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Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211568/does-early-executive-function-predict-teacher-child-relationships-from-kindergarten-to-second-grade
#1
Rachel D McKinnon, Clancy Blair
Teacher-child relationships have been linked to children's classroom engagement and to academic achievement. However, researchers have paid minimal attention to individual child factors that predict the development of these relationships. In the current study, we examined executive function (EF) prior to school entry as a predictor of teacher-child relationships at kindergarten through second grade. We also examined externalizing behavior problems, verbal intelligence, and academic achievement as mediators of these associations...
September 13, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179022/changes-in-executive-function-over-time-in-bilingual-and-monolingual-school-aged-children
#2
Jisook Park, Susan Ellis Weismer, Margarita Kaushanskaya
We examined the development of 3 executive function (EF) components-inhibition, updating, and task shifting-over time in monolingual and bilingual school-age children. We tested 41 monolingual and 41 simultaneous bilingual typically developing children (ages 8-12) on nonverbal tasks measuring inhibition (the Flanker task), updating (the Corsi blocks task), and task shifting (the Dimensional Change Card Sort task; DCCS) at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Three indexes of task shifting (shifting, switching, and mixing costs) were derived from the DCCS task...
September 3, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148372/mother-child-role-confusion-child-adjustment-problems-and-the-moderating-roles-of-child-temperament-and-sex
#3
Bharathi J Zvara, Jenny Macfie, Martha Cox, Roger Mills-Koonce
Role confusion is a deviation in the parent-child relationship such that a parent looks to a child to meet the parent's emotional needs and abdicates, in part, the parental role in exchange for care, intimacy, or peer support from the child. In addition, a child may initiate role-confused behavior in order to gain closeness to a parent who is otherwise preoccupied by his or her own needs. The current study examined associations between mother-child role confusion at age 5 (we coded role confusion from filmed free-play mother-child interactions) and teacher reports of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and peer problems, at Grade 1...
August 27, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148402/learning-and-solving-algebra-word-problems-the-roles-of-relational-skills-arithmetic-and-executive-functioning
#4
Kerry Lee, Swee Fong Ng, Rebecca Bull
Although algebra is a prerequisite for higher mathematics, few studies have examined the mathematical and cognitive capabilities that contribute to the development of algebra word problems solving skills. We examined changes in these relations from second to ninth grades. Using a cross-sequential design that spanned 4 years, children from 3 cohorts (Mage = 7.85, 10.05, and 12.32) were administered annual tests of algebra word problems, mathematical skills (mathematical relational tasks, arithmetic word problems), and cognitive capabilities (working memory, updating, inhibitory, task switching, and performance intelligence)...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148401/the-development-of-structural-thinking-about-social-categories
#5
Nadya Vasilyeva, Alison Gopnik, Tania Lombrozo
Representations of social categories help us make sense of the social world, supporting predictions and explanations about groups and individuals. In an experiment with 156 participants, we explore whether children and adults are able to understand category-property associations (such as the association between "girls" and "liking pink") in structural terms, locating an object of explanation within a larger structure and identifying structural constraints that act on elements of the structure...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148400/sensitivity-to-the-evaluation-of-others-emerges-by-24-months
#6
Sara Valencia Botto, Philippe Rochat
Although the human proclivity to engage in impression management and care for reputation is ubiquitous, the question of its developmental outset remains open. In 4 studies, we demonstrate that the sensitivity to the evaluation of others (i.e., evaluative audience perception) is manifest by 24 months. In a first study, 14- to 24-month-old children (N = 49) were tested in situations in which the attention of an audience was systematically manipulated. Results showed that when the experimenter was inattentive, as opposed to attentive, children were more likely to explore an attractive toy...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148399/-examining-the-influence-of-perceived-stress-on-developmental-change-in-memory-and-perceptual-speed-for-adopted-and-nonadopted-individuals-correction-to-ricker-et-al-2018
#7
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Examining the influence of perceived stress on developmental change in memory and perceptual speed for adopted and nonadopted individuals" by Ashley A. Ricker, Robin Corley, John C. DeFries, Sally J. Wadsworth and Chandra A. Reynolds ( Developmental Psychology , 2018[Jan], Vol 54[1], 138-150). In the article, the Logistic Model used for the Picture Memory Delayed (PMD), Names and Faces Immediate (NAFI), and Names and Faces Delayed (NAFD) outcomes, the values for the two parameters (r and d) were reversed in the Results section and in Table 2 as consequence of a later discovered discrepancy between the Newsom (2015a) formula notation versus the corresponding MPLUS script (Newsom 2015b)...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148398/otitis-media-and-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-across-infancy-and-early-childhood-polyvagal-processes
#8
Daniel Berry, Lynne Vernon-Feagans, W Roger Mills-Koonce, Clancy Blair
Otitis media (OM)-or middle-ear inflammation-is the most widely diagnosed childhood illness, with evidence implicating OM in a range of distal problems (e.g., language delays, attention problems). Polyvagal theory (Porges, 1995, 2007) posits that there also are likely important connections between middle-ear functioning and children's developing parasympathetic nervous systems (PNS). Using prospective longitudinal data from the Family Life Project (n = 748), we tested within- and between-person relations between indicators of OM (middle-ear spectral gradient angle; SGA) and children's trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-a marker of parasympathetic control of the heart-between the ages of 7 and 35 months...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148397/autonomic-nervous-system-coordination-moderates-links-of-negative-interparental-conflict-with-adolescent-externalizing-behaviors
#9
Charlotte J McKernan, Rachel G Lucas-Thompson
Although negative interparental conflict predicts elevated externalizing problems for children, there are individual differences in this association. Theoretically, children's abilities to coordinate physiological stress across response systems moderate the effects of interparental conflict on developmental outcomes. Past cross-sectional research has demonstrated that poor coordination of sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous systems puts children at a greater risk for externalizing behaviors in the context of interparental conflict...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148396/marital-conflict-and-trajectories-of-adolescent-adjustment-the-role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-coordination
#10
Lauren E Philbrook, Stephen A Erath, J Benjamin Hinnant, Mona El-Sheikh
The present study investigates how coordination between stress responsivity of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) moderates the prospective effects of marital conflict on internalizing and externalizing symptoms across adolescence. Although an important avenue for psychophysiological research concerns how PNS and SNS responses jointly influence adjustment in the context of stress, these processes have rarely been studied in adolescence or longitudinally. Participants were 252 youth (53% female, 66% European American, 34% African American) who participated in laboratory assessments when they were 16, 17, and 18 years old...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148395/effects-of-early-adversity-on-neural-mechanisms-of-distractor-suppression-are-mediated-by-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-in-preschool-aged-children
#11
Ryan J Giuliano, Christina M Karns, Leslie E Roos, Theodore A Bell, Seth Petersen, Elizabeth A Skowron, Helen J Neville, Eric Pakulak
Multiple theoretical frameworks posit that interactions between the autonomic nervous system and higher-order neural networks are crucial for cognitive regulation. However, few studies have simultaneously examined autonomic physiology and brain activity during cognitive tasks. Such research is promising for understanding how early adversity impacts neurocognitive development in children, given that stress experienced early in life impacts both autonomic function and regulatory behaviors. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as a neural measure of auditory selective attention, and cardiovascular measures of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) and preejection period (PEP), in 105 3-5-year-old children with varying degrees of socioeconomic risk...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148394/parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-reactivity-moderate-maternal-contributions-to-emotional-adjustment-in-adolescence
#12
Jamie L Abaied, Sarah B Stanger, Caitlin Wagner, Wesley Sanders, W Justin Dyer, Laura Padilla-Walker
A burgeoning literature supports the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning as an index of physiologic sensitivity to the environment, but extant research is limited in its focus on single branches of the ANS, childhood samples, and solely negative environmental factors. This study seeks to address these limitations by exploring whether reactivity in the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems jointly moderate the prospective contributions of both positive (maternal involvement) and negative (maternal psychological control) aspects of the family environment to developmentally relevant outcomes in adolescence (depressive symptoms and emotion regulation)...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148393/unraveling-current-and-future-adolescent-depressive-symptoms-the-role-of-stress-reactivity-across-physiological-systems
#13
Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Charlotte J McKernan, Kimberly L Henry
Neurobiological processes are highlighted in animal and theoretical models of the development of depression, but there is mixed empirical evidence about associations between stress physiology and depressive symptoms. Adolescence has been highlighted as a period during which coordination across physiological stress response systems may be particularly important. However, most studies have focused on depressive symptoms and physiological reactivity in isolated systems. The goal of this study was to examine associations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS; i...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148392/neurophysiological-markers-associated-with-heterogeneity-in-conduct-problems-callous-unemotional-traits-and-anxiety-comparing-children-to-young-adults
#14
Kostas A Fanti, Melina N Kyranides, Maria Petridou, Chara A Demetriou, Giorgos Georgiou
Evidence from physiological studies has been integral in many causal theories of behavioral and emotional problems. However, this evidence is hampered by the heterogeneity characterizing these problems. The current study adds to prior work by identifying neuro-physiological markers associated with heterogeneity in conduct problems (CP), callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and anxiety. Participants were classified into the following groups: (a) low risk, (b) anxious (predominately high anxiety), (c) primary (scored high on CP and CU traits but low on anxiety), and (d) secondary (high anxiety, CU traits, and CP)...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148391/children-s-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-while-transgressing-relations-to-guilt-feelings-and-aggression
#15
Tyler Colasante, Antonio Zuffianò, David W Haley, Tina Malti
Despite the well-established protective functions of guilt across childhood, its underlying physiological mechanisms have received little attention. We used latent difference scores (LDS) to model changes in children's (N = 267; 4- and 8-year-olds, 51% girls) skin conductance (SC) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) while they imagined themselves committing antisocial acts. We then tested if their later reports of guilt, caregiver-reported aggressive behavior, and age were associated with these physiological changes...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148390/stress-physiology-and-memory-for-emotional-information-moderation-by-individual-differences-in-pubertal-hormones
#16
Jodi A Quas, Amy Castro, Crystal I Bryce, Douglas A Granger
In contrast to a large body of work concerning the effects of physiological stress reactivity on children's socioemotional functioning, far less attention has been devoted to understanding the effects of such reactivity on cognitive, including mnemonic, functioning. How well children learn and remember information under stress has implications for a range of educational, clinical, and legal outcomes. We evaluated 8-14 year olds' (N = 94, 50 female) memory for negative, neutral, and positive images. Youth had seen the images a week previously as a part of a laboratory stress task...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148389/impact-of-psychophysiological-stress-response-systems-on-psychological-development-moving-beyond-the-single-biomarker-approach
#17
Kristin A Buss, Sara Jaffee, Martha E Wadsworth, Wendy Kliewer
This Special Section showcases cutting-edge, theory-driven research, which elucidates how multiple physiologic stress-response systems and neural networks that support social behavior operate together to affect psychological processes across from infancy to adolescence. The 8 papers included in the Special Section represent cutting-edge efforts to understand how multiple physiological systems jointly influence behavior. They raise new questions, highlight issues that remain unresolved, and suggest additional directions for research...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070546/developmental-reversals-in-false-memory-development-is-complementary-not-compensatory
#18
C J Brainerd, V F Reyna, R E Holliday
We report the 1st example of a true complementarity effect in memory development-a situation in which memory for the same event simultaneously becomes more and less accurate between early childhood and adulthood. We investigated this paradoxical effect because fuzzy-trace theory predicts that it can occur in paradigms that produce developmental reversals in false memory, which are circumstances in which adults are more likely than children to remember new events as old. The complementarity prediction is this: If subjects separately judge whether those same events are new but similar to old ones, adults will be more accurate than children, even though adults are less accurate when they judge whether the items are old...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058817/a-longitudinal-examination-of-mediational-pathways-linking-chronic-victimization-and-exclusion-to-adolescent-alcohol-use
#19
Samuel N Meisel, Craig R Colder, Julie C Bowker, Andrea M Hussong
The current study examined developmentally informed pathways from peer victimization and exclusion to adolescent alcohol use. Using multiple informants (target and peer report of negative peer experiences) and a longitudinal sample of 387 adolescents, we examined 2 developmental pathways from these negative peer experiences to alcohol use, 1 through externalizing symptoms and the other through internalizing symptoms. When analyzed in separate models, results suggested that self-reported chronic peer victimization and exclusion were positively related to alcohol use through internalizing symptoms and coping motivated drinking...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058816/impact-of-political-conflict-on-trajectories-of-adolescent-prosocial-behavior-implications-for-civic-engagement
#20
Laura K Taylor, Christine E Merrilees, Rachel Baird, Marcie C Goeke-Morey, Peter Shirlow, E Mark Cummings
Counterbalancing the narrative of youth as either helpless victims or ruthless perpetrators, a new generation of research in conflict settings focuses on their peace-building potential, including constructs such as prosocial behaviors and civic engagement. Previous research on the impact of political violence on prosocial behaviors in mixed, finding both positive and negative links. This study examines this relation using a launch and ambient approach, which helps to disentangle these effects over time. To do so, the article prospectively examines trajectories of adolescent prosocial behaviors ( N = 999; Time 1: Mage = 12...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
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