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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Hong Seon Kim, Michael T Moore
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While the role of explicit self-esteem (ESE) in depression has been well established, the relationship between implicit self-esteem (ISE) and depression is more uncertain. Recently, it has been suggested that a simultaneous consideration of both ESE and ISE may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the development and maintenance of depression than considering either ESE or ISE in isolation. The present paper tested whether the absolute discrepancy between ESE and ISE and the direction of the discrepancy are important factors to consider in relation to depressive symptoms...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Philip Spinhoven, Albert M van Hemert, Brenda W Penninx
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity among anxiety and depression disorders and their symptoms is high. Rumination and worry have been found to mediate prospective cross-disorder relations between anxiety and depression disorders and their symptoms in adolescents and adults. We examined whether generic repetitive negative thinking (RNT), that is content- and disorder-independent, also mediates prospective cross-disorder associations between anxiety and depressions disorders and their symptoms...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Lucinda M van Beerschoten, Ad de Jongh, Irene G Klugkist, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visual Schema Displacement Therapy (VSDT) is a novel therapy which has been described as a treatment for stress and dysfunction caused by a traumatic event. Although its developers claim this therapy is quicker and more beneficial than other forms of trauma therapy, its effectiveness has not been tested. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of VSDT to an abbreviated EMDR protocol and a non-active control condition (CC) in two studies. In Study 1 participants (N = 30) were asked to recall three negative emotional memories under three conditions: VSDT, EMDR, and a CC, each lasting 8 min...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Haang Jeung, Martin Vollmann, Sabine C Herpertz, Christiane Schwieren
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suffer from interpersonal difficulties. They have been shown to be distrustful and yet involved in abusive relationships. In this study, we want to examine whether the perception of fairness and partner preference are altered in BPD. METHODS: We employed a coalition formation game in which a participant can choose whether to interact in dyads or triads, thus exclusion or inclusion of a third potential interaction partner...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lin Fang, Igor Marchetti, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Ernst H W Koster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rumination has been shown to prospectively predict the onset of depression. However, it is unclear how rumination and affect in daily life influence the development of depressive symptoms. The present study examined whether the structure of dynamics in rumination and affect could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and trait rumination in an undergraduate sample (n = 63). METHODS: The main index used was entropy, which reflects the instability of a system's structure...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Oswald D Kothgassner, Andreas Goreis, Johanna X Kafka, Marlene Kaufmann, Katharina Atteneder, Leon Beutl, Kristina Hennig-Fast, Helmut Hlavacs, Anna Felnhofer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Face-to-face and text-based social support have been shown to attenuate stress responses in past studies. Yet as social interactions increasingly take place online by means of virtual humans, our objective was to examine whether different forms of social support (virtual vs. real) prior to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) would also decrease stress. Additionally, the effect on subsequent real-life social behaviors (helping and approach) was evaluated while controlling for affective states and social presence...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sara Scheveneels, Yannick Boddez, Toon De Ceulaer, Dirk Hermans
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In psychoeducation before exposure treatment patients are sometimes provided with information about the (low) probability that the feared outcome would occur. Since it has been proposed in the literature that this might have adverse effects, the current study investigated the effect of providing participants with this type of safety information on return of fear. METHOD: In an ABA-renewal paradigm, participants in the experimental group were instructed between acquisition and extinction that the probability of US-occurrence would be extremely small in the remainder of the experiment...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Virginie Peschard, Sivan Ben-Moshe, Hadar Keshet, Hannah Restle, Daphna Dollberg, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evolutionary theories propose that socially anxious individuals are especially sensitive to social-rank signals, presumably at the expense of the attunement to signals of affiliation. Despite this theoretical claim, few empirical attempts examined the association between social anxiety (SA) and sensitivity to specific features of social-rank and affiliation. This study aims to fill this gap. METHOD: Participants (N = 67) completed two tasks in which two emotionally neutral computer-generated male faces of the same character were presented side-by-side...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Helen M Baker, Tom J Barry, Veena Kumari, Rakesh Pandey, Niraula Shanta, Jennifer Y F Lau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety in adolescence is characterised by disturbances in attentional processes and the overgeneralisation of fear, however, little is known about the combined and reciprocal effects of and between these factors on youth anxiety. The present study investigated whether attention (attention allocation and control) and fear generalisation processes together predict more variance on adolescent anxiety symptoms than each factor in isolation, and explored their interrelations...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Thomas Suslow, Kathrin Wildenauer, Vivien Günther
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rumination has been shown to be an important cognitive vulnerability factor affecting development and maintenance of depression. Ruminative thinking can be divided into a self-focused component referring to persistent reflection about causes and consequences of depressed mood and a symptom-focused component characterized by repetitive thinking about depressive symptoms. Previous research on clinical depression has shown that rumination is associated with the perception of negative emotions in others' facial expressions...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Anne A Cuperus, Maarten Laken, Kevin van Schie, Iris M Engelhard, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several treatments are effective in reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. We tested the effectiveness of an experimental intervention that consists of elements from two of these: virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. The latter is characterized by a dual-task approach: the patient holds a traumatic memory in mind while simultaneously making voluntary eye movements, resulting in reduced vividness and emotionality of the traumatic memory...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
James Bennett-Levy
The key proposition of this invited essay is that personal practice (PP), coupled with self-reflection, is central to the development of the most effective therapists. To date, the discussion about personal practice in therapist training and professional development has largely revolved around the value of personal therapy, subscribed to by some schools of psychotherapy but not by others. However, since the turn of the century a new landscape of personal practices for therapists has emerged. In particular, two forms of personal practice, meditation programs and self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) programs, have developed a growing evidence base...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Gaëtan Mertens, Arne Leer, Eva Anna Maria van Dis, Lotte Vermeer, Anne Steenhuizen, Lisa van der Veen, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Secondary extinction refers to the phenomenon that extinction of one conditioned stimulus (CS) results in the reduction of conditioned responses for other CSs conditioned with the same unconditioned stimulus (US). Previous research with rats has demonstrated that secondary extinction can interfere with the return of conditioned fear after a reinstatement manipulation. Here we investigated this phenomenon in two pre-registered studies in humans. METHOD: In both experiments, distinct CSs were paired with an electrical stimulation...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Shannon D Donofry, Wieske van Zoest, Andrea Moonen, Sofia Sacchetti, Chantal Nederkoorn, Anne Roefs
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research linking dietary restraint to attentional bias toward food cues has been equivocal, suggesting that dietary restraint may only influence attentional processing of food in certain contexts. The present study examined whether negative mood strengthens the association between dietary restraint and attention bias for food. METHODS: Healthy female participants were randomized to either a neutral (n = 47) or negative mood (n = 49) induction...
March 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kirsten E Gilbert, Natasha A Tonge, Renee J Thompson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychological inflexibility exhibits across multiple facets of functioning, including thinking styles, personality, cognitive shifting, emotion, and physiology, with many of these manifestations showing associations with depression. As such, these facets might be part of an overarching latent construct of psychological inflexibility that explains associations with depression. We predicted that (1) five facets of inflexibility (perseverative thinking, personality rigidity, attention-shifting, negative emotional inertia, and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity) would load onto a unique latent construct of psychological inflexibility...
March 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jessie Hackford, Anna Mackey, Elizabeth Broadbent
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Embodiment theory proposes that motor processes are associated with emotions and cognitions. Previous research has shown that walking posture can influence affective memory bias. This study further investigated this theory by looking at the effects of an upright versus slumped walking posture on psychological and physiological states when faced with a psychological stressor. METHODS: Seventy-three healthy adults completed baseline self-report measures of affect, power, and sleepiness, and physiological measures of blood pressure, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature...
March 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Laurel D Sarfan, Elise M Clerkin, Bethany A Teachman, April R Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dieters are likely primed to think about their diet throughout the day (e.g., as they feel hungry). However, prior research has not tested whether and how thinking about dieting might have negative effects, like poor self-esteem and body shape concerns. METHODS: We experimentally primed dieters' thoughts about their diets and tested whether: 1) dieting thoughts are related to poor state self-esteem through body shape concerns; and 2) dieting thoughts are related to body shape concerns through poor state self-esteem...
March 2019: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Fanny Alexandra Dietel, Martin Möbius, Lena Steinbach, Christina Dusend, Sabine Wilhelm, Ulrike Buhlmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpretation biases are hypothesized to maintain body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Although their existence and malleability have been investigated in clinical studies, their causal status in the maintenance of BDD remains unclear. This study examined the effects of a single-session appearance-related interpretation bias training (CBM-I) on bias indices and stress reactivity (i.e., distress, appearance dissatisfaction, self-esteem, perceived physical attractiveness), exploring the causality predicted in cognitive-behavioral models...
December 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Nira Liberman, Reuven Dar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years we have proposed and investigated the Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which postulates that deficient access to internal states is a key feature of the disorder. According to this model, rules and rituals that often characterize people with OCD can be understood as proxies for deficiently accessible internal states. Here we compliment this earlier experimental work by examining whether reliance on proxies for internal states in everyday life is associated with OCD...
December 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Michael E Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Benjamin Pierce, Sarah Potts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although experiential avoidance has been shown to predict a wide range of mental health problems, there has been minimal research to-date on the more immediate effects of engaging in experiential avoidance in the moment or the moderators that predict when it is more or less harmful. METHODS: An ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study was conducted with 70 undergraduate students who completed assessments three times a day, over 7 day as well as a baseline assessment of global questionnaires...
December 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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