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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Bunmi O Olatunji, Andrew Tomarken, Brian Wentworth, Laura Fritzsche
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current study examines effects of exposure in multiple contexts on fear reduction and renewal and the moderating effect of baseline threat-specific and nonspecific emotionality. METHODS: Snake-fearful participants received a negative or neutral emotion induction and were randomized to video exposure to a snake in a single context, multiple context, or a no exposure control group. RESULTS: Anxiety in response to video presentations of a snake was significantly reduced in the two exposure groups compared to the control group, especially among those with heightened baseline threat-specific emotionality as indicated by snake anxiety ratings at baseline...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Zhongming Zhang, Mengyun Wang, Xiaocui Miao, Yijuan Li, Glenn Hitchman, Zhen Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) hypothesis predicts that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a deficit in subjective convictions, which may lead to a reliance on external substitutes for the perceptions of an individual's internal states. Two well-designed studies were performed for the present work that adopted a false bio-feedback procedure in a muscle tension task to examine the SPIS hypothesis. METHODS: The false bio-feedback paradigm was used to investigate our hypothesis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Robert M Ross, Bjoern Hartig, Ryan McKay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. METHODS: We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Monique C Pfaltz, Gwyneth W Y Wu, Guanyu Liu, Amelia P Tankersley, Ashley M Stilley, Michael M Plichta, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In nonclinical populations, adopting a third-person perspective as opposed to a first-person perspective while analyzing negative emotional experiences fosters understanding of these experiences and reduces negative emotional reactivity. We assessed whether this generalizes to people with major depression (MD). Additionally, we assessed whether the emotion-reducing effects of adopting a third-person perspective also occur when subjects with MD and HC subjects analyze positive experiences...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Charlotte E Wittekind, Lena Jelinek, Birgit Kleim, Christoph Muhtz, Steffen Moritz, Fabrice Berna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by altered autobiographical memories (AM) of the traumatic incident itself as well as of non-trauma-related events. Several studies have shown that trauma-exposed individuals developing PTSD have a reduced capacity to access specific past events that are not related to the traumatic event compared to those who do not develop PTSD. However, one study including a group of elderly adults did not find significant differences in AM between PTSD and non-PTSD participants...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Thies Lüdtke, Levente Kriston, Johanna Schröder, Tania M Lincoln, Steffen Moritz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Negative affect and a tendency to "jump to conclusions" (JTC) are associated with paranoia. So far, only negative affect has been examined as a precursor of subsequent paranoia in daily life using experience sampling (ESM). We addressed this research gap and used ESM to test whether JTC fluctuates in daily life, whether it predicts subsequent paranoia, and whether it mediates the effect of negative affect on paranoia. METHODS: Thirty-five participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders repeatedly self-reported negative affect, JTC, and paranoia via online questionnaires on two consecutive days...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lu Dong, Jason Y Lee, Allison G Harvey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. METHODS: Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
T Anandakumar, E Connaughton, M Coltheart, R Langdon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that people with delusions have difficulty inhibiting beliefs (i.e., "doxastic inhibition") so as to reason about them as if they might not be true. We used a continuity approach to test this proposal in non-clinical adults scoring high and low in psychometrically assessed delusion-proneness. High delusion-prone individuals were expected to show greater difficulty than low delusion-prone individuals on "conflict" items of a "belief-bias" reasoning task (i...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sarah Eisenacher, Mathias Zink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The ability to integrate evidence into a reasoning process is crucial in order to react to changing information, e.g. to adapt one's beliefs according to new evidence or to generate new beliefs when facing better alternatives. Evidence integration ability is thus associated with belief flexibility. A specific bias of evidence integration, a bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE), can be found in patients with schizophrenia and has been linked to delusion development and maintenance...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Tobias E Hillmann, Leonie Ascone, Jürgen Kempkensteffen, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A promising candidate for a vulnerability indicator for psychosis is the restricted scanpath. Restricted scanning of social stimuli, such as faces, might also contribute to misinterpretations of facial expressions and thus increase the likelihood of delusional interpretations. Moreover, similar to other vulnerability indicators of psychosis, scanpaths may be susceptible to stress. Thus, we hypothesized that scanpath restriction would increase as a function of delusion-proneness, stress and their interaction...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
J O Bowler, L Hoppitt, J Illingworth, T Dalgleish, M Ononaiye, G Perez-Olivas, B Mackintosh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is well established that attention bias and interpretation bias each have a key role in the development and continuation of anxiety. How the biases may interact with one another in anxiety is, however, poorly understood. Using cognitive bias modification techniques, the present study examined whether training a more positive interpretation bias or attention bias resulted in transfer of effects to the untrained cognitive domain. Differences in anxiety reactivity to a real-world stressor were also assessed...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Maria Ciccarelli, Mark D Griffiths, Giovanna Nigro, Marina Cosenza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
John H Riskind, Claudio Sica, Gioia Bottesi, Marta Ghisi, Todd B Kashdan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given that anxiety runs in families, it is critical to understand the cognitive factors that may be responsible for this intergenerational transmission. The present study offers a first step by exploring the link between mother and father tendencies to view potentially threatening situations as rapidly escalating toward dreaded outcomes (i.e., looming cognitive style) and the emotional disturbances and looming cognitive styles of their adult offspring. METHODS: We assessed cognitive vulnerabilities, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical sample (N = 382) of Italian college students and their parents...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Chi-Wen Liang, Jie-Li Tsai, Wen-Yau Hsu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies have supported attentional biases toward social threats in socially anxious individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time-course of sustained attention for multiple emotional stimuli using a free-viewing paradigm in social anxiety. METHODS: Thirty-two socially anxious (SA) and 30 non-anxious (NA) participants completed the free-viewing task. Participants were presented with a face array composed of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces for 10 s in each trial...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Julia Reichenberger, Nicole Wiggert, Dmitrij Agroskin, Frank H Wilhelm, Jens Blechert
BACKGROUND: Depression is characterized by depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure. Resulting alterations in emotional reactivity have been explained by three different accounts: 'positive attenuation', 'negative potentiation', and 'emotion context insensitivity'. Despite the importance of depression-related emotional alteration in social interactions, research with naturalistic interpersonal stimuli is scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unknown. METHODS: Hence, the present study examined subjective emotional reactivity to brief negative, positive, and neutral social-evaluative videos as a function of depressive symptoms in an adult sample (N = 84)...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Nicolas Koranyi, Laura Anne Grigutsch, Johannes Algermissen, Klaus Rothermund
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Wanting and liking reflect different phenomena that can be dissociated. In the present research, we develop and validate an implicit measure of wanting, the Wanting Implicit Association Test (W-IAT). To examine the validity of the W-IAT, we compared it with a standard liking IAT (L-IAT) and a semantic pseudo-wanting IAT (PW-IAT) in a context where wanting-liking dissociations have been established by previous research. Specifically, we predicted that heterosexual male participants prefer attractive female over attractive male faces in the new wanting IAT, whereas no such asymmetry should be obtained for the liking and pseudo-wanting IATs...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ryan P Balzan, Rachel Ephraums, Paul Delfabbro, Christina Andreou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sarah Kate McGowan, Elizabeth S Stevens, Evelyn Behar, Matt R Judah, Adam C Mills, DeMond M Grant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Worry and anticipatory processing are forms of repetitive negative thinking (RNT) that are associated with maladaptive characteristics and negative consequences. One key maladaptive characteristic of worry is its abstract nature (Goldwin & Behar, 2012; Stöber & Borkovec, 2002). Several investigations have relied on inductions of worry that are social-evaluative in nature, which precludes distinctions between worry and RNT about social-evaluative situations...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Gerit Pfuhl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are a range of mechanistic explanations on the formation and maintenance of delusions. Within the Bayesian brain hypothesis, particularly within the framework of predictive coding models, delusions are seen as an aberrant inference process characterized by either a failure in sensory attenuation or an aberrant weighting of prior experience. Testing of these Bayesian decision theories requires measuring of both the patients' confidence in their beliefs and the confidence they assign new, incoming information...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Leonie Ascone, Edo S Jaya, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low social rank is associated with paranoia, but there is a lack of evidence for causality. We tested the effects of social comparisons on negative affect and paranoia with an online social rank paradigm, and whether striving to avoid inferiority or fears of social rejection moderated paranoid reactions. METHOD: Female students (N = 172) were randomly exposed to one of two validated online profiles depicting a same-aged, high (unfavourable comparison) vs...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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