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Applied Ergonomics

Bethany R Lowndes, Amro M Abdelrahman, Cornelius A Thiels, Amani O Mohamed, Andrea L McConico, Juliane Bingener, M Susan Hallbeck
Advanced minimally invasive procedures may cause postural constraints and increased workload and stress for providers. This study compared workload and stress across surgical team roles for 48 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (4-port vs single-port) using a task load index (NASA-TLX), a procedural difficulty question, and salivary stress hormones. Statistical analyses were performed based on the presence intra-cluster correlation within team roles, at α=0.05. The single-port technique resulted in an 89% increase in physical workload for the surgeon and 63% increase for the assistant (both p<0...
June 27, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Ananth Vijendren, Gavin Devereux, Aaron Tietjen, Kathy Duffield, Vincent Van Rompaey, Paul Van de Heyning, Matthew Yung
Neck and shoulder disorders are a considerable health problem amongst frequent microscope users. We aimed to investigate the neck and shoulder discomfort experienced during prolonged microscopic activity and to assess the benefits of minibreaks. A prospective crossover study was performed on 17 healthy volunteers sitting still while looking down a bench with and without the Ipswich Microbreak Technique (IMT). We used a subjective measure of time to fatigue and pain in the neck and shoulder regions as well as objective readings from a surface electromyogram (sEMG)...
May 4, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
S J Baltrusch, J H van Dieën, C A M van Bennekom, H Houdijk
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a passive trunk exoskeleton on functional performance for various work related tasks in healthy individuals. 18 healthy men performed 12 tasks. Functional performance in each task was assessed based on objective outcome measures and subjectively in terms of perceived task difficulty, local and general discomfort. Wearing the exoskeleton tended to increase objective performance in static forward bending, but decreased performance in tasks, such as walking, carrying and ladder climbing...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Judy Edworthy, Scott Reid, Katie Peel, Samantha Lock, Jessica Williams, Chloe Newbury, Joseph Foster, Martin Farrington
Very little is known about people's ability to localize sound under varying workload conditions, though it would be expected that increasing workload should degrade performance. A set of eight auditory clinical alarms already known to have relatively high localizability (the ease with which their location is identified) when tested alone were tested in six conditions where workload was varied. Participants were required to indicate the location of a series of alarms emanating at random from one of eight speaker locations...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Firdaous Sekkay, Daniel Imbeau, Yuvin Chinniah, Philippe-Antoine Dubé, Nathalie de Marcellis-Warin, Nancy Beauregard, Martin Trépanier
AIM: This study investigated and compared the associations between self-reported exposures to individual as well as work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal (MS) disorders and the prevalence of MS symptoms in different body areas among short- (P&D) and long-distance (Bulk delivery) truck drivers working for the same large gas delivery company in Canada. METHODS: 123 truck drivers nationwide participated in this questionnaire-based cross-sectional study...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Nicole Hättenschwiler, Yanik Sterchi, Marcia Mendes, Adrian Schwaninger
Bomb attacks on civil aviation make detecting improvised explosive devices and explosive material in passenger baggage a major concern. In the last few years, explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) have become available. Although used by a number of airports, most countries have not yet implemented these systems on a wide scale. We investigated the benefits of EDSCB with two different levels of automation currently being discussed by regulators and airport operators: automation as a diagnostic aid with an on-screen alarm resolution by the airport security officer (screener) or EDSCB with an automated decision by the machine...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Bert Boute, Liv Veldeman, Bruno Speleers, Annick Van Greveling, Tom Van Hoof, Joris Van de Velde, Tom Vercauteren, Wilfried De Neve, Jan Detand
Although many authors stated that a user-centred design approach in medical device development has added values, the most common research approach within healthcare is evidence-based medicine, which tend to focus on functional data rather than patient wellbeing and comfort. End user comfort is well addressed in literature for commercial products such as seats and hand tools but no data was found for medical devices. A commercial patient support device for breast radiotherapy was analysed and a relation was found between discomfort and uncompensated internal body forces...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Rui Lin, Liang Ma, Wei Zhang
Partially automated vehicles (PAVs) have been used in real-world environments for several years since the emergence of autonomous driving. It is important to understand the effects of partial automation systems (PAS) on the understanding of drivers and their behaviour during the first months of use. In order to adapt to new vehicle technology, drivers usually exhibit specific behaviours in this stage that are not intended by the developers, namely behavioural adaptation. The present study investigated the behavioural adaptations by early PAV adopters after short-term usage...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Felix Schwarz, Wolfgang Fastenmeier
Augmented reality has the potential to improve the effectiveness of collision warnings in vehicles because they inherently convey spatial information about the hazard and can guide the attention of the driver towards it. For future warning systems, which can detect sight obstructed dangers, related work already revealed some advantages. In a driving simulator study with 80 participants, we investigated the effects of three corresponding design parameters which are commonly integrated at augmented reality warnings...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Xueke Wang, Steven Bigelow, Kelly E Seagren, Alaina K Preddie, Zimei Wang, Ardiyanto Ardiyanto, W Gary Allread, Steven A Lavender
Floor mats are commonplace in commercial buildings, particularly in entry ways. These mats are routinely handled by delivery personnel as the mats are picked up for cleaning and clean mats are deployed. A new two-part mat design, which eliminates the need to move the rubber base during mat change operations, was hypothesized to reduce the physical demands on delivery personnel. Electromyographic data from back and shoulder muscles and spinal kinematics were obtained as 12 volunteers simulated mat selection, mat deployment, and mat pick-up tasks...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Larissa M Fedorowich, Julie N Côté
Standing is a popular alternative to traditionally seated computer work. However, no studies have described how standing impacts both upper body muscular and vascular outcomes during a computer typing task. Twenty healthy adults completed two 90-min simulated work sessions, seated or standing. Upper limb discomfort, electromyography (EMG) from eight upper body muscles, typing performance and neck/shoulder and forearm blood flow were collected. Results showed significantly less upper body discomfort and higher typing speed during standing...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Kasper Edwards, Jörgen Winkel
The numerous opportunities for effect modifications pose a major challenge in ergonomic intervention research. Even studies in systematic reviews that are assessed as being of high quality generally lack any proper consideration of the potential effect modifiers. We have developed a method for effect modifier assessment (EMA) in intervention research. The EMA method uses a participatory workshop consisting of representatives from all occupational groups in the investigated organization. The workshop identifies both intervention and modifier events...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
C M Bauer, F M Rast, C Böck, R P Kuster, D Baumgartner
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the location of the axis of rotation in sagittal plane movement of the spine in a free sitting condition to adjust the kinematics of a mobile seat for a dynamic chair. BACKGROUND: Dynamic office chairs are designed to avoid continuous isometric muscle activity, and to facilitate increased mobility of the back during sitting. However, these chairs incorporate increased upper body movement which could distract office workers from the performance of their tasks...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Kirsten Huysamen, Valerie Power, Leonard O'Sullivan
The aim of this study was to assess the elongation of the skin surface of the spine for simulated industrial lifting and lowering tasks to aid the design of industrial exoskeletons worn on the back. Eighteen male participants lifted and lowered a box of varying loads (5 kg, 10 kg, 15 kg) using three techniques (squat, semi-squat, stooped) from the ground to a table. Motion capture sensors attached to the spine from C7 to S1 measured movement. Stoop lifting involved significantly more elongation (mean 71...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Aneurin Canham, Gyuchan Thomas Jun, Patrick Waterson, Suzanne Khalid
There is growing awareness of the limitations of current practice regarding the investigation of patient safety incidents, including a reliance on Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and a lack of safety expertise. Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) can offer safety expertise and systemic approaches to incident analysis. However, HFE is underutilised in healthcare. This study aims to explore the integration of HFE systemic accident analysis into current practice. The study compares the processes and outputs of a current practice RCA-based incident analysis and a Systems Theoretic Accident Modelling and Processes (STAMP) analysis on the same medication error incident...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Chantelle C Lachance, Alexandra M B Korall, Colin M Russell, Fabio Feldman, Stephen N Robinovitch, Dawn C Mackey
Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells])...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Mark Dennison, Michael D'Zmura
Motion sickness is thought to occur when the brain's assumptions about incoming sensory information do not match the actual signals received. These signals must involve the vestibular system for motion sickness to occur. In this paper, we describe an experiment in which subjects experienced unexpected visual motions, or perturbations, as they navigated a virtual environment (VE) while standing and wearing a head mounted display (HMD) or while viewing a monitor. We found that postural instability, as measured by a balance board, increased with time only when perturbations were present...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Vanessa Riethmeister, Ute Bültmann, Marijke Gordijn, Sandra Brouwer, Michiel de Boer
OBJECTIVES: This study examined daily scores of fatigue and circadian rhythm markers over two-week offshore day shift periods. METHODS: A prospective cohort study among N = 60 offshore day-shift workers working two-week offshore shifts was conducted. Offshore day shifts lasted from 07:00 - 19:00 h. Fatigue was measured objectively with pre- and post-shift scores of the 3-minute psychomotor vigilance tasks (PVT-B) parameters (reaction times, number of lapses, errors and false starts) and subjectively with pre- and post-shift Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) ratings...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Jeong Ho Kim, Luz S Marin, Jack T Dennerlein
As mining vehicle operators are exposed to high level of Whole body vibration (WBV) for prolonged periods of time, approaches to reduce this exposure are needed for the specific types of exposures in mining. Although various engineering controls (i.e. seat suspension systems) have been developed to address WBV, there has been lack of research to systematically evaluate these systems in reducing WBV exposures in mining heavy equipment vehicle settings. Therefore, this laboratory-based study evaluated the efficacy of different combinations of fore-aft (x-axis), lateral (y-axis), and vertical (z-axis) suspensions in reducing WBV exposures...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Amanda Waleh Åström, Marina Heiden, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Annika Strömberg
OBJECTIVE: To assess uncertainty in cost estimates for collecting posture data by inclinometry, observations and self-report. METHOD: In a study addressing physical workloads at a paper mill, costs were calculated for measuring postures of twenty-eight workers during three shifts. Uncertainty in costs was assessed for all three methods as the range between an assumed best case (lowest cost) and worst case (highest cost) using scenario analysis. RESULTS: The cost for observation was larger, but also more uncertain (€16506 and €89552 in the best and worst case, respectively) than that of inclinometry (€7613 - €45896)...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
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