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Applied Ergonomics

Shuchisnigdha Deb, Daniel W Carruth, Richard Sween, Lesley Strawderman, Teena M Garrison
Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed...
March 16, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Tony Carden, Natassia Goode, Gemma J M Read, Paul M Salmon
Like most work systems, the domain of adventure activities has seen a series of serious incidents and subsequent calls to improve regulation. Safety regulation systems aim to promote safety and reduce accidents. However, there is scant evidence they have led to improved safety outcomes. In fact there is some evidence that the poor integration of regulatory system components has led to adverse safety outcomes in some contexts. Despite this, there is an absence of methods for evaluating regulatory and compliance systems...
March 15, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Runyu L Greene, David P Azari, Yu Hen Hu, Robert G Radwin
Patterns of physical stress exposure are often difficult to measure, and the metrics of variation and techniques for identifying them is underdeveloped in the practice of occupational ergonomics. Computer vision has previously been used for evaluating repetitive motion tasks for hand activity level (HAL) utilizing conventional 2D videos. The approach was made practical by relaxing the need for high precision, and by adopting a semi-automatic approach for measuring spatiotemporal characteristics of the repetitive task...
March 9, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Vito Modesto Manghisi, Antonio Emmanuele Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, Gianpaolo Francesco Trotta, Giuseppe Monno
The evaluation of the exposure to risk factors in workplaces and their subsequent redesign represent one of the practices to lessen the frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper we present K2RULA, a semi-automatic RULA evaluation software based on the Microsoft Kinect v2 depth camera, aimed at detecting awkward postures in real time, but also in off-line analysis. We validated our tool with two experiments. In the first one, we compared the K2RULA grand-scores with those obtained with a reference optical motion capture system and we found a statistical perfect match according to the Landis and Koch scale (proportion agreement index = 0...
March 7, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Liyun Yang, Wilhelmus J A Grooten, Mikael Forsman
There is a need for objective methods for upper arm elevation measurements for accurate and convenient risk assessments. The aims of this study were (i) to compare a newly developed iOS application (iOS) for measuring upper arm elevation and angular velocity with a reference optical tracking system (OTS), and (ii) to compare the accuracy of the iOS incorporating a gyroscope and an accelerometer with using only an accelerometer, which is standard for inclinometry. The iOS-OTS limits of agreement for static postures (9 subjects) were -4...
March 6, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Zahra Sedighi Maman, Mohammad Ali Alamdar Yazdi, Lora A Cavuoto, Fadel M Megahed
Wearable sensors are currently being used to manage fatigue in professional athletics, transportation and mining industries. In manufacturing, physical fatigue is a challenging ergonomic/safety "issue" since it lowers productivity and increases the incidence of accidents. Therefore, physical fatigue must be managed. There are two main goals for this study. First, we examine the use of wearable sensors to detect physical fatigue occurrence in simulated manufacturing tasks. The second goal is to estimate the physical fatigue level over time...
March 1, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Kapil Chalil Madathil, Joel S Greenstein
Collaborative virtual reality-based systems have integrated high fidelity voice-based communication, immersive audio and screen-sharing tools into virtual environments. Such three-dimensional collaborative virtual environments can mirror the collaboration among usability test participants and facilitators when they are physically collocated, potentially enabling moderated usability tests to be conducted effectively when the facilitator and participant are located in different places. We developed a virtual collaborative three-dimensional remote moderated usability testing laboratory and employed it in a controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of moderated usability testing in a collaborative virtual reality-based environment with two other moderated usability testing methods: the traditional lab approach and Cisco WebEx, a web-based conferencing and screen sharing approach...
February 27, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jose Antonio Diego-Mas, Rocio Poveda-Bautista, Diana Garzon-Leal
RGB-D sensors can collect postural data in an automatized way. However, the application of these devices in real work environments requires overcoming problems such as lack of accuracy or body parts' occlusion. This work presents the use of RGB-D sensors and genetic algorithms for the optimization of workstation layouts. RGB-D sensors are used to capture workers' movements when they reach objects on workbenches. Collected data are then used to optimize workstation layout by means of genetic algorithms considering multiple ergonomic criteria...
January 31, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Rahil Mehrizi, Xu Xu, Shaoting Zhang, Vladimir Pavlovic, Dimitris Metaxas, Kang Li
The aim of this study is to analyze the validity of a computer vision-based method to estimate 3D L5/S1 joint moment during symmetrical lifting. An important criterion to identify the non-ergonomic lifting task is the value of net moment at L5/S1 joint. This is usually calculated in a laboratory environment which is not practical for on-site biomechanical analysis. The validity of the proposed method, was assessed externally by comparing the results with a lab-based reference method and internally by comparing the estimated L5/S1 joint moments from top-down model and bottom-up model...
January 19, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Xiaoyu Chen, Ran Jin
There is a high demand of data visualization providing insights to users in various applications. However, a consistent, online visualization evaluation method to quantify mental workload or user preference is lacking, which leads to an inefficient visualization and user interface design process. Recently, the advancement of interactive and sensing technologies makes the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, eye movements as well as visualization logs available in user-centered evaluation. This paper proposes a data fusion model and the application procedure for quantitative and online visualization evaluation...
January 19, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Ari Kolbeinsson, Jessica Lindblom, Peter Thorvald
The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Sandra D Starke, Chris Baber, Neil J Cooke, Andrew Howes
Road traffic control rooms rely on human operators to monitor and interact with information presented on multiple displays. Past studies have found inconsistent use of available visual information sources in such settings across different domains. In this study, we aimed to broaden the understanding of observer behaviour in control rooms by analysing a case study in road traffic control. We conducted a field study in a live road traffic control room where five operators responded to incidents while wearing a mobile eye tracker...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Chia-Fen Chi, Ratna Sari Dewi, Min-Hua Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Elise Jouanne, Camilo Charron, Christine Chauvin, Gaël Morel
This paper examines elements contributing to the effectiveness of firefighting teams carrying out typical tasks. Fourteen firefighter crews were filmed during nineteen real operations and answered questionnaires relating to psychosocial dimensions. Results have shown that "enriched closed-loops" of communication, positive emotional interactions and a "gamma" type of adaptation are positively related to team effectiveness. Conversely, open and incomplete loops of communication, negative emotional interactions, "beta" and "alpha" types of adaptation are negatively related to team effectiveness...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jessica A Dobson, Diane L Riddiford-Harland, Alison F Bell, Julie R Steele
Safety boots are compulsory in many occupations to protect the feet of workers from undesirable external stimuli, particularly in harsh work environments. The unique environmental conditions and varying tasks performed in different occupations necessitate a variety of boot designs to match each worker's occupational safety and functional requirements. Unfortunately, safety boots are often designed more for occupational safety at the expense of functionality and comfort. In fact, there is a paucity of published research investigating the influence that specific variations in work boot design have on fundamental tasks common to many occupations, such as walking...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Ilse M Harms, Karel A Brookhuis
Under certain circumstances, drivers fail to notice changes in electronic speed limits. A video-based study was performed to reveal which countermeasures would improve drivers' ability to detect changes in electronic speed limits. Countermeasures included leaving electronic signs blank prior to a speed limit change and adding motion signals by means of flashing amber lights or a wave. A video representing a motorway was shown repeatedly to 255 participants. They were instructed to press the space bar when detecting a change...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Tobias Heine, Gustavo Lenis, Patrick Reichensperger, Tobias Beran, Olaf Doessel, Barbara Deml
This study examines the effect of mental workload on the electrocardiogram (ECG) of participants driving the Lane Change Task (LCT). Different levels of mental workload were induced by a secondary task (n-back task) with three levels of difficulty. Subjective data showed a significant increase of the experienced workload over all three levels. An exploratory approach was chosen to extract a large number of rhythmical and morphological features from the ECG signal thereby identifying those which differentiated best between the levels of mental workload...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
J Regente, J de Zeeuw, F Bes, C Nowozin, S Appelhoff, A Wahnschaffe, M Münch, D Kunz
In single night shifts, extending habitual wake episodes leads to sleep deprivation induced decrements of performance during the shift and re-adaptation effects the next day. We investigated whether short-wavelength depleted (=filtered) bright light (FBL) during a simulated night shift would counteract such effects. Twenty-four participants underwent a simulated night shift in dim light (DL) and in FBL. Reaction times, subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin concentrations were assessed during both nights...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Alexander Kalloniatis, Irena Ali, Timothy Neville, Phuong La, Iain Macleod, Mathew Zuparic, Elizabeth Kohn
We introduce a novel model and associated data collection method to examine how a distributed organisation of military staff who feed a Common Operating Picture (COP) generates Situation Awareness (SA), a critical component in organisational performance. The proposed empirically derived Situation Awareness Weighted Network (SAWN) model draws on two scientific models of SA, by Endsley involving perception, comprehension and projection, and by Stanton et al. positing that SA exists across a social and semantic network of people and information objects in activities connected across a set of tasks...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jie Yang, Wenguo Weng, Faming Wang, Guowen Song
This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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