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European Journal of Clinical Investigation

Federico Carbone, Giorgia Bodini, Matteo Brunacci, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchiè, Luca Liberale, Mattia Crespi, Isabella Baldissarro, Franco Dallegri, Vincenzo Savarino, Fabrizio Montecucco, Edoardo G Giannini
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) as potential players in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but, no prospective data are available in IBD remission/relapse. MATERIAL & METHODS: In this prospective pilot study, a cohort of IBD patients (n=32) was enrolled and treated with monoclonal anti-TNF-α antibodies. Patients were clinically followed up for a median period of 54 weeks. Serum circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), TIMP-1 and -2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and -8, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) were assessed by ELISA at enrollment and at the end of the treatment...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Fabrizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are at high cardiovascular (CV) risk due to an exaggerated platelet activation and aggregation. In the first 2000s low-dose aspirin was first recommended for primary prevention, but then re-discussed. METHODS: This short narrative review, based on the material searched for and obtained via PubMed up to February 2018, aims at clarifying this controversial topic. RESULTS: The JPAD2 study has been designed to evaluate the occurrence of any CV event in a cohort of patients with diabetes and concluded that low-dose aspirin did not influence the risk for CV events while increasing the risk for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Tobias Breidthardt, Cedric Jaeger, Andreas Christ, Theresia Klima, Tamina Mosimann, Raphael Twerenbold, Jasper Boeddinghaus, Thomas Nestelberger, Patrick Badertscher, Joachim Struck, Andreas Bergmann, Oliver Hartmann, Stefan Kalbermatter, Giancarlo Marenzi, Christian Mueller
BACKGROUND: The early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an unmet clinical need. ProEnkephalin (PENK) might improve the early detection of AKI. METHODS: 111 hospitalized CKD patients undergoing radiographic contrast procedures were enrolled. PENK was measured in a blinded fashion at baseline (before contrast media administration) and on day 1 (after contrast media administration). The potential of PENK levels to predict contrast-induced AKI was the primary endpoint...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Raphael Wurm, Lore Schrutka, Alexandra Hammer, Deddo Moertl, Rudolf Berger, Noemi Pavo, Irene M Lang, Georg Goliasch, Martin Huelsmann, Klaus Distelmaier
BACKGROUND: The underlying reasons for the highly inconsistent clinical outcome data for omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) supplementation in patients with cardiac disease have not been understood yet. The aim of the present prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was to determine the effects of oral treatment with n3-PUFAs on the anti-oxidant capacity of HDL in heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with advanced HF of non-ischemic origin, defined by NT-proBNP levels of >2000 pg/ml, NYHA class III or IV and a LVEF <35% who were on stable optimized medical therapy for ≥3 months were consecutively enrolled into this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomized in a 1:1:1 fashion to receive 1g/day or 4g/day of n3-PUFA, or placebo, respectively, for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Miguel López
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the main cellular energy sensor. Activated following a depletion of cellular energy stores, AMPK will restore the energy homeostasis by increasing energy production and limiting energy waste. At a central level, the AMPK pathway will integrate peripheral signals (mostly hormones and metabolites) through neuronal networks. Hypothalamic AMPK is directly implicated in feeding behavior, brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). It also participates in other metabolic functions: glucose and muscle metabolisms, as well as hepatic function...
July 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Berrecil, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Durga Jha, Luxitaa Goenka, R Thilagavathi, Masum Sharma, V E Dhandapani, Melvin George
BACKGROUND: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients are at an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The objective of our study was to assess whether cardiac biomarker like soluble ST2 (sST2) can predict MACE among ACS patients with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 122 ACS patients were included in the study. sST2 level in blood plasma samples was quantified by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prognostic utility of sST2 for the primary outcome of MACE which included mortality, re-hospitalization due to chest pain, unstable angina, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke assessed during follow up...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Albane B R Maggio, Nathalie J Farpour-Lambert, Yacine Aggoun, Katia Galan, Fabrizio Montecucco, François Mach, Maurice Beghetti
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with premature cardiovascular complications. However, little is known about the effect of a family-based behavioral intervention on the relationship between arterial function, blood pressure and biomarkers in pre-pubertal children with obesity. DESIGN: This was a single center randomized controlled trial (RCT) including 74 children randomized to a 6-month behavioral intervention to treat obesity. In 48 children (13 controls and 35 interventions), we assessed: serum level of cytokine (CCL2), adiponectin, and neutrophil product (MMP-8), as well as carotid intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerin-mediated dilation; arterial stiffness (incremental elastic modulus, Einc), pulse wave velocity (PWV), resting and 24-hour blood pressure (BP)...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Roland Csépányi-Kömi, Máté Pásztor, Balázs Bartos, Erzsébet Ligeti
BACKGROUND: GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) accelerate the rate of hydrolysis of GTP bound to small GTPases, limiting thereby the prevalence and concentration of the active, GTP-bound form of these proteins. The large number of potential GAPs acting on members of the Rho family of small GTPases raises the question of specificity or redundancy. RESULTS: In this review we summarize experimental data obtained on the role of Rho family GAPs in neutrophils, highlight cases where more than one GAP is involved in a physiological function and show examples that GAPs can be involved not only in termination but also in initiation of cellular processes...
July 4, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mannekomba R Diagbouga, Sandrine Morel, Philippe Bijlenga, Brenda R Kwak
BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysm is a disease of the vascular wall resulting in abnormal enlargement of the vessel lumen. It is a common pathology with a prevalence of 2-3% in the adult population. Intracranial aneurysms are mostly small, quiescent and asymptomatic; yet upon rupture severe brain damage or even death is frequently encountered. In addition to clinical factors, hemodynamic forces, mainly wall shear stress, have been associated with the initiation of intracranial aneurysms and possibly with their risk of rupture...
July 1, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Benjamin Hagege, Florence Tubach, Toni Alfaiate, Marine Forien, Philippe Dieudé, Sébastien Ottaviani
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of lumbar spondylolisthesis (SPL) in patients suffering from low-back pain (LBP) with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to identify potential factors associated with SPL in RA patients. METHODS: We performed a case-control study. Cases and control patients had chronic LBP (more than 4 weeks). RA patient fulfilled the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria. The main outcome was the presence of lumbar SPL on lumbar X-ray...
June 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Cathelijn E M Aarts, Taco W Kuijpers
Neutrophils form the first line of defense against invading pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, as part of the innate immune response. Recently, neutrophils have also been discovered as repressors of adaptive immune responses. Under certain conditions, such as cancer and severe injury, an expansion of immature and mature neutrophils has been observed to induce suppression of T cell proliferation. These suppressing cells are known as so-called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of granulocytic-MDSCs and monocytic-MDSCs...
June 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Karlijn J Nass, Eline H van den Berg, Eke G Gruppen, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent condition which contributes to atherogenic apolipoprotein B dyslipiproteinemias. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) are both synthesized by the liver, and are important in lipid metabolism. Here we interrogated the impact of NAFLD on plasma LCAT and PLTP activities. METHODS: Plasma LCAT activity (exogenous substrate assay) and PLTP activity (phospholipid vesicles-HDL assay) were determined in 348 subjects (279 men; 81 subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM); 123 with metabolic syndrome (MetS))...
June 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Stefan G Hofmann, Joshua Curtiss
Contemporary classification systems assume that psychiatric disorders are expressions of latent disease entities. However, some critics point to the comorbidity problem and other issues that question the validity of the latent disease model. An alternative to this traditional view is the complex network approach. This approach assumes that disorders exist as systems of inter-connected elements, without requiring that the elements are expressions of latent disease entities. Depending on the structure of the network, change can occur abruptly once the network reaches a tipping point...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Y S Van den Berkhof, C M Gant, R Maatman, A De Graaf, G J Navis, S J L Bakker, G D Laverman
BACKGROUND: Renal function decline in diabetic kidney disease is accompanied by calcium and phosphate metabolism alterations. Whereas Strontium (Sr2+ ) has many similarities with calcium, little is known about Sr2+ in this respect. We studied the association of plasma Sr2+ concentration and parameters associated with an altered calcium and phosphate metabolism in diabetic kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma Sr2+ concentration was measured in 450 patients included in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Anthony W Segal
Crohn's disease (CD) is caused by a trigger, almost certainly enteric infection by one of a multitude of organisms that allows faeces access to the tissues, at which stage the response of individuals predisposed to CD is abnormal. In CD the failure of acute inflammation results in the failure to recruit neutrophils to the inflammatory site, as a consequence of which the clearance of bacteria from the tissues is defective. The retained faecal products result in the characteristic chronic granulomatous inflammation and adaptive immune response...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Alessandro G Fois, Salvatore Sotgia, Arduino A Mangoni, Elisabetta Zinellu, Pietro Pirina, Ciriaco Carru, Angelo Zinellu
INTRODUCTION: The main white blood cell populations, neutrophils and lymphocytes, are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the relationship between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, a marker of subclinical inflammation), presence of COPD, and its exacerbations. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in Pubmed, Web of Science and Scopus databases; two investigators independently reviewed suitable studies...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sandra López-Domènech, Celia Bañuls, Noelia Díaz-Morales, Irene Escribano-López, Carlos Morillas, Silvia Veses, Samuel Orden, Ángeles Álvarez, Víctor Manuel Víctor, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Milagros Rocha
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and oxidative stress parameters in non-diabetic patients with different grades of obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, two hundred and twenty-five subjects were recruited from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016 and divided into groups according to BMI (<30 kg/m2 , 30-40 kg/m2 and >40 kg/m²). We determined clinical parameters, systemic inflammatory markers, soluble cellular adhesion molecules, leukocyte-endothelium cell interactions - rolling flux, velocity and adhesion - oxidative stress parameters - total ROS, total superoxide, glutathione - and mitochondrial membrane potential in PMNs...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Marco Solmi, Cristiano A Köhler, Brendon Stubbs, Ai Koyanagi, Beatrice Bortolato, Francesco Monaco, Davy Vancampfort, Myrela O Machado, Michael Maes, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Joseph Firth, John P A Ioannidis, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Multiple environmental factors have been implicated in obesity and multiple interventions, besides drugs and surgery, have been assessed in obese patients. Results are scattered across many studies and meta-analyses and they often mix obese and overweight individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched through January 21st , 2017 for meta-analyses of cohort studies assessing environmental risk factors for obesity, and randomized controlled trials investigating non-pharmacological, non-surgical therapeutic interventions for obesity...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Katja L Vogt, Charlotte Summers, Edwin R Chilvers, Alison M Condliffe
The activation status of neutrophils can cycle from basal through primed to fully activated ('green-amber-red'), and at least in vitro, primed cells can spontaneously revert to a near basal phenotype. This broad range of neutrophil responsiveness confers extensive functional flexibility, allowing neutrophils to respond rapidly and appropriately to varied and evolving threats throughout the body. Primed and activated cells display dramatically enhanced bactericidal capacity (including augmented respiratory burst activity, degranulation and longevity), but this enhancement also confers the capacity for significant unintended tissue injury...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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