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Developmental Psychology

Francesco Margoni, Luca Surian
Over the past decade, numerous studies have reported that infants prefer prosocial agents (those who provide help, comfort, or fairness in distributive actions) to antisocial agents (those who harm others or distribute goods unfairly). We meta-analyzed the results of published and unpublished studies on infants aged 4-32 months and estimated that approximately two infants out of three, when given a choice between a prosocial and an antisocial agent, choose the former. This preference was not significantly affected by age or other factors, such as the type of dependent variable (selective reaching or helping) or the modality of stimulus presentation (cartoons or real events)...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Brian B Boutwell, Jacob T N Young, Ryan C Meldrum
A wealth of literature has examined the association between breastfeeding and the development of cognitive abilities in childhood. In particular, at least some evidence exists suggesting that breastfed children perform better on measures of intelligence later in life. Although a correlation appears to be present, fewer observational studies have included appropriate adjustment for potentially confounding variables; maternal intelligence, maternal education, and cognitive stimulation provided by mothers being chief among them...
June 28, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Assaf Oshri, Erinn B Duprey, Steven M Kogan, Matthew W Carlson, Sihong Liu
During adolescence, a positive outlook toward the future (i.e., future orientation) can protect youth from the risks conferred by childhood adversity. Research to date, however, has largely considered future orientation as a static attribute. Developmental systems perspectives suggest that future orientation, when considered across time, will exhibit dynamic trajectories with levels changing in response to the varying balance of risks and resources in youths' environments. Investigating the developmental course and consequences of future orientation is particularly germane to maltreated youth who may benefit from programs that target this protective mechanism...
June 28, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Luke McGuire, Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen, Adam Rutland
The present study investigated age-related changes in the intergroup allocation of resources depending on whether the ingroup norm was competitive or cooperative. Participants included children ( M age = 8.69), adolescents ( M age = 13.81), and adults ( M age = 20.89), ( N = 263) who were inducted into simulated groups and informed about an ingroup norm of either cooperation or competition. The goal context for the resource allocation task was either prosocial (to benefit the welfare of animals in a charity event) or group focused (to win a national interschool competition)...
June 28, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Bob McMurray, Ani Danelz, Hannah Rigler, Michael Seedorff
The development of the ability to categorize speech sounds is often viewed as occurring primarily during infancy via perceptual learning mechanisms. However, a number of studies suggest that even after infancy, children's categories become more categorical and well defined through about age 12. We investigated the cognitive changes that may be responsible for such development using a visual world paradigm experiment based on (McMurray, Tanenhaus, & Aslin, 2002). Children from 3 age groups (7-8, 12-13, and 17-18 years) heard a token from either a b/p or s/∫ continua spanning 2 words (beach/peach, ship/sip) and selected its referent from a screen containing 4 pictures of potential lexical candidates...
June 28, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Johanna Drewelies, Stefan Agrigoroaei, Margie E Lachman, Denis Gerstorf
Life Span psychological and life course sociological perspectives have long acknowledged that individual functioning is shaped by historical and sociocultural contexts. Secular increases favoring later-born cohorts are widely documented for fluid cognitive performance and well-being (among older adults). However, little is known about secular trends in other key resources of psychosocial function such as perceptions of control and whether historical changes have occurred in young, middle-aged, and older adults alike...
June 28, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Stephanie M Carlson, Yuichi Shoda, Ozlem Ayduk, Lawrence Aber, Catherine Schaefer, Anita Sethi, Nicole Wilson, Philip K Peake, Walter Mischel
In the 1960s at Stanford University's Bing Preschool, children were given the option of taking an immediate, smaller reward or receiving a delayed, larger reward by waiting until the experimenter returned. Since then, the "Marshmallow Test" has been used in numerous studies to assess delay of gratification. Yet, no prior study has compared the performance of children across the decades. Common wisdom suggests children today would wait less long, preferring immediate gratification. Study 1 confirmed this intuition in a survey of adults in the United States (N = 354; Mdn age = 34 years)...
June 25, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Justin K Scott, Jackie A Nelson, Theodore Dix
Based on data from 710 2-parent families enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this article examined dyadic and family-level interdependence among indicators of family members' competence over time. A cross-lagged model that included children and both parents was used to simultaneously test relations among observed maternal sensitivity, observed paternal sensitivity, and children's externalizing behavior from 54 months to fifth grade...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Fanny-Alexandra Guimond, Mara Brendgen, Stephanie Correia, Lyse Turgeon, Frank Vitaro
This study examined the moderating role of classroom injunctive norms salience regarding social withdrawal and regarding aggression in the longitudinal association between these behaviors and peer victimization. A total of 1,769 fourth through sixth graders (895 girls, M = 10.25 years, SD = 1.03) from 23 schools (67 classrooms) completed a peer nomination inventory in the fall (T1) and spring (T2) of the same academic year. Participants circled the name of each student who fit the description provided for social withdrawal, aggression, and peer victimization at T1 and T2...
June 21, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Nicole B Perry, Jessica M Dollar, Susan D Calkins, Susan P Keane, Lilly Shanahan
We examined longitudinal associations across an 8-year time span between overcontrolling parenting during toddlerhood, self-regulation during early childhood, and social, emotional, and academic adjustment in preadolescence (N = 422). Overcontrolling parenting, emotion regulation (ER), and inhibitory control (IC) were observed in the laboratory; preadolescent adjustment was teacher-reported and child self-reported. Results from path analysis indicated that overcontrolling parenting at age 2 was associated negatively with ER and IC at age 5, which, in turn, were associated with more child-reported emotional and school problems, fewer teacher-reported social skills, and less teacher-reported academic productivity at age 10...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Psychology
D Angus Clark, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt
Parent depressive symptomatology is robust risk factor for externalizing behavior in childhood (Goodman et al., 2011). Although the precise mechanisms underlying this association have yet to be fully illuminated, there is some evidence that parent depression can impact externalizing behavior via both genetic and environmental pathways. In the current study, we investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior are moderated by parent depressive symptoms (i.e., genotype-environment interaction) in a sample of 2,060, 6- to 11-year-old twins...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Laurel Raffington, John J Prindle, Yee Lee Shing
Alleviating disadvantage in low-income environments predicts higher cognitive abilities during early childhood. It is less established whether family income continues to predict cognitive growth in later childhood or whether there may even be bidirectional dynamics. Notably, living in poverty may moderate income-cognition dynamics. In this study, we investigated longitudinal dynamics over 7 waves of data collection from 1,168 children between the ages of 4.6 and 12 years, 226 (19%) of whom lived in poverty in at least 1 wave, as part of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Margaret Friend, Erin Smolak, Yushuang Liu, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger
Reports an error in "A cross-language study of decontextualized vocabulary comprehension in toddlerhood and kindergarten readiness" by Margaret Friend, Erin Smolak, Yushuang Liu, Diane Poulin-Dubois and Pascal Zesiger ( Developmental Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Apr 05, 2018, np). In the article, the reference for Legacy, Zesiger, Friend, & Poulin-Dubois (2016) should be Legacy, Zesiger, Friend, & Poulin-Dubois (2018). The correct reference for the article is listed below: Legacy, J...
July 2018: Developmental Psychology
Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
July 2018: Developmental Psychology
Elaine K White, Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Maria G Tosto, Sergey B Malykh, Xinying Li, Beatrix Kiddle, Lucy Riglin, Brian Byrne, Ginette Dionne, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Michel Boivin, Yulia Kovas
There is little research to date on the academic implications of teaching twins in the same or different classroom. Consequently, it is not clear whether twin classroom separation is associated with positive or negative educational outcomes. As a result, parents and teachers have insufficient evidence to make a well-informed decision when twins start school. This study addresses two research questions: Are there average positive or negative effects of classroom separation? Are twins taught in different classes more different from each other than twins taught in the same class? Twin pairs from two large representative samples from Quebec (Canada) and the United Kingdom were evaluated across a large age range (7 to 16 years) on academic achievement, several cognitive abilities and motivational measures...
July 2018: Developmental Psychology
Jing Yu, Charissa S L Cheah, Craig H Hart, Chongming Yang
The goals of this study were to examine: (a) bidirectional associations between maternal parenting (physical punishment and guilt induction) and Chinese American preschool children's psychosocial adjustment and (b) the role of maternal cultural orientation and child temperament in moderating parenting effects. Participants were Chinese American mothers and children (N = 163, Mage = 4.56, 53% boys). Mothers reported on their parenting practices at both Wave 1 (W1) and Wave 2 (W2) and their cultural orientations and children's inhibitory control at W1...
June 2018: Developmental Psychology
Sarah C Nelson, Johanna Kling, Maria Wängqvist, Ann Frisén, Moin Syed
Although Erikson (1968) originally conceptualized identity development as a process of becoming at home in one's body, little work has been done linking identity development and research on the body. This study examines how trajectories of the development of body esteem over time are related to young people's sense of identity and psychological functioning in a longitudinal sample from age 10 to 24 (N = 967). Using group-based trajectory modeling, three cubic subgroups were determined for each of the three types of body esteem: appearance, weight, and attribution...
June 2018: Developmental Psychology
James J Li, Jennifer E Lansford
Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms...
June 2018: Developmental Psychology
Yusuke Shono, Michael C Edwards, Susan L Ames, Alan W Stacy
Indirect tests of memory associations relevant to cannabis have been shown to be useful in explaining and predicting adolescent cannabis use habits. This study sought to increase the understanding of adolescent cannabis-related associative memory and cannabis use behavior over time. A longitudinal sample of alternative high school students (N = 775) was assessed yearly for 3 years. The study first conducted extensive longitudinal measurement analyses of the cannabis-related word association test (WAT) applying contemporary psychometric models...
June 2018: Developmental Psychology
Jana Nikitin, Alexandra M Freund
Social approach and social avoidance goals (i.e., approach of positive and avoidance of negative outcomes in social situations) are important predictors of the feeling of being socially integrated or isolated. However, little is known about the development of these goals across adulthood. In a large diary study with N = 744 young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years), and older adults (60-83 years), we tested the hypothesis that the adaptiveness of social goals changes across adulthood: Social approach goals were hypothesized to be adaptive during young adulthood when adult social relationships are to be established...
June 2018: Developmental Psychology
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