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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Brianna J Turner, Alexander L Chapman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite strong support for the role of emotional relief in deliberate self-harm (DSH), no research has examined the impact of emotional distress on the strength of the DSH-relief association. Thus, it remains unclear whether the association of DSH with emotional relief is stable across emotional contexts or context-dependent. This study aimed to examine if the implicit DSH-relief association is stronger in the context of emotional distress (relative to a neutral emotional context)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Amy R Goetz, Han-Joo Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive-behavioral theorists posit that safety behaviors (SBs) interfere with important exposure processes and should be removed from therapy. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that restorative SBs (RSB; those that allow for full confrontation with a core threat) do not adversely affect exposure outcomes, and their implementation during exposure should be further examined. METHODS: The current study evaluated exposure with the continuous use of RSB (E + CONT) versus discontinuation of RSB (E + DISC), in comparison to exposure with no RSB (ERP)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Chi-Wen Liang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attentional control has recently been assumed to play a critical role in the generation and maintenance of threat-related attentional bias and social anxiety. The present study aimed to investigate whether socially anxious (SA) individuals show impairments in attentional control functions, particularly in inhibition and shifting. METHODS: Forty-two SA and 41 non-anxious (NA) participants completed a mixed antisaccade task, a variant of the antisaccade task that is used to investigate inhibition as well as shifting functions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jennie Abbott, Megan Middlemiss, Vicki Bruce, David Smailes, Robert Dudley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When asked to evaluate faces of strangers, people with paranoia show a tendency to rate others as less trustworthy. The present study investigated the impact of arousal on this interpersonal bias, and whether this bias was specific to evaluations of trust or additionally affected other trait judgements. The study also examined the impact of eye gaze direction, as direct eye gaze has been shown to heighten arousal. METHODS: In two experiments, non-clinical participants completed face rating tasks before and after either an arousal manipulation or control manipulation...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Keisuke Takano, Louise Vanden Poel, Filip Raes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive bias to sleep-related information is thought to be a core feature of sleep disturbances. The bias may enhance pre-sleep arousal, such as excessive worry about sleeplessness, which prevents people from initiating normal sleep onset. The present study focused on (a) attention bias toward sleep-related stimuli and (b) difficulty in updating working memory for sleep-related stimuli as two possible mechanisms underlying pre-sleep cognitive arousal. METHOD: Participants (n = 61, a community sample) completed a dot-probe task (with sleep-related and matched control word stimuli) and a 1-back and 2-back task (with sleep-related and non-sleep-related pictorial stimuli)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive avoidance towards non-dangerous cues is a key diagnostic criterion across anxiety-related disorders. Despite current therapies being successful in reducing such avoidance, relapse rates remain high. Based on recent findings, according to which learned fear responses were reduced after the presentation of the fear stimulus with a novel-neutral event (novel-based extinction), we tested whether novel-based extinction could diminish conditioned avoidance...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Or Ezrati, Eyal Sherman, Reuven Dar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Seeking Proxies for Internal States model of OCD posits that obsessive-compulsive (OC) individuals have attenuated access to their internal states. Consequently, they seek and rely on discernible substitutes for these internal states. Previous research has supported these conjectures. Other studies, using a variety of measures, reported a reduced sense of agency (SoA) in OCD. The current study aimed to connect these two bodies of research by focusing on internal signals associated with active movement, which are related to the SoA...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Andrea Ballesio, Silvia Cerolini, Fabio Ferlazzo, Nicola Cellini, Caterina Lombardo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a partial sleep deprivation night on executive functions in participants reporting chronic insomnia and good sleepers using a Task Switching paradigm. METHODS: Sixteen participants reporting symptoms of chronic insomnia and sixteen good sleepers were tested after a night of habitual sleep and after a night of partial sleep deprivation (5 h of sleep allowed). The Switch Cost (SC) and the Backward Inhibition (BI) were computed as measures of switching attention and response inhibition, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Pauline Dibbets, Anke Lemmens, Marisol Voncken
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is assumed that fear responses can be altered by changing the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US), or by devaluing the present mental representation of the US. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of contingency- and devaluation-based intervention techniques on the diminishment in - and return of fear. We hypothesized that extinction (EXT, contingency-based) would outperform devaluation-based techniques regarding contingency measures, but that devaluation-based techniques would be most effective in reducing the mental representation of the US...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lonneke A van Tuijl, Johan R L Verwoerd, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Implicit self-esteem (ISE) refers to the valence of triggered associations when the self is activated. Despite theories, previous studies often fail to observe low ISE in depression and anxiety. It is feasible that sad mood is required to activate dysfunctional self-associations. The present study tested the following hypotheses: i) ISE is lower following a sad mood induction (SMI); ii) the relationship between ISE and level of depression/anxiety symptoms is relatively strong when ISE is measured during sad mood; iii) individuals with higher levels of depression/anxiety symptoms will show a relatively large decrease in ISE following a SMI...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Travis C Evans, Jennifer C Britton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Abnormal threat-related attention in anxiety disorders is most commonly assessed and modified using the dot-probe paradigm; however, poor psychometric properties of reaction-time measures may contribute to inconsistencies across studies. Typically, standard attention measures are derived using average reaction-times obtained in experimentally-defined conditions. However, current approaches based on experimentally-defined conditions are limited. In this study, the psychometric properties of a novel response-based computation approach to analyze dot-probe data are compared to standard measures of attention...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Mia Skytte O'Toole, Lynn Watson, Nicole K Rosenberg, Dorthe Berntsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore the association between reductions in symptoms of psychopathology and perceived centrality of negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD) or panic disorder (PD). METHODS: Thirty-nine individuals with SAD or PD recalled and rated four negative autobiographical memories before and after ten sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over a three-month period...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Christina Andreou, Ryan P Balzan, Lena Jelinek, Steffen Moritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Gina R A Ferrari, Martin Möbius, Eni S Becker, J Spijker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The general positivity training, a Cognitive Bias Modification procedure modifying individuals' approach-avoidance tendencies to positively and negatively valenced pictures by means of a joystick task, has been proven effective in attenuating stress reactivity in dysphoric students. The present study explored which training component (pull positive pictures, push negative pictures, or both) is the active one in changing action tendencies and stress responses...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Helen Waller, Sabine Landau, Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo, Suzanne Jolley, Paul McCrone, Rikesh Halkoree, Nedah Basit, Catherine Iredale, Catherine Tunnard, Darshan Zala, Tom J K Craig, Philippa Garety
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a pressing need to improve access to evidence-based practice for people with psychosis. The primary aim of this study was to assess clinical feasibility of a manualised, evidence-based CBT intervention (GOALS) targeting a personalised recovery goal, delivered by the frontline workforce, following brief training. Secondly, we aimed to conduct preliminary statistical analyses of key outcomes and costs. METHODS: The GOALS study is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 73188383)...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Christopher C Sova, John E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The cognitive catalyst model posits that rumination and negative cognitive content, such as negative schema, interact to predict depressive affect. Past research has found support for this model using explicit measures of negative cognitive content such as self-report measures of trait self-esteem and dysfunctional attitudes. The present study tested whether these findings would extend to implicit measures of negative cognitive content such as implicit self-esteem, and whether effects would depend on initial mood state and history of depression...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ioannis Angelakis, Jennifer L Austin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Safety behaviors, defined as engagement in avoidance within safe environments, are a key symptom of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. They may interfere with daily functioning and as such their emission should be reduced. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of the non-contingent presentation of safety signals (cues produced by safety behaviors) on reducing safety behaviors in participants self-reporting low and high OCD profiles...
June 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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