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Behavior Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474239/erratum-to-publication-trends-over-55-years-of-behavioral-genetic-research
#1
Ziada Ayorech, Saskia Selzam, Emily Smith-Woolley, Valerie S Knopik, Jenae M Neiderhiser, John C DeFries, Robert Plomin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466236/pleiotropic-effects-of-ddt-resistance-on-male-size-and-behaviour
#2
Wayne G Rostant, Jemima Bowyer, Jack Coupland, James Facey, David J Hosken, Nina Wedell
Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. This could be because resistant males are generally smaller, but DDT-R may also alter courtship behaviours. Here we tested for body size and courtship effects of DDT-R on mating success in competitive and non-competitive mating trials respectively...
May 2, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466235/cannabis-and-depression-a-twin-model-approach-to-co-morbidity
#3
M Smolkina, K I Morley, F Rijsdijk, A Agrawal, J E Bergin, E C Nelson, D Statham, N G Martin, M T Lynskey
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD) more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, studies to date have not produced a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying this co-morbidity. Genetically informative studies can add valuable insight to this problem, as they allow the evaluation of competing models of co-morbidity. This study uses data from the Australian Twin Registry to compare 13 co-morbidity twin models initially proposed by Neale and Kendler (Am J Hum Genet 57:935-953, 1995)...
May 2, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421346/decoupling-of-behavioral-trait-correlation-across-life-stages-in-two-holometabolous-insects
#4
Kentarou Matsumura, Taro Fuchikawa, Takahisa Miyatake
Many animal behaviors have a genetic base, and behavioral traits often correlate with one another. In this study, we tested for a behavioral correlation between tonic immobility and walking distance in the larval and adult stages independently of two holometabolous insects. We confirmed a negative correlation of traits between strains in adults of both the species; however, we did not find it in larvae of either species. This suggests that the negative correlation between tonic immobility and walking is decoupled across life stages from larva to adult...
April 18, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413857/a-new-look-at-genetic-and-environmental-architecture-on-lipids-using-non-normal-structural-equation-modeling-in-male-twins-the-nhlbi-twin-study
#5
Sheng-Hui Wu, Koken Ozaki, Terry Reed, Ruth E Krasnow, Jun Dai
This study examined genetic and environmental influences on the lipid concentrations of 1028 male twins using the novel univariate non-normal structural equation modeling (nnSEM) ADCE and ACE models. In the best fitting nnSEM ADCE model that was also better than the nnSEM ACE model, additive genetic factors (A) explained 4%, dominant genetic factors (D) explained 17%, and common (C) and unique (E) environmental factors explained 47% and 33% of the total variance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)...
April 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352972/gerald-e-mcclearn-1927-2017-a-founding-father-of-behavioral-genetics
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343281/using-patterns-of-genetic-association-to-elucidate-shared-genetic-etiologies-across-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Seung Bin Cho, Fazil Aliev, Shaunna L Clark, Amy E Adkins, Howard J Edenberg, Kathleen K Bucholz, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick
Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399)...
March 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337631/upregulation-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-hypothalamus-associated-with-a-high-anxiety-like-level-in-apolipoprotein-e4-transgenic-mice
#8
Fan-Tao Meng, Jun Zhao, Hui Fang, Li-Feng Zhang, Hui-Mei Wu, Ya-Jing Liu
Anxiety symptoms occur in a large portion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. ApolipoproteinE-4 (ApoE ε4 allele), a risk factor for AD, has been recognized as an important contributor to psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the corticosterone level in relation to anxiety-like behavior changes in transgenic male mice with different glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE isoforms. GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice aged 3 months showed higher anxiety-like behavior in open field, light-dark box and elevated plus maze tasks compared with that of age-matched GFAP-ApoE3 mice...
March 24, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337630/erratum-to-differential-brain-cognitive-and-motor-profiles-associated-with-partial-trisomy-modeling-down-syndrome-in-mice
#9
Pierre L Roubertoux, Nathalie Baril, Pierre Cau, Christophe Scajola, Adeline Ghata, Catherine Bartoli, Patrice Bourgeois, Julie di Christofaro, Sylvie Tordjman, Michèle Carlier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275880/cultural-hitchhiking-in-the-matrilineal-whales
#10
Hal Whitehead, Felicia Vachon, Timothy R Frasier
Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Selective sweeps of the mitochondrial genome are feasible causes but it is not clear why these only occurred in the matrilineal species...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275879/enhanced-expression-of-serotonin-receptor-5-hydroxytryptamine-2c-is-associated-with-increased-feather-damage-in-dongxiang-blue-shelled-layers
#11
Junfeng Yao, Xiaoliang Wang, Huangxiang Yan, Xia Cai, Min Wang, Yingying Tu, Changsuo Yang
The gene encoding the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytraptamine 2C (HTR2C) has been implicated in behavioral phenotypes in a number of species. In previous studies, a mutation in the chicken HTR2C gene was found to be associated with feather condition, thereby suggesting a relationship between the gene and receiving feather pecking activity. The present study analyzed the chicken HTR2C gene at both the genomic make-up and expression level in Dongxiang blue-shelled layer. A significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13640917 (C/T) and feather condition was confirmed in the Chinese local layer...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299468/gw-sem-a-statistical-package-to-conduct-genome-wide-structural-equation-modeling
#12
Brad Verhulst, Hermine H Maes, Michael C Neale
Improving the accuracy of phenotyping through the use of advanced psychometric tools will increase the power to find significant associations with genetic variants and expand the range of possible hypotheses that can be tested on a genome-wide scale. Multivariate methods, such as structural equation modeling (SEM), are valuable in the phenotypic analysis of psychiatric and substance use phenotypes, but these methods have not been integrated into standard genome-wide association analyses because fitting a SEM at each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) along the genome was hitherto considered to be too computationally demanding...
May 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191586/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-low-educational-achievement-evidence-supporting-a-causal-hypothesis
#13
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Erik A Ehli, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the possibility of confounding by a third factor (e.g. genetic pleiotropy) and by comparing educational achievement and secondary school career in children with ADHD who take or do not take methylphenidate. Data on ADHD symptoms, educational achievement and methylphenidate usage were available in a primary school sample of ~10,000 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register...
May 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185111/the-relation-between-inflation-in-type-i-and-type-ii-error-rate-and-population-divergence-in-genome-wide-association-analysis-of-multi-ethnic-populations
#14
E M Derks, A H Zwinderman, E R Gamazon
Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (FST) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Type-I error rate was investigated for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with varying levels of FST between the ancestral European and African populations...
May 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154949/differential-gene-expression-associated-with-honey-bee-grooming-behavior-in-response-to-varroa-mites
#15
Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Berna Emsen, Greg J Hunt, Subhashree Subramanyam, Christie E Williams, Jennifer M Tsuruda, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-related genes. Individual bees tested in a laboratory assay for various levels of grooming behavior in response to V. destructor were also analyzed for gene expression. Intense groomers (IG) were most efficient in that they needed significantly less time to start grooming and fewer grooming attempts to successfully remove mites from their bodies than did light groomers (LG)...
May 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108863/genetic-and-environmental-structure-of-dsm-iv-criteria-for-antisocial-personality-disorder-a-twin-study
#16
Tom Rosenström, Eivind Ystrom, Fartein Ask Torvik, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Nathan A Gillespie, Steven H Aggen, Robert F Krueger, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Exploratory analyses were conducted at the phenotypic level...
May 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981394/heritability-of-working-in-a-creative-profession
#17
Mark Patrick Roeling, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma
Creativity is the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities. Following a study on the genetic contribution to working in a creative profession, based on polygenic score analysis, we report the total heritability of this trait in a large sample of adult twins and their siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Data from 6755 twins and 1817 siblings were analyzed using genetic structural equation modeling. Working in a creative profession is relatively rare in our sample (2...
May 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909830/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-icu-in-children-reliability-and-heritability
#18
Ashlee A Moore, Dever Carney, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Kenneth E Towbin, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits comprise the core symptoms of psychopathy, yet no study has estimated the heritability of CU traits in a community sample of children using an instrument designed solely to assess CU traits. The current study uses data from 339 twin pairs aged 9-14 to examine the reliability and heritability of the parent-report Inventory of Callous-unemotional Traits (ICU) at two assessments approximately 3 weeks apart. Time-specific measurement error was taken into account to obtain a more accurate estimate of the heritability reflecting the latent liability to CU traits...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888366/heritability-and-longitudinal-stability-of-planning-and-behavioral-disinhibition-based-on-the-porteus-maze-test
#19
Catherine Tuvblad, Marcella May, Nicholas Jackson, Adrian Raine, Laura A Baker
The Porteus Maze Test (PMT) provides measures of planning and behavioral disinhibition. The PMT was administered to 941 twins during Wave 1 (9-10 years) and 320 twins during Wave 2 (11-13 years). Participants were drawn from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study (RFAB). Heritability of behavioral disinhibition, determined by PMT Q-Score, were 33% at Wave 1 and 52% at Wave 2. For planning, determined by Test Age, heritability was 53% at Wave 1; at Wave 2, the non-shared environment was important in boys, whereas genetic influences were important in girls...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866285/a-power-calculator-for-the-classical-twin-design
#20
Brad Verhulst
Power is a ubiquitous, though often overlooked, component of any statistical analyses. Almost every funding agency and institutional review board requires that some sort of power analysis is conducted prior to data collection. While there are several excellent on line power calculators for independent observations, twin studies pose unique challenges that are not incorporated into these algorithms. The goal of the current manuscript is to outline a general method for calculating power in twin studies, and to provide functions to allow researchers to easily conduct power analyses for a range of common twin models...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
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