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Behavior Genetics

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September 20, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Lucía Raily Acuña, Renata Cristina Nunes Marchette, Natalli Granzotto, Paula Gomes Dias, Maria Elisa Corvino, Fernando Gabriel Mazur, Fernanda Junques Corrêa, Geison Souza Izídio
We exposed male and female rats of SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) and SLA16 (SHR.LEW-Anxrr16) strains, in a non-drugged state, for five consecutive days to the Triple Test (experiment 1); or after repeated treatment with midazolam (MDZ), for four consecutive days. The fifth day was performed without treatment (experiment 2). The first experiment showed that males did not avoid and females increased the exploration of the open arms over the days. In experiment 2, SLA16 from both sexes approached more the open arms than SHR rats...
September 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Kathryn Tabb, Matthew S Lebowitz, Paul S Appelbaum
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a few mistakes in the Introduction section.
September 8, 2018: Behavior Genetics
S Alexandra Burt, Kathryn S Plaisance, David Z Hambrick
Behavioral genetic (BG) research has yielded many important discoveries about the origins of human behavior, but offers little insight into how we might improve outcomes. We posit that this gap in our knowledge base stems in part from the epidemiologic nature of BG research questions. Namely, BG studies focus on understanding etiology as it currently exists, rather than etiology in environments that could exist but do not as of yet (e.g., etiology following an intervention). Put another way, they focus exclusively on the etiology of "what is" rather than "what could be"...
August 13, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Eugenia I Gorlin, Reinier Schuur
As we account for the genetic and environmental influences on morally-relevant character traits like intellectual honesty, industriousness, and self-control, do we risk becoming ever less accountable to ourselves? Behavioral genetic research suggests that about half the variance in such character traits is likely attributable to heredity, and a small fraction to the shared family environment. The remaining 40-60% is explained by neither genes nor family upbringing. This raises the question: how active a role can individuals play in shaping their own character? What, if anything, can and should one do to take responsibility for the kind of person one becomes? This paper sketches a novel theoretical proposal for addressing these questions, by drawing on several previously disparate lines of research within behavior genetics, philosophy, and experimental psychology...
August 12, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Kathryn Tabb, Matthew S Lebowitz, Paul S Appelbaum
While considerable research has examined how genetic explanations for behavior impact assessments of moral responsibility, results across studies have been inconsistent. Some studies suggest that genetic accounts diminish ascriptions of responsibility, but others show no effect. Nonetheless, conclusions from behavior genetics are increasingly mobilized on behalf of defendants in court, suggesting a widespread intuition that this sort of information is relevant to assessments of blameworthiness. In this paper, we consider two sorts of reasons why this kind of intuition, if it exists, is not consistently revealed in empirical studies...
August 9, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Jessica L Bourdon, Ashlee A Moore, Meridith Eastman, Jeanne E Savage, Laura Hazlett, Scott R Vrana, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with cardiac morbidity, mortality, and negative psychopathology. Most research concerning genetic influences on HRV has focused on adult populations, with fewer studies investigating the developmental period of adolescence and emerging adulthood. The current study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to resting HRV in a sample of twins using various HRV time domain metrics to assess autonomic function across two different time measurement intervals (2...
July 11, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Hill F Ip, Rick Jansen, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma, Michel G Nivard
Measurement of gene expression levels and detection of eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci) are difficult in tissues with limited sample availability, such as the brain. However, eQTL overlap between tissues might be high, which would allow for inference of eQTL functioning in the brain via eQTLs detected in readily accessible tissues, e.g. whole blood. Applying Stratified Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression (SLDSR), we quantified the enrichment in polygenic signal of blood and brain eQTLs in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 11 complex traits...
September 2018: Behavior Genetics
Tom A McAdams, Laurie J Hannigan, Espen Moen Eilertsen, Line C Gjerde, Eivind Ystrom, Fruhling V Rijsdijk
Datasets comprising twins and their children can be a useful tool for understanding the nature of intergenerational associations between parent and offspring phenotypes. In the present article we explore structural equation models previously used to analyse Children-of-Twins data, highlighting some limitations and considerations. We then present new variants of these models, showing that extending the models to include multiple offspring per parent addresses several of the limitations discussed. Accompanying the updated models, we provide power calculations and demonstrate with application to simulated data...
September 2018: Behavior Genetics
Michelle Luciano, Alan J Gow, Alison Pattie, Timothy C Bates, Ian J Deary
A number of candidate genes for reading and language impairment have been replicated, primarily in samples of children with developmental disability or delay, although these genes are also supported in adolescent population samples. The present study used a systematic approach to test 14 of these candidate genes for association with reading assessed in late adulthood (two cohorts with mean ages of 70 and 79 years). Gene-sets (14 candidates, axon-guidance and neuron migration pathways) and individual SNPs within each gene of interest were tested for association using imputed data referenced to the 1000 genomes European panel...
September 2018: Behavior Genetics
Carol A Van Hulle, Irwin Waldman, Benjamin B Lahey
Decades of research into the etiology of conduct disorder (CD) has yet to yield a consensus on the existence of sex differences in underlying genetic and environmental influences. This may be partly due to the failure of many previous studies to make a distinction between non-aggressive and aggressive CD symptoms or test for potential developmental changes in sex differences in the etiology of conduct problems. To address these gaps, we fit a series of univariate and bivariate biometric sex-difference models to self-reported non-aggressive and aggressive CD symptoms in a community-based sample of twins (N = 1548, ages 9-17 year), grouped into ages 9-13 and 14-17 years...
July 2018: Behavior Genetics
Alexander S Hatoum, Soo Hyun Rhee, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Internalizing and externalizing behaviors are heritable, and show genetic stability during childhood and adolescence. Less work has explored how genes influence individual differences in developmental trajectories. We estimated ACE biometrical latent growth curve models for the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and parent Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) internalizing and externalizing scales from ages 7 to 16 years in 408 twin pairs from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study. We found that Intercept factors were highly heritable for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors (a2 = ...
July 2018: Behavior Genetics
Irene Camerlink, Winanda W Ursinus, Andrea C Bartels, Piter Bijma, J Elizabeth Bolhuis
Selection for indirect genetic effects (IGE), i.e. the genetic effect of an individual on a trait of another individual, is a promising avenue to increase trait values in plant and animal breeding. Studies in livestock suggest that selection for IGE for growth (IGEg) might increase animals' capacity to tolerate stress. We assessed the effect of a stressful phase (weaning) on the behaviour and performance of pigs (n = 480) divergently selected for high or low IGEg. High IGEg pigs were significantly slower to explore the feed and gained less weight than low IGEg pigs in the days after weaning...
June 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Kate E Lynch, James S Morandini, Ilan Dar-Nimrod, Paul E Griffiths
When explaining the causes of human behavior, genes are often given a special status. They are thought to relate to an intrinsic human 'essence', and essentialist biases have been shown to skew the way in which causation is assessed. Causal reasoning in general is subject to other pre-existing biases, including beliefs about normativity and morality. In this synthesis we show how factors which influence causal reasoning can be mapped to a framework of genetic essentialism, which reveals both the shared and unique factors underpinning biases in causal reasoning and genetic essentialism...
June 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Daniel E Gustavson, Matthew S Panizzon, Jeremy A Elman, Carol E Franz, Asad Beck, Chandra A Reynolds, Kristen C Jacobson, Hong Xian, Rosemary Toomey, Michael J Lyons, William S Kremen
Mounting evidence suggests that measures of phonemic fluency and semantic fluency are differentially associated with other cognitive and health phenotypes, but few studies have examined their shared and unique variance, especially using genetically-informative designs. In this study, 1464 middle-aged twins completed six fluency subtests at up to two time-points (mean age 56 and 62 years). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor solution: a General Fluency latent factor explained variation in all six subtests and a Semantic-Specific factor accounted for additional variance in semantic subtests...
June 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Paul J Moberg, Mara J Richman, David R Roalf, Chelsea L Morse, Anna C Graefe, Laura Brennan, Kayci Vickers, Wangchen Tsering, Vidyulata Kamath, Bruce I Turetsky, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a known risk factor for development of schizophrenia and is characterized by a complex neuropsychological profile. To date, a quantitative meta-analysis examining cognitive functioning in 22q11.2DS has not been conducted. A systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with 22q11.2DS with age-matched healthy typically developing and sibling comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators were analyzed...
June 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Matthew Vess, Rebecca J Brooker, Matt Stichter, Jenae M Neiderhiser
In this paper, we provide an overview of our ongoing project in the Genetics and Human Agency Initiative sponsored by the John Templeton Foundation. Our project focuses on the ways that lay beliefs about the heritability of virtue influence reasoning about the nature of virtue, parenting behaviors, and the development of virtue in children. First, we provide philosophical perspectives on the nature of virtue and suggest that viewing virtue as a malleable skill may have important advantages. Next, we review theory and research that highlights the ways that lay heritability beliefs potentially undermine conceptualizations of virtue as a malleable skill...
June 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Marina Viñas-Jornet, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Neus Baena, Núria Ribas-Vidal, Anna Ruiz, David Torrents-Rodas, Elisabeth Gabau, Elisabet Vilella, Lourdes Martorell, Lluís Armengol, Ramon Novell, Míriam Guitart
A genetic analysis of unexplained mild-moderate intellectual disability and co-morbid psychiatric or behavioural disorders is not systematically conducted in adults. A cohort of 100 adult patients affected by both phenotypes were analysed in order to identify the presence of copy number variants (CNVs) responsible for their condition identifying a yield of 12.8% of pathogenic CNVs (19% when including clinically recognizable microdeletion syndromes). Moreover, there is a detailed clinical description of an additional 11% of the patients harbouring possible pathogenic CNVs-including a 7q31 deletion (IMMP2L) in two unrelated patients and duplications in 3q29, 9p24...
June 7, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Camelia C Minică, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma, Eco de Geus, Michael C Neale
Although experimental studies are regarded as the method of choice for determining causal influences, these are not always practical or ethical to answer vital questions in health and social research (e.g., one cannot assign individuals to a "childhood trauma condition" in studying the causal effects of childhood trauma on depression). Key to solving such questions are observational studies. Mendelian Randomization (MR) is an influential method to establish causality in observational studies. MR uses genetic variants to test causal relationships between exposures/risk factors and outcomes such as physical or mental health...
June 7, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Kerri E Woodward, Debra L Boeldt, Robin P Corley, Lisabeth DiLalla, Naomi P Friedman, John K Hewitt, Paula Y Mullineaux, JoAnn Robinson, Soo Hyun Rhee
The present study examined the influence of maternal and child characteristics on parenting behaviors in a genetically informative study. The participants were 976 twins and their mothers from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study and the Twin Infant Project. Indicators of positive parenting were coded during parent-child interactions when twins were 7-36 months old. Child cognitive abilities and affection were independent correlates of positive parenting. There were significant gender differences in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on positive parenting, with shared environmental influences on parenting of girls and additive genetic influences on parenting of boys...
June 6, 2018: Behavior Genetics
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