7 and 16 years which accommodates developmental differences in anthropometrics, flexibility and perceptions of comfort. Using an adjustable bicycle fitting rig, we found the most comfortable position of 142 children aged 7 to 16...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Cory L Butts, Cody R Smith, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate physiological and perceptual responses using a phase change cooling (PCC) garment during simulated work in the heat. METHODS: Twenty males wearing compression undergarments, coverall suit, gloves, and hard-hat, completed two randomly assigned trials (with PCC inserts or control, CON) of simulated industrial tasks in the heat (34.2 ± 0.05 °C, 54.7 ± 0.3%RH). Trials consisted of two 20 min work bouts, a maximum performance bout, and 10 min of recovery...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Victoria Filingeri, Ken Eason, Patrick Waterson, Roger Haslam
Humans encounter crowd situations on a daily basis, resulting in both negative and positive experiences. Understanding how to optimise the participant experience of crowds is important. In the study presented in this paper, 5 focus groups were conducted (35 participants, age range: 21-71 years) and 55 crowd situations observed (e.g. transport hubs, sport events, retail situations). Influences on participant experience in crowds identified by the focus groups and observations included: physical design of crowd space and facilities (layout, queuing strategies), crowd movement (monitoring capacity, pedestrian flow), communication and information (signage, wayfinding), comfort and welfare (provision of facilities, environmental comfort), and public order...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Iman Dianat, Soleyman Rahimi, Moein Nedaei, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Ali E Oskouei
The effects of tool handle dimension (three modified designs of wrenches with 30-50 mm diameter cylindrical handles and traditional design with rectangular cross-sectional (5 mm × 25 mm) handle), workpiece orientation (vertical/horizontal) and workpiece size (small/large) as well as user's hand size on wrist ulnar/radial (U/R) torque strength, usability and discomfort, and also the relationship between these variables were evaluated in a maximum torque task using wrenches. The highest and lowest levels of maximal wrist U/R torque strength were recorded for the 30 mm diameter handle and traditional wrench design, respectively...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Nicholas J La Delfa, Jim R Potvin
This paper describes the development of a novel method (termed the 'Arm Force Field' or 'AFF') to predict manual arm strength (MAS) for a wide range of body orientations, hand locations and any force direction. This method used an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the effects of hand location and force direction on MAS, and included a method to estimate the contribution of the arm's weight to the predicted strength. The AFF method predicted the MAS values very well (r(2) = 0.97, RMSD = 5.2 N, n = 456) and maintained good generalizability with external test data (r(2) = 0...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Hadi Ibrahim Masoud, Yaser Zerehsaz, Jionghua Judy Jin
The rapid development of motion capture technologies has greatly increased the use of human motion data in many applications. This has increased the demand to have an effective means to systematically analyze those massive data in order to understand human motion variation patterns. This paper studies one typical type of motion data, which are recorded as multi-stream trajectories of human joints. Such a high dimensional multi-stream data structure makes it difficult to directly perform visual comparisons or simply apply conventional methods such as PCA to capture the variation of human motion patterns...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Baizhan Li, Yu Yang, Runming Yao, Hong Liu, Yongqiang Li
Thermoregulation models of the human body have been widely used in thermal comfort studies. The existing models are complicated and not fully verified for application in China. This paper presents a simplified thermoregulation model which has been statistically validated by the predicted and measured mean skin temperature in warm environments, including 21 typical conditions with 400 Chinese subjects. This model comprises three parts: i) the physical model; ii) the controlled system; and iii) the controlling system, and considers three key questions formerly ignored by the existing models including: a) the evaporation efficiency of regulatory sweat; b) the proportional relation of total skin blood flow and total heat loss by regulatory sweating against body surface area; and c) discrepancies in the mean skin temperatures by gender...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
S Camille Peres, Ranjana K Mehta, Paul Ritchey
Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing)...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Stefan C Christov, Jenna L Marquard, George S Avrunin, Lori A Clarke
To reduce the probability of failures and to improve outcomes of safety-critical human-intensive processes, such as health care processes, it is important to be able to rigorously analyze such processes. The quality of that analysis often depends on having an accurate, detailed, and sufficiently complete understanding of the process being analyzed, where this understanding is typically represented as a formal process model that could then drive various rigorous analysis approaches. Developing this understanding and the corresponding formal process model may be difficult and, thus, a variety of process elicitation methods are often used...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Qun Liu, Jindong Ren, Qian Zhang, Meng Hua
This paper aimed to identify the reach capabilities of 26 seated subjects considering the reach difficulty, orientation and other potential factors, and to find a method to model the minimum reach capability surfaces for fixed and adjustable seats. The reach capability radius was used as a measure of the reach capability and theoretically modeled. Based on the test data of seated reach, the distribution of the reach capability radius was analyzed. The strategy to select the minimum reach envelopes was constructed to accommodate a sufficient percentage of the target population for both fixed and adjustable seats...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
J Mackrill, P Marshall, S R Payne, E Dimitrokali, R Cain
Involving users through participation in healthcare service and environment design is growing. Existing approaches and toolkits for practitioners and researchers are often paper based involving workshops and other more traditional design approaches such as paper prototyping. The advent of digital technology provides the opportunity to explore new platforms for user participation. This paper presents results from three studies that used a bespoke situated user participation digital kiosk, engaging 33 users in investigating healthcare environment design...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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