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Developmental Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154658/the-development-of-individual-physically-aggressive-behaviors-from-infancy-to-toddlerhood
#1
Michael F Lorber, Tamara Del Vecchio, Amy M Smith Slep
In the present investigation, we studied the development of 6 physically aggressive behaviors in infancy and toddlerhood, posing 3 questions (a) How do the prevalences of individual physically aggressive behaviors change from 8, 15, and 24 months? (b) Are there groups of children who show distinctive patterns in the way individual physically aggressive behaviors develop over time? (c) What are the behavioral pathways leading from 8- to 24-month acts of physical aggression? Mothers and fathers (N = 272) from a moderately at-risk population reported on their children's physical aggression at each time point...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154657/trajectories-of-parental-engagement-in-early-childhood-among-dual-earner-families-effects-on-child-self-control
#2
Tiago Ferreira, Joana Cadima, Marisa Matias, Joana Marina Vieira, Teresa Leal, Karine Verschueren, Paula Mena Matos
Parental engagement in positive activities with the child may show significant variation across time, assuming a crucial influence on child development. In dual-earner families, work-family conflict can interfere with parental engagement, with negative consequences for children's behavior. The current study examined the change trajectories of mothers' and fathers' engagement in early childhood, analyzing whether these trajectories are influenced by parents' work-family conflict and whether they predict child behavioral self-control...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154656/does-lexical-stress-influence-17-month-olds-mapping-of-verbs-and-nouns
#3
Jennifer Campbell, Patrick Mihalicz, Erik Thiessen, Suzanne Curtin
English-learning infants attend to lexical stress when learning new words. Attention to lexical stress might be beneficial for word learning by providing an indication of the grammatical class of that word. English disyllabic nouns commonly have trochaic (strong-weak) stress, whereas English disyllabic verbs commonly have iambic (weak-strong) stress. We explored whether 17-month-old infants use word stress to resolve an ambiguous labeling event where objects and actions are equally plausible referents. Infants were habituated to 2 words paired with 2 objects, with each object performing a distinct path action...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154655/cognitive-functioning-in-toddlerhood-the-role-of-gestational-age-attention-capacities-and-maternal-stimulation
#4
Marjanneke de Jong, Marjolein Verhoeven, Ignace T C Hooge, Arnoldina P G F Maingay-Visser, Louise Spanjerberg, Anneloes L van Baar
Why do many preterm children show delays in development? An integrated model of biological risk, children's capacities, and maternal stimulation was investigated in relation to cognitive functioning at toddler age. Participants were 200 Dutch children (gestational age = 32-41 weeks); 51% boys, 96% Dutch nationality, 71.5% highly educated mothers. At 18 months, attention capacities were measured using eye-tracking, and maternal attention-directing behavior was observed. Cognitive functioning was measured at 24 months using the Bayley-III-NL...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154654/variety-in-parental-use-of-want-relates-to-subsequent-growth-in-children-s-theory-of-mind
#5
Ted Ruffman, Aastha Puri, Olivia Galloway, Japher Su, Mele Taumoepeau
In 2 cross-lagged, longitudinal studies we contrasted parental talk about want in a single context versus multiple contexts. Study 1 examined thirty-two 2 year olds, with mothers describing pictures to children. Mothers could use want in zero, one, or multiple contexts. Children whose mothers used want in multiple contexts experienced a significantly larger gain in mental state terms over a 6-month period. Study 2 examined 50 preschoolers, measuring theory of mind (ToM) with tasks and mental state terms, then had parents intervene by reading booklets in which want was used in 1 or multiple contexts...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154653/symbolic-number-skills-predict-growth-in-nonsymbolic-number-skills-in-kindergarteners
#6
Ian M Lyons, Stephanie Bugden, Samuel Zheng, Stefanie De Jesus, Daniel Ansari
There is currently considerable discussion about the relative influences of evolutionary and cultural factors in the development of early numerical skills. In particular, there has been substantial debate and study of the relationship between approximate, nonverbal (approximate magnitude system [AMS]) and exact, symbolic (symbolic number system [SNS]) representations of number. Here we examined several hypotheses concerning whether, in the earliest stages of formal education, AMS abilities predict growth in SNS abilities, or the other way around...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154652/development-of-internalizing-problems-from-adolescence-to-emerging-adulthood-accounting-for-heterotypic-continuity-with-vertical-scaling
#7
Isaac T Petersen, Oliver Lindhiem, Brandon LeBeau, John E Bates, Gregory S Pettit, Jennifer E Lansford, Kenneth A Dodge
Manifestations of internalizing problems, such as specific symptoms of anxiety and depression, can change across development, even if individuals show strong continuity in rank-order levels of internalizing problems. This illustrates the concept of heterotypic continuity, and raises the question of whether common measures might be construct-valid for one age but not another. This study examines mean-level changes in internalizing problems across a long span of development at the same time as accounting for heterotypic continuity by using age-appropriate, changing measures...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154651/reducing-the-language-content-in-tom-tests-a-developmental-scale
#8
Morgane Burnel, Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Anne Reboul, Monica Baciu, Stephanie Durrleman
The goal of the current study was to statistically evaluate the reliable scalability of a set of tasks designed to assess Theory of Mind (ToM) without language as a confounding variable. This tool might be useful to study ToM in populations where language is impaired or to study links between language and ToM. Low verbal versions of the ToM tasks proposed by Wellman and Liu (2004) for their scale were tested in 234 children (2.5 years to 11.9 years). Results showed that 5 of the tasks formed a scale according to both Guttman and Rasch models whereas all 6 tasks could form a scale according to the Rasch model only...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154650/classifying-trajectories-of-social-emotional-difficulties-through-elementary-school-impacts-of-the-chicago-school-readiness-project
#9
Dana Charles McCoy, Stephanie Jones, Amanda Roy, C Cybele Raver
Although research has shown fade-out of the cognitive benefits of classroom-based preschool interventions, less is known regarding the durability of social-emotional impacts. This study examines the extent to which the multicomponent Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) intervention lowered risk of internalizing, externalizing, attention, and social difficulties from Head Start through elementary school for 602 low-income children. Results suggest that most children in this sample showed few social-emotional difficulties over time...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154649/the-limits-of-visual-working-memory-in-children-exploring-prioritization-and-recency-effects-with-sequential-presentation
#10
Ed D J Berry, Amanda H Waterman, Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch, Richard J Allen
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory (WM), adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to nonprioritized items (e.g., Hu, Hitch, Baddeley, Zhang, & Allen, 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the most recently presented item (i.e., the recency effect) is relatively automatic, possibly driven by perceptual mechanisms. In 3 Experiments 7 to 10 year-old's ability to prioritize items in WM was investigated using a sequential visual task (total N = 208)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154648/nimble-negotiators-how-theory-of-mind-tom-interconnects-with-persuasion-skills-in-children-with-and-without-tom-delay
#11
Candida C Peterson, Virginia Slaughter, Henry M Wellman
Persuasion is an essential social skill. Yet its development and underpinnings are poorly understood. In 2 studies, a total of 167 children aged 3 to 12 years took theory of mind (ToM) tests and participated in unscripted, seminaturalistic persuasive conversations. Children were typically developing (TD) or had deafness or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). High-level, informationally rich persuasive arguments increased with age in all groups in both studies, as did ToM. In both studies, ToM scores predicted persuasion skill over and above age, language ability, and deafness/ASD status...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154647/lability-in-the-parent-s-hostility-and-warmth-toward-their-adolescent-linkages-to-youth-delinquency-and-substance-use
#12
Melissa A Lippold, Andrea Hussong, Gregory M Fosco, Nilam Ram
According to family systems and life course theories, periods of intense change, such as early adolescence, can disrupt stable family systems, leading to changes in family relationships. In this longitudinal study, we investigate 2 types of change in parental hostility and warmth toward their children during early adolescence (Grades 6 to 8)-developmental trends (linear declines) and lability (within-person fluctuations around developmental trends)-and their linkages to youth substance use and delinquency in Grade 9 (N = 618)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154646/developmental-stability-in-gender-typed-preferences-between-infancy-and-preschool-age
#13
Jillian E Lauer, Sibel D Ilksoy, Stella F Lourenco
Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between infants' (N = 51) performance on an object-preference task, administered between 6 and 13 months of age, and their play preferences at 4 years of age...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154645/center-based-early-care-and-education-and-children-s-school-readiness-do-impacts-vary-by-neighborhood-poverty
#14
Taryn W Morrissey, Katie Vinopal
Neighborhoods provide resources that may affect children's achievement or moderate the influences of other developmental contexts, such as early care and education (ECE). Using a sample (N ≈ 12,430) from the 2010-2011 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, merged with census tract-level poverty data from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey, this article examines associations between center-based ECE participation, neighborhood poverty, and children's academic skills and behavior at kindergarten entry...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154644/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-adolescent-decision-making-with-the-iowa-gambling-task
#15
Brandon Almy, Michael Kuskowski, Stephen M Malone, Evan Myers, Monica Luciana
Many researchers have used the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess decision-making in adolescence given increased risk-taking during this developmental period. Most studies are cross-sectional and do not observe behavioral trajectories over time, limiting interpretation. This longitudinal study investigated healthy adolescents' and young adults' IGT performance across a 10-year span. A total of 189 individuals (aged 9-23 at baseline) completed a baseline session and were followed at 2-year intervals yielding 5 time-points...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154643/gender-nonconformity-of-identical-twins-with-discordant-sexual-orientations-evidence-from-childhood-photographs
#16
Tuesday M Watts, Luke Holmes, Jamie Raines, Sheina Orbell, Gerulf Rieger
Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We therefore assessed gender nonconformity via ratings of photographs from childhood and adulthood. These ratings came from independent observers naïve to study hypotheses. Identical twins with discordant sexual orientations (24 male pairs, 32 female pairs) visibly differed in their gender nonconformity from mid-childhood, with higher levels of gender nonconformity observed in the nonstraight twins...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154642/sensory-processing-sensitivity-as-a-marker-of-differential-susceptibility-to-parenting
#17
Meike Slagt, Judith Semon Dubas, Marcel A G van Aken, Bruce J Ellis, Maja Deković
In this longitudinal multiinformant study negative emotionality and sensory processing sensitivity were compared as susceptibility markers among kindergartners. Participating children (N = 264, 52.9% boys) were Dutch kindergartners (Mage = 4.77, SD = 0.60), followed across three waves, spaced seven months apart. Results show that associations between parenting and child behavior did not depend on children's negative emotionality. Sensory processing sensitivity, however, interacted with both (changes in) negative and (changes in) positive parenting in predicting externalizing, but not prosocial, behavior...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154641/do-the-antecedents-and-consequences-of-loneliness-change-from-middle-adulthood-into-old-age
#18
Anne Böger, Oliver Huxhold
Loneliness is a stressful experience that appears to interfere with health and social integration (SI). Recently, researchers proposed that both antecedents and consequences of loneliness may change across the life span. To fully understand the processes related to loneliness it may thus be crucial to adopt an age-differentiated perspective. This study contributes to the literature by investigating how the interrelationship between loneliness and SI and that between loneliness and physical health changes as people move from middle adulthood into old age...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154640/when-saying-i-m-best-is-benign-developmental-shifts-in-perceptions-of-boasting
#19
Kristi L Lockhart, Mariel K Goddu, Frank C Keil
Four studies explored developmental changes in attitudes toward boasting. Overall, 5- to 7-year-olds (N = 130) were more likely than 8- to 11-year-olds (N = 126) and adults (N = 263) to view characters who boasted about valued traits as likable. In Study 1, younger children, unlike the older participants, liked and morally valued boasters who were accurate about their boasts. Justifications suggested the 5- to 7-year-olds perceived the boaster as sharing knowledge and being potentially helpful. No age group liked boasters who misrepresented themselves...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154639/developmental-relations-between-alcohol-expectancies-and-social-norms-in-predicting-alcohol-onset
#20
Tim Janssen, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Jennifer E Merrill, Kristina M Jackson
Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent drinking onset. We related youths' alcohol status (i.e., alcohol-naive, initiation during study, prior initiation) to increases in positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs), as well as increases in perceived peer/close friend alcohol use and acceptance, during adolescence...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
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