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Applied Ergonomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159113/using-rgb-d-sensors-and-evolutionary-algorithms-for-the-optimization-of-workstation-layouts
#1
Jose Antonio Diego-Mas, Rocio Poveda-Bautista, Diana Garzon-Leal
RGB-D sensors can collect postural data in an automatized way. However, the application of these devices in real work environments requires overcoming problems such as lack of accuracy or body parts' occlusion. This work presents the use of RGB-D sensors and genetic algorithms for the optimization of workstation layouts. RGB-D sensors are used to capture workers' movements when they reach objects on workbenches. Collected data are then used to optimize workstation layout by means of genetic algorithms considering multiple ergonomic criteria...
January 31, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110917/using-a-marker-less-method-for-estimating-l5-s1-moments-during-symmetrical-lifting
#2
Rahil Mehrizi, Xu Xu, Shaoting Zhang, Vladimir Pavlovic, Dimitris Metaxas, Kang Li
The aim of this study is to analyze the validity of a computer vision-based method to estimate 3D L5/S1 joint moment during symmetrical lifting. An important criterion to identify the non-ergonomic lifting task is the value of net moment at L5/S1 joint. This is usually calculated in a laboratory environment which is not practical for on-site biomechanical analysis. The validity of the proposed method, was assessed externally by comparing the results with a lab-based reference method and internally by comparing the estimated L5/S1 joint moments from top-down model and bottom-up model...
January 19, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110916/statistical-modeling-for-visualization-evaluation-through-data-fusion
#3
Xiaoyu Chen, Ran Jin
There is a high demand of data visualization providing insights to users in various applications. However, a consistent, online visualization evaluation method to quantify mental workload or user preference is lacking, which leads to an inefficient visualization and user interface design process. Recently, the advancement of interactive and sensing technologies makes the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, eye movements as well as visualization logs available in user-centered evaluation. This paper proposes a data fusion model and the application procedure for quantitative and online visualization evaluation...
January 19, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166904/difference-between-male-and-female-workers-lifting-the-same-relative-load-when-palletizing-boxes
#4
A Plamondon, C Larivière, D Denis, H Mecheri, I Nastasia
A few biomechanical studies have contrasted the work techniques of female and male workers during manual material handling (MMH). A recent study showed that female workers differed from males mostly in the strategy they used to lift 15-kg boxes from the ground, especially regarding task duration, knee and back postures and interjoint coordination. However, the lifting technique difference observed in females compared to males was perhaps due to a strength differences. The objective of this study was to test whether female workers would repeat the same lifting technique with a load adjusted to their overall strength (females: 10 kg; males: 15 kg), which can be considered a "relative load" since the overall back strength of females is 2/3 that of males...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166903/job-rotation-effects-on-muscular-activity-variability
#5
REVIEW
Andres C Rodriguez, Lope H Barrero
Job rotation strategies have been used for years as an administrative intervention to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The benefits of job rotation have been hypothesized to occur via changes in muscular activity variability (MAV). However, the effect of job rotation on MAV has not been fully analyzed in a literature review. A wide search was conducted to identify studies testing the effect of different job rotation strategies on MAV. Twenty-six studies of acceptable quality were included. Several studies on different types of tasks supported the view that job rotation can increase muscular activity variability, particularly with strategies such as alternating tasks and pace changes...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166902/a-multi-component-patient-handling-intervention-improves-attitudes-and-behaviors-for-safe-patient-handling-and-reduces-aggression-experienced-by-nursing-staff-a-controlled-before-after-study
#6
Bettina Wulff Risør, Sven Dalgas Casper, Lars Louis Andersen, Jan Sørensen
This study evaluated an intervention for patient-handling equipment aimed to improve nursing staffs' use of patient handling equipment and improve their general health, reduce musculoskeletal problems, aggressive episodes, days of absence and work-related accidents. As a controlled before-after study, questionnaire data were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up among nursing staff at intervention and control wards at two hospitals. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group had more positive attitudes towards patient-handling equipment and increased use of specific patient-handling equipment...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166901/effects-of-ambient-illumination-contrast-polarity-and-letter-size-on-text-legibility-under-glance-like-reading
#7
Jonathan Dobres, Nadine Chahine, Bryan Reimer
Recent research on the legibility of digital displays has demonstrated a "positive polarity advantage", in which black-on-white text configurations are more legible than their negative polarity, white-on-black counterparts. Existing research in this area suggests that the positive polarity advantage stems from the brighter illumination emitted by positive polarity displays, as opposed to the darker backgrounds of negative polarity displays. In the present study, legibility thresholds were measured under glance-like reading conditions using a lexical decision paradigm, testing two type sizes, display polarities, and ambient illuminations (near-dark and daylight-like)...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166900/effects-of-auditory-and-tactile-warning-on-response-to-visual-hazards-under-a-noisy-environment
#8
Atsuo Murata, Takashi Kuroda, Waldemar Karwowski
A warning signal presented via a visual or an auditory cue might interfere with auditory or visual information inside and outside a vehicle. On the other hand, such interference would be certainly reduced if a tactile cue is used. Therefore, it is expected that tactile cues would be promising as warning signals, especially in a noisy environment. In order to determine the most suitable modality of cue (warning) to a visual hazard in noisy environments, auditory and tactile cues were examined in this study. The condition of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was set to 0ms, 500ms, and 1000ms...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166899/predictors-of-musculoskeletal-discomfort-a-cross-cultural-comparison-between-malaysian-and-australian-office-workers
#9
Ismail Maakip, Tessa Keegel, Jodi Oakman
Prevalence and predictors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) vary considerably between countries. It is plausible that socio-cultural contexts may contribute to these differences. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 1184 Malaysian and Australian office workers with the aim to examine predictors associated with MSD discomfort. The 6-month period prevalence of self-reported MSD discomfort for Malaysian office workers was 92.8% and 71.2% among Australian workers. In Malaysia, a model regressing level of musculoskeletal discomfort against possible risk factors was significant overall (F [6, 370] = 17...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166898/identification-of-the-emplacement-of-improvised-explosive-devices-by-experienced-mission-payload-operators
#10
Nathan J McNeese, Nancy J Cooke, Russell Branaghan, Ashley Knobloch, Amanda Taylor
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have become one of the deadliest threats to military personnel, resulting in over 50% of American combat casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. Identification of IED emplacement is conducted by mission payload operators (MPOs). Yet, experienced MPOs are limited in number, making MPO training a critical intervention. In this article, we implement a Cognitive Engineering Based on Expert Skill methodology to better understand how experienced MPOs identify the emplacement of IEDs for the purposes of improving training...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166897/field-tests-of-a-participatory-ergonomics-toolkit-for-total-worker-health
#11
Suzanne Nobrega, Laura Kernan, Bora Plaku-Alakbarova, Michelle Robertson, Nicholas Warren, Robert Henning
Growing interest in Total Worker Health(®) (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166896/usability-evaluation-of-an-emergency-department-information-system-prototype-designed-using-cognitive-systems-engineering-techniques
#12
Lindsey N Clark, Natalie C Benda, Sudeep Hegde, Nicolette M McGeorge, Theresa K Guarrera-Schick, A Zachary Hettinger, David T LaVergne, Shawna J Perry, Robert L Wears, Rollin J Fairbanks, Ann M Bisantz
This article presents an evaluation of novel display concepts for an emergency department information system (EDIS) designed using cognitive systems engineering methods. EDISs assist emergency medicine staff with tracking patient care and ED resource allocation. Participants performed patient planning and orientation tasks using the EDIS displays and rated the display's ability to support various cognitive performance objectives along with the usability, usefulness, and predicted frequency of use for 18 system components...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166895/effects-of-vibration-on-occupant-driving-performance-under-simulated-driving-conditions
#13
Amzar Azizan, M Fard, Michael F Azari, Reza Jazar
Although much research has been devoted to the characterization of the effects of whole-body vibration on seated occupants' comfort, drowsiness induced by vibration has received less attention to date. There are also little validated measurement methods available to quantify whole body vibration-induced drowsiness. Here, the effects of vibration on drowsiness were investigated. Twenty male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Drowsiness was measured in a driving simulator, before and after 30-min exposure to vibration...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166894/the-influence-of-a-semi-reclined-seated-posture-on-head-and-neck-kinematics-and-muscle-activity-while-reading-a-tablet-computer
#14
Ethan C Douglas, Kaitlin M Gallagher
Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p < 0...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166893/the-impact-of-intraoperative-microbreaks-with-exercises-on-surgeons-a-multi-center-cohort-study
#15
M S Hallbeck, B R Lowndes, J Bingener, A M Abdelrahman, D Yu, A Bartley, A E Park
Recent literature has demonstrated ergonomic risk to surgeons in the operating room. One method used in other industries to mitigate these ergonomic risks is the incorporation of microbreaks. Thus, intraoperative microbreaks with exercises in a non-crossover design were studied. Fifty-six attending surgeons from 4 Medical Centers volunteered first in a day of their regular surgeries and then second day where there were microbreaks with exercises that could be performed in the sterile field, answering questions after each case, without significantly increasing the duration of their surgeries...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166892/a-qualitative-review-of-existing-national-and-international-occupational-safety-and-health-policies-relating-to-occupational-sedentary-behaviour
#16
REVIEW
Pieter Coenen, Nicholas Gilson, Genevieve N Healy, David W Dunstan, Leon M Straker
Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166891/intraocular-pressure-is-sensitive-to-cumulative-and-instantaneous-mental-workload
#17
Jesús Vera, Raimundo Jiménez, José Antonio García, David Cárdenas
We used a repeated-measures design to assess the impact of mental-task complexity on intraocular pressure (IOP). Fourteen participants performed three continuous 11-min blocks of a mental-workload task (3-back) and an oddball version of this task. Also, heart-rate variability (HRV), cognitive-performance scores, and subjective measure of mental load (NASA-TLX) were determined. IOP was taken before each block and afterwards as well as after recovery from mental tasks. We found that IOP increased during heavy mental workloads (p < 0...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166890/ergonomic-evaluation-of-brake-pedal-and-push-handle-locations-on-hospital-beds
#18
Jie Zhou, Neal Wiggermann
Transporting patients in hospital beds is a physically demanding activity performed by healthcare workers and bed design may moderate the risk of injury. Nine healthcare workers participated in a study to investigate how brake pedal location affected maximal voluntary exertion (MVE) force and the level of acceptable force for engagement. Preferred and acceptable push heights when maneuvering a bed were also evaluated. The method of limits was used to determine acceptable forces and push heights. Results demonstrated that pedal depth, clearance above, and clearance behind the pedal significantly affected MVE force and acceptable force...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166889/concurrent-audio-visual-feedback-for-supporting-drivers-at-intersections-a-study-using-two-linked-driving-simulators
#19
M Houtenbos, J C F de Winter, A R Hale, P A Wieringa, M P Hagenzieker
A large portion of road traffic crashes occur at intersections for the reason that drivers lack necessary visual information. This research examined the effects of an audio-visual display that provides real-time sonification and visualization of the speed and direction of another car approaching the crossroads on an intersecting road. The location of red blinking lights (left vs. right on the speedometer) and the lateral input direction of beeps (left vs. right ear in headphones) corresponded to the direction from where the other car approached, and the blink and beep rates were a function of the approaching car's speed...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166888/how-much-time-do-drivers-need-to-obtain-situation-awareness-a-laboratory-based-study-of-automated-driving
#20
Zhenji Lu, Xander Coster, Joost de Winter
Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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