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Developmental Psychology

Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Psychology
D Angus Clark, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt
Parent depressive symptomatology is robust risk factor for externalizing behavior in childhood (Goodman et al., 2011). Although the precise mechanisms underlying this association have yet to be fully illuminated, there is some evidence that parent depression can impact externalizing behavior via both genetic and environmental pathways. In the current study, we investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior are moderated by parent depressive symptoms (i.e., genotype-environment interaction) in a sample of 2,060, 6- to 11-year-old twins...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Laurel Raffington, John J Prindle, Yee Lee Shing
Alleviating disadvantage in low-income environments predicts higher cognitive abilities during early childhood. It is less established whether family income continues to predict cognitive growth in later childhood or whether there may even be bidirectional dynamics. Notably, living in poverty may moderate income-cognition dynamics. In this study, we investigated longitudinal dynamics over 7 waves of data collection from 1,168 children between the ages of 4.6 and 12 years, 226 (19%) of whom lived in poverty in at least 1 wave, as part of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Martin Ho Kwan Ip, Kana Imuta, Virginia Slaughter
Correct counting respects the stable order principle whereby the count terms are recited in a fixed order every time. The 4 experiments reported here tested whether precounting infants recognize and prefer correct stable-ordered counting. The authors introduced a novel preference paradigm in which infants could freely press two buttons to activate videos of counting events. In the "correct" counting video, number words were always recited in the canonical order ("1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6"). The "incorrect" counting video was identical except that the number words were recited in a random order (e...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Dillon T Browne, Mark Wade, Andre Plamondon, George Leckie, Michal Perlman, Sheri Madigan, Jennifer M Jenkins
The present study examined the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and sibling differences in birth weight on sibling differences in the receipt of maternal sensitivity (i.e., differential parenting). It was hypothesized that sibling differences in birth weight would predict absolute differential parenting across the sibship (i.e., the more different siblings' birth weight, the more different the level of sensitivity in the family, overall) and child-specific differential parenting (i.e., relatively heavier siblings receiving more sensitivity, compared to his or her counterpart within the family)...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Patrick T Davies, Jesse L Coe, Rochelle F Hentges, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Michael T Ripple
This study examined children's attention biases to negative emotional stimuli as mediators of associations between interparental hostility and children's externalizing symptoms. Participants included 243 children (Mage = 4.60 years) and their parents and teachers across three annual measurement occasions. Cross-lagged latent change analyses revealed that the association between interparental hostility and children's externalizing symptoms was mediated by children's attention to angry, but not sad or fearful, adult faces...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Elaine K White, Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Maria G Tosto, Sergey B Malykh, Xinying Li, Beatrix Kiddle, Lucy Riglin, Brian Byrne, Ginette Dionne, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Michel Boivin, Yulia Kovas
There is little research to date on the academic implications of teaching twins in the same or different classroom. Consequently, it is not clear whether twin classroom separation is associated with positive or negative educational outcomes. As a result, parents and teachers have insufficient evidence to make a well-informed decision when twins start school. This study addresses two research questions: Are there average positive or negative effects of classroom separation? Are twins taught in different classes more different from each other than twins taught in the same class? Twin pairs from two large representative samples from Quebec (Canada) and the United Kingdom were evaluated across a large age range (7 to 16 years) on academic achievement, several cognitive abilities and motivational measures...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Jing Yu, Charissa S L Cheah, Craig H Hart, Chongming Yang
The goals of this study were to examine: (a) bidirectional associations between maternal parenting (physical punishment and guilt induction) and Chinese American preschool children's psychosocial adjustment and (b) the role of maternal cultural orientation and child temperament in moderating parenting effects. Participants were Chinese American mothers and children (N = 163, Mage = 4.56, 53% boys). Mothers reported on their parenting practices at both Wave 1 (W1) and Wave 2 (W2) and their cultural orientations and children's inhibitory control at W1...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Arya Ansari, Robert C Pianta
Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,307) were used to estimate the additive and multiplicative benefits of high-quality child care between birth to 54 months of age and high-quality elementary school education between first and fifth grade. Results indicated that the math and language and literacy benefits of high-quality child care accrued from the end of preschool through age 15 only when coupled with higher quality classroom environments during the elementary school years...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Megan F Bell, Donna M Bayliss, Rebecca Glauert, Jeneva L Ohan
There is evidence that children of incarcerated parents are at risk of poor developmental and educational outcomes. However, much of this evidence is limited by biased samples, as studies must rely on opt-in recruitment. Administrative data present an opportunity to overcome this challenge, as they capture information on all incarcerated individuals. This study used administrative data on convictions of the parents of 19,071 children aged 5-6 years in Western Australia. Records of parental convictions (starting from 1 year prior to the child's birth) were linked to children's scores on the Australian Early Development Census, which is a teacher-reported measure of children's physical, social, emotional, communicative, and cognitive development...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
John E Pachankis, Timothy J Sullivan, Brian A Feinstein, Michael E Newcomb
This study investigated longitudinal trajectories of stigma (i.e., enacted, anticipated, internalized, concealed); stress-sensitive mental health disorder symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety); and their associations across 8 annual assessments in a sample of 128 young gay and bisexual U.S. university students. All forms of stigma significantly decreased over time, while depressive symptoms remained stable and social anxiety symptoms significantly increased. Men from higher socioeconomic backgrounds experienced quicker reductions in anticipated stigma, compared to men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Margaret Friend, Erin Smolak, Yushuang Liu, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger
Recent studies demonstrate that emerging literacy depends on earlier language achievement. Importantly, most extant work focuses on parent-reported production prior to 30 months of age. Of interest is whether and how directly assessed vocabulary comprehension in the 2nd year of life supports vocabulary and kindergarten readiness in the 4th year. We first contrasted orthogonal indices of parent-reported production and directly assessed vocabulary comprehension and found that comprehension was a stronger predictor of child outcomes...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Sarah C Nelson, Johanna Kling, Maria Wängqvist, Ann Frisén, Moin Syed
Although Erikson (1968) originally conceptualized identity development as a process of becoming at home in one's body, little work has been done linking identity development and research on the body. This study examines how trajectories of the development of body esteem over time are related to young people's sense of identity and psychological functioning in a longitudinal sample from age 10 to 24 (N = 967). Using group-based trajectory modeling, three cubic subgroups were determined for each of the three types of body esteem: appearance, weight, and attribution...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
James J Li, Jennifer E Lansford
Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms...
April 2, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Yusuke Shono, Michael C Edwards, Susan L Ames, Alan W Stacy
Indirect tests of memory associations relevant to cannabis have been shown to be useful in explaining and predicting adolescent cannabis use habits. This study sought to increase the understanding of adolescent cannabis-related associative memory and cannabis use behavior over time. A longitudinal sample of alternative high school students (N = 775) was assessed yearly for 3 years. The study first conducted extensive longitudinal measurement analyses of the cannabis-related word association test (WAT) applying contemporary psychometric models...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Corey Boswell, Kate Niehaus
To investigate children's inclusion of language-outgroup members, English-speaking children (8-9 years and 10-11 years of age, N = 57) made inclusion decisions while playing a simulated ball-tossing game, Cyberball, and while evaluating hypothetical scenarios involving language-outgroup members who wanted to play with their group. In the Cyberball game, the group norm was to exclude non-English-speaking peers, and participant tosses to a language-outgroup member (i.e., Spanish, Chinese, or Arabic speaking) were coded as a measure of behavioral inclusion...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Kristin Bernard, Sierra Kuzava, Robert Simons, Mary Dozier
Maltreating mothers often struggle to respond sensitively to their children's distress. Examining psychophysiological processing of own child cues may offer insight into neurobiological mechanisms that promote sensitive parenting among high-risk mothers. The current study used event-related potential (ERP) methodology to examine associations between mothers' neural responses to their own child versus other children and observed sensitivity to distress. Participants included 73 mothers: 42 with histories of child protective services (CPS) involvement and 31 low-risk comparison mothers...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Zoe M Flack, Andy P Field, Jessica S Horst
Although an abundant literature documents preliterate children's word learning success from shared storybook reading, a full synthesis of the factors which moderate these word learning effects has been largely neglected. This meta-analysis included 38 studies with 2,455 children, reflecting 110 effect sizes, investigating how reading styles, story repetitions, tokens and related factors moderate children's word comprehension, while adjusting for the number of target words. Dialogic reading styles, tokens, and the number of words tested all moderated word learning effects...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Moira R Dillon, Elizabeth S Spelke
The origins and development of our geometric intuitions have been debated for millennia. The present study links children's developing intuitions about the properties of planar triangles to their developing abilities to read purely geometric maps. Six-year-old children are limited when navigating by maps that depict only the sides of a triangle in an environment composed of only the triangle's corners and vice versa. Six-year-old children also incorrectly judge how the angle size of the third corner of a triangle varies with changes to the other two corners...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Jana Nikitin, Alexandra M Freund
Social approach and social avoidance goals (i.e., approach of positive and avoidance of negative outcomes in social situations) are important predictors of the feeling of being socially integrated or isolated. However, little is known about the development of these goals across adulthood. In a large diary study with N = 744 young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years), and older adults (60-83 years), we tested the hypothesis that the adaptiveness of social goals changes across adulthood: Social approach goals were hypothesized to be adaptive during young adulthood when adult social relationships are to be established...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
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