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Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691836/the-cost-of-empathy-parent-adolescent-conflict-predicts-emotion-dysregulation-for-highly-empathic-youth
#1
Caspar J Van Lissa, Skyler T Hawk, Hans M Koot, Susan Branje, Wim H J Meeus
Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year longitudinal study (N = 467) investigated whether conflict with parents predicted emotion dysregulation more strongly for high-empathy adolescents than for lower-empathy adolescents. Emotion dysregulation was operationalized at both the experiential level, using mood diary data collected for 3 weeks each year, and at the dispositional level, using annual self-report measures...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682100/robin-hood-effects-on-motivation-in-math-family-interest-moderates-the-effects-of-relevance-interventions
#2
Isabelle Häfner, Barbara Flunger, Anna-Lena Dicke, Hanna Gaspard, Brigitte M Brisson, Benjamin Nagengast, Ulrich Trautwein
Using a cluster randomized field trial, the present study tested whether 2 relevance interventions affected students' value beliefs, self-concept, and effort in math differently depending on family background (socioeconomic status, family interest (FI), and parental utility value). Eighty-two classrooms were randomly assigned to either 1 of 2 intervention conditions or a control group. Data from 1,916 students (Mage = 14.62, SDage = 0.47) and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents were obtained via separate questionnaires...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682099/moral-development-in-context-associations-of-neighborhood-and-maternal-discipline-with-preschoolers-moral-judgments
#3
Courtney L Ball, Judith G Smetana, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Jennifer H Suor, Michael A Skibo
Associations among moral judgments, neighborhood risk, and maternal discipline were examined in 118 socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (Mage = 41.84 months, SD = 1.42). Children rated the severity and punishment deserved for 6 prototypical moral transgressions entailing physical and psychological harm and unfairness. They also evaluated 3 criteria for assessing maturity in moral judgments: whether acts were considered wrong regardless of rules and wrong independent of authority, as well as whether moral rules were considered unacceptable to alter (collectively called criterion judgments)...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682098/mothers-depressive-symptoms-in-infancy-and-children-s-adjustment-in-grade-school-the-role-of-children-s-sustained-attention-and-executive-function
#4
Yiji Wang, Theodore Dix
On the basis of longitudinal data across 9 years, this study examined the contribution of sustained attention and executive function to the poor cognitive and socioemotional adjustment of school-age children whose mothers had depressive symptoms during the child's infancy. Mothers (N = 1,364) reported depressive symptoms across their child's infancy and early childhood. Maternal sensitivity was observed during laboratory interactions at 36 months. At school entry children's sustained attention and executive function were measured with computer-generated tasks...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682097/saccadic-reaction-times-in-infants-and-adults-spatiotemporal-factors-gender-and-interlaboratory-variation
#5
Ben Kenward, Felix-Sebastian Koch, Linda Forssman, Julia Brehm, Ida Tidemann, Annette Sundqvist, Carin Marciszko, Tone Kristine Hermansen, Mikael Heimann, Gustaf Gredebäck
Saccade latency is widely used across infant psychology to investigate infants' understanding of events. Interpreting particular latency values requires knowledge of standard saccadic RTs, but there is no consensus as to typical values. This study provides standard estimates of infants' (n = 194, ages 9 to 15 months) saccadic RTs under a range of different spatiotemporal conditions. To investigate the reliability of such standard estimates, data is collected at 4 laboratories in 3 countries. Results indicate that reactions to the appearance of a new object are much faster than reactions to the deflection of a currently fixated moving object; upward saccades are slower than downward or horizontal saccades; reactions to more peripheral stimuli are much slower; and this slowdown is greater for boys than girls...
July 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661162/-why-is-toma-late-to-school-again-preschoolers-identify-the-most-informative-questions
#6
Azzurra Ruggeri, Zi Lin Sim, Fei Xu
The current study investigates whether preschoolers are able to successfully identify the most effective among given questions, adapting their reliance on different types of questions (constraint-seeking vs. hypothesis-scanning) based on the quantitative measure of expected information gain. Children were presented with storybooks describing the reasons why a fictional character, Toma, was late to school over several days. In 3 experiments with 5-year-old children, we manipulated the frequency and likelihoods of the reasons presented...
June 29, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661161/activity-level-in-the-lab-overlap-with-shyness-indicates-it-is-more-than-pure-motoric-activity
#7
Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Kimberly J Saudino
The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in a novel setting with novelty seeking phenotypes, and child temperament literature, which links AL, novelty response, and shyness, we hypothesized that shyness would be an important component of children's AL in a novel situation...
June 29, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650178/the-role-of-morbidity-for-proxy-reported-well-being-in-the-last-year-of-life
#8
Katharina Gerlach, Nilam Ram, Frank J Infurna, Nina Vogel, Gert G Wagner, Denis Gerstorf
Late-life well-being often shows steep deteriorations, but the contributing factors are not well understood, in part because data about people's final year of life are scarce. Here, we draw from and test theoretical perspectives that health-related vulnerabilities undermine the experience and skills older adults typically use to maintain well-being (Charles, 2010). To do so, we examined how various morbidity factors shape final-year well-being trajectories. We applied change score models to retrospective proxy-reports from the Socio-Economic Panel (N = 1,776; age at death = 19-101 years; 47% women) and covary for characteristics of the deceased and the bereaved proxy...
June 26, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650177/learning-on-hold-cell-phones-sidetrack-parent-child-interactions
#9
Jessa Reed, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff
Although research suggests that responsive interactions are imperative for language development, the advent of mobile technology means that parent-child exchanges are often fraught with unpredictable interruptions. Less clear is how these momentary breaks in responsiveness affect word learning. In this within-subjects design, 38 mothers taught their 2-year-olds (M = 27.15 months) 2 novel words, 1 at a time. One teaching period was interrupted by a cell phone call. Children learned the word when the teaching was not interrupted, but not when it was interrupted...
June 26, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639806/math-related-career-aspirations-and-choices-within-eccles-et-al-s-expectancy-value-theory-of-achievement-related-behaviors
#10
Fani Lauermann, Yi-Miau Tsai, Jacquelynne S Eccles
Which occupation to pursue is one of the more consequential decisions people make and represents a key developmental task. Yet the underlying developmental processes associated with either individual or group differences in occupational choices are still not well understood. This study contributes toward filling this gap, focusing in particular on the math domain. We examined two aspects of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors: (a) the reciprocal associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs and adolescents' career plans and (b) the multiplicative association between expectancies and values in predicting occupational outcomes in the math domain...
June 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639805/how-do-parent-expectations-promote-child-academic-achievement-in-early-elementary-school-a-test-of-three-mediators
#11
John Loughlin-Presnal, Karen L Bierman
Using a longitudinal mediation framework and a low-income sample, this study had 2 aims: (a) to model bidirectional associations between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes from first through fifth grade, and (b) to explore 3 mediators of parental influence: parent involvement in child schooling, child learning behaviors, and child perceived academic competence. Participants included 356 children and their caregivers (89% mothers) recruited from Head Start centers (58% European American, 25% African American, 17% Latino)...
June 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639804/reflective-functioning-physiological-reactivity-and-overcontrol-in-mothers-links-with-school-aged-children-s-reflective-functioning
#12
Jessica L Borelli, Kajung Hong, Hannah F Rasmussen, Patricia A Smiley
Theorists argue that parental reflective functioning (PRF) is activated in response to emotions, potentially supporting parenting sensitivity even when arousal is high. That is, when parents become emotionally reactive when interacting with their children, those who can use PRF to understand their children's mental states should be able to parent sensitively, which, in turn, should promote children's ability to understand their own mental states. We test this theory by examining whether, in the face of physiological reactivity, mothers' PRF inhibits one form of parenting insensitivity, overcontrol (OC), and whether this process in turn predicts children's RF...
June 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627904/the-development-of-real-time-stability-supports-visual-working-memory-performance-young-children-s-feature-binding-can-be-improved-through-perceptual-structure
#13
Vanessa R Simmering, Chelsey M Wood
Working memory is a basic cognitive process that predicts higher-level skills. A central question in theories of working memory development is the generality of the mechanisms proposed to explain improvements in performance. Prior theories have been closely tied to particular tasks and/or age groups, limiting their generalizability. The cognitive dynamics theory of visual working memory development has been proposed to overcome this limitation. From this perspective, developmental improvements arise through the coordination of cognitive processes to meet demands of different behavioral tasks...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604026/the-impact-of-resource-valence-on-children-s-other-regarding-preferences
#14
Robert Böhm, David Buttelmann
Given its importance for the emergence of intergroup conflict, the development of other-regarding preferences toward in-group and out-group members has received increasing attention from various disciplines. The present study investigates children's other-regarding preferences toward in-group and out-group members when allocating resources with positive and negative valence. The 6- and 8-year-olds' (N = 92) task was to allocate resources to themselves versus to an in-group or an out-group member. They demonstrated prosociality more frequently toward in-group than toward out-group recipients and more frequently when positive rather than negative resources were involved...
June 12, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604025/romantic-relationship-development-the-interplay-between-age-and-relationship-length
#15
Ann Lantagne, Wyndol Furman
The present study explored how romantic relationship qualities develop with age and relationship length. Eight waves of data on romantic relationships were collected over 10.5 years during adolescence and early adulthood from a community-based sample in a Western U.S. city (100 males, 100 females; M age Wave 1 = 15.83). Measures of support, negative interactions, control, and jealousy were derived from interviews and questionnaire measures. Using multilevel modeling, main effects of age were found for jealousy, and main effects of relationship length were found for each quality...
June 12, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594188/caregiving-experience-and-its-relation-to-perceptual-narrowing-of-face-gender
#16
Jennifer L Rennels, Joshua Juvrud, Andrea J Kayl, Martin Asperholm, Gustaf Gredebäck, Agneta Herlitz
This research examined whether infants tested longitudinally at 10, 14, and 16 months of age (N = 58) showed evidence of perceptual narrowing based on face gender (better discrimination of female than male faces) and whether changes in caregiving experience longitudinally predicted changes in infants' discrimination of male faces. To test face discrimination, infants participated in familiarization/novelty preference tasks and visual search tasks including female and male faces. At each age of participation, they were coded as having a female primary caregiver only or distributed caregiving experience (alternating experience with a female and male primary caregiver)...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581313/tune-yourself-in-valence-and-arousal-preferences-in-music-listening-choices-from-adolescence-to-old-age
#17
Caroline Cohrdes, Cornelia Wrzus, Simon Frisch, Michaela Riediger
In previous studies, older as compared with younger individuals were more strongly motivated to regulate their momentary affect toward pleasant and calm states. Whether these motivational differences are also reflected in regulatory behavior and whether this behavior is efficient in terms of affect change, however, is unclear. To address these issues, we conducted 3 studies with samples ranging in age from adolescence to old adulthood. In Study 1, we developed a novel and age-fair music browsing paradigm for music of diverse musical styles, dates of origin, and affective characteristics...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581312/babies-math-a-meta-analysis-of-infants-simple-arithmetic-competence
#18
Joan Christodoulou, Andrew Lac, David S Moore
Wynn's (1992) seminal research reported that infants looked longer at stimuli representing "incorrect" versus "correct" solutions of basic addition and subtraction problems and concluded that infants have innate arithmetical abilities. Since then, infancy researchers have attempted to replicate this effect, yielding mixed findings. The present meta-analysis aimed to systematically compile and synthesize all of the primary replications and extensions of Wynn (1992) that have been conducted to date. The synthesis included 12 studies consisting of 26 independent samples and 550 unique infants...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581311/facial-movements-facilitate-part-based-not-holistic-processing-in-children-adolescents-and-adults
#19
Naiqi G Xiao, Paul C Quinn, Liezhong Ge, Kang Lee
Although most of the faces we encounter daily are moving ones, much of what we know about face processing and its development is based on studies using static faces that emphasize holistic processing as the hallmark of mature face processing. Here the authors examined the effects of facial movements on face processing developmentally in children (8-year-olds), adolescents (12-year-olds), and adults (20-year-olds). In particular, the composite face effect was used to measure the influence of facial movements on part-based versus holistic processing after participants had viewed either a moving or static face in a within-subject design...
June 5, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569517/quantifying-the-structure-of-free-association-networks-across-the-life-span
#20
Haim Dubossarsky, Simon De Deyne, Thomas T Hills
We investigate how the mental lexicon changes over the life span using free association data from over 8,000 individuals, ranging from 10 to 84 years of age, with more than 400 cue words per age group. Using network analysis, with words as nodes and edges defined by the strength of shared associations, we find that associative networks evolve in a nonlinear (U-shaped) fashion over the life span. During early life, the network converges and becomes increasingly structured, with reductions in average path length, entropy, clustering coefficient, and small world index...
June 1, 2017: Developmental Psychology
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