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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092781/social-consequences-of-subclinical-negative-symptoms-an-emg-study-of-facial-expressions-within-a-social-interaction
#1
Marcel Riehle, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to lower social functioning even in non-clinical samples, but little is known about the distinct social consequences of motivational and expressive negative symptoms. In this study we focused on expressive negative symptoms and examined how these symptoms and varying degrees of pro-social facial expressiveness (smiling and mimicry of smiling) relate to the social evaluations by face-to-face interaction partners and to social support...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095331/the-effect-of-combined-avoidance-and-control-training-on-implicit-food-evaluation-and-choice
#2
Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
BACKGROUND: Continual exposure to food cues in the environment contributes to unhealthy eating behaviour. According to dual-process models, such behaviour is partly determined by automatic processing of unhealthy food cues (e.g., approach bias), which fails to be regulated by controlled processing (e.g., inhibitory control). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit evaluation (liking), choice, and consumption of unhealthy snack food...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955823/corrigendum-to-exposure-reduces-negative-bias-in-self-rated-performance-in-public-speaking-fearful-participants-j-behav-ther-exp-psychiatry-54-2017-101-107
#3
Joyce Cheng, Michelle G Craske, Andrea N Niles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992826/negative-rumination-in-social-anxiety-a-randomised-trial-investigating-the-effects-of-a-brief-intervention-on-cognitive-processes-before-during-and-after-a-social-situation
#4
Matthew Modini, Maree J Abbott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), negative rumination is a key maintaining factor in the vicious cycle of social anxiety. However, there is a scarcity of research investigating treatment effects on rumination in social anxiety, as well as other key cognitive variables. The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention on a range of cognitive processes, most notably negative rumination. Additionally, predictors of negative rumination and state anxiety are also investigated...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919404/individualized-metacognitive-therapy-for-delusions-a-randomized-controlled-rater-blind-study
#5
Christina Andreou, Charlotte E Wittekind, Martina Fieker, Ulrike Heitz, Ruth Veckenstedt, Francesca Bohn, Steffen Moritz
BACKGROUND: Theory-driven interventions targeting specific factors that contribute to delusions are receiving increased interest. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of individualized metacognitive therapy (MCT+), a short manualized intervention that addresses delusion-associated cognitive biases. METHODS: 92 patients with current or past delusions were randomized to receive 12 twice-weekly sessions of either MCT+ or a control intervention within a randomized controlled rater-blind design...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013069/cognitive-bias-modification-and-cbt-as-early-interventions-for-adolescent-social-and-test-anxiety-two-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Eva de Hullu, B Esther Sportel, Maaike H Nauta, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This two-year follow-up study evaluated the long-term outcomes of two early interventions that aimed at reducing social and test anxiety in young adolescents at risk for developing social anxiety disorder. METHODS: In this RCT, moderately socially anxious adolescents (N=240, mean age 13.6 years) were randomly assigned to a 10-week internet-based multifaceted cognitive bias modification training (CBM), a 10-week school-based cognitive behavioral group training (CBT), or a no-intervention control condition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914318/older-adults-attentional-deployment-differential-gaze-patterns-for-different-negative-mood-states
#7
Ineke Demeyer, Alvaro Sanchez, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Older adults are characterized by an attentional preference for positive over negative information. Since this positivity effect is considered to be an emotion regulation strategy, it should be more pronounced when emotion regulation is needed. In contrast to previous studies that focused on the effects of sad mood on attention, we used a stressor to activate emotion regulation and evaluate the effects of different types of mood state changes. Moreover, we evaluated mood effects on attentional processes using a paradigm that allows disentangling between different attentional engagement and disengagement processes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915159/public-speaking-avoidance-as-a-treatment-moderator-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#8
Bita Mesri, Andrea N Niles, Andre Pittig, Richard T LeBeau, Ethan Haik, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914319/intolerance-of-uncertainty-scale-measurement-invariance-among-adolescent-boys-and-girls-and-relationships-with-anxiety-and-risk-taking
#9
Laura M S Dekkers, Brenda R J Jansen, Elske Salemink, Hilde M Huizenga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence-related increases in both anxiety and risk taking may originate in variability in Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), rendering the study of IU of importance. We therefore studied the psychometric properties of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Short version (IUS-12), including its associations with trait anxiety and risk taking, among adolescents. METHODS: A sample of 879 Dutch adolescents, from diverse educational levels, and with an equal distribution of boys and girls, was classically tested...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888748/help-me-if-you-can-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-interpersonal-compared-to-intrapersonal-emotion-regulation-in-reducing-distress
#10
Einat Levy-Gigi, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although humans have developed abundant strategies to down regulate their own negative emotions, at times of distress they frequently turn to significant others to seek comfort. In the present study we use a novel performance-based paradigm to evaluate the effectiveness of this interaction. METHODS: Forty-seven couples in a long-term relationship volunteered to participate in the study. In each couple the two partners were randomly assigned as either target or regulator...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939053/experimental-variation-of-social-stress-in-virtual-reality-feasibility-and-first-results-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#11
Klaus Hesse, Philipp A Schroeder, Jonathan Scheeff, Stefan Klingberg, Christian Plewnia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social interaction might lead to increased stress levels in patients with psychotic disorders. Impaired social stress tolerance is critical for social functioning and closely linked with symptom relapse and hospitalization. We present an interactive office built-up in virtual reality (VR). METHODS: Patients with psychotic disorders (PP, N = 26 including N = 5 dropouts) and matched healthy controls (HC, N = 20) were examined with a VR simulating an open-plan office...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#12
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888747/disconfirming-contamination-related-threat-beliefs-by-exposure-plus-safety-behavior
#13
Sophie L van Uijen, Marcel A van den Hout, Anne T Klein Schiphorst, Emma S Knol, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Safety behavior (SB) is detrimental to the beneficial effects of exposure, because it prevents patients from obtaining evidence that disconfirms their excessive threat beliefs. However, previous studies showed that cleaning SB during exposure to a contaminant does not prevent a reduction in feelings of contamination, fear of contamination, danger, and disgust (CFDD). We aimed to directly examine the effect of SB during exposure to a contaminant on threat beliefs associated with CFDD...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883950/the-effects-of-social-pressure-and-emotional-expression-on-the-cone-of-gaze-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#14
Johannes Harbort, Julia Spiegel, Michael Witthöft, Heiko Hecht
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with social anxiety disorder suffer from pronounced fears in social situations. As gaze perception is crucial in these situations, we examined which factors influence the range of gaze directions where mutual gaze is experienced (the cone of gaze). METHODS: The social stimulus was modified by changing the number of people (heads) present and the emotional expression of their faces. Participants completed a psychophysical task, in which they had to adjust the eyes of a virtual head to gaze at the edge of the range where mutual eye-contact was experienced...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855298/imagery-rescripting-as-a-clinical-intervention-for-aversive-memories-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Nexhmedin Morina, Jaap Lancee, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Literature suggests that imagery rescripting (ImRs) is an effective psychological intervention. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of ImRs for psychological complaints that are associated with aversive memories. Relevant publications were collected from the databases Medline, PsychInfo, and Web of Science. RESULTS: The search identified 19 trials (including seven randomized controlled trials) with 363 adult patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (eight trials), social anxiety disorder (six trials), body dysmorphic disorder (two trials), major depression (one trial), bulimia nervosa (one trial), or obsessive compulsive disorder (one trial)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888749/young-people-with-higher-social-anxiety-are-less-likely-to-adopt-the-perspective-of-another-data-from-the-director-task
#16
Victoria Pile, Simone P W Haller, Chii Fen Hiu, Jennifer Y F Lau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Young people with social anxiety display poor social functioning but it is unclear whether this is underscored by difficulties in key social cognitive abilities, such as perspective taking. Here, we examined whether increased social anxiety is associated with reduced accuracy on a perspective taking task and whether this relationship is stronger at particular periods within adolescence. METHODS: Fifty-nine adolescents aged 11-19 years completed the computerised Director Task (DT) and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescence...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838297/deployment-of-attention-to-emotional-pictures-varies-as-a-function-of-externally-oriented-thinking-an-eye-tracking-investigation
#17
Alex Wiebe, Anette Kersting, Thomas Suslow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alexithymia is a multidimensional personality construct including the components difficulties identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties describing feelings (DDF), and externally oriented thinking (EOT). Different features of alexithymia are thought to reflect specific deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions. The aim of the present study was to examine for the first time patterns of deployment of attention as a function of alexithymia components in healthy persons by using eye-tracking technology...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821349/implicit-and-explicit-self-esteem-in-remitted-depressed-patients
#18
Danique Smeijers, Janna N Vrijsen, Iris van Oostrom, Linda Isaac, Anne Speckens, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). METHODS: Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029348/ethnic-identity-and-paranoid-thinking-implicit-out-group-preference-and-language-dominance-predict-paranoia-in-emirati-women
#19
Justin Thomas, Richard P Bentall, Lowri Hadden, Lily O'Hara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychotic experiences including persecutory beliefs are elevated among immigrant and minority populations, especially when living in low ethnic density neighbourhoods (the ethnic density effect). Discrimination, victimization and experiencing a sense of 'not belonging' are hypothesized to play a role in this effect. Because a secure ethnic identity protects against poor self-esteem it may also protect against paranoia. This study explores the relationship between language proficiency (Arabic/English), in-group identity (implicit and explicit) and paranoia in female Emirati university students...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816010/do-meta-cognitive-beliefs-affect-meta-awareness-of-intrusive-thoughts-about-trauma
#20
Melanie K T Takarangi, Diane Nayda, Deryn Strange, Reginald D V Nixon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People exposed to trauma often experience intrusive thoughts and memories about that event. Research examining people's responses to trauma assumes that people can accurately notice the occurrence of symptoms. However, we know from the broader cognitive literature on 'mind-wandering' that people are not always aware of their current focus of attention. That lack of awareness has implications for our theoretical and practical understanding of how trauma survivors recover from their experience...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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