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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Nira Liberman, Reuven Dar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years we have proposed and investigated the Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which postulates that deficient access to internal states is a key feature of the disorder. According to this model, rules and rituals that often characterize people with OCD can be understood as proxies for deficiently accessible internal states. Here we compliment this earlier experimental work by examining whether reliance on proxies for internal states in everyday life is associated with OCD...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Michael E Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Benjamin Pierce, Sarah Potts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although experiential avoidance has been shown to predict a wide range of mental health problems, there has been minimal research to-date on the more immediate effects of engaging in experiential avoidance in the moment or the moderators that predict when it is more or less harmful. METHODS: An ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study was conducted with 70 undergraduate students who completed assessments three times a day, over 7 day as well as a baseline assessment of global questionnaires...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Laura M S De Putter, Ernst H W Koster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate whether obsessive beliefs, selective attention, inhibition, and the interaction between selective attention and inhibition can prospectively predict contamination obsessive compulsive (OC) symptoms. METHODS: Obsessive beliefs, inhibition, and selective attention were assessed in a student sample (n = 89) during a baseline session in the beginning of the first semester. Their predictive value was examined by assessing symptoms after an OC symptom induction in the lab and by assessing OC symptoms during a period of increased stress (the examination period) 68-80 days after baseline...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Khan R L Collins, Melissa N Legendre, Werner G K Stritzke, Andrew C Page
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness (PB-TB) are proximal causes of suicidal desire. Here we test whether experimentally induced perceptions of meaningfulness can confer resilience against interpersonal adversity and enhance persistence, the erosion of which is a potential antecedent to suicide risk. METHODS: Undergraduate university students (N = 93) were randomly allocated to complete a team task under conditions of high or low task-extrinsic meaning and high or low PB-TB...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Laura Dondzilo, Elizabeth Rieger, Romina Palermo, Jason Bell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attentional bias towards thin-ideal body images has been implicated as a vulnerability factor for eating disorder symptomatology. However, the nature and causal basis of its relationship with other cognitive vulnerability factors, namely, eating disorder-specific rumination and negative mood, remains unclear. Accordingly, the current study investigated the causal influence of attentional bias towards thin-ideal images on emotional and ruminative vulnerability, in response to a body image-related stressor...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Benjamin W Bellet, Payton J Jones, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trigger warnings notify people of the distress that written, audiovisual, or other material may evoke, and were initially used to provide for the needs of those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Since their inception, trigger warnings have become more widely applied throughout contemporary culture, sparking intense controversy in academia and beyond. Some argue that they empower vulnerable individuals by allowing them to psychologically prepare for or avoid disturbing content, whereas others argue that such warnings undermine resilience to stress and increase vulnerability to psychopathology while constraining academic freedom...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Barbara Cludius, Alexander F Schmidt, Steffen Moritz, Rainer Banse, Lena Jelinek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Bunmi O Olatunji, Qianqian Fan, Kate Wolitzky-Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the extent to which intrusive thoughts and associated distress explains the association between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and post-traumatic stress (PTS) using the "trauma film paradigm". METHODS: Participants high and low in AS viewed a 10-min film of graphic scenes of fatal traffic accidents and then underwent a 10-min thought suppression period where intrusive thoughts and associated distress about the film was assessed...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lydia Allen, Kate E Mulgrew, Karina Rune, Andrew Allen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We tested whether a single-session of attention bias modification (ABM) could change bias towards appearance-related words and improve body satisfaction. METHODS: Females (N = 102; Mage  = 33 years) completed an ABM session where attention was trained towards positive appearance-related information (n = 31), away from negative appearance-related information (n = 37), or a non-training session (n = 34). Importance of appearance and shape concern were examined as moderators...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Anke M Klein, Rian Bakens, Rianne E van Niekerk, Machteld A Ouwens, Ronald M Rapee, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories of fear suggest that biases in interpretation are content-specific: Fearful children should only interpret materials negatively if they are specifically related to the content of their fear. So far, there are only a few studies available that report on this postulated content-specificity of interpretation processes in childhood fear. The goal of this study was to examine interpretation bias and its content-specificity in children with varying levels of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Noah Chase Berman, Natalie L Wilver, Sabine Wilhelm
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Environmental factors explain substantial variance in youth's obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and much of this research has focused upon overt parenting behaviors (e.g., accommodation). No work, however, has examined how parents' internal processes (e.g., perception of children's intrusions) influence youth's OCS. Based upon the cognitive theory of obsessions, we propose that parents' misappraisal of children's intrusions as threatening will be positively associated with (a) the number of maladaptive intrusion management strategies recommended by the parent, as well as (b) children's obsessive beliefs, (c) interpretation biases, and (d) OCS severity...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
J Yiend, K Barnicot, M Williams, E Fox
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mechanisms of engagement and disengagement of attention to emotional information are thought to contribute to the onset and maintenance of anxiety and depression, a conclusion based largely on findings in analogue subclinical samples. However, we argue that traditionally defined analogue samples can be misleading. Firstly, research has challenged the adequacy of conventional measures of subclinical traits by illustrating that supposedly distinct scales are highly inter-correlated and do not therefore measure independent constructs...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
N Abrahamsson, L Ahlund, E Ahrin, S Alfonsson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective for treating eating disorders but it may be difficult to reach patients living far from urban centers. Mobile video-based psychotherapy may potentially improve service reach but has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile video-based CBT for eating disorder and to explore the feasibility to use this technology in clinical care. METHODS: A controlled single case multiple baseline design was used which allowed for statistical analyses with randomization tests and non-overlap of all pairs (NAP)...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Matthew Modini, Maree J Abbott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pre-event rumination has a clear role in maintaining social anxiety according to cognitive models. However, it is unclear what specific strategies can address pre-event rumination for individuals diagnosed with SAD. The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention on multiple aspects of pre-event rumination, state anxiety and performance and threat appraisals. Additionally, the trajectory of pre-event rumination was investigated over four days...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Thomas A Fergus, Nancy E Wheless
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The attention training technique (ATT) is a component of metacognitive therapy developed to interrupt self-focused, threat-based processing underlying anxiety disorders. Whereas extant research supports the benefits of ATT, including in relation to anxiety reduction, study findings lead to equivocal conclusions as to whether ATT causally interrupts self-focused attention (SFA) as intended. An additional gap in the literature relates to investigating if ATT is especially effective for reducing anxiety among individuals experiencing a heightened self-focused state...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Siqi Chen, Nisha Yao, Mingyi Qian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the influence of uncertainty and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on anxiety pathologies has been well-established, only a few studies examined the interaction between uncertainty and IU in producing anxiety. Meanwhile, there is a lack of research utilizing experimental methods to manipulate the situational uncertainty. Therefore, the current study aimed to more systematically investigate whether and how trait IU interacted with uncertainty in the production of anxiety...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Michelle Comas, Kristin Valentino, Anne F Johnson, Bradley S Gibson, Courtney Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Overgeneral memory (OGM), difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories, is a robust phenomenon related to the onset and course of depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders. Inhibitory mechanisms are theorized to underlie OGM; however, empirical support for this link is equivocal. The current study examines the differential roles of two aspects of inhibitory control in association with OGM: suppression of prepotent responses and resistance to proactive interference (PI)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Brian Fisak, Alicia Kissinger-Knox, Enrique Cibrian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mood-as-input hypothesis (MAIH), which emphasizes the role of mood and stop rules on perseverative thinking, has been extensively studied in relation to worry (Meeten & Davey, 2011). However, relatively few studies have focused on the applicability of the MAIH to depressive rumination. Consequently, two studies were conducted to further examine the potential relevance of the MAIH to depressive rumination. METHODS: In the first study, a sample of undergraduate students completed a rumination interview under one of four conditions, including mood (positive vs...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Philippe T Gilchrist, Simone Schnall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Moral threats, including threats to moral self-worth, have been associated with contamination concerns. Paradoxically, although self-cleansing provides temporary relief, it can worsen feelings of contamination. Self-affirmation might be an effective strategy, especially following obsessive type cognitions (e.g., responsibility beliefs) when moral threats are reactivated. METHODS: In Experiment 1, participants recalled an immoral deed and then self-cleansed (using a hand-wipe), completed a control task, or self-affirmed...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kenta Ishikawa, Hikaru Suzuki, Matia Okubo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals with social anxiety have various types of deficiencies in emotional processing. Diversity of deficiencies may imply that socially anxious individuals have malfunctions in fundamental parts of emotional processing. Therefore, we hypothesized that social anxiety contributes to deficiencies in building on the metaphorical relationship between emotional experience and brightness. METHODS: We conducted a judgment task of valences of faces with manipulated clothing brightness (bright or dark)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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