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Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309181/incidental-category-learning-and-cognitive-load-in-a-multisensory-environment-across-childhood
#1
H J Broadbent, T Osborne, M Rea, A Peng, D Mareschal, N Z Kirkham
Multisensory information has been shown to facilitate learning (Bahrick & Lickliter, 2000; Broadbent, White, Mareschal, & Kirkham, 2017; Jordan & Baker, 2011; Shams & Seitz, 2008). However, although research has examined the modulating effect of unisensory and multisensory distractors on multisensory processing, the extent to which a concurrent unisensory or multisensory cognitive load task would interfere with or support multisensory learning remains unclear. This study examined the role of concurrent task modality on incidental category learning in 6- to 10-year-olds...
January 8, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283596/overt-and-covert-attention-in-infants-revealed-using-steady-state-visually-evoked-potentials
#2
Joan Christodoulou, David S Leland, David S Moore
Although looking-time methods have long been used to measure infant attention and investigate aspects of cognitive development, steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) measures may be more sensitive or practical in some contexts. Here, we demonstrate habituation of infants' SSVEP amplitudes to a flickering checkerboard stimulus, and recovery of attention upon presentation of a novel checkerboard stimulus. This modulation of SSVEP amplitude was more robust than the modulation of looking time. In addition, we provide evidence of enhanced SSVEPs in response to covertly attended checkerboards flickering in peripheral visual fields, even while infants are fixating a central stimulus...
December 28, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283595/language-specificity-in-the-relation-of-maternal-education-to-bilingual-children-s-vocabulary-growth
#3
Erika Hoff, Andrea Burridge, Krystal M Ribot, David Giguere
The robust relation between maternal education and child language that is observed in monolingual populations has not been reliably replicated among bilingual children from immigrant families in the United States. We hypothesized that a variable that operates in immigrant populations-the language in which mothers achieved their highest level of education, is relevant to the benefits of maternal education to children's language growth. The participants were 92 U.S.-born bilingually developing children (47 boys, 45 girls) with native Spanish-speaking immigrant mothers...
December 28, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283594/the-choice-is-yours-infants-expectations-about-an-agent-s-future-behavior-based-on-taking-and-receiving-actions
#4
Arianne E Eason, Daniel Doctor, Ellen Chang, Tamar Kushnir, Jessica A Sommerville
Our social world is rich with information about other people's choices, which subsequently inform our inferences about their future behavior. For individuals socialized within the American cultural context, which places a high value on autonomy and independence, outcomes that are the result of an agent's own choices may hold more predictive value than similar outcomes that are the result of another person's choices. Across two experiments we test the ontogeny of this phenomenon; that is, whether infants are sensitive to the causal history associated with an agent's acquisition of an object...
December 28, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265828/cumulative-psychosocial-risk-parental-socialization-and-child-cognitive-functioning-a-longitudinal-cascade-model
#5
Mark Wade, Sheri Madigan, Andre Plamondon, Michelle Rodrigues, Dillon Browne, Jennifer M Jenkins
Previous studies have demonstrated that various psychosocial risks are associated with poor cognitive functioning in children, and these risks frequently cluster together. In the current longitudinal study, we tested a model in which it was hypothesized that cumulative psychosocial adversity of mothers would have deleterious effects on children's cognitive functioning by compromising socialization processes within families (i.e., parental competence). A prospective community birth cohort of 501 families was recruited when children were newborns...
December 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265827/examining-the-temporal-order-of-ethnic-identity-and-perceived-discrimination-among-hispanic-immigrant-adolescents
#6
Melinda A Gonzales-Backen, Alan Meca, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, David Córdova, Daniel W Soto, Miguel Ángel Cano, Assaf Oshri, Byron L Zamboanga, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Seth J Schwartz, José Szapocznik, Jennifer B Unger
Ethnic identity formation is a central developmental task that can become challenging when adolescents face a salient stressor, such as ethnic discrimination. Although ethnic identity and experiences with ethnic discrimination are thought to be associated, the temporal order of these constructs is unclear. In the current study, we examined (a) the rejection-identification model and (b) the identification-attribution model in a longitudinal, cross-lagged model among 302 Hispanic immigrant adolescents (Mage = 14...
December 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251971/children-s-learning-and-memory-of-an-interactive-science-lesson-does-the-context-matter
#7
Kana Imuta, Damian Scarf, Sally Carson, Harlene Hayne
Children often learn information in a context that is vastly different to the one in which they are asked to recall or use that information. Despite this, little is known about the effect of context change on children's recall of educational information. Here, 197 5- and 6-year-olds were taught the same interactive lesson in their classroom or on a field trip and were tested after a 1- to 2-day and 6-month delay. The effect of learning context was more pronounced for older children, wherein the field trip yielded more autobiographically rich memories than the classroom, but they learned a similar amount of scientific content in both contexts...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251970/personality-change-among-newlyweds-patterns-predictors-and-associations-with-marital-satisfaction-over-time
#8
Justin A Lavner, Brandon Weiss, Joshua D Miller, Benjamin R Karney
The early years of marriage are a time of significant personal and relational changes as partners adjust to their new roles, but the specific ways that spouses' personalities may change in early marriage and how these changes are associated with spouses' marital satisfaction trajectories have been overlooked. Using 3 waves of data collected over the first 18 months of marriage (N = 338 spouses, or 169 heterosexual newlywed marriages), we examined changes in spouses' self-reported Big 5 personality traits over time and the association between initial levels and changes in personality and spouses' concurrent marital satisfaction trajectories...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251969/the-development-of-externalizing-symptoms-from-late-childhood-through-adolescence-a-longitudinal-study-of-mexican-origin-youth
#9
Olivia E Atherton, Emilio Ferrer, Richard W Robins
Youth who exhibit externalizing problems during childhood and adolescence are at an increased risk for a wide range of detrimental life outcomes. Despite the profound consequences of externalizing problems for children, their families, and their communities, we know less about the precise trajectory of externalizing symptoms across late childhood and adolescence, because of the paucity of fine-grained longitudinal research. The present study examined the development of externalizing symptoms in a large sample (N = 674) of Mexican-origin youth, assessed annually from age 10 to 17...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251968/maternal-employment-stability-in-early-childhood-links-with-child-behavior-and-cognitive-skills
#10
Natasha V Pilkauskas, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Jane Waldfogel
Although many studies have investigated links between maternal employment and children's wellbeing, less research has considered whether the stability of maternal employment is linked with child outcomes. Using unique employment calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,011), an urban birth cohort study of largely low-income families, this paper investigates whether the stability of maternal employment in early childhood (birth to age 5) is linked with child behavior and cognitive skills at ages 5 and 9...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251967/economic-hardship-during-infancy-and-u-s-latino-preschoolers-sociobehavioral-health-and-academic-readiness
#11
Francisco Palermo, Jean M Ispa, Gustavo Carlo, Cara Streit
We tested a culturally integrative model examining the associations among economic hardship during infancy and Latino children's later sociobehavioral problems and academic skills prior to kindergarten entry, whether mothers' mental health problems and positive parenting behaviors mediated those associations, and whether they varied by mothers' acculturation levels. Participants were 714 low-income Latino mothers (M age at enrollment = 24 years; 82% Mexican American; 59% foreign-born) and children (M age at enrollment = 4 months; 53% boys) in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSREP)...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251966/test-retest-reliability-and-predictive-validity-of-the-implicit-association-test-in-children
#12
James R Rae, Kristina R Olson
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251965/when-preferences-are-in-the-way-children-s-predictions-of-goal-directed-behaviors
#13
Fan Yang, Douglas Frye
Across three studies, we examined 4- to 7-year-olds' predictions of goal-directed behaviors when goals conflict with preferences. In Study 1, when presented with stories in which a character had to act against basic preferences to achieve an interpersonal goal (e.g., playing with a partner), 6- and 7-year-olds were more likely than 4- and 5-year-olds to predict the actor would act in accordance with the goal to play with the partner, instead of fulfilling the basic preference of playing a favored activity. Similar results were obtained in Study 2 with scenarios that each involved a single individual pursuing intrapersonal goals that conflicted with his or her basic preferences...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251964/the-role-of-identity-commitments-in-depressive-symptoms-and-stressful-life-events-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#14
Lotte van Doeselaar, Theo A Klimstra, Jaap J A Denissen, Susan Branje, Wim Meeus
The formation of a stable identity, consisting of a strong set of commitments, is a key developmental task in adolescence and young adulthood. Not resolving this task and lacking strong identity commitments is related to difficulties like depressive symptoms and stressful life events. However, the exact role of identity commitments in these negative experiences has remained unclear. In two longitudinal studies in the Netherlands spanning 8 and 6 years, respectively, we examined the associations between career and interpersonal commitments, depressive symptoms, and the number of experienced stressful life events over time...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251963/identifying-differences-in-early-literacy-skills-across-subgroups-of-language-minority-children-a-latent-profile-analysis
#15
Christopher J Lonigan, J Marc Goodrich, JoAnn M Farver
Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251962/children-s-helping-behavior-in-an-ethnic-intergroup-context-evidence-for-outgroup-helping
#16
Jellie Sierksma, Tessa A M Lansu, Johan C Karremans, Gijsbert Bijlstra
Two studies examined when and why children (10-13 years) help ethnic in-group and out-group peers. In Study 1 (n = 163) children could help an out-group or in-group peer with a word-guessing game by entering codes into a computer. While children evaluated the out-group more negatively than the in-group, they helped out-group peers more than in-group peers. Study 2 (n = 117) conceptually replicated the findings of Study 1. Additionally the results suggest that when children endorsed the stereotype that the out-group is "less smart," this increased their intention to help out-group peers and it decreased their intention to enter codes for in-group peers...
December 18, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239639/future-planning-in-preschool-children
#17
Lillie Moffett, Henrike Moll, Lily FitzGibbon
The capacity to plan ahead and provide the means for future ends is an important part of human practical reasoning. When this capacity develops in ontogeny is the matter of an ongoing debate. In this study, 4- and 5-year-olds performed a future planning task in which they had to create the means (a picture of a particular object, e.g., a banana) that was necessary to address a future end (of completing a game in which such a picture was missing). Children of both ages drew more targets than children in a control condition in which there was no future end to be pursued...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239638/empathy-trumps-prejudice-the-longitudinal-relation-between-empathy-and-anti-immigrant-attitudes-in-adolescence
#18
Marta Miklikowska
Although research has shown the effects of empathy manipulations on prejudice, little is known about the long-term relation between empathy and prejudice development, the direction of effects, and the relative effects of cognitive and affective aspects of empathy. Moreover, research has not examined within-person processes; hence, its practical implications are unclear. In addition, longitudinal research on development of prejudice and empathy in adolescence is still scarce. This 3-wave study of adolescents (N = 574) examined a longitudinal, within-person relation between empathy and anti-immigrant attitudes...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239637/discrete-emotion-regulation-strategy-repertoires-and-parasympathetic-physiology-characterize-psychopathology-symptoms-in-childhood
#19
Laura E Quiñones-Camacho, Elizabeth L Davis
Certain psychopathologies are often linked to dysregulation of specific emotions (e.g., anxiety is associated with dysregulation of fear), but few studies have examined how regulatory repertoires for specific emotions (e.g., the strategies a person uses to regulate fear) relate to psychopathology, and fewer still have examined this in childhood. A total of 106 7- to 11-year-olds (M = 9.37 years; SD = 1.30; 44% girls) participated in a multimethod investigation of emotion regulation and psychopathology. Parents reported on family characteristics and children's symptoms...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239636/time-varying-associations-of-parent-adolescent-cultural-conflict-and-youth-adjustment-among-chinese-american-families
#20
Linda P Juang, Yang Hou, Sara Douglass Bayless, Su Yeong Kim
The purpose of this study was to examine time-varying associations of parent-adolescent cultural conflict with depressive symptoms and grade point average (GPA) among Chinese Americans from ages 11-22. We pooled two independently collected longitudinal data sets (N = 760 at Wave 1) and used time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) to show that the frequency of parent-adolescent conflict increased during early adolescence (12 years), peaked at mid adolescence (16 years), and gradually decreased throughout late adolescence and young adulthood...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
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