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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Siqi Chen, Nisha Yao, Mingyi Qian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the influence of uncertainty and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on anxiety pathologies has been well-established, only a few studies examined the interaction between uncertainty and IU in producing anxiety. Meanwhile, there is a lack of research utilizing experimental methods to manipulate the situational uncertainty. Therefore, the current study aimed to more systematically investigate whether and how trait IU interacted with uncertainty in the production of anxiety...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Michelle Comas, Kristin Valentino, Anne F Johnson, Bradley S Gibson, Courtney Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Overgeneral memory (OGM), difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories, is a robust phenomenon related to the onset and course of depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders. Inhibitory mechanisms are theorized to underlie OGM; however, empirical support for this link is equivocal. The current study examines the differential roles of two aspects of inhibitory control in association with OGM: suppression of prepotent responses and resistance to proactive interference (PI)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Brian Fisak, Alicia Kissinger-Knox, Enrique Cibrian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mood-as-input hypothesis (MAIH), which emphasizes the role of mood and stop rules on perseverative thinking, has been extensively studied in relation to worry (Meeten & Davey, 2011). However, relatively few studies have focused on the applicability of the MAIH to depressive rumination. Consequently, two studies were conducted to further examine the potential relevance of the MAIH to depressive rumination. METHODS: In the first study, a sample of undergraduate students completed a rumination interview under one of four conditions, including mood (positive vs...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Philippe T Gilchrist, Simone Schnall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Moral threats, including threats to moral self-worth, have been associated with contamination concerns. Paradoxically, although self-cleansing provides temporary relief, it can worsen feelings of contamination. Self-affirmation might be an effective strategy, especially following obsessive type cognitions (e.g., responsibility beliefs) when moral threats are reactivated. METHODS: In Experiment 1, participants recalled an immoral deed and then self-cleansed (using a hand-wipe), completed a control task, or self-affirmed...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kenta Ishikawa, Hikaru Suzuki, Matia Okubo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals with social anxiety have various types of deficiencies in emotional processing. Diversity of deficiencies may imply that socially anxious individuals have malfunctions in fundamental parts of emotional processing. Therefore, we hypothesized that social anxiety contributes to deficiencies in building on the metaphorical relationship between emotional experience and brightness. METHODS: We conducted a judgment task of valences of faces with manipulated clothing brightness (bright or dark)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Angelina Yiu, Kara Christensen, Jean M Arlt, Eunice Y Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The tendency to engage in impulsive behaviors when distressed is linked to disordered eating. The current study comprehensively examines emotional responses to a distress tolerance task by utilizing self-report, psychophysiological measures (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA], skin conductance responses [SCRs] and tonic skin conductance levels [SCLs]), and behavioral measures (i.e., termination of task, latency to quit task). METHODS: 26 healthy controls (HCs) and a sample of treatment-seeking women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) (N = 106) completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task- Computerized (PASAT-C)...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Julie Rivière, Amélie Rousseau, Céline Douilliez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rumination is a factor in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction. However, no study has yet investigated the impact of the type of rumination on body image. The first aim of this study was to examine whether the induction of analytic-abstract vs. concrete-experiential rumination affects body dissatisfaction following an induction of negative body image. The second objective was to examine gender differences in these effects. METHODS: Following induction of negative body image, 102 university undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions-distraction, concrete rumination or abstract rumination...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
James Hurley, Jo Hodgekins, Sian Coker, David Fowler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Threat Anticipation Model (Freeman, 2007) implicates social anxiety, jumping to conclusions (JTC) and belief inflexibility in persecutory delusions. We investigated whether Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation (CBM-I; Turner et al., 2011) improves social anxiety by targeting negative interpretation bias of ambiguous social information. We determined whether the Maudsley Review Training Programme (MRTP; Waller et al., 2011) improves JTC, belief inflexibility and paranoia...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jodie Harlowe, Stephanie Farrar, Lusia Stopa, Hannah Turner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low self-esteem has been identified as a maintaining factor in Cognitive Behavioural models of eating disorders and links have been identified between early memories, negative core beliefs and mental imagery. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity and self-discrepancy) and affect. METHODS: Participants with high levels of eating disorder cognitions completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, self-discrepancy and affect prior to completing a positive or negative self-imagery retrieval task...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lillian Le, Michelle Moulds, Angela Nickerson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that the effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal (CR) depends on different factors, including the individual's psychological wellbeing (e.g., level of anxiety) and the context in which the strategy is used (e.g., stressor controllability). The present study aimed to investigate the emotional (negative affect) and physiological (skin conductance levels) effects of emotion regulation following exposure to controllable versus uncontrollable stress...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jacinta M Oulton, Deryn Strange, Reginald D V Nixon, Melanie K T Takarangi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trauma victims, such as war veterans, often remember additional traumatic events over time: the "memory amplification effect". This effect is associated with the re-experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including frequent and intrusive images of the trauma. One explanation for memory amplification is that people gradually incorporate new, imagined information about the trauma with what they actually experienced, leading to an amplified memory for what actually happened...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Andre Pittig, Kristina Hengen, Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The reduction of avoidance behavior is a central target in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but it has rarely been studied how approach of fear-relevant stimuli may be initiated. In two studies, the impact of hypothetical monetary and symbolic social incentives on approach-avoidance behavior was examined. METHODS: In Study 1, individuals high or low on fear of spiders (N = 84) could choose to approach a fear-relevant versus a neutral stimulus, which were equally rewarded...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Joan M Farrell, Ida A Shaw, Michael A Webber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Brianna J Turner, Alexander L Chapman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite strong support for the role of emotional relief in deliberate self-harm (DSH), no research has examined the impact of emotional distress on the strength of the DSH-relief association. Thus, it remains unclear whether the association of DSH with emotional relief is stable across emotional contexts or context-dependent. This study aimed to examine if the implicit DSH-relief association is stronger in the context of emotional distress (relative to a neutral emotional context)...
September 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Amy R Goetz, Han-Joo Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive-behavioral theorists posit that safety behaviors (SBs) interfere with important exposure processes and should be removed from therapy. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that restorative SBs (RSB; those that allow for full confrontation with a core threat) do not adversely affect exposure outcomes, and their implementation during exposure should be further examined. METHODS: The current study evaluated exposure with the continuous use of RSB (E + CONT) versus discontinuation of RSB (E + DISC), in comparison to exposure with no RSB (ERP)...
September 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Travis C Evans, Jennifer C Britton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Abnormal threat-related attention in anxiety disorders is most commonly assessed and modified using the dot-probe paradigm; however, poor psychometric properties of reaction-time measures may contribute to inconsistencies across studies. Typically, standard attention measures are derived using average reaction-times obtained in experimentally-defined conditions. However, current approaches based on experimentally-defined conditions are limited. In this study, the psychometric properties of a novel response-based computation approach to analyze dot-probe data are compared to standard measures of attention...
September 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Mia Skytte O'Toole, Lynn Watson, Nicole K Rosenberg, Dorthe Berntsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore the association between reductions in symptoms of psychopathology and perceived centrality of negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD) or panic disorder (PD). METHODS: Thirty-nine individuals with SAD or PD recalled and rated four negative autobiographical memories before and after ten sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over a three-month period...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Naama Hamo, Amitai Abramovitch, Ada Zohar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ample research in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) reveals a moderate degree of underperformance on various neuropsychological tasks. Less is known about neuropsychological function in subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) samples. Most analogue OCD studies did not use a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and none utilized a fully computerized battery. To fill this gap in the literature, the present study aimed at assessing cognitive functions in a subclinical OC sample using a validated computerized neuropsychological battery...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Gina R A Ferrari, Martin Möbius, Eni S Becker, J Spijker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The general positivity training, a Cognitive Bias Modification procedure modifying individuals' approach-avoidance tendencies to positively and negatively valenced pictures by means of a joystick task, has been proven effective in attenuating stress reactivity in dysphoric students. The present study explored which training component (pull positive pictures, push negative pictures, or both) is the active one in changing action tendencies and stress responses...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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