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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035800/exploring-mechanisms-of-change-in-schema-therapy-for-chronic-depression
#1
Fritz Renner, Robert DeRubeis, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk Peeters, Jill Lobbestael, Marcus J H Huibers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The underlying mechanisms of symptom change in schema therapy (ST) for chronic major depressive disorder (cMDD) have not been studied. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of two potentially important mechanisms of symptom change, maladaptive schemas (proxied by negative idiosyncratic core-beliefs) and the therapeutic alliance. METHODS: We drew data from a single-case series of ST for cMDD. Patients with cMDD (N = 20) received on average 78 repeated weekly assessments over a course of up to 65 individual sessions of ST...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918343/emotion-and-self-in-psychotic-disorders-behavioral-evidence-from-an-emotional-evaluation-task-using-verbal-stimuli-varying-in-emotional-valence-and-self-reference
#2
Cornelia Herbert, Klaus Hesse, Dirk Wildgruber
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychotic disorders are accompanied by changes in emotional and self-referential processing. This behavioral study investigates the link between emotional and self-referential processing in 21 psychotic patients with and without symptoms of disordered self-processing and 21 healthy age-matched controls during emotional evaluation of words varying in emotional valence and self-reference. METHODS: Emotional and neutral words related to the self of the reader (e...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910609/categorical-perception-of-facial-expressions-in-individuals-with-non-clinical-social-anxiety
#3
Fanghui Qiu, Mingxiu Han, Yu Zhai, Shiwei Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to the well-established categorical perception (CP) of facial expressions, we decode complicated expression signals into simplified categories to facilitate expression processing. Expression processing deficits have been widely described in social anxiety (SA), but it remains to be investigated whether CP of expressions are affected by SA. The present study examined whether individuals with SA had an interpretation bias when processing ambiguous expressions and whether the sensitivity of their CP was affected by their SA...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898708/cue-exposure-therapy-reduces-overeating-of-exposed-and-non-exposed-foods-in-obese-adolescents
#4
Ghislaine Schyns, Anne Roefs, Fren T Y Smulders, Anita Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether two sessions of food cue exposure therapy reduced eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), specified for exposed and non-exposed food, in overweight and obese adolescents, and whether habituation of food cue reactivity and reduced CS-US expectancies predicted a decrease in EAH. METHODS: 41 overweight adolescents (aged 12-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cue exposure intervention or a lifestyle intervention (control condition)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869825/patient-learning-of-treatment-contents-in-cognitive-therapy
#5
Nicole B Gumport, Lu Dong, Jason Y Lee, Allison G Harvey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research has demonstrated that both memory and learning for treatment contents are poor, and that both are associated with worse treatment outcome. The Memory Support Intervention has been shown to improve memory for treatment, but it has not yet been established if this intervention can also improve learning of treatment contents. This study was designed to document the number of times participants exhibited each of the indices of learning, to examine the indices of learning and their relationship to recall of treatment points, and to investigate the association between the indices of learning and depression outcome...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886406/an-investigation-of-potential-neural-correlates-of-intrusive-retrieval-of-distressing-memories
#6
Eva Battaglini, Belinda J Liddell, Pritha Das, Gin S Malhi, Kim Felmingham, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the prevalence of intrusive memories across psychological disorders, little is known about the neural networks that underpin this form of memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural circuits associated with the retrieval of intrusive memories. METHODS: Participants with moderate levels of anxiety (N = 30) underwent a cold pressor task to induce a physiological stress response, after which they viewed 10 neutral and 10 negative film clips...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823950/the-effects-of-a-novel-hostile-interpretation-bias-modification-paradigm-on-hostile-interpretations-mood-and-aggressive-behavior
#7
Nouran AlMoghrabi, Jorg Huijding, Ingmar H A Franken
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. METHODS: Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843588/mental-contamination-the-effects-of-religiosity
#8
Ilgun Bilekli, Mujgan Inozu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental contamination, which occurs in the absence of contact with a contaminant, has a moral element. Previous studies evoked feelings of mental contamination via listening to a scenario, which described a non-consensual kiss. Since mental contamination has a moral element, we tested the effects of the level of religiosity on feelings of mental contamination and related variables in an experimental design. METHODS: Female undergraduates of high religiosity (n = 48) and low religiosity (n = 44) were randomly assigned to listen to one of two audio recordings involving a consensual or non-consensual kiss from a man described as moral...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803131/do-continuum-beliefs-reduce-schizophrenia-stigma-effects-of-a-laboratory-intervention-on-behavioral-and-self-reported-stigma
#9
Ryan Thibodeau, Lindsay N Shanks, Brian P Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Correlational research shows that belief in a continuum of psychiatric problems predicts decreased public stigma. However, the correlational findings fail to inform the stigma reduction prospects of manipulating continuum beliefs. All extant experimental work has been executed online. This study examined effects of a laboratory-based continuum intervention on behavioral and self-report measures of psychiatric stigma. METHODS: Sixty-nine undergraduates believed that they would meet a man with schizophrenia...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777975/building-physiological-toughness-some-aversive-events-during-extinction-may-attenuate-return-of-fear
#10
Najwa C Culver, Stephan Stevens, Michael S Fanselow, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders, fear sometimes returns following successful therapy. Recent literature in animal models indicates that incorporating some aversive events into extinction training may offset these return of fear effects. METHODS: The effect of occasional reinforced extinction trials was investigated in a sample of thirty-nine participants using a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419917/the-effect-of-social-exclusion-on-state-paranoia-and-explicit-and-implicit-self-esteem-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#11
C Stewart, F Rogers, M Pilch, I Stewart, Y Barnes-Holmes, S Westermann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between self-esteem and paranoia may be influenced by social stress. This study aimed to replicate previous research on the impact ofsocial exclusion on paranoia and self-esteem in a non-clinical sample and to extend this work by examining the effect of exclusion on self-esteem at the 'implicit' level. METHODS: Non-clinical participants (N = 85) were randomly allocated to the Inclusion or Exclusion condition of a virtual ball-toss game ('Cyberball')...
December 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759778/the-perils-of-aiming-too-high-discrepancy-between-goals-and-performance-in-individuals-with-depressive-symptoms
#12
E A Arens, P Zeier, C Schwieren, H Huisgen, S Barnow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Negative evaluation processes play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms. However, it remains to be understood, whether evaluation processes in depression are impaired by maladaptive goal setting. METHOD: In a non-clinical sample (N = 50) of individuals with high (BDI-II-Score: 13-29) and low (BDI-II-Score: 0-3) levels of depressive symptoms goal setting prior to working on a cognitive task was measured...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746833/can-an-experimental-self-efficacy-induction-through-autobiographical-recall-modulate-analogue-posttraumatic-intrusions
#13
Julie Krans, Adam D Brown, Michelle L Moulds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research has shown a link between self-efficacy appraisals and PTSD symptoms. Less is known about the relation between perceived self-efficacy and specific PTSD symptoms such as intrusions. These two experiments tested the causal relationship between perceived self-efficacy and intrusions from a trauma film. METHODS: In Experiment I, healthy student participants received a self-efficacy manipulation consisting of the recall of autobiographical memories of success (high self-efficacy condition), failure (low self-efficacy condition) or 'important' memories (control condition)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675809/does-modifying-personal-responsibility-moderate-the-mental-contamination-effect
#14
Tinisha S Kennedy, Laura M Simonds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental contamination is the psychological sense of internal dirtiness that arises in the absence of physical contact with a perceived contaminant. Mental contamination can be evoked through imagining perpetrating a moral transgression. This study experimentally evoked mental contamination by asking men to imagine perpetrating a non-consensual kiss. It explored whether reducing sense of personal responsibility for the kiss moderated the mental contamination effect...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708974/overestimation-of-threat-from-neutral-faces-and-voices-in-social-anxiety
#15
Virginie Peschard, Pierre Philippot
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety (SA) is associated with a tendency to interpret social information in a more threatening manner. Most of the research in SA has focused on unimodal exploration (mostly based on facial expressions), thus neglecting the ubiquity of cross-modality. To fill this gap, the present study sought to explore whether SA influences the interpretation of facial and vocal expressions presented separately or jointly. METHODS: Twenty-five high socially anxious (HSA) and 29 low socially anxious (LSA) participants completed a forced two-choice emotion identification task consisting of angry and neutral expressions conveyed by faces, voices or combined faces and voices...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628809/distrust-of-the-senses-and-its-association-with-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms
#16
Shiu F Wong, Alishia D Williams, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Leading cognitive theories of OCD suggests that despite prevalent and persistent doubt, individuals with OCD do not have perceptual deficits. An alternate cognitive theory, the Seeking Proxies for Internal States hypothesis (SPIS), proposes that sensory distrust in OCD stems from actual deficits in accessing internal states. Consistent with the SPIS, previous research has found that high-OC individuals were less accurate than low-OC individuals in producing target levels of muscle tension in a biofeedback task and that OC symptoms were positively associated with reliance on an external proxy...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601693/causal-role-for-inverse-reasoning-on-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-preliminary-evidence-from-a-cognitive-bias-modification-for-interpretation-bias-study
#17
Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The inference-based approach (IBA) is a cognitive account of the genesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the IBA, individuals with OCD are prone to using inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Several studies have provided preliminary support for an association between features of the IBA and OCD symptoms. However, there are currently no studies that have investigated the proposed causal relationship of inverse reasoning in OCD...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601695/thoughts-images-and-appraisals-associated-with-acting-and-not-acting-on-the-urge-to-self-injure
#18
Peter M McEvoy, Sarra Hayes, Penelope A Hasking, Clare S Rees
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the frequency, content, and appraisals of thoughts and images occurring during urges to engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). METHOD: Undergraduates (N = 154) with a history of NSSI completed an online survey of their thoughts, images, and appraisals when they acted on urges to engage in NSSI as well as when they resisted urges to self-injure. RESULTS: Most (>90%) participants reported experiencing both thoughts and images during urges to engage in NSSI...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601696/anticipatory-processing-in-social-anxiety-investigation-using-attentional-control-theory
#19
Rachel A Sluis, Mark J Boschen, David L Neumann, Karen Murphy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) emphasize anticipatory processing as a prominent maintaining factor occurring before social-evaluative events. While anticipatory processing is a maladaptive process, the cognitive mechanisms that underlie ineffective control of attention are still unclear. The present study tested predictions derived from attentional control theory in a sample of undergraduate students high and low on social anxiety symptoms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209215/the-relevance-of-goal-orientation-for-motivation-in-high-versus-low-proneness-to-negative-symptoms
#20
Björn Schlier, Maike Engel, Anne-Katharina Fladung, Anja Fritzsche, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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