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European Journal of Clinical Investigation

Ignatios Ikonomidis, Spyridon Katsanos, Hellen Triantafyllidi, John Parissis, Stavros Tzortzis, George Pavlidis, Paraskevi Trivilou, Georgios Makavos, Maria Varoudi, Alexandra Frogoudaki, Agathi-Rosa Vrettou, Dimitrios Vlastos, John Lekakis, Efstathios Iliodromitis
BACKGROUND: Arterial elastance to left ventricular elastance ratio assessed by echocardiography is widely used as a marker of ventricular-arterial coupling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated whether the ratio of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, as a marker of arterial stiffness, to global longitudinal strain, as a marker of left ventricular performance, could be better associated with vascular and cardiac damage than the established arterial elastance/left ventricular elastance index...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
M Fernández-Caballero, D Salmerón, M D Chirlaque, D Salmerón, T H Chen-Liang, A M Hurtado, M D García Malo, F J Ortuño, V Roldán, V Vicente, A Jerez, F De Arriba
BACKGROUNG: Despite the longer survival achieved in multiple myeloma (MM) patients due to new therapy strategies, a concern is emerging regarding an increased risk of secondary primary malignancies (SPMs) and how to characterize those patients at risk. We performed a retrospective study covering a 28-year follow-up period (1991-2018) in a tertiary single institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of 403 MM patients was recorded and compared with the epidemiologic register of the population area covered by our center, calculating the standarize incidence ratio (SIR) for the different types of SPMs diagnosed in the MM cohort...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Baruch Wolach, Ronit Gavrieli, Ofir Wolach, Tal Stauber, Omar Abuzaitoun, Amir Kuperman, Yaakov Amir, Polina Stepensky, Raz Somech, Amos Etzioni
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) is a rare, innate autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency with 3 subtypes. Twenty-nine patients with LADs were diagnosed and treated in Israeli Medical Centers and in the Palestinian Authority. We discuss the phenotypic, genotypic and biochemical features of LAD-I, -II and -III diagnosed during the neonatal period and early infancy in 18, 6 and 5 patients, respectively. Consanguinity was frequent. Common features were severe infections of variable etiology, excessive leukocytosis and delayed umbilical cord detachment...
November 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
A Ruiz, T Michalopoulou, A Megia, S Näf, I Simón-Muela, E Solano, L Martínez, J Vendrell
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the 2016 European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) recommendations for the management of adrenal incidentalomas accurately classifies those patients who do not require further follow-up. DESIGN AND METHODS: Single centre retrospective study. From 2010-2015, 130 patients with adrenal incidentaloma were evaluated and followed-up. Clinical, analytical and radiological data were recorded and the presence of comorbidities was assessed. Patients were grouped as nonfunctional or subclinical Cushing syndrome according to American guidelines; and nonfunctional, possible autonomous cortisol secretion and autonomous cortisol secretion, according to ESE guidelines...
November 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jacquelyn J Cragg, John L K Kramer, Jaimie F Borisoff, David M Patrick, Matt S Ramer
BACKGROUND: Translational neuroscience is largely concerned with establishing causal links between biological processes and functional outcomes. Exciting new methods have emerged and top-tier biomedical journals are placing increasingly high demand for experiments that link outcomes. One pitfall to making these connections is the 'ecological fallacy' - establishing a relationship between outcomes based on aggregate (averaged) results (a distinct issue from correlation versus causation)...
October 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Gian Marco Rosa, Riccardo Scagliola, Paola Ghione, Alberto Valbusa, Claudio Brunelli, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Fiammetta Monacelli
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem and represents the only cardiac disease continuing to increase in prevalence, in particular among elderly patients. The frequent re-hospitalizations have a negative impact on quality of life of patients with HF, constituting a substantial cost for patients and the health system. The aim of this review is to look into biochemical, echocardiographic and socio-economical parameters as predictors of clinical outcomes and re-hospitalizations...
October 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ioanna Farakla, Eleni Koui, Jessica Arditi, Ifigenia Papageorgiou, Anastasia Bartzeliotou, Georgios E Papadopoulos, Aimilia Mantzou, Crysanthi Papathanasiou, Maria Dracopoulou, Maria Papastamataki, Paraskevi Moutsatsou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Evangelia Charmandari
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity represents a major health problem of our century. The benefits of natural products, such as honey, in the management of obesity have gained renewed interest. In this study, we investigated the effect of honey on glucose and insulin concentrations in obese prepubertal girls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy obese girls aged 10.55 (±SEM:0.34) years with a mean body mass index (BMI) above the 97th centile for age (28.58±1.40 kg/m2 , BMI z-score 2...
October 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Camilla Olofsson, Björn Anderstam, Ann-Christin Bragfors-Helin, Monica Eriksson, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Agneta Hilding, Wieslaw Wiczkowski, Nicola Orsini, Peter Stenvinkel, Neda Rajamand Ekberg
BACKGROUND: Fructose intake may lead to hyperuricaemia, which is associated with increased risk and progression of kidney disease. We aimed to explore the acute effects of fructose loading from different sources, with and without a pizza, on levels of serum uric acid in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes (T2D) without CKD, and in healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: The study included 6 HS, and 3 CKD stage 4-5 and 7 T2D patients. Drinks consumed were blueberry drink (17...
October 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Safoura Sheikh Rezaei, Stefan Weisshaar, Brigitte Litschauer, Ghazaleh Gouya, Gerald Ohrenberger, Michael Wolzt
BACKGROUND: Increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and NT pro-BNP concentrations have been associated with mortality in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease and the general population. The use of these prognostic markers in an older population is not established yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of age, sex, BMI, co-medication, and CV laboratory risk markers in geriatric care patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational single-centre cohort study data of long-term geriatric care patients were collected...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Blessing Osemengbe Ahiante, Wayne Smith, Leandi Lammertyn, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Information regarding the effect of leptin on the vasculature in young healthy adults at risk for cardiovascular disease development is limited. We therefore examined the associations between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, carotid cross-sectional wall area), large artery stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and a measure of endothelial dysfunction (von Willebrand factor) with leptin in young healthy men and women. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study in South Africa involving 820 normotensive individuals (337 men and 483 women) aged 20-30 years, we measured carotid intima-media thickness, carotid cross-sectional wall area, pulse wave velocity, von Willebrand factor from citrated plasma, and leptin from serum...
October 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Gian Luca Erre, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Floriana Castagna, Arduino Aleksander Mangoni, Ciriaco Carru, Giuseppe Passiu, Angelo Zinellu
BACKGROUND: We conducted a meta-analysis to review the available evidence regarding the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the presence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, from inception to January 2018, were searched for studies reporting on NLR and PLR in RA in comparison to healthy subjects. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Iftach Sagy, Jonathan Abres, Ariel Winnick, Alan Jotkowitz
Placebos have been used extensively by vast numbers of physicians, in a majority of clinical trials. Placebo effects involve behavioural, psychological and genetic factors and have been subject to ethical controversies stemming from the use of deception in treating patients. The patient-physician encounter, endogenous pharmacological pathways, personality traits and genetic diversity have all been reported to be key players in placebo responses. In the last decade, a new methodological paradigm of placebo research has emerged, using open-label placebos to investigate their effects which showed promising results for various common medical conditions...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Łukasz Lewandowski, Marta Kepinska, Halina Milnerowicz
Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) plays a protective role in various types of tissue protecting them from oxidative damage. Alterations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD3) activity and its expression has been observed in pathological occurrences most prevalent in modern society, including: inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and its implications - diabetes and hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Moreover, several SOD1 and SOD3 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of developing a particular type of disease, or its exacerbation...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Tobias Traupe, Michael Stoller, Steffen Gloekler, Pascal Meier, Christian Seiler
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of long-term pegfilgrastim on collateral function and myocardial ischemia in patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: This was a prospective clinical trial with randomized 2:1 allocation to pegfilgrastim or placebo for 6 months. The primary study endpoint was collateral flow index (CFI) as obtained during a 1-minute ostial coronary artery balloon occlusion. CFI is the ratio of mean coronary occlusive divided by mean aortic pressure both subtracted by central venous pressure (mmHg/mmHg)...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jonas Bystrom, Felix I L Clanchy, Taher E Taher, Mohammed Al-Bogami, Voon H Ong, David J Abraham, Richard O Williams, Rizgar A Mageed
BACKGROUND: Th17 cells have nonredundant roles in maintaining immunity, particularly at mucosal surfaces. These roles are achieved principally through the production of cytokines and the recruitment of other immune cells to maintain the integrity of mucosal barriers and prevent the dissemination of microorganisms. Th17 cells are heterogeneous and exhibit a considerable degree of plasticity. This allows these cells to respond to changing environmental challenges. However, Th17 cells also play pro-inflammatory roles in chronic autoimmune diseases...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Benjamin Djulbegovic, John P A Ioannidis
Advocates of precision medicine propose that individual patients require evidence tailored to their singular, unique, personal profile. According to this way of thinking, population-based research, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and evidence-based medicine (EBM) are often seen as outdated tools for application of research evidence to individuals. Their major deficiency is claimed to be their insistence on making evidence-based recommendations based on "group averages" from populations (e.g. trial data)...
September 25, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sally Hunter, Nadja Smailagic, Carol Brayne
BACKGROUND: The amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) has dominated strategy in dementia research for decades despite evidence of its limitations including known heterogeneity of the dementia syndrome in the population and the narrow focus on a single molecule - the amyloid beta protein (Aβ) as causal for all Alzheimer-type dementia. Other hypotheses relevant to Aβ are the presenilin (PS) hypothesis (PSH) relating to the involvement of PS in the generation of Aβ, and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) matrix approach (AMA), relating to the complex and dynamic breakdown of APP, from which Aβ derives...
September 24, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Troels Thim, Gro Egholm, Kevin Kris Warnakula Olesen, Morten Madsen, Svend Eggert Jensen, Lisette Okkels Jensen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Steen Dalby Kristensen, Michael Maeng
BACKGROUND: In the risk-assessment of patients considered for non-cardiac surgery and with recent coronary stent implantation, coronary drug-eluting stent implantation procedure characteristics may be taken into account. We aimed to evaluate associations between coronary drug-eluting stent implantation procedure characteristics and the risk of myocardial infarction and all-cause death within 30 days after non-cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Patients with coronary drug-eluting stents were identified using the Western Denmark Heart Registry...
September 24, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Manuel Luque-Ramírez, Lucía Jiménez-Mendiguchia, Ana García-Cano, Elena Fernández-Durán, Verónica de Dios Rosa, Lia Nattero-Chávez, Andrés E Ortiz-Flores, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
BACKGROUND: Testosterone (T) measurement in women are problematic leading to initiatives aiming to improve laboratory standardization of commercial assays. We assessed the impact on the clinical diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenic disorders of a total T immunoassay recently certified by the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 263 consecutive adult premenopausal women presenting with functional ovarian hyperandrogenism - including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - and 73 nonhyperandrogenic female volunteers who served to define reference ranges...
September 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Cristina Alonso-Montes, María Martín, Laura Martínez-Arias, Eliecer Coto, Manuel Naves-Díaz, César Morís, Jorge B Cannata-Andía, Isabel Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a heterogeneous and still not fully understood condition, with diverse genetic etiology and associated phenotypes ranging from aortic stenosis or regurgitation to aneurysm and dissection. Several genes have been associated with the presence of BAV, notably some members of the GATA family of transcription factors that play important roles in cardiac embryogenesis. METHODS: A case-control study with 122 unrelated and ethnically matched patients with bicuspid and 154 with tricuspid aortic valve was performed...
September 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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