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Laboratory Medicine

Wenfang Xu, Jie Li, Yong Wu, Jiankang Zhou, Jianping Zhong, Qiuqiong Lv, Hui Shao, Heping Rao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cluster of differentiation (CD)127 expression in T cells of patients with HIV-1 and the relationship of CD127 expression with disease progression. METHODS: We divided 139 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who had undergone highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) into 3 groups: patients with poor recovery (CD4(+)T < 350/µL, patients with general recovery (CD4(+)T =  350 - ∼600/µL) and patients with good recovery (CD4(+)T > 600/µL)...
October 19, 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Julie R Taylor, Pamela J Thompson, Jonathan R Genzen, John Hickner, Marisa B Marques
BACKGROUND: The 2015 Institue of Medicine report Improving Diagnosis in Health Care highlighted that diagnostic errors cause patient harm and that improvement in the diagnostic process requires better collaboration among physicians and laboratory professionals. The purpose of this study is to understand why physicians do not contact laboratory professionals when facing diagnostic challenges and identify opportunities for laboratory professionals to become more recognized members of the clinical care team...
October 15, 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Ping Wang
Extremely low hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) results below reference range are rare, and the causes and clinical implications associated with low HbA1c results are not well understood among clinical laboratorians. A case of extremely low HbA1c results was reported, in which liver cirrhosis, subacute hemorrhage and recent transfusion all contributed to the low result. This case illustrates when HbA1c should not be used as a clinically relevant diabetes marker. However, low or extremely low HbA1c (<5.0% or <4...
September 10, 2016: Laboratory Medicine
F Bernhard Kraus, Marlies Mischereit, Christoph Eller, Beatrice Ludwig-Kraus
OBJECTIVE: Validation of the LT-SYS quantitative in vitro copper assay on a Roche Cobas 8000 c502 analyzer and comparison with a BIOMED assay on a Roche Cobas Mira analyzer. METHODS: Imprecision and bias were quantified at different concentration levels (serum and plasma) over a 20-day period. Linearity was assessed covering a range from 4.08 µmol/L to 33.8 µmol/L. Limit of blank (LoB) and limit of detection (LoD) were established based on a total of 120 blank and low-level samples...
September 4, 2016: Laboratory Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Linda C Bruno
This article will help laboratories understand what changed with external quality control testing, why it changed, who changed it, when the changes became effective, and how these changes affect clinical laboratories. The new Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP) option that became effective January 1, 2016, will be explained. Three other quality control changes that took effect January 1, 2016, and dramatically affect quality control requirements for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, identification test systems, and exempt culture media will also be explained...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Hassan A Aziz
The constant growth of medical knowledge and the increases in specialization in clinical practice have created a significant need to share and access patient information with speed and efficiency. However, current technology is centered on processing data, rather than gathering information. To realize the potential of modern technology in improving patient health, merely collecting and storing data are insufficient: one must convert these data into information and knowledge. In this article, I present an overview of 2 recent advances in technology and their assimilation into the practice of medicine, in the attempt to make clinical data meaningful and then to learn from aggregated clinical data...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Caleb V Grieme, Dena R Voss, Karin E Olson, Scott R Davis, Jeff Kulhavy, Matthew D Krasowski
OBJECTIVE: Panels of clinical laboratory testing may generate "incidental" critical values from unordered parameters. Existing regulations do not clearly delineate guidelines for handling incidental critical values. The objective of this study was to examine the patterns and clinical utility of incidental critical values at 2 critical care laboratories within an academic medical center. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the electronic health record and laboratory information system were reviewed for incidental critical results obtained from blood gas analyzer analysis of whole blood specimens between November 2010 and August 2014...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Stephanie N Kinney, Jayanna Slayten, Dan A Waxman
BACKGROUND: Within transfusion medicine, the education of molecular technologies lacks standardization. OBJECTIVE: To address this problem, we surveyed specialist in blood bank technology (SBBT) programs, immunohematology reference laboratories, and SBBT graduates to define its current state. METHODS: An anonymous online survey (SurveyMonkey) was emailed to the 15 American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) SBBT programs, 59 AABB IRLs, and 82 SBBT graduates...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Shahla Masood, Ehab El-Gabry, Chuhua Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang
BACKGROUND: It is documented that in tumor cell lines, the hTERT gene exhibits prominent methylation at a CpG island rich region about -600 bp upstream of the transcription start site, but mixed or allelically absent around ±150 bp region. Given the potential clinical implications of the findings in breast cancer diagnostics, we set out to investigate if such findings are reproducible on primary surgically resected invasive breast carcinomas. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 50 cases of freshly sampled and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) invasive breast cancers and normal tissue...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Sarah A Williams, Laura E Moench, Fatima Khan, Gregory Vercellotti, Michael A Linden
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders of humoral immunity, characterized by marked deficiencies in serum immunoglobulins. Immune dysregulation causes susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections, as well as autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders. Although the lymphoid cells comprising the atypical proliferations are often clonally related, their malignant potential and clinical significance differ from similar lesions in individuals with immunocompetence...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Hakan Turkon, Burak Toprak, Hulya Yalcin, Ayfer Colak, Nurinnisa Ozturk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of temperature and protease inhibitor on adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) stability. METHODS: We collected blood specimens from 10 donors into K3 EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and K3 EDTA + aprotinin tubes. Plasma specimens were held at room temperature and at 2 °C to 8[Formula: see text] for 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 72 hours. ACTH concentrations in 4 storage conditions were compared with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each time point...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Heba M Gouda, Nermine M Kamel, Safa S Meshaal
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic process that refers to chromatin-based mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression without DNA alternation. It is mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) gene contains a C-to-T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2424913) in the Promotor region, 149 base pairs from the transcription start site, which is reported to significantly increase the Promotor activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalance of rs2424913 single nucleotide polymorphism located in the DNMT3B gene Promotor...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Amelia C Fierro-Fine, Karisa Harland, Hans R House, Matthew D Krasowski
BACKGROUND: Tailgating is popular at many college football games. However, it is known to contribute to binge drinking and alcohol intoxication, which are common public health challenges. OBJECTIVE: To use laboratory data to measure changes in plasma ethanol levels observed in a large state university emergency department after a series of reforms were enacted to reduce binge drinking. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review on all serum ethanol levels measured at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics on weekends from 2006 through 2014...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Rintu R Jacob, Renu Saxena, Ishwar C Verma
BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting observations reported in the literature regarding the effects of formaldehyde in the recovery of cell free fetal DNA (CFF DNA) from maternal plasma. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of formaldehyde treatment on circulating cell free DNA. METHODS: We conducted this study using blood specimens collected from 11 pregnant women, each of whom was carrying a male fetus. DYS14 and HBB real time assays were performed to quantify fetal and total circulating cell free DNA from formaldehyde treated and untreated maternal plasma specimens, respectively...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Phillip R Jensen, Boaz A Markewitz
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomy is a significant cause of iatrogenic anemia in the critical care environment. It is estimated that one-third of all transfusions of packed red blood cells in intensive care units (ICU) result from phlebotomy. The aims of this study were to determine if utilizing the 1mL blood gas syringe for an adult population would impact the rate at which specimens were acceptable for testing and result reporting based on lab specimen rejection criteria; and to compare blood utilization between the 2 different syringes...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Akbar Dorgalaleh, Shadi Tabibian, Vahideh Assadollahi, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Iraj Zareban, Shahrzad Soori, Maryam Daneshi
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of factor XIII (FXIII) is a rare bleeding disorder (RBD) affecting approximately 1 person per 2 million worldwide. Its life-threatening diatheses-umbilical cord bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage and central nervous system bleeding-present a significant challenge in both diagnosis and treatment. Confirming FXIII deficiency (FXIIID) is difficult and has been most commonly performed with the clot solubility test. Iran has limited resources and a rate of FXIIID 12-fold higher than the rest of the world, suggesting that in this country optimization of the clot solubility test is crucial...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
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