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European Journal of Clinical Investigation

Juan M Pericàs, David Nicolás
During recent years, disaffection with the state of things has triggered a series of social and political protests in Western countries. As young researchers, we are contemporaries to events that have returned concepts such as "equity", "accountability" or "participation" to central stage. Rudolph Virchow, who became the father of pathology by age 25, stated: "medicine is a social science and politics is nothing else but medicine on a large scale" (1). Although medicine has pioneered social and scientific change since the 20th century turned to its end, biomedical research has also shown backwardness in a number of issues...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Elena Arellano-Orden, Carolina Serrano, Ana Montes-Worboys, Verónica Sánchez-López, Alicia Laborda, Fernando Lostalé, Celia Lahuerta, Francisco Rodríguez-Panadero, Miguel Ángel de Gregorio
BACKGROUND: Bare metal stents may cause complications like fibrous encapsulation, granulation and tracheal stenosis. We investigated the behavior of three commercially available stents in vivo (rabbits) and in vitro (co-culture of those stents with epithelial and fibroblast cell lines). Also, we investigated whether development of tracheal stenosis could be predicted by any biological marker. METHODS: The tracheae of 30 rabbits were implanted with either nitinol stents, with or without paclitaxel elution, or a cobalt-based stent...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Tomor Harnod, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chun-Hung Tseng
AIMS: This study investigated whether sex, age, income, and any comorbidity affect subsequent epilepsy development in migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 4915 men diagnosed with migraine who were aged older than 20 years were identified as the study cohort. A total of 4882 female migraineurs were included in the comparison cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for the risk of epilepsy in the two cohorts after adjustment for age and comorbidity. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze the cumulative epilepsy incidence, and the log-rank test was used to estimate the differences between the two cumulative incidence curves...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Pietro Caironi, Serge Masson, Tommaso Mauri, Barbara Bottazzi, Roberto Leone, Michela Magnoli, Simona Barlera, Filippo Mamprin, Andrea Fedele, Alberto Mantovani, Gianni Tognoni, Antonio Pesenti, Luciano Gattinoni, Roberto Latini
BACKGROUND: The long pentraxin PTX3 is a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity related to sepsis severity and mortality. We evaluated the clinical and prognostic significance of circulating PTX3 in the largest cohort ever reported of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. DESIGN: Plasma PTX3 was measured on days 1, 2 and 7 after randomization of 958 patients to albumin or crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in the multicenter Albumin Italian Outcome Sepsis (ALBIOS) trial...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Philipp Lutz, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Benjamin Krämer, Felix Goeser, Dominik J Kaczmarek, Stefan Schlabe, Marijo Parcina, Jacob Nattermann, Achim Hoerauf, Christian P Strassburg, Ulrich Spengler
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) can be life-threatening in patients with liver cirrhosis. In contrast to community-acquired SBP, no standard treatment has been established for healthcare-related and nosocomial SBP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected healthcare-related and nosocomial SBP cases from March 2012 till February 2016 at the Department of Internal Medicine I of the University of Bonn and analysed the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among the isolated bacteria...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Maria Angeles Jiménez-Sousa, Luz M Medrano, Pilar Liu, Raquel Almansa, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Esther Gomez-Sanchez, Lucía Rico, María Heredia-Rodriguez, Estefanía Gómez-Pesquera, Eduardo Tamayo, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: IL-1β is a primary mediator of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and it may lead to shock septic. Our aim was to analyze whether IL-1B rs16944 polymorphism is associated with the onset of septic shock and death after major surgery. METHODS: We performed a case-control study on 467 patients who underwent major cardiac or abdominal surgery. Out of them, 205 patients developed septic shock (Cases, SS-group) and 262 patients developed SIRS (Controls, SIRS-group)...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Miguel A Frias, Aurélien Thomas, Marie-Claude Brulhart-Meynet, Oskar Kövamees, John Pernow, Mats Eriksson, Bo Angelin, Richard W James, Jonas W Brinck
BACKGROUND: Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) suffer from high plasma cholesterol and an environment of increased oxidative stress. We examined its potential effects on high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) content (HDL-S1P) and HDL-mediated protection against oxidative stress, both with and without statin treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case-control study, HDL was isolated from 12 FH patients with and without statin treatment and from 12 healthy controls...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mohsen Mazidi, Peyman Rezaie, Hassan Vatanparast, Andre Pascal Kengne
AIM: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of statin therapy on serum vitamin D concentrations. METHOD: We searched multiple databases including PubMed-Medline, Web of Science and Google Scholar from inception to May 2016, for studies on the effects of statin treatment on serum vitamin D concentration. Quantitative data synthesis used random effects models meta-analysis, with sensitivity analysis conducted using the leave-one-out method...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Lewis B Somberg, David D Gutterman, Miura Hiroto, Raminder Nirula, Ossama A Hatoum
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular function leads to a poor outcome in a variety of medical conditions. Our aim was to determine if vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (Ach) are impaired in human omental arterioles from patients with severe trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with massive blood loss and severe shock requiring damage control procedures were included. Tissues was collected at the first (FEL) and the second explorative laparotomy (SEL). Control tissues were collected from non-trauma patients...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Cátia V Diogo, Cláudia M Deus, Magdalena Lebiedzinska-Arciszewska, Aleksandra Wojtala, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Paulo J Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are at a high risk of developing both micro- and macro-vascular disease. Hyperglycaemia seems to be the main factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, often based on increased oxidative stress. Carvedilol, a β-adrenergic blocker has intrinsic antioxidant properties and was previously described to be effective in the protection of cardiac mitochondria against oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Carvedilol on hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial abnormalities in cardiac and skeletal muscle in streptozotocin-treated rats...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Sebastian Zimny, Maximilian Neumann, Charalampos Aslanidis, Doris Schacherer, Sabrina Krautbauer, Kristina Eisinger, Thomas S Weiss, Christa Buechler
BACKGROUND: Chemerin is associated with insulin resistance and is expressed in the liver. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to impaired insulin sensitivity, but studies evaluating hepatic and serum chemerin in NAFLD resulted in discordant data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemerin mRNA was determined in the liver tissue obtained from 33 controls and 76 NAFLD patients. Chemerin serum levels were measured in a different cohort of patients with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD and the respective controls...
October 31, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Werner Schmid, Gottfried Novacek, Harald Vogelsang, Pavol Papay, Christian Primas, Alexander Eser, Simon Panzer
Platelets are activated in Crohn's disease (CD) and interplay with leukocytes. Engagement of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), which is expressed in human platelets, may be involved in crosstalks between platelets and leukocytes leading to their mutual activation for host defense. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs), lipoprotein binding peptides, and sCD14 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 42 patients with active CD, in 43 patients with CD in remission, and in 30 healthy individuals. Neutrophil-platelet aggregates and binding of the TLR-4 monoclonal antibody to platelets were determined by flow cytometry...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Chia-To Wang, Eric Chuang, Der-Jen Yen, Tien-Yow Chuang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the prevalence, subtypes and risk factors of first-ever stroke following hip replacement (HR) in a large population of Taiwan. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan, we identified patients undergoing HR from 2000 to 2011 and randomly selected 4 : 1 age- and sex-matched controls for each HR patients. The index date for HR patients was defined the date for HR. All study subjects were followed from the index date until stroke occurred at admission...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Elisa Einwallner, Florian W Kiefer, Giuseppe Di Caro, Michael Orthofer, Nadine Witzeneder, Gregor Hörmann, Bianca Itariu, Maximilian Zeyda, Josef M Penninger, Thomas M Stulnig, Harald Esterbauer, Jelena Todoric
BACKGROUND: Infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) by inflammatory cells in obesity is considered to be a key event in the development of insulin resistance. Recently, mast cells (MCs) have been identified as new players in the pathogenesis of obesity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MCs and various inflammatory markers in serum and WAT and to determine the role of MCs in the aetiology of insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression was measured in WAT from 20 morbidly obese patients and 20 nonobese control subjects...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yolandi Breet, Aletta E Schutte, Hugo W Huisman, Fritz C Eloff, Johan L Du Plessis, Annamarie Kruger, Johannes M Van Rooyen
BACKGROUND: The link between impaired lung function and cardiovascular outcome is well established in European and American populations. It is possible that this association may be driven by a systemic spill-over of inflammation occurring within the lungs. Since several studies have found an increased level of inflammatory markers in African populations, we aimed to establish the contribution of lung function in predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Africans, whilst taking inflammatory markers into account...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Maria Mizamtsidi, Stavroula A Paschou, Julia Grapsa, Andromachi Vryonidou
BACKGROUND: Although the increasing rate of cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes is thought to be due to the coronary atherosclerosis caused mainly by compounding factors such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension, it is now well documented that diabetes alone can lead to a vast array of molecular changes in the heart. DESIGN: The aim of this article was to comprehensively review the pathophysiological and molecular changes leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), as well as to critically analyse the literature that offers evidence in favour and against the existence of the overt clinical expression of this entity...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Misael Uribe, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in parallel with associated metabolic disturbances such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to underscore discrepancies in the standard anthropometric cut-off values and the presence of metabolic disturbances including diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused by biological and ethnic variations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a literature review regarding the diagnosis and prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and about the different available indicators to define obesity...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Rafael Dal-Ré
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has published a draft proposal on de-identified individual clinical trial participant data (IPD) sharing, stating that sharing trial data requires planning to ensure appropriate research ethics committee approval and participants' informed consent. This is why its implementation will be deferred for 1 year after the publication of the final version of the policy. When conducting research with anonymous data, it is not feasible to obtain the informed consent from research participants...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Chung-Ching Chio, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates many processes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both Neuro AiD™ (MLC601) and astragaloside (AST) attenuate microglia activation in rats with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MLC601 or AST improves output of TBI by affecting microglial expression of TGF-β1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of TGF-β1-containing microglia in the MLC601-mediated or the AST-mediated neuroprotection in the brain trauma condition using lateral fluid percussion injury...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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