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Applied Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420483/an-evaluation-of-wearable-sensors-and-their-placements-for-analyzing-construction-worker-s-trunk-posture-in-laboratory-conditions
#1
Wonil Lee, Edmund Seto, Ken-Yu Lin, Giovanni C Migliaccio
This study investigates the effect of sensor placement on the analysis of trunk posture for construction activities using two off-the-shelf systems. Experiments were performed using a single-parameter monitoring wearable sensor (SPMWS), the ActiGraph GT9X Link, which was worn at six locations on the body, and a multi-parameter monitoring wearable sensor (MPMWS), the Zephyr BioHarness™3, which was worn at two body positions. One healthy male was recruited and conducted 10 experiment sessions to repeat measurements of trunk posture within our study...
April 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420482/detection-of-driver-drowsiness-using-wearable-devices-a-feasibility-study-of-the-proximity-sensor
#2
Jibo He, William Choi, Yan Yang, Junshi Lu, Xiaohui Wu, Kaiping Peng
BACKGROUND: Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. METHODS: The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving...
April 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395855/assessing-the-use-of-immersive-virtual-reality-mouse-and-touchscreen-in-pointing-and-dragging-and-dropping-tasks-among-young-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#3
Jiayin Chen, Calvin Or
This study assessed the use of an immersive virtual reality (VR), a mouse and a touchscreen for one-directional pointing, multi-directional pointing, and dragging-and-dropping tasks involving targets of smaller and larger widths by young (n = 18; 18-30 years), middle-aged (n = 18; 40-55 years) and older adults (n = 18; 65-75 years). A three-way, mixed-factorial design was used for data collection. The dependent variables were the movement time required and the error rate. Our main findings were that the participants took more time and made more errors in using the VR input interface than in using the mouse or the touchscreen...
April 7, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395854/using-the-microsoft-kinect%C3%A2-to-assess-3-d-shoulder-kinematics-during-computer-use
#4
Xu Xu, Michelle Robertson, Karen B Chen, Jia-Hua Lin, Raymond W McGorry
Shoulder joint kinematics has been used as a representative indicator to investigate musculoskeletal symptoms among computer users for office ergonomics studies. The traditional measurement of shoulder kinematics normally requires a laboratory-based motion tracking system which limits the field studies. In the current study, a portable, low cost, and marker-less Microsoft Kinect™ sensor was examined for its feasibility on shoulder kinematics measurement during computer tasks. Eleven healthy participants performed a standardized computer task, and their shoulder kinematics data were measured by a Kinect sensor and a motion tracking system concurrently...
April 7, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318502/efficacy-of-virtual-reality-in-pedestrian-safety-research
#5
Shuchisnigdha Deb, Daniel W Carruth, Richard Sween, Lesley Strawderman, Teena M Garrison
Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed...
March 16, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318503/sociotechnical-systems-as-a-framework-for-regulatory-system-design-and-evaluation-using-work-domain-analysis-to-examine-a-new-regulatory-system
#6
Tony Carden, Natassia Goode, Gemma J M Read, Paul M Salmon
Like most work systems, the domain of adventure activities has seen a series of serious incidents and subsequent calls to improve regulation. Safety regulation systems aim to promote safety and reduce accidents. However, there is scant evidence they have led to improved safety outcomes. In fact there is some evidence that the poor integration of regulatory system components has led to adverse safety outcomes in some contexts. Despite this, there is an absence of methods for evaluating regulatory and compliance systems...
March 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284701/visualizing-stressful-aspects-of-repetitive-motion-tasks-and-opportunities-for-ergonomic-improvements-using-computer-vision
#7
Runyu L Greene, David P Azari, Yu Hen Hu, Robert G Radwin
Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task...
March 9, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283174/real-time-rula-assessment-using-kinect-v2-sensor
#8
Vito Modesto Manghisi, Antonio Emmanuele Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, Gianpaolo Francesco Trotta, Giuseppe Monno
The evaluation of the exposure to risk factors in workplaces and their subsequent redesign represent one of the practices to lessen the frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper we present K2RULA, a semi-automatic RULA evaluation software based on the Microsoft Kinect v2 depth camera, aimed at detecting awkward postures in real time, but also in off-line analysis. We validated our tool with two experiments. In the first one, we compared the K2RULA grand-scores with those obtained with a reference optical motion capture system and we found a statistical perfect match according to the Landis and Koch scale (proportion agreement index = 0...
March 7, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274467/an-iphone-application-for-upper-arm-posture-and-movement-measurements
#9
Liyun Yang, Wilhelmus J A Grooten, Mikael Forsman
There is a need for objective methods for upper arm elevation measurements for accurate and convenient risk assessments. The aims of this study were (i) to compare a newly developed iOS application (iOS) for measuring upper arm elevation and angular velocity with a reference optical tracking system (OTS), and (ii) to compare the accuracy of the iOS incorporating a gyroscope and an accelerometer with using only an accelerometer, which is standard for inclinometry. The iOS-OTS limits of agreement for static postures (9 subjects) were -4...
March 6, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259238/a-data-driven-approach-to-modeling-physical-fatigue-in-the-workplace-using-wearable-sensors
#10
Zahra Sedighi Maman, Mohammad Ali Alamdar Yazdi, Lora A Cavuoto, Fadel M Megahed
Wearable sensors are currently being used to manage fatigue in professional athletics, transportation and mining industries. In manufacturing, physical fatigue is a challenging ergonomic/safety "issue" since it lowers productivity and increases the incidence of accidents. Therefore, physical fatigue must be managed. There are two main goals for this study. First, we examine the use of wearable sensors to detect physical fatigue occurrence in simulated manufacturing tasks. The second goal is to estimate the physical fatigue level over time...
March 1, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256209/an-investigation-of-the-efficacy-of-collaborative-virtual-reality-systems-for-moderated-remote-usability-testing
#11
Kapil Chalil Madathil, Joel S Greenstein
Collaborative virtual reality-based systems have integrated high fidelity voice-based communication, immersive audio and screen-sharing tools into virtual environments. Such three-dimensional collaborative virtual environments can mirror the collaboration among usability test participants and facilitators when they are physically collocated, potentially enabling moderated usability tests to be conducted effectively when the facilitator and participant are located in different places. We developed a virtual collaborative three-dimensional remote moderated usability testing laboratory and employed it in a controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of moderated usability testing in a collaborative virtual reality-based environment with two other moderated usability testing methods: the traditional lab approach and Cisco WebEx, a web-based conferencing and screen sharing approach...
February 27, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159113/using-rgb-d-sensors-and-evolutionary-algorithms-for-the-optimization-of-workstation-layouts
#12
Jose Antonio Diego-Mas, Rocio Poveda-Bautista, Diana Garzon-Leal
RGB-D sensors can collect postural data in an automatized way. However, the application of these devices in real work environments requires overcoming problems such as lack of accuracy or body parts' occlusion. This work presents the use of RGB-D sensors and genetic algorithms for the optimization of workstation layouts. RGB-D sensors are used to capture workers' movements when they reach objects on workbenches. Collected data are then used to optimize workstation layout by means of genetic algorithms considering multiple ergonomic criteria...
January 31, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411744/effects-of-transit-bus-interior-configuration-on-performance-of-wheeled-mobility-users-during-simulated-boarding-and-disembarking
#13
Clive D'Souza, Victor Paquet, James A Lenker, Edward Steinfeld
The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411743/psychophysiological-responses-to-short-term-cooling-during-a-simulated-monotonous-driving-task
#14
Elisabeth Schmidt, Ralf Decke, Ralph Rasshofer, Angelika C Bullinger
For drivers on monotonous routes, cognitive fatigue causes discomfort and poses an important risk for traffic safety. Countermeasures against this type of fatigue are required and thermal stimulation is one intervention method. Surprisingly, there are hardly studies available to measure the effect of cooling while driving. Hence, to better understand the effect of short-term cooling on the perceived sleepiness of car drivers, a driving simulator study (n = 34) was conducted in which physiological and vehicular data during cooling and control conditions were compared...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411742/a-biomechanical-and-physiological-study-of-office-seat-and-tablet-device-interaction
#15
Eric Weston, Peter Le, William S Marras
Twenty subjects performed typing tasks on a desktop computer and touch-screen tablet in two chairs for an hour each, and the effects of chair, device, and their interactions on each dependent measure were recorded. Biomechanical measures of muscle force, spinal load, and posture were examined, while discomfort was measured via heart rate variability (HRV) and subjective reports. HRV was sensitive enough to differentiate between chair and device interactions. Biomechanically, a lack of seat back mobility forced individuals to maintain an upright seating posture with increased extensor muscle forces and increased spinal compression...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411741/required-friction-during-overground-walking-is-lower-among-obese-compared-to-non-obese-older-men-but-does-not-differ-with-obesity-among-women
#16
Sara L Arena, Christina R Garman, Maury A Nussbaum, Michael L Madigan
Obesity and aging have been independently associated with altered required friction during walking, but it is unclear how these factors interact to influence the likelihood of slipping. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences related to obesity and aging on required friction during overground walking. Fourteen older non-obese, 11 older obese, 20 younger non-obese, and 20 younger obese adults completed walking trials at both a self-selected and hurried speed. When walking at a hurried speed, older obese men walked at a slower gait speed and exhibited lower frictional demands compared both to older non-obese men and to younger obese men...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411740/optimal-bus-temperature-for-thermal-comfort-during-a-cool-day
#17
K B Velt, H A M Daanen
A challenge for electric buses is to minimize heating and cooling power to maximally extend the driving range, but still provide sufficient thermal comfort for the driver and passengers. Therefore, we investigated the thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) of passengers in buses during a cool day (temperature 13.4 ± 0.5 °C, relative humidity (RH) 60 ± 5.8%) typical for the Dutch temperate maritime climate. 28 Males and 72 females rated TS and TC and gave information on age, stature, body weight and worn garments...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411739/qualitative-ergonomics-human-factors-research-in-health-care-current-state-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Rupa Sheth Valdez, Kerry Margaret McGuire, A Joy Rivera
The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411738/implementing-powered-stretcher-and-load-systems-was-a-cost-effective-intervention-to-reduce-the-incidence-rates-of-stretcher-related-injuries-in-a-paramedic-service
#19
Daniel P Armstrong, Richard Ferron, Cindi Taylor, Brent McLeod, Steve Fletcher, Renée S MacPhee, Steven L Fischer
Paramedic services are considering moving towards the use of powered stretcher and load systems to reduce stretcher related injuries, but cost is perceived as a barrier. This study compared injury incidence rates, days lost, and compensation costs between Niagara Emergency Medical Service (NEMS) and Hamilton Paramedic Service (HPS) pre- (four years) and post- (one year) implementation of powered stretcher and load systems in NEMS. Prior to the intervention stretcher related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) incidence rates averaged 20...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411737/neck-posture-during-lifting-and-its-effect-on-trunk-muscle-activation-and-lumbar-spine-posture
#20
Thomas M Hlavenka, Vanessa F K Christner, Diane E Gregory
Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn in posteriorly; recently gaining popularity among coaches, trainers, and physical therapists to reduce neck pain during lifting, and freestyle neck posture (no instructions given)...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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