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European Journal of Clinical Investigation

Kristof Van Avondt, Dominik Hartl
While the microscopic appearance of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has fascinated basic researchers since its discovery, the (patho)physiological mechanisms triggering NET release, the disease relevance and clinical translatability of this unconventional cellular mechanism remained poorly understood. Here we summarize and discuss current concepts of the mechanisms and disease relevance of NET formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Tian Chuan, Song Wei, Tian Xia, Sun Yong
BACKGROUND: The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been found to predict clinical outcomes in borderline ovarian tumors and the other genital neoplasms. However, its prognostic value in patients with ovarian cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess its prognostic value in ovarian cancer. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases to identify studies evaluating the prognostic significance of pretreatment PLR in ovarian cancer...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Daphne Margoni, Kelly Michalakakou, Eleni Angeli, Panagiota Pervanidou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Eleftheria Roma
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that has a protective role in the nervous system and is involved in neural plasticity. It is abundant in the central nervous system, but is also expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Coeliac disease (CD), characterized by intestinal inflammation, has some co-morbidity with neurologic and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating BDNF concentrations in patients with CD at diagnosis or on a Gluten Free Diet (GFD) for longer than one year and in healthy controls (HC)...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Brian B Løgstrup, Torkell Ellingsen, Alma B Pedersen, Anders Statistician Kjaersgaard, Hans-Erik Bøtker, Michael Maeng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in different time-spans following incident rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, to investigate the impact of IHD on the development of HF and the impact of different treatment era's of RA. METHODS: This matched cohort study used nationwide, prospectively collected data. From the total Danish population of approximately 5.7 million inhabitants we identified 51,859 patients (between 1995 and July 2016) with incident RA and a sex and age matched cohort from the general population (256,653 persons)...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
A de Koning, J W Schoones, D van der Heijde, F A van Gaalen
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a common inflammatory arthritis of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The best-known and most studied form of axSpA is ankylosing spondylitis. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathophysiology of axSpA. In addition, we performed a quantitative text analysis of reviews on the pathogenesis of axSpA published in the last ten years to establish the current consensus in various fields of research into the pathogenesis of axSpA. There appears to be broad consensus on genetic risk factors and the involvement of the immune system in the initiation phase of the disease although little consensus was found on which specific immune cells drive disease...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Paul Perco, Gert Mayer
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of renal damaging molecules and nephroprotective factors contributes to development and progression of kidney diseases. Molecules with renoprotective properties might serve as biomarkers, drug targets as well as therapeutic options themselves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this review, we generated a set of renoprotective factors based on GeneRIFs (Gene Reference Into Function) information available at NCBI's PubMed. The final set of manually curated renoprotective factors was investigated with respect to tissue specific expression, subcellular location distribution, and involvement in biological processes using information from Gene Ontology as well as information from protein-protein interaction databases...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ben Van Calster, Ewout W Steyerberg, Gary S Collins, Tim Smits
BACKGROUND: Despite regular criticisms of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a focus on testing persists, sometimes in the belief to get published and sometimes encouraged by journal reviewers. This paper aims to demonstrate known key limitations of NHST using simple nontechnical illustrations. DESIGN: The first illustration is based on simulated data of 20,000 studies that compare two groups for an outcome event. The true effect size (difference in event rates) and sample size (20 to 100 per group) were varied...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Francesco Baratta, Daniele Pastori, Mario Fabiani, Valerio Fabiani, Fabrizio Ceci, Rossella Lillo, Valeria Lolli, Marco Brunori, Gaetano Pannitteri, Elena Cravotto, Corrado De Vito, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as a major risk factor for incident cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between OSAS severity, the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and the development of cardiovascular disease is still matter of debate. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test the association between OSAS and cardiovascular events in patients with concomitant cardio-metabolic diseases and the potential impact of CPAP therapy on cardiovascular outcomes...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Inmaculada Roldán Rabadán, María Asunción Esteve-Pastor, Manuel Anguita Sánchez, Javier Muñiz, José Camacho Siles, María Angustias Quesada, Martín Ruiz Ortiz, Francisco Marín, Manuel Martínez Sellés, Vicente Bertomeu, Gregory Y H Lip, Angel Cequier Fillat, Lina Badimón
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has a multidisciplinary approach although is usually managed by general practitioners (GP) or hematologists. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of anticoagulation control with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in relation to the responsible specialist in a "real-world" AF population. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled VKA anticoagulated patients included in the FANTASIIA Registry from 2013 to 2015...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Richard A Brown, Gregory Y H Lip, Chetan Varma, Eduard Shantsila
INTRODUCTION: Monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) form when Mon1, Mon2 or Mon3 monocyte subsets adhere to platelets. They are pathophysiologically linked to coronary artery disease (CAD). However, their individual roles in the occurrence of diffuse CAD remain unknown. METHODS: Peripheral blood from 50 patients with diffuse CAD, 40 patients with focal CAD and 50 age-matched patients with normal coronary arteries was analysed by flow cytometry to quantify MPAs associated with individual monocyte subsets...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ramón C Hermida, Diana E Ayala, José R Fernández, Artemio Mojón, Michael H Smolensky
Diagnosis of hypertension - elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk - and its management for decades have been based primarily on single time-of-day office BP measurements (OBPM) assumed representative of systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the entire 24h span. Around-the-clock ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), however, reveals BP undergoes 24h patterning characterized in normotensives and uncomplicated hypertensives by striking morning-time rise, two daytime peaks - one ~2-3h after awakening and the other early evening, small mid-afternoon nadir, and 10-20% decline (BP dipping) of the asleep BP mean relative to the wake-time BP mean...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jose Manuel Andreu Cayuelas, Cesar Caro Martínez, Pedro Jose Flores Blanco, Gines Elvira Ruiz, Helena Albendin Iglesias, Juan Jose Cerezo Manchado, Jose Luis Bailen Lorenzo, James Louis Januzzi, Arcadio García Alberola, Sergio Manzano-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines recommend regular kidney function monitoring in atrial fibrillation patients on non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC), however information regarding compliance with these recommendations in daily life conditions is scarce. We sought to determine the compliance with kidney function monitoring recommendations in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients starting NOAC and its implication on the appropriateness of NOAC dosage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a multicentre registry including consecutive NVAF patients who started NOAC (n = 692)...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Noemi Pavo, Anna Cho, Raphael Wurm, Guido Strunk, Maria Krauth, Hermine Agis, Martin Hülsmann
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of cardiovascular markers including N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have been shown to be associated with disease severity and mortality in an unselected population of cancer patients without cardiac disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether NT-proBNP levels are related to disease severity in multiple myeloma (MM) and to assess the natural course of NT-proBNP levels throughout disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a total of 118 patients with MM, who were followed-up routinely...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yong Luo, Ting Yu, Qiongwen Zhang, Qingyu Fu, Yuzhu Hu, Mengmeng Xiang, Haoning Peng, Tianying Zheng, Li Lu, Huashan Shi
BACKGROUND: N-cadherin is an important molecular in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and has been reported to be associated with aggressive behaviors of tumors. However, prognostic value of N-cadherin in solid malignances remains controversially. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Pubmed/MELINE and EMBASE databases were used for a comprehensive literature searching. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio (HR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed to quantify the prognostic role...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mohamad Rabbani, Jonathan Kanevsky, Kamran Kafi, Florent Chandelier, Francis J Giles
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In up to 57% of patients, it is diagnosed at an advanced stage and the five-year survival rate ranges between 10 to 16%. There has been a significant amount of research using machine learning to generate tools using patient data to improve outcomes. METHODS: This narrative review is based on research material obtained from PubMed up to Nov 2017. The search terms include "artificial intelligence", "machine learning", "lung cancer", "Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)", "diagnosis", "treatment"...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
José Alberto Navarro-García, María Fernández-Velasco, Carmen Delgado, Juan F Delgado, Makoto Kuro-O, Luis Miguel Ruilope, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado
Profound disturbances in mineral metabolism are closely linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, increasing clinical and experimental evidence indicate that alterations in phosphate homeostasis could have an even stronger impact on the heart. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with an update of how alterations in mineral metabolism are related to direct and indirect cardiotoxic effects beyond the nephrology setting. Evidence exists that alterations in mineral metabolism that are related to changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and the FGF-23-Klotho axis have direct pathological consequences for the heart...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
L Melguizo-Rodríguez, F J Manzano-Moreno, E De Luna-Bertos, A Rivas, J Ramos-Torrecillas, C Ruiz, O García-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes individuals to an increased risk of fracture. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have reported that phenolic compounds present in extra virgin olive oil have a beneficial effect on osteoblasts in terms of increase cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine whether phenolic compounds present in olive oil could modify the expression of cell differentiation markers on osteoblasts...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Albert J Czaja
BACKGROUND: The genetic risk of autoimmune hepatitis is insufficient to explain the observed risk, and epigenetic changes may explain disparities in disease occurrence in different populations within and between countries. The goal of this review is to examine how epigenetic changes induced by the environment or inherited as a phenotypic trait may affect autoimmune hepatitis and be amenable to therapeutic intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ines A Barbosa, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Rute Loureiro, Ana F Branco, Rita Garcia, Patricia M Scott, Paulo J Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Expression of TRAP1, a member of the HSP90 chaperone family, has been implicated in tumor protective effects, based on differential mitochondrial localization and function. DESIGN: This work was designed to provide new insights on the pathways involved in TRAP1-provided cytoprotection on NSCLC. For this, TRAP1-depleted A549 human NSCLC cells and MRC-5 normal lung fibroblasts were produced using a siRNA approach and main cellular quality control mechanisms were investigated...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Christian Seiler
In clinical medicine, the moral obligation to care for the individual patient is absolute. Patient care means at least and by negative terms to minimize any risk of treatment. In this context, the question arises about the compatibility of clinical ethics and human biomedical research ethics. Or conversely, is there a common ground between the two? At the opposite end of the field between clinical ethics and biomedical research ethics is the proposal of an obligation to participate in biomedical research, which is argued for on the basis of biomedical knowledge being a public good available to the community as a whole...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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