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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Anne A Cuperus, Maarten Laken, Kevin van Schie, Iris M Engelhard, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several treatments are effective in reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. We tested the effectiveness of an experimental intervention that consists of elements from two of these: virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. The latter is characterized by a dual-task approach: the patient holds a traumatic memory in mind while simultaneously making voluntary eye movements, resulting in reduced vividness and emotionality of the traumatic memory...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Shannon D Donofry, Wieske van Zoest, Andrea Moonen, Sofia Sacchetti, Chantal Nederkoorn, Anne Roefs
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research linking dietary restraint to attentional bias toward food cues has been equivocal, suggesting that dietary restraint may only influence attentional processing of food in certain contexts. The present study examined whether negative mood strengthens the association between dietary restraint and attention bias for food. METHODS: Healthy female participants were randomized to either a neutral (n = 47) or negative mood (n = 49) induction...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Gaëtan Mertens, Arne Leer, Eva Anna Maria van Dis, Lotte Vermeer, Anne Steenhuizen, Lisa van der Veen, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Secondary extinction refers to the phenomenon that extinction of one conditioned stimulus (CS) results in the reduction of conditioned responses for other CSs conditioned with the same unconditioned stimulus (US). Previous research with rats has demonstrated that secondary extinction can interfere with the return of conditioned fear after a reinstatement manipulation. Here we investigated this phenomenon in two pre-registered studies in humans. METHOD: In both experiments, distinct CSs were paired with an electrical stimulation...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kirsten E Gilbert, Natasha A Tonge, Renee J Thompson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychological inflexibility exhibits across multiple facets of functioning, including thinking styles, personality, cognitive shifting, emotion, and physiology, with many of these manifestations showing associations with depression. As such, these facets might be part of an overarching latent construct of psychological inflexibility that explains associations with depression. We predicted that (1) five facets of inflexibility (perseverative thinking, personality rigidity, attention-shifting, negative emotional inertia, and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity) would load onto a unique latent construct of psychological inflexibility...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lisa H Evans, Hannah M McCann, Jack G Isgar, Alice Gaston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between false memories and schizotypal experiences in healthy volunteers. Previous research has examined a number of schizotypal dimensions and experiences and found a variety of results. Our aim was to determine the specificity of these associations by giving participants a schizotypy measure which tapped positive, negative and disorganised dimensions (O-LIFE) and another which focused on delusional ideation (PDI). METHODS: A new memory task was used consisting of images of everyday items, separated into categories...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jessie Hackford, Anna Mackey, Elizabeth Broadbent
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Embodiment theory proposes that motor processes are associated with emotions and cognitions. Previous research has shown that walking posture can influence affective memory bias. This study further investigated this theory by looking at the effects of an upright versus slumped walking posture on psychological and physiological states when faced with a psychological stressor. METHODS: Seventy-three healthy adults completed baseline self-report measures of affect, power, and sleepiness, and physiological measures of blood pressure, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Steven G LoBello, Sheila Mehta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is ubiquitous in popular culture and has influenced psychiatric diagnosis with the inclusion of the seasonal pattern modifier for the Major Depressive Episode in DSM. However, recent research has not supported the association of Major Depressive Episode with seasonal changes. The present study was conducted to determine if a seasonally-related pattern of occurrence of mild variants of depression could be demonstrated in a population-based study...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Gary I Britton, Sarah E Neale, Graham C L Davey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The effect of a worry manipulation on the clinical constructs intolerance of uncertainty (IU), negative beliefs about the consequences of worry (NCOW), positive beliefs about the consequences of worry (PCOW), in addition to the emotions anxiety and sadness, was examined. METHODS: A non-clinical sample was split into two groups, a worry group (n = 29), who were asked to generate 20 potential worries about a hypothetical scenario, and a control group (n = 28), who were asked to generate 2 potential worries about the same scenario...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Weike Xia, Eric Eyolfson, Keith Lloyd, Bram Vervliet, Simon Dymond
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive avoidance of potential threat is a hallmark of anxiety and is thought to maintain fear by preserving the perceived high-threat value of avoided situations. Previous research has shown that the availability of avoidance maintains low-level threat. Here, we investigated whether an opportunity to engage in avoidance in the presence of a low-threat value safety cue would maintain its perceived threat value when avoidance was unavailable. METHODS: In a threat conditioning procedure, one conditional danger stimulus (CS+; A+) was followed by an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock), and two safety stimuli (CS-; B- and C-) were never followed by the US...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Bram Van Bockstaele, Lies Notebaert, Colin MacLeod, Elske Salemink, Patrick J F Clarke, Bruno Verschuere, Susan M Bögels, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In two experiments, we investigated the effects of Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) on emotion regulation, i.e. the manner in which people influence emotional experiences. We hypothesized that decreases in attentional bias to threat would impair upregulation and improve downregulation of negative emotions, while increases in attentional bias to threat would improve upregulation and impair downregulation of negative emotions. METHODS: Using the emotion-in-motion paradigm (Experiment 1, N = 60) and the visual search task (Experiment 2, N = 58), we trained participants to attend to either threatening or positive stimuli and we assessed emotion intensity while observing, upregulating, and downregulating emotions in response to grids of mixed emotional pictures...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Anastasia L McGlade, Tomislav D Zbozinek, Michael Treanor, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Following an aversive experience, fears often generalize across contexts. Contextual fear generalization is modeled in a laboratory paradigm in which one context (CTX+) is paired with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US), while the other context (CTX-) is not. The current study sought to validate a novel paradigm assessing contextual fear generalization, and to determine the extent to which stress and anxiety symptoms enhanced contextual fear generalization...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Rebecca Butler, Katherine Berry, Lyn Ellett, Sandra Bucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal stress is key to the development and maintenance of paranoia. Much attention has been given to the impact of interpersonal stressors, such as criticism, on outcomes in psychosis. Less attention has been given to the potentially protective effects of positive interpersonal factors. This study tested experimentally whether criticism and warm comments elicited changes in state paranoia. Whether warm comments provided protective effects when participants faced subsequent social exclusion was also examined...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Marena Siegesleitner, Miriam Strohm, Charlotte E Wittekind, Thomas Ehring, Anna E Kunze
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Imagery rescripting (ImRs) is a promising intervention targeting emotional memory. Previous analogue studies have mainly investigated effects of ImRs during memory encoding and consolidation; experimental research on the effects and mechanisms of change in ImRs targeting consolidated memories is largely missing. The present study aimed to investigate effects of ImRs on consolidated memories using a multiple-day trauma film paradigm. METHODS: Eighty-eight participants were randomly assigned to either ImRs, imagery rehearsal (IRE), or no intervention control (NIC)...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Laurel D Sarfan, Elise M Clerkin, Bethany A Teachman, April R Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dieters are likely primed to think about their diet throughout the day (e.g., as they feel hungry). However, prior research has not tested whether and how thinking about dieting might have negative effects, like poor self-esteem and body shape concerns. METHODS: We experimentally primed dieters' thoughts about their diets and tested whether: 1) dieting thoughts are related to poor state self-esteem through body shape concerns; and 2) dieting thoughts are related to body shape concerns through poor state self-esteem...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Mariamne Rose, Lyn Ellett, Vyv Huddy, Gary P Brown
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quality of reasoning within non-clinical paranoia and mental simulation of future paranoia themed events was investigated by use of a simulation task to determine whether paranoid individuals would be restricted or more adept at reasoning about paranoia relevant material in comparison to a social anxiety group and a group with low paranoia and social anxiety. METHOD: Participants (N = 63) were divided into the three groups based on paranoia and social anxiety scores...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ioannis Angelakis, Venessa Lewis, Jennifer L Austin, Maria Panagioti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Engaging in safety behaviors in the absence of actual threat is a key feature of many psychological disorders, including OCD and depression. Failure to discriminate between threatening and safe environments may make these behaviors resistant to change. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the conditions under which avoidance and safety behaviors are developed and maintained. METHODS: In experiment 1, sixty-seven participants who were initially screened for low obsessive-compulsive behavior were invited to play a computerized game to gain points and avoid their potential loss...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sarah E Dreyer-Oren, Elise M Clerkin, Cierra B Edwards, Bethany A Teachman, Shari A Steinman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People who are afraid of heights may have a perceptual bias, such that they see heights as higher than they truly are. The current study tested if there is a causal relationship between treatments for height fear and changes in perceptual bias. METHODS: Specifically, the effects on perceptual bias following three height fear interventions (exposure, cognitive bias modification for interpretations, and a combination of exposure and cognitive bias modification) and a control condition were examined in individuals with an extreme fear of heights (N = 107)...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Fanny Alexandra Dietel, Martin Möbius, Lena Steinbach, Christina Dusend, Sabine Wilhelm, Ulrike Buhlmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpretation biases are hypothesized to maintain body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Although their existence and malleability have been investigated in clinical studies, their causal status in the maintenance of BDD remains unclear. This study examined the effects of a single-session appearance-related interpretation bias training (CBM-I) on bias indices and stress reactivity (i.e., distress, appearance dissatisfaction, self-esteem, perceived physical attractiveness), exploring the causality predicted in cognitive-behavioral models...
December 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Nira Liberman, Reuven Dar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years we have proposed and investigated the Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which postulates that deficient access to internal states is a key feature of the disorder. According to this model, rules and rituals that often characterize people with OCD can be understood as proxies for deficiently accessible internal states. Here we compliment this earlier experimental work by examining whether reliance on proxies for internal states in everyday life is associated with OCD...
December 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Michael E Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Benjamin Pierce, Sarah Potts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although experiential avoidance has been shown to predict a wide range of mental health problems, there has been minimal research to-date on the more immediate effects of engaging in experiential avoidance in the moment or the moderators that predict when it is more or less harmful. METHODS: An ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study was conducted with 70 undergraduate students who completed assessments three times a day, over 7 day as well as a baseline assessment of global questionnaires...
December 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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