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Laboratory Medicine

Akshaya Gupta, Jacob Yo, Gengming Huang, Lynn Soong, Jianli Dong
Caspases play a vital role during apoptosis. In addition to apoptosis, caspases play a role in cytokine gene induction and work to inhibit apoptosis. In order for individuals to thrive with useful tissue growth, the rate of cell growth and division must surpass the rate of cell division. It is well established that excessive cell death of embryonic cells is a vital process occurring before structural abnormalities, regardless of their nature. Here we describe a 13-month-old male patient with a 4.7Mb interstitial duplication of chromosome 2q33...
December 29, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Yichao Wang, Bumei Zhang, Yan Sun, Yunde Liu, Yajun Gu
Background: Mycoplasma-related vaginitis gradually has been growing as a threat in adults-genitourinary infection contributes to funisitis, spontaneous abortion, and low birth weight. Until now, use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), or Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) has been reported by some researchers. However, previous studies focused on purified DNA as the template for LAMP assay, which is usually extracted via commercial kit...
December 20, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Sakorn Pornprasert, Somkhid Thichak, Kanyakan Kongthai, Chaowanee Wangchauy
Objectives: To compare levels of HbA2, HbE, HbF, and red cell parameters (total Hb, PCV, MCV, and MCH) and also determine their appropriated cut-off points for initial discrimination between homozygous HbE with and without α0-thalassemia trait. Methods: Hb analysis results from capillary electrophoresis (CE) and red cell parameters of homozygous HbE without α0-thalassemia trait (n = 41) and with α0-thalassemia trait (n = 17) were reviewed. Results: The MCV, MCH, and HbE of homozygous HbE with α0-thalassemia trait were significantly lower than those of homozygous HbE without α0-thalassemia, while HbA2 levels of the former were significantly higher than those of the latter...
December 18, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Miroslava Benovská, Aneta Opluštilová, Jana Pinkavová, Zuzana Hodická, Zdenka Cermáková
Background: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) are used in diagnosing preeclampsia (PE), but their potential in early prediction in pregnant women at 16 to 20 weeks gestation (WG) has remained unexplored. Methods: We retrospectively measured serum levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF in 120 pregnant women at 16 to 20 WG. Among these women, 16 had early-onset PE and 23 had late-onset PE. Results: Compared with normal pregnancy values, in the serum of women in whom PE later developed, sFlt-1 values increased (P <...
December 18, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
José L Moreno-Camacho, Diana Y Calva-Espinosa, Yoseli Y Leal-Leyva, Dolores C Elizalde-Olivas, Abraham Campos-Romero, Jonathan Alcántar-Fernández
Background: To validate the performance, reproducibility, and reliability of BD automated instruments in order to establish a fully automated clinical microbiology laboratory. Methods: We used control strains and clinical samples to assess the accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability of the BD Kiestra WCA, the BD Phoenix, and BD Bruker MALDI-Biotyper instruments and compared them to previously established conventional methods. The following processes were evaluated: sample inoculation and spreading, colony counts, sorting of cultures, antibiotic susceptibility test, and microbial identification...
December 14, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Reza Bahramabadi, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi, Amin Safari Arababadi, Minoo Safari Arababadi, Hassan Yousefi-Daredor, Reza Bidaki, Mehdi Khaleghinia, Mohammad Hossein Bakhshi, Yaser Yousefpoor, Yaser Eskandari Torbaghan, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
Objective: To assess the effects of depression and anxiety on serum cytokine levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 healthy control individuals and 60 patients with CHB participated after filling out standard questionnaires. We examined their serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and TGF-β levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Results: In patients with CHB compared with healthy controls, serum levels of IL-8 were significantly increased, whereas IL-6 and TGF-β levels were significantly decreased...
December 11, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Maria Salinas, Maite López-Garrigós, Emilio Flores, Carlos Leiva-Salinas
Background: To study the variability in the request of serum uric acid (SUA) in primary care. Method: A cross-sectional study was designed and conducted at a main core laboratory. Spanish laboratories were invited to report their number of serum glucose (SG) and SUA tests requested from primary care during 2014. A survey was sent to every participant in November 2016 regarding the inclusion of SUA in order profiles/panels. The ratio of SUA/SG requests (SUA/SG) was calculated and compared between regions, and laboratories depending on whether SUA was included or not in a health check profile...
December 6, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Anil Tarigopula, Vani Chandrashekar, Perumal Govindasamy
Objectives: To analyze the most common primary and secondary cytogenetic events in myelomas using a probe panel designed in our laboratory, and to associate those events with hematological and biochemical findings. Methods: Blood specimens from patients diagnosed with myeloma were processed to determine complete blood count and levels of albumin, creatinine, and beta-2 microglobulin. We evaluated bone-marrow specimens for plasma-cell percentage by light microscopy and for cytogenetic abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
December 1, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Suekyeung Kim, Myeong Hee Kim, Woo In Lee, So Young Kang, You La Jeon
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is widely known as an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes infection more frequently among immunocompromised individuals. Our case demonstrated the limitation of the current VITEK 2 system for the idendification of A. baumannii. Four clinical isolates of A. baumannii were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis by the VITEK 2 system. Misidentification might lead to unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments. Additional methods appear to be helpful for the accurate identification of A...
December 1, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Sirisha Emani, Lisa T Nelson, Scott Norton, Rajendra Singh, Vamsee Pamula, Sitaram Emani
Current laboratory methods for comprehensive thrombophilia status require large blood volumes and long turn-around times. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing thrombophilia panel testing of enzymatic functional assays on a microfluidic cartridge using low sample volume.Functional assays for Antithrombin III, Protein C, Factor VIII, and plasminogen were adapted on the digital microfluidic platform by developing novel fluorogenic substrates and establishing on-cartridge fluorescence (360/460 nm) detection...
December 1, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Adam M Szewc, Steve Taylor, Gary D Cage, Daphne de Mello
Legionellaceae are composed of a single genus, Legionella, which is currently comprised of over 52 species. L. pneumophila, L. micdadei, L. longbeachae, and L. dumoffi are clinically considered the most important, with L. pneumophila causing >90%1,7 of cases of legionnaires disease (LD). Since LD's recognition in 1976 following an outbreak of pneumonia involving delegates of an American Legion convention in Philadelphia, there has been increased awareness and importance of the isolation, detection, and reporting of these cases...
November 28, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Negin Farzamikia, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Abbas Afrasiabirad
Many lines of evidence suggest that warfarin dosing variability is significantly associated with cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) variant alleles. Therefore, we investigated the influence of CYP2C9*2 (430C/T), *3 (1075A/C) and VKORC1 (-1639G/A) polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirements in patients who underwent cardiac valve surgery during the postoperative period.A total of 100 patients with heart valve replacement who had a prescribed target international normalized ratio (INR) range of 2-3 were enrolled in the study...
November 22, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Sujal Shah, Megan Smith, Randall Butler
Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) are entities that contain a small number of large, variably Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive neoplastic cells scattered within background non-neoplastic mixed inflammatory infiltrate. The 2 entities can typically be distinguished histologically by the angiocentric and angiodestructive pattern of lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG); also, they differ in overall prognosis. Herein, we report a case of Hodgkin lymphoma in a 64-year-old Caucasian woman, diagnosed at autopsy with unusual histologic features and aggressive clinical course that mimicked LYG...
November 20, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Amity L Roberts, Upasana Joneja, Tatiana Villatoro, Eileen Andris, Judith A Boyle, James Bondi
Background: The BacterioScan 216Dx laser microbial growth monitoring system was evaluated as an option for preurine culture screening of preserved urine specimens at an acute care medical center. Methods: The BacterioScan 216Dx system performance characteristics and the economic impact (cost effectiveness) for the laboratory were assessed. Urinalysis performance compared to urine culture was assessed if urinalysis was ordered as part of the patient care set. Results: When compared to urine culture, the BacterioScan had an overall performance with corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 76% (68-83) sensitivity, 84% (80-87) specificity, 55% (48-63) positive predictive value, and 93% (90-95) negative predictive value for 610 randomly selected preserved urine specimens...
November 17, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Rulin Sun, Jun Xia
Gestation-specific reference intervals for thyroid hormones are used to estimate thyroid function in pregnant women. This study was to establish the reference intervals for pregnant women in Zhejiang province, China. A total of 9038 cases were recruited. The values of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and total triiodothyronine were determined by Beckman Coulter DxI-800 analyzers. Our results indicated that the level of TSH declined in the first trimester and then rose as pregnancy progressed...
November 7, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Mario Gonzalez, Dana Razzano, Alaa Ebid, Finn D Schubert
Objective: To compare patterns of inpatient and outpatient antibiotic use between patients who awaited urine culture results and patients whose urine specimens had been submitted for culture and were screened using the CLINITEK AUWi System. Methods: This quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study included patient records with a urine specimen and hospital admission from 1 month before to 1 month after implementation of the system. We compared data from the pre- and postimplementation groups using the χ2 test or Fisher exact test...
October 23, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Fabiola Lilí Sarmiento Salinas, Jonnathan Guadalupe Santillán Benítez, María Dolores Hernández Navarro, Hugo Mendieta Zerón
Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic and autoimmune disorder whose primary characteristic is the chronic inflammation of joints. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there was an association between nuclear factor kappa beta1/IKK epsilon (NF-κB1/IKKε) gene expression and clinical activity in RA. Methods: Sixty patients with RA were included in the study: 30 with clinical activity and 30 with clinical remission. NF-κB1/IKKε gene expression was performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction through relative quantification with Taqman probes...
October 23, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Aaron M T Barnes, Ruben J Crespo-Diaz, Justin Cohenour, Jonathan D Kirsch, Sophie Arbefeville, Patricia Ferrieri
Here we present the first reported case of a noninvasive Rhizopus fungal ball confined to the bladder of a patient with poorly controlled diabetes and right flank pain. The patient developed bilateral hydronephrosis after several hospital admissions for urinary tract infections with multiple failed courses of antibiotics. During cystoscopy to replace a ureteral stent, he was found to harbor a fungal ball in the bladder that was removed and grew Rhizopus in culture. Patient received treatment with amphotericin B and transitioned to long-term posaconazole therapy...
October 23, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Linda Mamone, Jessica Jones, Shiguang Liu, Yanhua Li, Barbara Goldsmith, Adil I Khan
This case study presents a patient with multiple myeloma whose serum specimen exhibits 2 distinct bands in serum protein electrophoresis but only one band in immunofixation electrophoresis. This latter, single band corresponds to the M-spike. An investigation is presented to determine the identity of this disappearing or phantom band. Furthermore, this case is used as a teaching point to explain the criteria used for staging multiple myeloma, how a cell can become a myeloma propagating cell, methods that can be used to identify unexpected bands in serum protein electrophoresis, possible explanations for bands in the beta region, the usual treatment regimens in multiple myeloma and finally specimen collecting and handling procedures for serum protein electrophoresis...
December 22, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
Antony R Parker, Markus Skold, David B Ramsden, J Gonzalo Ocejo-Vinyals, Marcos López-Hoyos, Stephen Harding
Measurement of IgG subclass concentrations is a standard laboratory test run as part of a panel to investigate the suspicion of antibody deficiency. The assessment is clinically important when total IgG is within the normal age-specific reference range. The measurement is useful for diagnosis of IgG subclass deficiency, to aid the diagnosis of specific antibody deficiency, as a supporting test for the diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency, as well as for risk stratification of patients with low IgA...
November 8, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
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