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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803131/do-continuum-beliefs-reduce-schizophrenia-stigma-effects-of-a-laboratory-intervention-on-behavioral-and-self-reported-stigma
#1
Ryan Thibodeau, Lindsay N Shanks, Brian P Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Correlational research shows that belief in a continuum of psychiatric problems predicts decreased public stigma. However, the correlational findings fail to inform the stigma reduction prospects of manipulating continuum beliefs. All extant experimental work has been executed online. This study examined effects of a laboratory-based continuum intervention on behavioral and self-report measures of psychiatric stigma. METHODS: Sixty-nine undergraduates believed that they would meet a man with schizophrenia...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777975/building-physiological-toughness-some-aversive-events-during-extinction-may-attenuate-return-of-fear
#2
Najwa C Culver, Stephan Stevens, Michael S Fanselow, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders, fear sometimes returns following successful therapy. Recent literature in animal models indicates that incorporating some aversive events into extinction training may offset these return of fear effects. METHODS: The effect of occasional reinforced extinction trials was investigated in a sample of thirty-nine participants using a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759778/the-perils-of-aiming-too-high-discrepancy-between-goals-and-performance-in-individuals-with-depressive-symptoms
#3
E A Arens, P Zeier, C Schwieren, H Huisgen, S Barnow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Negative evaluation processes play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms. However, it remains to be understood, whether evaluation processes in depression are impaired by maladaptive goal setting. METHOD: In a non-clinical sample (N = 50) of individuals with high (BDI-II-Score: 13-29) and low (BDI-II-Score: 0-3) levels of depressive symptoms goal setting prior to working on a cognitive task was measured...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746833/can-an-experimental-self-efficacy-induction-through-autobiographical-recall-modulate-analogue-posttraumatic-intrusions
#4
Julie Krans, Adam D Brown, Michelle L Moulds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research has shown a link between self-efficacy appraisals and PTSD symptoms. Less is known about the relation between perceived self-efficacy and specific PTSD symptoms such as intrusions. These two experiments tested the causal relationship between perceived self-efficacy and intrusions from a trauma film. METHODS: In Experiment I, healthy student participants received a self-efficacy manipulation consisting of the recall of autobiographical memories of success (high self-efficacy condition), failure (low self-efficacy condition) or 'important' memories (control condition)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675809/does-modifying-personal-responsibility-moderate-the-mental-contamination-effect
#5
Tinisha S Kennedy, Laura M Simonds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental contamination is the psychological sense of internal dirtiness that arises in the absence of physical contact with a perceived contaminant. Mental contamination can be evoked through imagining perpetrating a moral transgression. This study experimentally evoked mental contamination by asking men to imagine perpetrating a non-consensual kiss. It explored whether reducing sense of personal responsibility for the kiss moderated the mental contamination effect...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708974/overestimation-of-threat-from-neutral-faces-and-voices-in-social-anxiety
#6
Virginie Peschard, Pierre Philippot
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social anxiety (SA) is associated with a tendency to interpret social information in a more threatening manner. Most of the research in SA has focused on unimodal exploration (mostly based on facial expressions), thus neglecting the ubiquity of cross-modality. To fill this gap, the present study sought to explore whether SA influences the interpretation of facial and vocal expressions presented separately or jointly. METHODS: Twenty-five high socially anxious (HSA) and 29 low socially anxious (LSA) participants completed a forced two-choice emotion identification task consisting of angry and neutral expressions conveyed by faces, voices or combined faces and voices...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628809/distrust-of-the-senses-and-its-association-with-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms
#7
Shiu F Wong, Alishia D Williams, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Leading cognitive theories of OCD suggests that despite prevalent and persistent doubt, individuals with OCD do not have perceptual deficits. An alternate cognitive theory, the Seeking Proxies for Internal States hypothesis (SPIS), proposes that sensory distrust in OCD stems from actual deficits in accessing internal states. Consistent with the SPIS, previous research has found that high-OC individuals were less accurate than low-OC individuals in producing target levels of muscle tension in a biofeedback task and that OC symptoms were positively associated with reliance on an external proxy...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601693/causal-role-for-inverse-reasoning-on-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-preliminary-evidence-from-a-cognitive-bias-modification-for-interpretation-bias-study
#8
Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The inference-based approach (IBA) is a cognitive account of the genesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the IBA, individuals with OCD are prone to using inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Several studies have provided preliminary support for an association between features of the IBA and OCD symptoms. However, there are currently no studies that have investigated the proposed causal relationship of inverse reasoning in OCD...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601695/thoughts-images-and-appraisals-associated-with-acting-and-not-acting-on-the-urge-to-self-injure
#9
Peter M McEvoy, Sarra Hayes, Penelope A Hasking, Clare S Rees
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the frequency, content, and appraisals of thoughts and images occurring during urges to engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). METHOD: Undergraduates (N = 154) with a history of NSSI completed an online survey of their thoughts, images, and appraisals when they acted on urges to engage in NSSI as well as when they resisted urges to self-injure. RESULTS: Most (>90%) participants reported experiencing both thoughts and images during urges to engage in NSSI...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601696/anticipatory-processing-in-social-anxiety-investigation-using-attentional-control-theory
#10
Rachel A Sluis, Mark J Boschen, David L Neumann, Karen Murphy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) emphasize anticipatory processing as a prominent maintaining factor occurring before social-evaluative events. While anticipatory processing is a maladaptive process, the cognitive mechanisms that underlie ineffective control of attention are still unclear. The present study tested predictions derived from attentional control theory in a sample of undergraduate students high and low on social anxiety symptoms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601694/feeling-happy-when-feeling-down-the-effectiveness-of-positive-mental-imagery-in-dysphoria
#11
Maud Grol, Naomi Vanlessen, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental imagery can evoke strong emotional responses, but imagery perspective can influence the response, with observer perspective reducing emotionality. This is important provided that positive imagery can be an effective mood repair strategy in healthy individuals. However, (sub-clinical) depressed individuals tend to spontaneously adopt an observer perspective. We investigated whether positive imagery would result in a similar emotional response in dysphoric and non-dysphoric individuals when instructed and trained to use field perspective imagery...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601697/approaching-contamination-related-stimuli-with-an-implicit-approach-avoidance-task-can-it-reduce-ocd-symptoms-an-online-pilot-study
#12
Ricarda Weil, Ansgar Feist, Steffen Moritz, Charlotte E Wittekind
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dual-process models suggest that automatic behavioral tendencies contribute to the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) to reduce OCD symptoms and associated distress. METHODS: The study was set up as an online intervention. Participants with OCD symptoms (N = 101) were randomly assigned either to one of two experimental conditions or a waitlist control group upon completion of an online baseline survey...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209215/the-relevance-of-goal-orientation-for-motivation-in-high-versus-low-proneness-to-negative-symptoms
#13
Björn Schlier, Maike Engel, Anne-Katharina Fladung, Anja Fritzsche, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915159/public-speaking-avoidance-as-a-treatment-moderator-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#14
Bita Mesri, Andrea N Niles, Andre Pittig, Richard T LeBeau, Ethan Haik, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549572/changes-at-the-journal-of-behavior-therapy-and-experimental-psychiatry
#15
EDITORIAL
Adam S Radomsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527713/stability-or-instability-in-avoidant-personality-disorder-mode-fluctuations-within-schema-therapy-sessions
#16
Ofer Peled, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Eshkol Rafaeli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is among the most prevalent personality disorders, but has received relatively little empirical attention. This study aims to characterize the frequency, intensity, and fluctuation patterns seen in the modes (self-states) of APD clients over the course of schema therapy (ST), a psychotherapy approach developed especially for personality disorders. METHOD: The newly-developed client mode rating scale (CMRS) was used to code every 5-min segment (n = 645) of 60 ST sessions...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505489/anxiety-sensitivity-as-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Shannon M Blakey, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Lillian Reuman, Rachel C Leonard, Bradley C Riemann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To address the fact that not all individuals who receive cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit complete symptom reduction, research has examined factors that predict outcome; however, no studies have examined anxiety sensitivity (AS) as a predictor of outcome of CBT for OCD. AS refers to the fear of anxious arousal that results from mistaken beliefs about the dangerousness of anxiety-related body sensations. It is important to understand whether AS influences OCD treatment outcome, considering that (a) some obsessions directly relate to AS, and (b) OCD patients with high AS may be reluctant to engage in anxiety-provoking components of CBT for OCD...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511035/on-the-context-dependency-of-implicit-self-esteem-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#18
Thomas S Hiller, Melanie C Steffens, Viktoria Ritter, Ulrich Stangier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models assume that negative self-evaluations are automatically activated in individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) during social situations, increasing their individual level of anxiety. This study examined automatic self-evaluations (i.e., implicit self-esteem) and state anxiety in a group of individuals with SAD (n = 45) and a non-clinical comparison group (NC; n = 46). METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to either a speech condition with social threat induction (giving an impromptu speech) or to a no-speech condition without social threat induction...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500953/induced-not-just-right-and-incompleteness-experiences-in-ocd-patients-and-non-clinical-individuals-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-study
#19
Gertrudis Fornés-Romero, Amparo Belloch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on incompleteness and not-just right experiences, (INC/NJREs) indicate that some OCD symptom dimensions are motivated by these experiences rather than by anxiety. Most published data are correlational, using non-clinical individuals. This study sought to examine INC/NJREs in vivo in non-clinical and OCD individuals. METHODS: Study 1: Ninety-three undergraduates were randomly assigned to a INC/NJREs induction (n=44) or non-induction task (n=47)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499119/identification-of-emotions-in-mixed-disgusted-happy-faces-as-a-function-of-depressive-symptom-severity
#20
Alvaro Sanchez, Nuria Romero, Pierre Maurage, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal difficulties are common in depression, but their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The role of depression in the identification of mixed emotional signals with a direct interpersonal value remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify this question. METHODS: A sample of 39 individuals reporting a broad range of depression levels completed an emotion identification task where they viewed faces expressing three emotional categories (100% disgusted and 100% happy faces, as well as their morphed 50% disgusted - 50% happy exemplars)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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