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Behavior Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083723/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-implicit-and-explicit-self-esteem-and-affect-results-from-a-genetically-sensitive-multi-group-design
#1
Stefan Stieger, Christian Kandler, Ulrich S Tran, Jakob Pietschnig, Martin Voracek
In today's world, researchers frequently utilize indirect measures of implicit (i.e., automatic, spontaneous) evaluations. The results of several studies have supported the usefulness of these measures in predicting behavior, as compared to utilizing direct measures of explicit (i.e., purposeful, deliberate) evaluations. A current, under-debate issue concerns the origin of these implicit evaluations. The present genetically sensitive multi-group study analyzed data from 223 twin pairs and 222 biological core families to estimate possible genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem and affect...
January 12, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981394/heritability-of-working-in-a-creative-profession
#2
Mark Patrick Roeling, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma
Creativity is the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities. Following a study on the genetic contribution to working in a creative profession, based on polygenic score analysis, we report the total heritability of this trait in a large sample of adult twins and their siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Data from 6755 twins and 1817 siblings were analyzed using genetic structural equation modeling. Working in a creative profession is relatively rare in our sample (2...
December 15, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909831/the-2017-international-workshop-on-statistical-genetic-methods-for-human-complex-traits-formerly-the-methodology-of-twin-and-family-studies-advanced-workshop-march-6th-march-10th-2017
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909830/the-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-icu-in-children-reliability-and-heritability
#4
Ashlee A Moore, Dever Carney, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Kenneth E Towbin, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits comprise the core symptoms of psychopathy, yet no study has estimated the heritability of CU traits in a community sample of children using an instrument designed solely to assess CU traits. The current study uses data from 339 twin pairs aged 9-14 to examine the reliability and heritability of the parent-report Inventory of Callous-unemotional Traits (ICU) at two assessments approximately 3 weeks apart. Time-specific measurement error was taken into account to obtain a more accurate estimate of the heritability reflecting the latent liability to CU traits...
December 1, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888366/heritability-and-longitudinal-stability-of-planning-and-behavioral-disinhibition-based-on-the-porteus-maze-test
#5
Catherine Tuvblad, Marcella May, Nicholas Jackson, Adrian Raine, Laura A Baker
The Porteus Maze Test (PMT) provides measures of planning and behavioral disinhibition. The PMT was administered to 941 twins during Wave 1 (9-10 years) and 320 twins during Wave 2 (11-13 years). Participants were drawn from the University of Southern California Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study (RFAB). Heritability of behavioral disinhibition, determined by PMT Q-Score, were 33% at Wave 1 and 52% at Wave 2. For planning, determined by Test Age, heritability was 53% at Wave 1; at Wave 2, the non-shared environment was important in boys, whereas genetic influences were important in girls...
November 25, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866285/a-power-calculator-for-the-classical-twin-design
#6
Brad Verhulst
Power is a ubiquitous, though often overlooked, component of any statistical analyses. Almost every funding agency and institutional review board requires that some sort of power analysis is conducted prior to data collection. While there are several excellent on line power calculators for independent observations, twin studies pose unique challenges that are not incorporated into these algorithms. The goal of the current manuscript is to outline a general method for calculating power in twin studies, and to provide functions to allow researchers to easily conduct power analyses for a range of common twin models...
November 19, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826669/behavioral-and-molecular-genetics-of-reading-related-am-and-fm-detection-thresholds
#7
Matthew Bruni, Judy F Flax, Steven Buyske, Amber D Shindhelm, Caroline Witton, Linda M Brzustowicz, Christopher W Bartlett
Auditory detection thresholds for certain frequencies of both amplitude modulated (AM) and frequency modulated (FM) dynamic auditory stimuli are associated with reading in typically developing and dyslexic readers. We present the first behavioral and molecular genetic characterization of these two auditory traits. Two extant extended family datasets were given reading tasks and psychoacoustic tasks to determine FM 2 Hz and AM 20 Hz sensitivity thresholds. Univariate heritabilities were significant for both AM (h (2)  = 0...
November 9, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822607/adequacy-of-using-a-three-item-questionnaire-to-determine-zygosity-in-chinese-young-twins
#8
Connie Suk-Han Ho, Mo Zheng, Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow, Simpson W L Wong, Cadmon K P Lim, Mary M Y Waye
The present study examined the adequacy of a three-item parent questionnaire in determining the zygosity of young Chinese twins and whether there was any association between parent response accuracy and some demographic variables. The sample consisted of 334 pairs of same-sex Chinese twins aged from 3 to 11 years. Three scoring methods, namely the summed score, logistic regression, and decision tree, were employed to evaluate parent response accuracy of twin zygosity based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information...
November 7, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804047/chimpanzee-personality-and-the-arginine-vasopressin-receptor-1a-genotype
#9
V A D Wilson, A Weiss, T Humle, N Morimura, T Udono, G Idani, T Matsuzawa, S Hirata, M Inoue-Murayama
Polymorphisms of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene have been linked to various measures related to human social behavior, including sibling conflict and agreeableness. In chimpanzees, AVPR1a polymorphisms have been associated with traits important for social interactions, including sociability, joint attention, dominance, conscientiousness, and hierarchical personality dimensions named low alpha/stability, disinhibition, and negative emotionality/low dominance. We examined associations between AVPR1a and six personality domains and hierarchical personality dimensions in 129 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) living in Japan or in a sanctuary in Guinea...
November 2, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796610/heritability-of-behavioral-problems-in-7-year-olds-based-on-shared-and-unique-aspects-of-parental-views
#10
Iryna O Fedko, Laura W Wesseldijk, Michel G Nivard, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Christel M Middeldorp, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma
In studies of child psychopathology, phenotypes of interest are often obtained by parental ratings. When behavioral ratings are obtained in the context of a twin study, this allows for the decomposition of the phenotypic variance, into a genetic and a non-genetic part. If a phenotype is assessed by a single rater, heritability is based on the child's behavior as expressed in the presence of that particular rater, whereas heritability based on assessments by multiple raters allows for the estimation of the heritability of the phenotype based on rater agreement, as well as the heritability of the rater specific view of the behavior...
October 28, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796609/using-twins-to-better-understand-sibling-relationships
#11
Katharine M Mark, Alison Pike, Rachel M Latham, Bonamy R Oliver
We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5.22 years respectively); and the Twins, Family and Behaviour study included 234 families with two target twin children (mean age = 4.70 years). Mothers and fathers reported on their children's relationship with each other, via a postal questionnaire (the Sisters and Brothers Study) or a telephone interview (the Twins, Family and Behaviour study)...
October 28, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770223/benson-earl-ginsburg-1918-2016-a-pioneer-in-behavior-genetics
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743041/predicting-cognitive-executive-functioning-with-polygenic-risk-scores-for-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Chelsie E Benca, Jaime L Derringer, Robin P Corley, Susan E Young, Matthew C Keller, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Executive functions (EFs) have been proposed as an endophenotype for psychopathology because EF deficits are associated with most psychiatric disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we derived polygenic risk scores for autism, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia, using genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as discovery samples. We then examined the relationships between these polygenic risk scores and three separable EF components measured with a latent variable model...
January 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630039/cross-study-differences-in-the-etiology-of-reading-comprehension-a-meta-analytical-review-of-twin-studies
#14
Callie W Little, Rasheda Haughbrook, Sara A Hart
Numerous twin studies have examined the genetic and environmental etiology of reading comprehension, though it is likely that etiological estimates are influenced by unidentified sample conditions (e.g. Tucker-Drob and Bates, Psychol Sci:0956797615612727, 2015). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to average the etiological influences of reading comprehension and to explore the potential moderators influencing these estimates. Results revealed an average heritability estimate of h(2) = 0.59, with significant variation in estimates across studies, suggesting potential moderation...
January 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27480873/a-bivariate-genetic-analysis-of-drug-abuse-ascertained-through-medical-and-criminal-registries-in-swedish-twins-siblings-and-half-siblings
#15
Hermine H Maes, Michael C Neale, Henrik Ohlsson, Mahsa Zahery, Paul Lichtenstein, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated the correlation of genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse as ascertained from medical and criminal registries by modeling twin and sibling data. Medical drug abuse was defined using public inpatient and outpatient records, while criminal drug abuse was ascertained through legal records. Twin, full and half sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household was obtained from Statistics Sweden...
November 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757730/genetics-of-interactive-behavior-in-silver-foxes-vulpes-vulpes
#16
Ronald M Nelson, Svetlana V Temnykh, Jennifer L Johnson, Anastasiya V Kharlamova, Anastasiya V Vladimirova, Rimma G Gulevich, Darya V Shepeleva, Irina N Oskina, Gregory M Acland, Lars Rönnegård, Lyudmila N Trut, Örjan Carlborg, Anna V Kukekova
Individuals involved in a social interaction exhibit different behavioral traits that, in combination, form the individual's behavioral responses. Selectively bred strains of silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) demonstrate markedly different behaviors in their response to humans. To identify the genetic basis of these behavioral differences we constructed a large F2 population including 537 individuals by cross-breeding tame and aggressive fox strains. 98 fox behavioral traits were recorded during social interaction with a human experimenter in a standard four-step test...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738774/referees-for-volume-46
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714475/behavior-genetics-association-46th-annual-meeting-abstracts
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704301/genetic-and-genomic-response-to-selection-for-food-consumption-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Megan E Garlapow, Logan J Everett, Shanshan Zhou, Alexander W Gearhart, Kairsten A Fay, Wen Huang, Tatiana V Morozova, Gunjan H Arya, Lavanya Turlapati, Genevieve St Armour, Yasmeen N Hussain, Sarah E McAdams, Sophia Fochler, Trudy F C Mackay
Food consumption is an essential component of animal fitness; however, excessive food intake in humans increases risk for many diseases. The roles of neuroendocrine feedback loops, food sensing modalities, and physiological state in regulating food intake are well understood, but not the genetic basis underlying variation in food consumption. Here, we applied ten generations of artificial selection for high and low food consumption in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetric, with significant responses only for increased food consumption and minimal correlated responses in body mass and composition...
October 5, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704300/forward-genetic-screening-using-behavioral-tests-in-zebrafish-a-proof-of-concept-analysis-of-mutants
#20
Robert Gerlai, Tanya L Poshusta, Mindy Rampersad, Yohaan Fernandes, Tammy M Greenwood, Margot A Cousin, Eric W Klee, Karl J Clark
The zebrafish enjoys several advantages over other model organisms. It is small, easy to maintain, prolific, and numerous genetic tools are available for it. For example, forward genetic screens have allowed investigators to identify important genes potentially involved in a variety of functions from embryogenesis to cancer. However, despite its sophisticated behavioral repertoire, behavioral methods have rarely been utilized in forward genetic screens. Here, we employ a two-tiered strategy, a proof of concept study, to explore the feasibility of behavioral screens...
October 5, 2016: Behavior Genetics
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