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Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541063/getting-together-social-contact-frequency-across-the-life-span
#1
Julia Sander, Jürgen Schupp, David Richter
Frequent social interactions are strongly linked to positive affect, longevity, and good health. Although there has been extensive research on changes in the size of social networks over time, little attention has been given to the development of contact frequency across the life span. In this cohort-sequential longitudinal study, we examined intraindividual changes in the frequency of social contact with family and nonfamily members, and potential moderators of these changes. The data come from the 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study (N = 36,716; age range: 17-85 years)...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541062/antisocial-and-human-capital-pathways-to-socioeconomic-exclusion-a-42-year-prospective-study
#2
Jukka Savolainen, W Alex Mason, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, Lea Pulkkinen, Katja Kokko
Nordic welfare states have been very successful at reducing poverty and inequality among their citizens. However, the presence of a strong social safety net in these countries has not solved the problem of socioeconomic exclusion, manifesting in such outcomes as chronic unemployment and welfare dependency. In an effort to understand this phenomenon, the current study builds on the assumption that psychological risk factors emerge as important determinants of socioeconomic disadvantage in an environment where ascribed characteristics have less impact on educational and occupational attainment...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530440/children-s-reasoning-about-deception-and-defiance-as-ways-of-resisting-parents-and-teachers-directives
#3
Matthew Gingo
This research presented 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (N = 120) with hypothetical situations depicting comparably aged children engaging in defiance and deception to circumvent authorities' directives that they disagreed with. The nature of the situations varied in terms of domain (personal, moral, or prudential) and type of authority figure (parent or teacher). Evaluations and justifications for the legitimacy of the directives, defiance, and deception were examined, as were general evaluations of deception. Across domains, increased age was associated with decreased acceptance of directives, and increased acceptance of defiance and deception...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530439/an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-attentional-biases-towards-affect-in-young-children
#4
Jessica L Burris, Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Susan M Rivera
This study examines attentional biases in the presence of angry, happy and neutral faces using a modified eye tracking version of the dot probe task (DPT). Participants were 111 young children between 9 and 48 months. Children passively viewed an affective attention bias task that consisted of a face pairing (neutral paired with either neutral, angry or happy) for 500 ms that was followed by a 1,500-ms asterisk probe on 1 side of the screen. Congruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the same side of the screen as the emotional face and incongruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the opposite side of the emotional face...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530438/adolescent-perceived-parent-and-teacher-overestimation-of-mathematics-ability-developmental-implications-for-students-mathematics-task-values
#5
Burkhard Gniewosz, Helen M G Watt
This study examines whether and how student-perceived parents' and teachers' overestimation of students' own perceived mathematical ability can explain trajectories for adolescents' mathematical task values (intrinsic and utility) controlling for measured achievement, following expectancy-value and self-determination theories. Longitudinal data come from a 3-cohort (mean ages 13.25, 12.36, and 14.41 years; Grades 7-10), 4-wave data set of 1,271 Australian secondary school students. Longitudinal structural equation models revealed positive effects of student-perceived overestimation of math ability by parents and teachers on students' intrinsic and utility math task values development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530437/developmental-continuity-and-change-in-physical-verbal-and-relational-aggression-and-peer-victimization-from-childhood-to-adolescence
#6
Idean Ettekal, Gary W Ladd
To investigate the developmental course of aggression and peer victimization in childhood and adolescence, distinct subgroups of children were identified based on similarities and differences in their physical, verbal and relational aggression, and victimization. Developmental continuity and change were assessed by examining transitions within and between subgroups from Grades 1 to 11. This longitudinal study consisted of 482 children (50% females) and was based on peer report data on multiple forms of aggression and peer victimization...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530436/chinese-preschoolers-resource-allocation-in-the-face-of-existing-inequality-under-collaborative-and-noncollaborative-contexts
#7
Qiao Chai, Jie He
The current study investigated the stage at which Chinese preschoolers started considering recipients' material welfare and minimizing existing inequalities under both noncollaborative and collaborative contexts. Also, it analyzed how they behaved when recipients' material welfare was in conflict with merit or equality rule. Experiment 1 found that 4-year-old children allocated resources to the poor rather than the rich character only under the noncollaborative context but not under the collaborative context, in which they had observed these 2 characters working together to finish a task...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530435/friends-also-matter-examining-friendship-adjustment-indices-as-moderators-of-anxious-withdrawal-and-trajectories-of-change-in-psychological-maladjustment
#8
Andrea Markovic, Julie C Bowker
The present study evaluated whether 3 indices of friendship adjustment (mutual friendship involvement, friendship stability, friendship quality) are important, but overlooked, moderators of the impact of anxious-withdrawal on trajectories of psychological maladjustment during early adolescence. Participants included 271 young adolescents (51% boys; Mage = 11.83 years; 42% ethnic minority) who completed peer nomination and self-report measures at 3 waves in a longitudinal study. In line with hypotheses, growth curve analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal predicted less negative psychological adjustment trajectories for friended young adolescents, albeit somewhat differently for boys and girls...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517946/why-be-moral-moral-identity-motivation-and-age
#9
Tobias Krettenauer, Rosemary Victor
Moral identity research to date has largely failed to provide evidence for developmental trends in moral identity, presumably because of restrictions in the age range of studies and the use of moral identity measures that are insensitive to age-related change. The present study investigated moral identity motivation across a broad age range (14-65 years, M = 33.48; N = 252) using a modified version of the Good Self-Assessment Interview. Individuals' moral identity motivation was coded and categorized as external, internal, or relationship-oriented...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517945/predicting-growth-in-english-and-french-vocabulary-the-facilitating-effects-of-morphological-and-cognate-awareness
#10
Nadia D'Angelo, Kathleen Hipfner-Boucher, Xi Chen
The present study investigated the contribution of morphological and cognate awareness to the development of English and French vocabulary knowledge among young minority and majority language children who were enrolled in a French immersion program. Participating children (n = 75) were assessed in English and French on measures of morphological awareness, cognate awareness, and vocabulary knowledge from Grades 1 to 3. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate linear trends in English and French vocabulary growth for minority and majority language children and to identify metalinguistic contributions to Grade 1 and Grade 3 English and French vocabulary performance and rate of growth...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481564/impact-of-fathers-on-parental-monitoring-of-daughters-and-their-affiliation-with-sexually-promiscuous-peers-a-genetically-and-environmentally-controlled-sibling-study
#11
Danielle J DelPriore, Gabriel L Schlomer, Bruce J Ellis
Girls who receive higher quality fathering engage in less risky sexual behavior (RSB) than their peers. Previous research identifies higher levels of parental monitoring/knowledge and reduced affiliation with deviant peers as potential mediators of this observed fathering effect. Although paternal investment theory posits a causal effect of fathers on daughters' RSB, and on the intervening processes that mediate this effect, these relations could arise from genetic or environmental confounds. To address this limitation, we employed the genetically- and environmentally controlled differential sibling-exposure design (N = 101 sister pairs; ages 18-36), which retrospectively examines the effects of differential sibling exposure to family disruption/father absence and quality of fathering...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471220/classroom-displays-attraction-or-distraction-evidence-of-impact-on-attention-and-learning-from-children-with-and-without-autism
#12
Mary Hanley, Mariam Khairat, Korey Taylor, Rachel Wilson, Rachel Cole-Fletcher, Deborah M Riby
Paying attention is a critical first step toward learning. For children in primary school classrooms there can be many things to attend to other than the focus of a lesson, such as visual displays on classroom walls. The aim of this study was to use eye-tracking techniques to explore the impact of visual displays on attention and learning for children. Critically, we explored these issues for children developing typically and for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both groups of children watched videos of a teacher delivering classroom activities-2 of "story-time" and 2 mini lessons...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471219/exuberant-and-inhibited-children-person-centered-profiles-and-links-to-social-adjustment
#13
Jessica M Dollar, Cynthia A Stifter, Kristin A Buss
The current study aimed to substantiate and extend our understanding regarding the existence and developmental pathways of 3 distinct temperament profiles-exuberant, inhibited, and average approach-in a sample of 3.5-year-old children (n = 121). The interactions between temperamental styles and specific types of effortful control, inhibitory control and attentional control, were also examined in predicting kindergarten peer acceptance. Latent profile analysis identified 3 temperamental styles: exuberant, inhibited, and average approach...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471218/change-in-parenting-change-in-student-teacher-relationships-and-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-testing-a-gene-%C3%A3-environment-g%C3%A3-e-hypothesis-in-two-samples
#14
Beate Wold Hygen, Jay Belsky, Zhi Li, Frode Stenseng, Ismail Cuneyt Güzey, Lars Wichstrøm
Prior research suggests that parenting affects children's relationships, including those with teachers, although there is variation across individuals in such effects. Given evidence suggesting that oxytocin may be particularly important for the quality of social relationships, we tested the hypotheses (a) that change in parenting from 4 to 6 years of age influences and predicts change in the student-teacher relationship from 6 to 8 years of age and (b) that this effect is moderated by a polymorphism related to the child's oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471217/number-prompts-left-to-right-spatial-mapping-in-toddlerhood
#15
Koleen McCrink, Jasmin Perez, Erica Baruch
Toddlers performed a spatial mapping task in which they were required to learn the location of a hidden object in a vertical array and then transpose this location information 90° to a horizontal array. During the vertical training, they were given (a) no labels, (b) alphabetical labels, or (c) numerical labels for each potential spatial location. After the array was transposed to become a horizontal continuum, the children who were provided with numerical labels during training and those who heard alphabetical labels and formed a strong memory for the vertical location, selectively chose the location corresponding to a left-to-right mapping bias...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459258/spatial-exploration-and-changes-in-infant-mother-dyads-around-transitions-in-infant-locomotion
#16
Sabrina L Thurman, Daniela Corbetta
Infants' motor skill development triggers changes in parent-infant interactions, exploration, and play behaviors, particularly during periods of locomotor transitions. We investigated how these transitions reorganized infants' and mothers' explorations of spatial layouts. Thirteen infants and their mothers were followed biweekly from the age of 6 to 17 months. This report focused on 2 periods of 6 sessions surrounding infants' hands-and-knees crawling and walking onsets. Infants' and mothers' activities were monitored during 10-min free-play sessions held in a laboratory room provided with toys and furniture...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459257/the-association-of-age-sense-of-control-optimism-and-self-esteem-with-emotional-distress
#17
M Guadalupe Jiménez, Ignacio Montorio, María Izal
The aim of this study was to test a model of emotional distress, which incorporates the potential mediator role of positive resources (sense of control, self-esteem, and optimism) in the association of age with emotional distress. The study used a cross-sectional design with intentional sampling and the voluntary participation of 325 adults between 18 and 87 years (M = 46.8 ± 19.10). The results show that emotional distress was negatively associated with age. Psychological resources also varied according to age, with older subjects presenting higher optimism and external control as well as lower internal control...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459256/mothers-implicit-appraisals-of-their-adolescents-as-unlovable-explanatory-factor-linking-family-conflict-and-harsh-parenting
#18
Meredith J Martin, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Patrick T Davies, Christine V Romero
This study examined the consequences of negative change in mothers' implicit appraisals of their adolescents after engaging in a family disagreement. Participants included 194 mothers and their early adolescents (Mage = 12.4 at Wave 1; 50% female) followed over 1 year. Mothers' implicit appraisals of her child as "unlovable" were assessed using the Go/No-Go Association Task-Child (Sturge-Apple, Rogge, Skibo, et al., 2015), an associative word-sorting task, before and after engaging in a family conflict task...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447819/intelligence-income-and-education-as-potential-influences-on-a-child-s-home-environment-a-maternal-sibling-comparison-design
#19
Alexandria Ree Hadd, Joseph Lee Rodgers
The quality of the home environment, as a predictor, is related to health, education, and emotion outcomes. However, factors influencing the quality of the home environment, as an outcome, have been understudied-particularly how children construct their own environments. Further, most previous research on family processes and outcomes has implemented between-family designs, which limit claims of causality. The present study uses kinship data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to construct a maternal sibling-comparison design to investigate how maternal and child traits predict the quality of home environment...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447818/correction-to-weststrate-and-gl%C3%A3-ck-2017
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Hard-earned wisdom: Exploratory processing of difficult life experience is positively associated with wisdom" by Nic M. Weststrate and Judith Glück (Developmental Psychology, 2017[Apr], Vol 53[4], 800-814). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-12497-007.) Laypersons and experts believe that wisdom is cultivated through a diverse range of positive and negative life experiences. Yet, not all individuals with life experience are wise. We propose that one possible determinant of growth in wisdom from life experience is self-reflection...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Psychology
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