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European Journal of Clinical Investigation

Chung-Ching Chio, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates many processes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both Neuro AiD(™) (MLC601) and Astragaloside (AST) attenuate microglia activation in rats with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MLC601 or AST improves output of TBI by affecting microglial expression of TGF-β1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of TGF-β1-containing microglia in the MLC601-mediated or the AST-mediated neuroprotection in the brain trauma condition using lateral fluid-percussion injury...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Luca Liberale, Fabrizio Montecucco, Ilaria Casetta, Silva Saraceni, Alessandro Trentini, Marina Padroni, Franco Dallegri, François Mach, Enrico Fainardi, Federico Carbone
BACKGROUND: Soluble mediators have been investigated to predict the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Among them, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) might have both clinical and pathophysiological relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All available serum samples from a cohort of patients with first AIS (n=72) were tested for PCSK9 and included in this sub-study analysis. The primary endpoint investigated the predictive value of early PCSK9 level variations (ΔPCSK9) from AIS onset to day 7 or from day 1 to day 7, towards a 90-day outcome by modified Rankin Scale (mRS)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Anais Gardette, Sébastien Ottaviani, Jérémie Sellam, Francis Berenbaum, Frédéric Lioté, Bruno Fautrel, Elisabeth Palazzo, Alain Meyer, Jean Sibilia, Philippe Dieudé
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that obesity could negatively affect the response to anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) agents in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, data are lacking on whether obesity affects the response to abatacept (ABA). We aimed to determine whether body mass index (BMI) affects the response to ABA in RA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study, we included RA patients who received ABA. BMI was calculated at the initiation of treatment...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Silvia Lee, Markus Durstberger, Beate Eichelberger, Christoph W Kopp, Renate Koppensteiner, Simon Panzer, Thomas Gremmel
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of ß-blockers on the long-term prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease may in part be attributable to decreased platelet activation. In this prospective cohort study, we sought to investigate the impact of concomitant ß-blocker therapy on sensitive markers of platelet activation and aggregation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monocyte- (MPA) and neutrophil-platelet aggregate (NPA) formation in vivo and in response to the platelet agonist adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were determined by flow cytometry in 258 patients undergoing angioplasty and stenting...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Majed S Alokail, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Ashley Heinson, Omar Al-Attas, Yousef Al-Saleh, Shaun Sabico, Sobhy Yakout, Christopher H Woelk, George P Chrousos, Spiros D Garbis
BACKGROUND: Overweight adults are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency, whereas an important feature to vitamin D physiology is its sex dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether vitamin D status improvement exerts a sexually dimorphic effect on serum proteins associated with cardiovascular risk among overweight adults. METHODS: Unprocessed serum from age- and BMI-matched men (n=26) and pre-menopausal women (n=24) with vitamin D deficiency and after they achieved sufficiency through a 12-month nutritional intervention was analyzed using our previously published depletion-free, quantitative proteomics method...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Thomas Minor, Katja Sutschet, Oliver Witzke, Andreas Paul, Anja Gallinat
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant function of suboptimal kidney grafts can be improved but not accurately predicted by hypothermic machine perfusion. Therefore, a new concept of ex situ pre-implantation machine perfusion with controlled rewarming up to subnormothermic temperatures was developed and evaluated. METHODS: Porcine kidneys (n= 6/ group) were retrieved before or 30 min after cardiac arrest of the donor and subjected to 18 hours of static cold storage. In some cases 90 min of machine controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) was added thereafter...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Werner Schmid, Gottfried Novacek, Harald Vogelsang, Pavol Papay, Christian Primas, Alexander Eser, Simon Panzer
Platelets are activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and interplay with leukocytes. Engagement of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), which is expressed in human platelets, may be involved in crosstalks between platelets and leukocytes leading to their mutual activation for host defense. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs), lipoprotein binding peptides, and sCD14 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 42 patients with active CD, in 43 patients with CD in remission, and in 30 healthy individuals. Neutrophil-platelet aggregates and binding of the TLR-4 monoclonal antibody to platelets were determined by flow cytometry...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Keisuke Ejima, Peng Li, Daniel L Smith, Tim R Nagy, Inga Kadish, Thomas van Groen, John A Dawson, Yongbin Yang, Amit Patki, David B Allison
BACKGROUND: Differing opinions exist on whether associations obtained in observational studies can be reliable indicators of a causal effect if the observational study is sufficiently well controlled and executed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test this, we conducted two animal observational studies that were rigorously controlled and executed beyond what is achieved in studies of humans. In study 1, we randomized 332 genetically identical C57BL/6J mice into three diet groups with differing food energy allotments and recorded individual self-selected daily energy intake and lifespan...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kehua Zhou, Ronald Schenk, Michael S Brogan
BACKGROUND: Electric stimulation (E-stim) has been found to be an effective treatment in improving wound healing rates. However, the wound healing trajectory and its related predictors for complete wound closure (CWC) have not been reported with E-stim treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Data on 159 patients treated at an outpatient wound clinic utilizing combined intervention of E-stim and conventional care were included. The Kaplan Meier healing curve together with linear regression models depicted the percentage of patients with CWC against time...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jacques Theitler, Daniella Dassa, Revital Gandelman-Marton
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) can support the diagnosis of epilepsy, diagnose nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and aid in the classification of epileptic seizures. Its contribution to the diagnosis of other medical conditions or to decision making in other clinical situations was not established. Practically, EEG labs frequently encounter EEG referrals that are not based on current recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of inpatient EEG in medical decision making...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Nicola Veronese, Sara Carraro, Giulia Bano, Caterina Trevisan, Marco Solmi, Claudio Luchini, Enzo Manzato, Riccardo Caccialanza, Giuseppe Sergi, Davide Nicetto, Emanuele Cereda
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) accounts for about 50% of extracellular antioxidant activity, suggesting that hyperuricemia may have a protective role in diseases characterized by high levels of oxidative stress, such as osteoporosis. We aimed to meta-analyse data regarding bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis and fractures in people with higher SUA vs. lower SUA concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two investigators conducted a literature search using PubMed and Scopus, without language restrictions...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Michele F Eisenga, Robin P F Dullaart, Stefan P Berger, John H Sloan, Aiko P J de Vries, Stephan J L Bakker, Carlo A J M Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin is considered the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Novel hepcidin antagonists have recently been introduced as potential treatment for iron-restricted anemia. Meanwhile, serum hepcidin has been shown to be positively associated with cardiovascular disease and inversely with acute kidney injury. These properties may lead to contrasting effects, especially in renal transplant recipients (RTR) which are prone to cardiovascular diseases and graft failure. To date, the role of serum hepcidin in RTR is unknown...
October 3, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yuan-Chiang Chung, Wan-Chen Wei, Chia-Nung Hung, Jen-Fang Kuo, Chih-Ping Hsu, King-Jen Chang, Wei-Ting Chao
BACKGROUND: Collective cell migration, whereby the cell-cell contacts such as E-cadherin are maintained during migration, has only recently emerged and its detailed mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, the role of Rab11, which functions in recycling endosomes, and its relationship to E-cadherin in colorectal carcinoma were identified, and the role of Rab11 in the collective cell migration of colon cancer cells was clarified. METHODS: A total of 107 patients with surgically resected colorectal carcinoma were enrolled in this immunohistochemical study...
October 3, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Markus Pirklbauer, Ramona Schupart, Gert Mayer
INTRODUCTION: To avoid excessive calcium loading in hemodialysis (HD) patients, current guidelines suggest a dialysate calcium concentration (dCa) of 2.5 mEq/l based on relatively stable intradialytic serum calcium levels. However, the latter do not account for possible calcium storage in acutely accessible pools. A rapidly exchangeable calcium pool located at the bone level has been previously proposed to be involved in acute (minute-to-minute) extracellular calcium regulation. DESIGN: To evaluate the contribution of this pool in the maintenance of serum calcium levels, acute calcium buffer capacity was assessed by measuring intradialytic dialysate-sided ionized calcium mass balance (iCaMB ) and change in extracellular fluid calcium mass in chronic HD patients using a dCa of 3...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Johannes Leierer, Gert Mayer, Andreas Kronbichler
Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome. The pathogenic steps leading to primary FSGS are still obscure, although evidence suggests that circulatory factor(s) are involved in onset of disease. Recent technical advances allow the analysis of miRNA expression in tissues and body fluids, leading to reports of miRNAs involved in the molecular mechanisms of FSGS-aetiopathogenesis. Moreover, investigations have also highlighted miRNAs that might serve as biomarkers for primary FSGS...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Chia-To Wang, Eric Chuang, Der-Jen Yen, Tien-Yow Chuang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the prevalence, subtypes and risk factors of first-ever stroke following hip replacement (HR) in a large population of Taiwan. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan, we identified patients undergoing HR from 2000 to 2011 and randomly selected 4 : 1 age- and sex-matched controls for each HR patients. The index date for HR patients was defined the date for HR. All study subjects were followed from the index date until stroke occurred at admission...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Elisa Einwallner, Florian W Kiefer, Giuseppe Di Caro, Michael Orthofer, Nadine Witzeneder, Gregor Hörmann, Bianca Itariu, Maximilian Zeyda, Josef M Penninger, Thomas M Stulnig, Harald Esterbauer, Jelena Todoric
BACKGROUND: Infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) by inflammatory cells in obesity is considered to be a key event in the development of insulin resistance. Recently, mast cells (MCs) have been identified as new players in the pathogenesis of obesity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MCs and various inflammatory markers in serum and WAT and to determine the role of MCs in the aetiology of insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression was measured in WAT from 20 morbidly obese patients and 20 nonobese control subjects...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yolandi Breet, Aletta E Schutte, Hugo W Huisman, Fritz C Eloff, Johan L Du Plessis, Annamarie Kruger, Johannes M Van Rooyen
BACKGROUND: The link between impaired lung function and cardiovascular outcome is well established in European and American populations. It is possible that this association may be driven by a systemic spill-over of inflammation occurring within the lungs. Since several studies have found an increased level of inflammatory markers in African populations, we aimed to establish the contribution of lung function in predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Africans, whilst taking inflammatory markers into account...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Maria Mizamtsidi, Stavroula A Paschou, Julia Grapsa, Andromachi Vryonidou
BACKGROUND: Although the increasing rate of cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes is thought to be due to the coronary atherosclerosis caused mainly by compounding factors such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension, it is now well documented that diabetes alone can lead to a vast array of molecular changes in the heart. DESIGN: The aim of this article was to comprehensively review the pathophysiological and molecular changes leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), as well as to critically analyse the literature that offers evidence in favour and against the existence of the overt clinical expression of this entity...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Misael Uribe, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in parallel with associated metabolic disturbances such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to underscore discrepancies in the standard anthropometric cut-off values and the presence of metabolic disturbances including diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused by biological and ethnic variations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a literature review regarding the diagnosis and prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and about the different available indicators to define obesity...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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