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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505489/anxiety-sensitivity-as-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Shannon M Blakey, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Lillian Reuman, Rachel C Leonard, Bradley C Riemann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To address the fact that not all individuals who receive cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit complete symptom reduction, research has examined factors that predict outcome; however, no studies have examined anxiety sensitivity (AS) as a predictor of outcome of CBT for OCD. AS refers to the fear of anxious arousal that results from mistaken beliefs about the dangerousness of anxiety-related body sensations. It is important to understand whether AS influences OCD treatment outcome, considering that (a) some obsessions directly relate to AS, and (b) OCD patients with high AS may be reluctant to engage in anxiety-provoking components of CBT for OCD...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511035/on-the-context-dependency-of-implicit-self-esteem-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Thomas S Hiller, Melanie C Steffens, Viktoria Ritter, Ulrich Stangier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models assume that negative self-evaluations are automatically activated in individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) during social situations, increasing their individual level of anxiety. This study examined automatic self-evaluations (i.e., implicit self-esteem) and state anxiety in a group of individuals with SAD (n = 45) and a non-clinical comparison group (NC; n = 46). METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to either a speech condition with social threat induction (giving an impromptu speech) or to a no-speech condition without social threat induction...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500953/induced-not-just-right-and-incompleteness-experiences-in-ocd-patients-and-non-clinical-individuals-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-study
#3
Gertrudis Fornés-Romero, Amparo Belloch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499119/identification-of-emotions-in-mixed-disgusted-happy-faces-as-a-function-of-depressive-symptom-severity
#4
Alvaro Sanchez, Nuria Romero, Pierre Maurage, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal difficulties are common in depression, but their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The role of depression in the identification of mixed emotional signals with a direct interpersonal value remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify this question. METHODS: A sample of 39 individuals reporting a broad range of depression levels completed an emotion identification task where they viewed faces expressing three emotional categories (100% disgusted and 100% happy faces, as well as their morphed 50% disgusted - 50% happy exemplars)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477531/conditioned-responses-to-trauma-reminders-how-durable-are-they-over-time-and-does-memory-integration-reduce-them
#5
Markus Streb, Martin A Conway, Tanja Michael
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458128/the-role-of-safety-signals-in-fear-extinction-an-analogue-study
#6
Juan C Restrepo-Castro, Leonidas Castro-Camacho, Francisco Javier Labrador
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Safety signals are conditioned inhibitory stimuli that indicate the absence of unconditioned stimuli. It is not clear whether the presence of safety signals is detrimental or beneficial in extinction-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of safety signals on autonomic and expectancy fear-related responses. METHODS: Following the conditional discrimination paradigm (AX +, BX-), undergraduate students (N = 48) underwent an aversive conditioning procedure, while safety signals were experimentally created...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419917/the-effect-of-social-exclusion-on-state-paranoia-and-explicit-and-implicit-self-esteem-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#7
C Stewart, F Rogers, M Pilch, I Stewart, Y Barnes-Holmes, S Westermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419918/internal-shifting-impairments-in-response-to-emotional-information-in-dysphoric-adolescents
#8
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Ineke Demeyer, Tiffany Naets, Caroline Braet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that internal cognitive control impairments may play an important role in the development of depression. Despite a growing body of research in adults, the ability to shift internal attention between mental representations in working memory has received little attention in younger populations. This study investigated internal shifting capacity between emotional and non-emotional information in dysphoric and non-dysphoric adolescents...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395237/improving-perceptions-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-with-brief-website-exposure-does-neuroscientific-allure-impact-attitudes
#9
Casey A Schofield, Henry Weis, Gabriella Ponzini, R Kathryn McHugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to determine whether brief exposure to a webpage about cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the anxiety disorders improved knowledge and perceptions of this treatment. Further, this study tested whether participants were uniquely compelled by CBT if the mechanism of change cited neurological processes. METHOD: Participants (N = 389) recruited online viewed a webpage screenshot that described CBT for anxiety...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329711/one-for-all-the-effect-of-extinction-stimulus-typicality-on-return-of-fear
#10
Sara Scheveneels, Yannick Boddez, Marc Patrick Bennett, Dirk Hermans
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During exposure therapy, patients are encouraged to approach the feared stimulus, so they can experience that this stimulus is not followed by the anticipated aversive outcome. However, patients might treat the absence of the aversive outcome as an 'exception to the rule'. This could hamper the generalization of fear reduction when the patient is confronted with similar stimuli not used in therapy. We examined the effect of providing information about the typicality of the extinction stimulus on the generalization of extinction to a new but similar stimulus...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318497/belief-bias-reasoning-in-non-clinical-delusion-prone-individuals
#11
T Anandakumar, E Connaughton, M Coltheart, R Langdon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that people with delusions have difficulty inhibiting beliefs (i.e., "doxastic inhibition") so as to reason about them as if they might not be true. We used a continuity approach to test this proposal in non-clinical adults scoring high and low in psychometrically assessed delusion-proneness. High delusion-prone individuals were expected to show greater difficulty than low delusion-prone individuals on "conflict" items of a "belief-bias" reasoning task (i...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371642/the-impact-of-social-threat-cues-on-a-card-sorting-task-with-attentional-shifting-demands
#12
Jan Mohlman, Alyssa DeVito
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated social anxiety and attentional control using two versions of a task designed to tap intentional shifting of attention and set switching: the standard Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Heaton, 1981) and a modified version that included emotionally salient pictorial stimuli, the Emotional Faces Card Sorting Test (EFCST). A Group (lower-, higher-SPS) by Condition (WCST, EFCST) by Sorting Rule (color, form, number) interaction was expected in which the higher-SPS EFCST group would have worse overall performance and make more perseverative errors than the other groups...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285114/approach-behavior-as-information
#13
Sophie L van Uijen, Marcel A van den Hout, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. METHODS: 325 students rated the danger they perceived in general and spider-relevant scenarios in which information about objective safety versus objective danger, and approach behavior versus no approach behavior, was varied...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209215/the-relevance-of-goal-orientation-for-motivation-in-high-versus-low-proneness-to-negative-symptoms
#14
Björn Schlier, Maike Engel, Anne-Katharina Fladung, Anja Fritzsche, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915159/public-speaking-avoidance-as-a-treatment-moderator-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#15
Bita Mesri, Andrea N Niles, Andre Pittig, Richard T LeBeau, Ethan Haik, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620071/asymmetrical-transfer-effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-modifying-attention-to-threat-influences-interpretation-of-emotional-ambiguity-but-not-vice-versa
#16
J O Bowler, L Hoppitt, J Illingworth, T Dalgleish, M Ononaiye, G Perez-Olivas, B Mackintosh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is well established that attention bias and interpretation bias each have a key role in the development and continuation of anxiety. How the biases may interact with one another in anxiety is, however, poorly understood. Using cognitive bias modification techniques, the present study examined whether training a more positive interpretation bias or attention bias resulted in transfer of effects to the untrained cognitive domain. Differences in anxiety reactivity to a real-world stressor were also assessed...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614662/do-improved-patient-recall-and-the-provision-of-memory-support-enhance-treatment-adherence
#17
Lu Dong, Jason Y Lee, Allison G Harvey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. METHODS: Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423222/a-client-level-session-by-session-evaluation-of-behavioral-activation-s-mechanism-of-action
#18
Maria M Santos, James R Rae, Gabriela A Nagy, Katherine E Manbeck, Gabriela Diéguez Hurtado, Paul West, Azara Santiago-Rivera, Jonathan W Kanter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our understanding of how Behavioral Activation (BA) for depression works is limited. BA is theorized to lead to changes in depression through changes in activation. While distal support for activation as a mechanism has been obtained, more research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. Research on mechanism should consider the appropriate time-frame for examining changes in the theorized mechanism variable and whether the proposed mechanism is expected to exert causal influence in all BA cases...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362838/the-impact-of-loneliness-on-paranoia-an-experimental-approach
#19
Fabian Lamster, Clara Nittel, Winfried Rief, Stephanie Mehl, Tania Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Loneliness is a common problem in patients with schizophrenia, and may be particularly linked with persecutory ideation. Nevertheless, its role as a potential risk factor in the formation and maintenance of persecutory delusions is largely unexplored. METHODS: Loneliness was experimentally manipulated using a false-feedback paradigm in a non-clinical sample (n = 60). Change in state paranoia was compared between the induction of increased loneliness, the induction of reduced loneliness and a control condition...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218605/anger-and-guilt-in-treatment-for-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny, Lori A Zoellner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Feelings of anger and guilt are important to consider when treating PTSD as they are related to higher PTSD severity and may be related to avoidance during treatment. Avoidance may impede emotional engagement, the process of connecting with distressing, fear-related emotions during imaginal exposure, which is considered an important mechanism for successful PTSD treatment in prolonged exposure (PE). Yet, little research has examined possible complications in achieving emotional engagement, such as anger and guilt...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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