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Applied Optics

Alexander G Luchinin, Mikhail Yu Kirillin
The structure of a light field in sea water excited by a unidirectional point-sized pulsed source is studied by Monte Carlo technique. The pulse shape registered at the distances up to 120 m from the source on the beam axis and in its axial region is calculated with a time resolution of 1 ps. It is shown that with the increase of the distance from the source the pulse splits into two parts formed by components of various scattering orders. Frequency and phase responses of the beam are calculated by means of the fast Fourier transform...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Yuya Takubo, Takuma Shirahata, Shinji Yamashita
We optimized parameters of a dispersion-tuned wavelength-swept fiber laser by numerically analyzing dynamic characteristics. The optimized laser is experimentally demonstrated and applied to the swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. The dispersion-tuned wavelength-swept laser (DT-WSL) is a unique tunable fiber laser, whose lasing wavelength can be tuned rapidly without any mechanical tunable filters. Although the wavelength of a DT-WSL can be swept rapidly and widely, the broadening of the instantaneous spectral width at a high sweep rate has been a critical drawback for SS-OCT applications...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Dewang Yang, Jinjia Guo, Qingsheng Liu, Zhao Luo, Jingwen Yan, Ronger Zheng
The detection of dissolved gases in seawater plays an important role in ocean observation and exploration. As a potential technique for oceanic applications, Raman spectroscopy has already proved its advantages in the simultaneous detection of multiple species during previous deep-sea explorations. Due to the low sensitivity of conventional Raman measurements, there have been many reports of Raman applications on direct seawater detection in high-concentration areas, but few on undersea dissolved gas detection...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Davood Khodadad, Alok Kumar Singh, Giancarlo Pedrini, Mikael Sjödahl
The objective of this paper is to describe a full-field deformation measurement method based on 3D speckle displacements. The deformation is evaluated from the slope of the speckle displacement function that connects the different reconstruction planes. For our experiment, a symmetrical arrangement with four illuminations parallel to the planes (x,z) and (y,z) was used. Four sets of speckle patterns were sequentially recorded by illuminating an object from the four directions, respectively. A single camera is used to record the holograms before and after deformations...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Liang Han, Wen-Li Zhang, Xiujuan Pu, Wanqi Cheng, Xia Liu
The nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) is a fully shift-invariant, multiscale, and multidirectional expansion implemented in optics using the Fourier transform of its filters. In this paper, we propose a novel optical NSCT filter design method and the corresponding post-processing method to avoid the use of holographic techniques. The novel optical NSCT filter has real and non-negative Fourier transforms. The input image is placed in the input plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator, and these real and non-negative Fourier transform NSCT filters are placed in the frequency plane of the VanderLugt 4f correlator...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Sikun Li, Xiangzhao Wang, Feng Tang, Yang Bu, Osami Sasaki
A method based on a nonsubsampled contourlet transform, which is an overcomplete transform with multiresolution, directionality, and shift-invariance properties, is proposed to extract the fundamental frequency component of an optical fringe pattern in profilometry and interferometry. The nonsubsampled contourlet transform method overcomes the disadvantages of the original contourlet transform method, which lacks the shift-invariance property. Besides, it improves the frequency selectivity. A strategy is developed to automatically determine the optimal decomposition scale for removing the background intensity and suppressing the noise of the fringe pattern...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
D Liang, J Almeida, C R Vistas
A large aspheric fused silica lens was used to couple efficiently the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone of a 1.5-m-diameter primary concentrator into a 4-mm-diameter, 35-mm-long Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical pump cavity. Continuous-wave laser power of 29.3 W was measured, attaining 25.0  W/m<sup>2</sup> solar laser collection efficiency, corresponding to a 19% increase over the previous record. Its laser beam figure of merit-the ratio between laser power and the product of Mx2, My2 beam quality factors-of 0...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Ioannis Binietoglou, Paris Giampouras, Livio Belegante
Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering is the basis of many remote sensing techniques, including high spectral resolution lidar measurements of aerosols and wind. Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra can be accurately estimated using physics-based models like the so-called Tenti's S6 and Pan's S7 models. Unfortunately, these are computationally expensive and can be the bottleneck for real-time lidar processing and iterative parameter estimation problems. This short article describes a very efficient linear approximation of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA)...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Bo Zheng, Xiao-Dong Wang, Jing-Tao Huang, Jian Wang, Yang Jiang
Most existing clutter metrics are proposed based on fixed structural features and experienced weight measures. In this paper, we identify the clutter as selective visual attention effects and propose a type of clutter metric. First, adaptive structural features are extracted from the blocks with an edge-structure similarity to the target. Next, the confusing blocks are selected by the similarity threshold based on the attention guidance map. The clutter is estimated by quantifying the effects of confusing blocks on target acquisition performance...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Zhijun Ren, Hongzhen Jin, Baojin Peng, Yile Shi
We construct and generate symmetric accelerating caustic beams (ACBs) by using 3/2-order phase-only masks with elliptical contour based on optical caustics and diffraction theory. The symmetric ACBs are a type of bimodal accelerating caustic beam with two quasi-constant intensity peaks, very similar to the combination of two face-to-face Airy-like beams judging by appearance. Their fundamental optical morphology and force properties of particles in ACBs are subsequently provided. The unique optical properties of ACBs can be exploited for practical uses, such as accelerating electrons and clearing micrometer-sized particles as a laser micrometer-sized "water pump" instead of a laser micrometer-sized "snowblower" of accelerating Airy beams...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Tsung-Xian Lee, Chien-Feng Chou
This paper presents the optical simulation of the luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) and color spatial uniformity (CSU) of a package-free white LED conducted to boost the LER and simultaneously improve the CSU. According to the simulation results, the main effect on the LER and CSU was the change in the geometrical ratio of phosphor coating. Regardless of the packaging size, when the ratio of the top coating to the sidewall coverage of the phosphor layer thickness was in the range from 0.9 to 1.1, the maximum LER and optimal CSU can be simultaneously obtained...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Ruihua Zhang, Hongwei Guo, Anand K Asundi
In fringe projection profilometry, phase sensitivity is one of the important factors affecting measurement accuracy. A typical fringe projection system consists of one camera and one projector. To gain insight into its phase sensitivity, we perform in this paper a strict analysis in theory about the dependence of phase sensitivities on fringe directions. We use epipolar geometry as a tool to derive the relationship between fringe distortions and depth variations of the measured surface, and further formularize phase sensitivity as a function of the angle between fringe direction and the epipolar line...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Elsa S R Fonseca, Paulo T Fiadeiro, Manuela Pereira, António Pinheiro
Numerical reconstruction of digital holograms relies on a precise knowledge of the original object position. However, there are a number of relevant applications where this parameter is not known in advance and an efficient autofocusing method is required. This paper addresses the problem of finding optimal focusing methods for use in reconstruction of digital holograms of macroscopic amplitude and phase objects, using digital in-line phase-shifting holography in transmission mode. Fifteen autofocus measures, including spatial-, spectral-, and sparsity-based methods, were evaluated for both synthetic and experimental holograms...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Shan-De Liu, Lu-Lu Dong, Yan Xu, Xiao Zhang, Ting-Qi Ren, Xiao-Dong Xu, Yan-Dong Peng, Yu-Ping Zhang, Hui-Yun Zhang, De-Hua Li, Bai-Tao Zhang, Jing-Liang He
We experimentally demonstrated a diode-pumped 587 fs ultrafast laser by using an a-cut Nd:CaYAlO<sub>4</sub> crystal. Pumped by an 808 nm fiber-coupled laser diode, a stable continuous-wave mode-locked ultrafast laser was achieved with a semiconductor saturable absorber. The ultrafast pulses had a repetition rate of 75 MHz at the center wavelength of 1080.8 nm. A maximum average output power of the mode-locked laser reached 375 mW delivering a slope efficiency of 9%.
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Junqiang Sun, Xiaoxiong Xiong, Eugene Waluschka, Menghua Wang
The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides ±56.28° scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Jing Wang, Yunlong Sheng
A new approach for designing the binary computer-generated hologram (CGH) of a very large number of pixels is proposed. Diffraction of the CGH apertures is computed by the analytical Abbe transform and by considering the aperture edges as the basic diffracting elements. The computation cost is independent of the CGH size. The arbitrary-shaped polygonal apertures in the CGH consist of quadrilateral apertures, which are designed by assigning the binary phases using the parallel genetic algorithm with a local search, followed by optimizing the locations of the co-vertices with a direct search...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Dong-Ryoung Lee, Suin Jang, Min Woo Lee, Hongki Yoo
We propose a dual-detection confocal displacement sensor (DDCDS) with a compact fiber-based optical probe. This all-fiber-optic sensor probe is simple and robust, since it only requires simple alignment of a gradient refractive index lens and a double-clad fiber (DCF). The DDCDS is composed of two point detectors, one coupled to a single mode fiber and the other coupled to a multimode fiber, which are used to measure the light intensity from a core and an inner clad of a DCF, respectively. The ratio of the axial response curves, measured by the two detectors, can be used to obtain a linear relationship between the axial position of the object plane and the ratio of the intensity signals...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Zhengqiang Li, Kaitao Li, Donghui Li, Jiuchun Yang, Hua Xu, Philippe Goloub, Stephane Victori
The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V<sub>0,Sun</sub>, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, C<sub>Moon</sub>...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Jian Wang, Changyun Zhao, Bing Wei, Wang Gencheng, Tingge Dai, Yuehai Wang, Xiaoqing Jiang, Yubo Li, Jianyi Yang
We quantitatively investigate the main source of the intermodal crosstalk of a silicon-based bent multimode waveguide by experiment. The measurement is performed through time-domain scanning low-coherence interferometry. From the measurement results, one can not only calculate the modal crosstalk, but can also locate the position where the crosstalk appears. The results indicate that the modal mismatch at the points where the curvature of the waveguide changes is the main origin of the modal crosstalk. For a two-mode waveguide with a bending radius of 5 μm at 1310 nm, the crosstalk is as high as -20 and -16  dB for the fundamental and first-order mode, respectively...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Shuhao Shen, Bingzhao Zhu, Yao Zheng, Wei Gong, Ke Si
We have theoretically verified that, compared with the aperture shapes of previous research, combining two stripe-shaped apertures in a confocal microscope with a finite-sized pinhole improves the axial resolution to a certain extent. Because different stripe shapes cause different effects, we also investigated the relationships among resolution, shapes, pinhole size, and the signal-to-background ratio.
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
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