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Behavior Genetics

Andrew M Scott, Ian Dworkin, Reuven Dukas
Sociability, defined as individuals' propensity to participate in non-aggressive activities with conspecifics, is a fundamental feature of behavior in many animals including humans. However, we still have a limited knowledge of the mechanisms and evolutionary biology of sociability. To enhance our understanding, we developed a new protocol to quantify sociability in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). In a series of experiments with 59 F1 hybrids derived from inbred lines, we documented, first, significant genetic variation in sociability in both males and females, with broad-sense heritabilities of 0...
April 23, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Alexander S Hatoum, Soo Hyun Rhee, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Internalizing and externalizing behaviors are heritable, and show genetic stability during childhood and adolescence. Less work has explored how genes influence individual differences in developmental trajectories. We estimated ACE biometrical latent growth curve models for the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and parent Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) internalizing and externalizing scales from ages 7 to 16 years in 408 twin pairs from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study. We found that Intercept factors were highly heritable for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors (a2 = ...
April 20, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Julia Kutschke, May-Bente Bengtson, Teresa E Seeman, Jennifer R Harris
Social relationships play a critical role in health and well-being throughout life. We analyzed the genetic and environmental variance co-variance structure for social support and strain across four sets of relationships including with one's co-twin, spouse/partner, family and friends. The sample included 5288 Norwegian twins aged 40-80. Older people reported less support from their co-twin and friends and less strain from their family and friends. Genetic influences contribute importantly to variation across all the measures, with estimates ranging from 0 to 58%; variance due to shared environmental influences was most important for the twin-relationship, ranging from 0...
April 12, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Izabela Bialuk, Maria Małgorzata Winnicka
The significance of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in long-term reference memory was tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) in 4-month-old C57BL/6J IL-6-deficient (IL-6 KO) and control mice. Three-day learning measured by escape latency time to find the hidden platform was comparable in both genotypes. In a single probe trial performed 7 days later, without the platform, latency to the platform site and path length to the target place were significantly shorter (p < 0.05 and p < 0.02, respectively), and platform-site crossovers more frequent (p < 0...
April 4, 2018: Behavior Genetics
T Lee, A Thalamuthu, J D Henry, J N Trollor, D Ames, M J Wright, P S Sachdev
We used a sub-sample from the Older Australian Twins Study to estimate the heritability of performance on three tests of language ability: Boston Naming Test (BNT), Letter/Phonemic Fluency (FAS) and Category/Semantic Fluency (CFT) Tests. After adjusting for age, sex, education, mood, and global cognition (GC), heritability estimates obtained for the three tests were 0.35, 0.59, and 0.20, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the genetic correlation were high for BNT and CFT (0.61), but low for BNT and FAS (0...
April 4, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Christopher R Beam, Katherine Marcus, Eric Turkheimer, Robert E Emery
Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs...
March 22, 2018: Behavior Genetics
David Curtis, Leda Coelewij, Shou-Hwa Liu, Jack Humphrey, Richard Mott
A previous study of exome-sequenced schizophrenia cases and controls reported an excess of singleton, gene-disruptive variants among cases, concentrated in particular gene sets. The dataset included a number of subjects with a substantial Finnish contribution to ancestry. We have reanalysed the same dataset after removal of these subjects and we have also included non-singleton variants of all types using a weighted burden test which assigns higher weights to variants predicted to have a greater effect on protein function...
March 21, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Chelsea R Kasten, Yanping Zhang, Ken Mackie, Stephen L Boehm
Cannabis use is linked to positive and negative outcomes. Identifying genetic targets of susceptibility to the negative effects of cannabinoid use is of growing importance. The current study sought to complete short-term selective breeding for adolescent sensitivity and resistance to the locomotor effects of a single 10 mg/kg THC dose in the open field. Selection for THC-locomotor sensitivity was moderately heritable, with the greatest estimates of heritability seen in females from the F2 to S3 generations...
May 2018: Behavior Genetics
Sophie van der Sluis, César-Reyer Vroom, Conor V Dolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Behavior Genetics
Fazil Aliev, Jessica E Salvatore, Arpana Agrawal, Laura Almasy, Grace Chan, Howard J Edenberg, Victor Hesselbrock, Samuel Kuperman, Jacquelyn Meyers, Danielle M Dick
The Trait-based test that uses the Extended Simes procedure (TATES) was developed as a method for conducting multivariate GWAS for correlated phenotypes whose underlying genetic architecture is complex. In this paper, we provide a brief methodological critique of the TATES method using simulated examples and a mathematical proof. Our simulated examples using correlated phenotypes show that the Type I error rate is higher than expected, and that more TATES p values fall outside of the confidence interval relative to expectation...
March 2018: Behavior Genetics
Tinca J C Polderman, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Michael S Irwig, Lauren Beach, Yee-Ming Chan, Eske M Derks, Isabel Esteva, Jesse Ehrenfeld, Martin Den Heijer, Danielle Posthuma, Lewis Raynor, Amy Tishelman, Lea K Davis
The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes...
March 2018: Behavior Genetics
Spencer B Huggett, Alexander S Hatoum, John K Hewitt, Michael C Stallings
We investigated the etiological role of genetic and environmental influences for two milestones of tobacco and alcohol use: age of initiation, and speed of progression to dependence (latency). Study participants included 1352 monozygotic and 1422 dizygotic twins (mean age at assessment = 24.31). Earlier ages of initiation significantly increased the likelihood of developing dependence, but were associated with longer dependence latencies for tobacco and alcohol. Latencies to dependence were heritable traits for tobacco (a2  = 0...
March 2018: Behavior Genetics
Yayouk E Willems, Conor V Dolan, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Eveline L de Zeeuw, Dorret I Boomsma, Meike Bartels, Catrin Finkenauer
This study used a theoretically-derived set of items of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment to develop the Achenbach Self-Control Scale (ASCS) for 7-16 year olds. Using a large dataset of over 20,000 children, who are enrolled in the Netherlands Twin Register, we demonstrated the psychometric properties of the ASCS for parent-, self- and teacher-report by examining internal and criterion validity, and inter-rater and test-retest reliability. We found associations between the ASCS and measures of well-being, educational achievement, and substance use...
March 2018: Behavior Genetics
Soo Hyun Rhee, Naomi P Friedman, Ashley K Smith Watts, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, JoAnn Robinson, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler
Lower self-control is a significant correlate or predictor of a wide range of adult outcomes, and this association may be due to more general tendencies toward childhood externalizing problems. The present study examined the association between toddlerhood self-control expressed within a "don't" compliance task (at 14-36 months) and later externalizing problems (parent-reported externalizing problems from age 4 to 12 years, teacher-reported externalizing problems from age 7 to 12 years, and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms at age 17 years) in a longitudinal, genetically informative study...
March 2018: Behavior Genetics
Dimitri van der Linden, Julie A Schermer, Eveline de Zeeuw, Curtis S Dunkel, Keri A Pekaar, Arnold B Bakker, Philip A Vernon, K V Petrides
A previous meta-analysis (Van der Linden et al., Psychol Bull 143:36-52, 2017) showed that the General Factor of Personality (GFP) overlaps with ability as well as trait emotional intelligence (EI). The correlation between trait EI and the GFP was so high (ρ = 0.88) in that meta-analysis that these two may be considered virtually identical constructs. The present study builds on these findings by examining whether the strong phenotypic correlation between the GFP and trait EI has a genetic component. In a sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, the heritability estimates for the GFP and trait EI were 53 and 45%, respectively...
March 2018: Behavior Genetics
Alexandra Zapko-Willmes, Christian Kandler
The present twin study combined self- and peer assessments of twins' general homophobia targeting gay men in order to replicate previous behavior genetic findings across different rater perspectives and to disentangle self-rater-specific variance from common variance in self- and peer-reported homophobia (i.e., rater-consistent variance). We hypothesized rater-consistent variance in homophobia to be attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental effects, and self-rater-specific variance to be partially accounted for by genetic influences...
January 2018: Behavior Genetics
Arden Moscati, Brad Verhulst, Kevin McKee, Judy Silberg, Lindon Eaves
Understanding the factors that contribute to behavioral traits is a complex task, and partitioning variance into latent genetic and environmental components is a useful beginning, but it should not also be the end. Many constructs are influenced by their contextual milieu, and accounting for background effects (such as gene-environment correlation) is necessary to avoid bias. This study introduces a method for examining the interplay between traits, in a longitudinal design using differential items in sibling pairs...
January 2018: Behavior Genetics
Jun Young Park, Chong Wu, Saonli Basu, Matt McGue, Wei Pan
In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), it has been increasingly recognized that, as a complementary approach to standard single SNP analyses, it may be beneficial to analyze a group of functionally related SNPs together. Among the existent population-based SNP-set association tests, two adaptive tests, the aSPU test and the aSPUpath test, offer a powerful and general approach at the gene- and pathway-levels by data-adaptively combining the results across multiple SNPs (and genes) such that high statistical power can be maintained across a wide range of scenarios...
January 2018: Behavior Genetics
Chang Liu, Peter C M Molenaar, Jenae M Neiderhiser
By taking advantage of the natural variation in genetic relatedness among identical (monozygotic: MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic: DZ) twins, twin studies are able to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to complex human behaviors. Recently concerns have been raised about the accuracy of twin studies in light of findings of genetic and epigenetic changes in twins. One of the concerns raised is that MZ twins are not 100% genetically and epigenetically similar because they show variations in their genomes and epigenomes leading to inaccurate estimates of heritability...
January 2018: Behavior Genetics
Charles Laurin, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Gibran Hemani, George Davey Smith, Jian Yang, David M Evans
We propose a new method, G-REMLadp, to estimate the phenotypic variance explained by parent-of-origin effects (POEs) across the genome. Our method uses restricted maximum likelihood analysis of genome-wide genetic relatedness matrices based on individuals' phased genotypes. Genome-wide SNP data from parent child duos or trios is required to obtain relatedness matrices indexing the parental origin of offspring alleles, as well as offspring phenotype data to partition the trait variation into variance components...
January 2018: Behavior Genetics
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