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Behavior Genetics

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October 27, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Jessica E Salvatore, Kenneth S Kendler
This paper provides a critical analysis of genetically informed research on relationships, with an emphasis on relationships among unrelated individuals (e.g., spouses). To date, research in this area has used traditional behavioral genetic frameworks to either partition the variance in relationship-related outcomes into genetic and environmental components, or to examine gene-environment interplay between relationship factors and other outcomes. However, this conventional approach is at odds with the long-standing understanding from the field of relationship science that both partners' characteristics matter when predicting shared outcomes-that is, outcomes that are emergent...
October 24, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Susan T Harbison, Shailesh Kumar, Wen Huang, Lenovia J McCoy, Kirklin R Smith, Trudy F C Mackay
Circadian rhythms influence physiological processes from sleep-wake cycles to body temperature and are controlled by highly conserved cycling molecules. Although the mechanistic basis of the circadian clock has been known for decades, the extent to which circadian rhythms vary in nature and the underlying genetic basis for that variation is not well understood. We measured circadian period (Ʈ) and rhythmicity index in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and observed extensive genetic variation in both...
October 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Ian Dewan, Theodore Garland, Layla Hiramatsu, Vincent Careau
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs; the heritable influence of one organism on a conspecific) can affect the evolutionary dynamics of complex traits, including behavior. Voluntary wheel running is an important model system in quantitative genetic studies of behavior, but the possibility of IGEs on wheel running and its components (time spent running and average running speed) has not been examined. Here, we analyze a dataset from a replicated selection experiment on wheel running (11,420 control and 26,575 selected mice measured over 78 generations) in which the standard measurement protocol allowed for the possibility of IGEs occurring through odors because mice were provided with clean cages attached to a clean wheel or a wheel previously occupied by another mouse for 6 days...
October 15, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Emily A Willoughby, Alan C Love, Matt McGue, William G Iacono, Jack Quigley, James J Lee
The fact that genes and environment contribute differentially to variation in human behaviors, traits and attitudes is central to the field of behavior genetics. Perceptions about these differential contributions may affect ideas about human agency. We surveyed two independent samples (N = 301 and N = 740) to assess beliefs about free will, determinism, political orientation, and the relative contribution of genes and environment to 21 human traits. We find that lay estimates of genetic influence on these traits cluster into four distinct groups, which differentially predict beliefs about human agency, political orientation, and religiosity...
October 12, 2018: Behavior Genetics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Kathryn Tabb, Matthew S Lebowitz, Paul S Appelbaum
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a few mistakes in the Introduction section.
September 8, 2018: Behavior Genetics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
Megan Flom, Manjie Wang, Kendra J Uccello, Kimberly J Saudino
The sources of individual differences in both observed and parent-rated positive affect (PA) were examined in a sample of 304 3-year-old twin pairs (140 MZ, 164 DZ). Based on model-fitting analyses, individual differences in observed PA were attributed to moderate genetic and high nonshared environmental factors, but not shared environmental factors. In contrast, shared environmental effects accounted for over half of the variance in parent-rated PA and genetic and nonshared environmental effects were more modest...
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
Meridith L Eastman, Brad Verhulst, Lance M Rappaport, Melanie Dirks, Chelsea Sawyers, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
The goal of the present investigation was to clarify and compare the structure of genetic and environmental influences on different types (e.g., physical, verbal) of peer victimization experienced by youth in pre-/early adolescence and mid-/late adolescence. Physical, verbal, social, and property-related peer victimization experiences were assessed in two twin samples (306 pairs, ages 9-14 and 294 pairs, ages 15-20). Cholesky decompositions of individual differences in victimization were conducted, and independent pathway (IP) and common pathway (CP) twin models were tested in each sample...
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
Lucía Raily Acuña, Renata Cristina Nunes Marchette, Natalli Granzotto, Paula Gomes Dias, Maria Elisa Corvino, Fernando Gabriel Mazur, Fernanda Junques Corrêa, Geison Souza Izídio
We exposed male and female rats of SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) and SLA16 (SHR.LEW-Anxrr16) strains, in a non-drugged state, for five consecutive days to the Triple Test (experiment 1); or after repeated treatment with midazolam (MDZ), for four consecutive days. The fifth day was performed without treatment (experiment 2). The first experiment showed that males did not avoid and females increased the exploration of the open arms over the days. In experiment 2, SLA16 from both sexes approached more the open arms than SHR rats...
November 2018: Behavior Genetics
Hill F Ip, Rick Jansen, Abdel Abdellaoui, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma, Michel G Nivard
Measurement of gene expression levels and detection of eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci) are difficult in tissues with limited sample availability, such as the brain. However, eQTL overlap between tissues might be high, which would allow for inference of eQTL functioning in the brain via eQTLs detected in readily accessible tissues, e.g. whole blood. Applying Stratified Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression (SLDSR), we quantified the enrichment in polygenic signal of blood and brain eQTLs in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 11 complex traits...
September 2018: Behavior Genetics
Tom A McAdams, Laurie J Hannigan, Espen Moen Eilertsen, Line C Gjerde, Eivind Ystrom, Fruhling V Rijsdijk
Datasets comprising twins and their children can be a useful tool for understanding the nature of intergenerational associations between parent and offspring phenotypes. In the present article we explore structural equation models previously used to analyse Children-of-Twins data, highlighting some limitations and considerations. We then present new variants of these models, showing that extending the models to include multiple offspring per parent addresses several of the limitations discussed. Accompanying the updated models, we provide power calculations and demonstrate with application to simulated data...
September 2018: Behavior Genetics
Michelle Luciano, Alan J Gow, Alison Pattie, Timothy C Bates, Ian J Deary
A number of candidate genes for reading and language impairment have been replicated, primarily in samples of children with developmental disability or delay, although these genes are also supported in adolescent population samples. The present study used a systematic approach to test 14 of these candidate genes for association with reading assessed in late adulthood (two cohorts with mean ages of 70 and 79 years). Gene-sets (14 candidates, axon-guidance and neuron migration pathways) and individual SNPs within each gene of interest were tested for association using imputed data referenced to the 1000 genomes European panel...
September 2018: Behavior Genetics
S Alexandra Burt, Kathryn S Plaisance, David Z Hambrick
Behavioral genetic (BG) research has yielded many important discoveries about the origins of human behavior, but offers little insight into how we might improve outcomes. We posit that this gap in our knowledge base stems in part from the epidemiologic nature of BG research questions. Namely, BG studies focus on understanding etiology as it currently exists, rather than etiology in environments that could exist but do not as of yet (e.g., etiology following an intervention). Put another way, they focus exclusively on the etiology of "what is" rather than "what could be"...
August 13, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Eugenia I Gorlin, Reinier Schuur
As we account for the genetic and environmental influences on morally-relevant character traits like intellectual honesty, industriousness, and self-control, do we risk becoming ever less accountable to ourselves? Behavioral genetic research suggests that about half the variance in such character traits is likely attributable to heredity, and a small fraction to the shared family environment. The remaining 40-60% is explained by neither genes nor family upbringing. This raises the question: how active a role can individuals play in shaping their own character? What, if anything, can and should one do to take responsibility for the kind of person one becomes? This paper sketches a novel theoretical proposal for addressing these questions, by drawing on several previously disparate lines of research within behavior genetics, philosophy, and experimental psychology...
August 12, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Kathryn Tabb, Matthew S Lebowitz, Paul S Appelbaum
While considerable research has examined how genetic explanations for behavior impact assessments of moral responsibility, results across studies have been inconsistent. Some studies suggest that genetic accounts diminish ascriptions of responsibility, but others show no effect. Nonetheless, conclusions from behavior genetics are increasingly mobilized on behalf of defendants in court, suggesting a widespread intuition that this sort of information is relevant to assessments of blameworthiness. In this paper, we consider two sorts of reasons why this kind of intuition, if it exists, is not consistently revealed in empirical studies...
August 9, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Jessica L Bourdon, Ashlee A Moore, Meridith Eastman, Jeanne E Savage, Laura Hazlett, Scott R Vrana, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with cardiac morbidity, mortality, and negative psychopathology. Most research concerning genetic influences on HRV has focused on adult populations, with fewer studies investigating the developmental period of adolescence and emerging adulthood. The current study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to resting HRV in a sample of twins using various HRV time domain metrics to assess autonomic function across two different time measurement intervals (2...
July 11, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Carol A Van Hulle, Irwin Waldman, Benjamin B Lahey
Decades of research into the etiology of conduct disorder (CD) has yet to yield a consensus on the existence of sex differences in underlying genetic and environmental influences. This may be partly due to the failure of many previous studies to make a distinction between non-aggressive and aggressive CD symptoms or test for potential developmental changes in sex differences in the etiology of conduct problems. To address these gaps, we fit a series of univariate and bivariate biometric sex-difference models to self-reported non-aggressive and aggressive CD symptoms in a community-based sample of twins (N = 1548, ages 9-17 year), grouped into ages 9-13 and 14-17 years...
July 2018: Behavior Genetics
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