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Behavior Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343281/using-patterns-of-genetic-association-to-elucidate-shared-genetic-etiologies-across-psychiatric-disorders
#1
Seung Bin Cho, Fazil Aliev, Shaunna L Clark, Amy E Adkins, Howard J Edenberg, Kathleen K Bucholz, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick
Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399)...
March 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337631/upregulation-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-hypothalamus-associated-with-a-high-anxiety-like-level-in-apolipoprotein-e4-transgenic-mice
#2
Fan-Tao Meng, Jun Zhao, Hui Fang, Li-Feng Zhang, Hui-Mei Wu, Ya-Jing Liu
Anxiety symptoms occur in a large portion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. ApolipoproteinE-4 (ApoE ε4 allele), a risk factor for AD, has been recognized as an important contributor to psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the corticosterone level in relation to anxiety-like behavior changes in transgenic male mice with different glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE isoforms. GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice aged 3 months showed higher anxiety-like behavior in open field, light-dark box and elevated plus maze tasks compared with that of age-matched GFAP-ApoE3 mice...
March 24, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337630/erratum-to-differential-brain-cognitive-and-motor-profiles-associated-with-partial-trisomy-modeling-down-syndrome-in-mice
#3
Pierre L Roubertoux, Nathalie Baril, Pierre Cau, Christophe Scajola, Adeline Ghata, Catherine Bartoli, Patrice Bourgeois, Julie di Christofaro, Sylvie Tordjman, Michèle Carlier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299468/gw-sem-a-statistical-package-to-conduct-genome-wide-structural-equation-modeling
#4
Brad Verhulst, Hermine H Maes, Michael C Neale
Improving the accuracy of phenotyping through the use of advanced psychometric tools will increase the power to find significant associations with genetic variants and expand the range of possible hypotheses that can be tested on a genome-wide scale. Multivariate methods, such as structural equation modeling (SEM), are valuable in the phenotypic analysis of psychiatric and substance use phenotypes, but these methods have not been integrated into standard genome-wide association analyses because fitting a SEM at each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) along the genome was hitherto considered to be too computationally demanding...
March 15, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275880/cultural-hitchhiking-in-the-matrilineal-whales
#5
Hal Whitehead, Felicia Vachon, Timothy R Frasier
Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Selective sweeps of the mitochondrial genome are feasible causes but it is not clear why these only occurred in the matrilineal species...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275879/enhanced-expression-of-serotonin-receptor-5-hydroxytryptamine-2c-is-associated-with-increased-feather-damage-in-dongxiang-blue-shelled-layers
#6
Junfeng Yao, Xiaoliang Wang, Huangxiang Yan, Xia Cai, Min Wang, Yingying Tu, Changsuo Yang
The gene encoding the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytraptamine 2C (HTR2C) has been implicated in behavioral phenotypes in a number of species. In previous studies, a mutation in the chicken HTR2C gene was found to be associated with feather condition, thereby suggesting a relationship between the gene and receiving feather pecking activity. The present study analyzed the chicken HTR2C gene at both the genomic make-up and expression level in Dongxiang blue-shelled layer. A significant association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13640917 (C/T) and feather condition was confirmed in the Chinese local layer...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238197/phenotypic-and-genetic-relationship-between-bmi-and-drinking-in-a-sample-of-uk-adults
#7
Amanda G Wills, Luke M Evans, Christian Hopfer
The health impairments derived from both alcoholism and obesity are well known. However, reports that relate increased alcohol use with increased measures of obesity have been mixed in their findings, especially with respect to genetic factors that could potentially link these two behaviors. Here, using a large sample of adults from the UK (n ≈ 113,000), we report both the observed and genetic correlations between BMI (kg/m(2)) and two measures of alcohol use: reported quantity (drinks per week) and frequency of use (from never to daily)...
February 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204906/differential-brain-cognitive-and-motor-profiles-associated-with-partial-trisomy-modeling-down-syndrome-in-mice
#8
Pierre L Roubertoux, Nathalie Baril, Pierre Cau, Christophe Scajola, Adeline Ghata, Catherine Bartoli, Patrice Bourgeois, Julie di Christofaro, Sylvie Tordjman, Michèle Carlier
We hypothesize that the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is the additive and interactive outcome of the triple copy of different regions of HSA21. Because of the small number of patients with partial trisomy 21, we addressed the question in the Mouse in which three chromosomal regions located on MMU10, MMU17 and MMU16 carries almost all the HSA21 homologs. Male mice from four segmental trisomic strains covering the D21S17-ETS2 (syntenic to MMU16) were examined with an exhaustive battery of cognitive tests, motor tasks and MRI and compared with TS65Dn that encompasses D21S17-ETS2...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191586/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-low-educational-achievement-evidence-supporting-a-causal-hypothesis
#9
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Erik A Ehli, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the possibility of confounding by a third factor (e.g. genetic pleiotropy) and by comparing educational achievement and secondary school career in children with ADHD who take or do not take methylphenidate. Data on ADHD symptoms, educational achievement and methylphenidate usage were available in a primary school sample of ~10,000 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register...
February 13, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185111/the-relation-between-inflation-in-type-i-and-type-ii-error-rate-and-population-divergence-in-genome-wide-association-analysis-of-multi-ethnic-populations
#10
E M Derks, A H Zwinderman, E R Gamazon
Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (FST) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Type-I error rate was investigated for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with varying levels of FST between the ancestral European and African populations...
February 10, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154949/differential-gene-expression-associated-with-honey-bee-grooming-behavior-in-response-to-varroa-mites
#11
Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Berna Emsen, Greg J Hunt, Subhashree Subramanyam, Christie E Williams, Jennifer M Tsuruda, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-related genes. Individual bees tested in a laboratory assay for various levels of grooming behavior in response to V. destructor were also analyzed for gene expression. Intense groomers (IG) were most efficient in that they needed significantly less time to start grooming and fewer grooming attempts to successfully remove mites from their bodies than did light groomers (LG)...
February 3, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108863/genetic-and-environmental-structure-of-dsm-iv-criteria-for-antisocial-personality-disorder-a-twin-study
#12
Tom Rosenström, Eivind Ystrom, Fartein Ask Torvik, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Nathan A Gillespie, Steven H Aggen, Robert F Krueger, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Exploratory analyses were conducted at the phenotypic level...
January 21, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083723/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-implicit-and-explicit-self-esteem-and-affect-results-from-a-genetically-sensitive-multi-group-design
#13
Stefan Stieger, Christian Kandler, Ulrich S Tran, Jakob Pietschnig, Martin Voracek
In today's world, researchers frequently utilize indirect measures of implicit (i.e., automatic, spontaneous) evaluations. The results of several studies have supported the usefulness of these measures in predicting behavior, as compared to utilizing direct measures of explicit (i.e., purposeful, deliberate) evaluations. A current, under-debate issue concerns the origin of these implicit evaluations. The present genetically sensitive multi-group study analyzed data from 223 twin pairs and 222 biological core families to estimate possible genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem and affect...
January 12, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909830/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-icu-in-children-reliability-and-heritability
#14
Ashlee A Moore, Dever Carney, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Kenneth E Towbin, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits comprise the core symptoms of psychopathy, yet no study has estimated the heritability of CU traits in a community sample of children using an instrument designed solely to assess CU traits. The current study uses data from 339 twin pairs aged 9-14 to examine the reliability and heritability of the parent-report Inventory of Callous-unemotional Traits (ICU) at two assessments approximately 3 weeks apart. Time-specific measurement error was taken into account to obtain a more accurate estimate of the heritability reflecting the latent liability to CU traits...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888366/heritability-and-longitudinal-stability-of-planning-and-behavioral-disinhibition-based-on-the-porteus-maze-test
#15
Catherine Tuvblad, Marcella May, Nicholas Jackson, Adrian Raine, Laura A Baker
The Porteus Maze Test (PMT) provides measures of planning and behavioral disinhibition. The PMT was administered to 941 twins during Wave 1 (9-10 years) and 320 twins during Wave 2 (11-13 years). Participants were drawn from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study (RFAB). Heritability of behavioral disinhibition, determined by PMT Q-Score, were 33% at Wave 1 and 52% at Wave 2. For planning, determined by Test Age, heritability was 53% at Wave 1; at Wave 2, the non-shared environment was important in boys, whereas genetic influences were important in girls...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826669/behavioral-and-molecular-genetics-of-reading-related-am-and-fm-detection-thresholds
#16
Matthew Bruni, Judy F Flax, Steven Buyske, Amber D Shindhelm, Caroline Witton, Linda M Brzustowicz, Christopher W Bartlett
Auditory detection thresholds for certain frequencies of both amplitude modulated (AM) and frequency modulated (FM) dynamic auditory stimuli are associated with reading in typically developing and dyslexic readers. We present the first behavioral and molecular genetic characterization of these two auditory traits. Two extant extended family datasets were given reading tasks and psychoacoustic tasks to determine FM 2 Hz and AM 20 Hz sensitivity thresholds. Univariate heritabilities were significant for both AM (h (2)  = 0...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804047/chimpanzee-personality-and-the-arginine-vasopressin-receptor-1a-genotype
#17
V A D Wilson, A Weiss, T Humle, N Morimura, T Udono, G Idani, T Matsuzawa, S Hirata, M Inoue-Murayama
Polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene have been linked to various measures related to human social behavior, including sibling conflict and agreeableness. In chimpanzees, AVPR1a polymorphisms have been associated with traits important for social interactions, including sociability, joint attention, dominance, conscientiousness, and hierarchical personality dimensions named low alpha/stability, disinhibition, and negative emotionality/low dominance. We examined associations between AVPR1a and six personality domains and hierarchical personality dimensions in 129 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in Japan or in a sanctuary in Guinea...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796610/heritability-of-behavioral-problems-in-7-year-olds-based-on-shared-and-unique-aspects-of-parental-views
#18
Iryna O Fedko, Laura W Wesseldijk, Michel G Nivard, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Christel M Middeldorp, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma
In studies of child psychopathology, phenotypes of interest are often obtained by parental ratings. When behavioral ratings are obtained in the context of a twin study, this allows for the decomposition of the phenotypic variance, into a genetic and a non-genetic part. If a phenotype is assessed by a single rater, heritability is based on the child's behavior as expressed in the presence of that particular rater, whereas heritability based on assessments by multiple raters allows for the estimation of the heritability of the phenotype based on rater agreement, as well as the heritability of the rater specific view of the behavior...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796609/using-twins-to-better-understand-sibling-relationships
#19
Katharine M Mark, Alison Pike, Rachel M Latham, Bonamy R Oliver
We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5.22 years respectively); and the Twins, Family and Behaviour study included 234 families with two target twin children (mean age = 4.70 years). Mothers and fathers reported on their children's relationship with each other, via a postal questionnaire (the Sisters and Brothers Study) or a telephone interview (the Twins, Family and Behaviour study)...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704301/genetic-and-genomic-response-to-selection-for-food-consumption-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Megan E Garlapow, Logan J Everett, Shanshan Zhou, Alexander W Gearhart, Kairsten A Fay, Wen Huang, Tatiana V Morozova, Gunjan H Arya, Lavanya Turlapati, Genevieve St Armour, Yasmeen N Hussain, Sarah E McAdams, Sophia Fochler, Trudy F C Mackay
Food consumption is an essential component of animal fitness; however, excessive food intake in humans increases risk for many diseases. The roles of neuroendocrine feedback loops, food sensing modalities, and physiological state in regulating food intake are well understood, but not the genetic basis underlying variation in food consumption. Here, we applied ten generations of artificial selection for high and low food consumption in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetric, with significant responses only for increased food consumption and minimal correlated responses in body mass and composition...
March 2017: Behavior Genetics
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