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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

C Stewart, F Rogers, M Pilch, I Stewart, Y Barnes-Holmes, S Westermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Ineke Demeyer, Tiffany Naets, Caroline Braet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that internal cognitive control impairments may play an important role in the development of depression. Despite a growing body of research in adults, the ability to shift internal attention between mental representations in working memory has received little attention in younger populations. This study investigated internal shifting capacity between emotional and non-emotional information in dysphoric and non-dysphoric adolescents...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Casey A Schofield, Henry Weis, Gabriella Ponzini, R Kathryn McHugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to determine whether brief exposure to a webpage about cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the anxiety disorders improved knowledge and perceptions of this treatment. Further, this study tested whether participants were uniquely compelled by CBT if the mechanism of change cited neurological processes. METHOD: Participants (N = 389) recruited online viewed a webpage screenshot that described CBT for anxiety...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sara Scheveneels, Yannick Boddez, Marc Patrick Bennett, Dirk Hermans
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During exposure therapy, patients are encouraged to approach the feared stimulus, so they can experience that this stimulus is not followed by the anticipated aversive outcome. However, patients might treat the absence of the aversive outcome as an 'exception to the rule'. This could hamper the generalization of fear reduction when the patient is confronted with similar stimuli not used in therapy. We examined the effect of providing information about the typicality of the extinction stimulus on the generalization of extinction to a new but similar stimulus...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
T Anandakumar, E Connaughton, M Coltheart, R Langdon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that people with delusions have difficulty inhibiting beliefs (i.e., "doxastic inhibition") so as to reason about them as if they might not be true. We used a continuity approach to test this proposal in non-clinical adults scoring high and low in psychometrically assessed delusion-proneness. High delusion-prone individuals were expected to show greater difficulty than low delusion-prone individuals on "conflict" items of a "belief-bias" reasoning task (i...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Jan Mohlman, Alyssa DeVito
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated social anxiety and attentional control using two versions of a task designed to tap intentional shifting of attention and set switching: the standard Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; Heaton, 1981) and a modified version that included emotionally salient pictorial stimuli, the Emotional Faces Card Sorting Test (EFCST). A Group (lower-, higher-SPS) by Condition (WCST, EFCST) by Sorting Rule (color, form, number) interaction was expected in which the higher-SPS EFCST group would have worse overall performance and make more perseverative errors than the other groups...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sophie L van Uijen, Marcel A van den Hout, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. METHODS: 325 students rated the danger they perceived in general and spider-relevant scenarios in which information about objective safety versus objective danger, and approach behavior versus no approach behavior, was varied...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Patrick J F Clarke, Sonya Branson, Nigel T M Chen, Bram Van Bockstaele, Elske Salemink, Colin MacLeod, Lies Notebaert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have shown promise as a therapeutic intervention, however current ABM procedures have proven inconsistent in their ability to reliably achieve the requisite change in attentional bias needed to produce emotional benefits. This highlights the need to better understand the precise task conditions that facilitate the intended change in attention bias in order to realise the therapeutic potential of ABM procedures. Based on the observation that change in attentional bias occurs largely outside conscious awareness, the aim of the current study was to determine if an ABM procedure delivered under conditions likely to preclude explicit awareness of the experimental contingency, via the addition of a working memory load, would contribute to greater change in attentional bias...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Joelle N Soucy, Heather D Hadjistavropoulos
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: While cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an established treatment for health anxiety, there are barriers to service access. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has demonstrated effectiveness and has the potential to improve access to treatment. Nevertheless, it is unknown how patients perceive ICBT relative to other interventions for health anxiety and what factors predict ICBT acceptability. This study investigated these questions. METHODS: Primary care patients (N = 116) who reported elevated levels of health anxiety were presented three treatment vignettes that each described a different protocol for health anxiety (i...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Malou Stoffels, Maurits Nijs, Philip Spinhoven, Rahele Mesbah, Muriel A Hagenaars
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exaggerated emotional reactivity is supposed to be essential in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). More specifically, models of defensive behavior would predict reduced freezing behavior -indicated by fear bradycardia-in response to threat. This study examined automatic fear bradycardia responses in BPD versus healthy controls and the role of emotion dysregulation, more specifically tendencies to avoid emotions. METHODS: Patients with BPD (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 18) completed questionnaires and then watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures while heart rate was assessed...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Thomas Probst, Corinna Geib, Erika Güroff, Andreas Mühlberger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether training one of two social skills ("being able to say no" and "being able to demand") belonging to the domain "asserting one's rights" improves specifically the trained skill or the "asserting one's rights" domain in general. METHODS: Ten social skills training groups comprising three weekly sessions and four healthy participants each were conducted. In each group, the participants were randomized either to the condition which practiced the social skill of "saying no" or to the condition which practiced the social skill of "demanding"...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ryan P Balzan, Steffen Moritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Björn Schlier, Maike Engel, Anne-Katharina Fladung, Anja Fritzsche, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Bita Mesri, Andrea N Niles, Andre Pittig, Richard T LeBeau, Ethan Haik, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have both garnered empirical support for the effective treatment of social anxiety disorder. However, not every patient benefits equally from either treatment. Identifying moderators of treatment outcome can help to better understand which treatment is best suited for a particular patient. METHODS: Forty-nine individuals who met criteria for social anxiety disorder were assessed as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing 12 weeks of CBT and ACT...
June 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
J O Bowler, L Hoppitt, J Illingworth, T Dalgleish, M Ononaiye, G Perez-Olivas, B Mackintosh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is well established that attention bias and interpretation bias each have a key role in the development and continuation of anxiety. How the biases may interact with one another in anxiety is, however, poorly understood. Using cognitive bias modification techniques, the present study examined whether training a more positive interpretation bias or attention bias resulted in transfer of effects to the untrained cognitive domain. Differences in anxiety reactivity to a real-world stressor were also assessed...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lu Dong, Jason Y Lee, Allison G Harvey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. METHODS: Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Maria M Santos, James R Rae, Gabriela A Nagy, Katherine E Manbeck, Gabriela Diéguez Hurtado, Paul West, Azara Santiago-Rivera, Jonathan W Kanter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Our understanding of how Behavioral Activation (BA) for depression works is limited. BA is theorized to lead to changes in depression through changes in activation. While distal support for activation as a mechanism has been obtained, more research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn. Research on mechanism should consider the appropriate time-frame for examining changes in the theorized mechanism variable and whether the proposed mechanism is expected to exert causal influence in all BA cases...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny, Lori A Zoellner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Feelings of anger and guilt are important to consider when treating PTSD as they are related to higher PTSD severity and may be related to avoidance during treatment. Avoidance may impede emotional engagement, the process of connecting with distressing, fear-related emotions during imaginal exposure, which is considered an important mechanism for successful PTSD treatment in prolonged exposure (PE). Yet, little research has examined possible complications in achieving emotional engagement, such as anger and guilt...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Marcel Riehle, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to lower social functioning even in non-clinical samples, but little is known about the distinct social consequences of motivational and expressive negative symptoms. In this study we focused on expressive negative symptoms and examined how these symptoms and varying degrees of pro-social facial expressiveness (smiling and mimicry of smiling) relate to the social evaluations by face-to-face interaction partners and to social support...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Barbara Cludius, Alexander F Schmidt, Steffen Moritz, Rainer Banse, Lena Jelinek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) highlight the role of cognitive biases for the development of the disorder. One of these biases, an inflated sense of responsibility has been associated with higher anger scores and latent aggression on self-report scales, especially in patients with compulsive checking. Validity of self-report assessment is, however, compromised by inaccuracy, social desirability, and low metacognitive awareness of traits and behaviors in patients...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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