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Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

Einat Levy-Gigi, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although humans have developed abundant strategies to down regulate their own negative emotions, at times of distress they frequently turn to significant others to seek comfort. In the present study we use a novel performance-based paradigm to evaluate the effectiveness of this interaction. METHODS: Forty-seven couples in a long-term relationship volunteered to participate in the study. In each couple the two partners were randomly assigned as either target or regulator...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sophie L van Uijen, Marcel A van den Hout, Anne T Klein Schiphorst, Emma S Knol, Iris M Engelhard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Safety behavior (SB) is detrimental to the beneficial effects of exposure, because it prevents patients from obtaining evidence that disconfirms their excessive threat beliefs. However, previous studies showed that cleaning SB during exposure to a contaminant does not prevent a reduction in feelings of contamination, fear of contamination, danger, and disgust (CFDD). We aimed to directly examine the effect of SB during exposure to a contaminant on threat beliefs associated with CFDD...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Johannes Harbort, Julia Spiegel, Michael Witthöft, Heiko Hecht
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with social anxiety disorder suffer from pronounced fears in social situations. As gaze perception is crucial in these situations, we examined which factors influence the range of gaze directions where mutual gaze is experienced (the cone of gaze). METHODS: The social stimulus was modified by changing the number of people (heads) present and the emotional expression of their faces. Participants completed a psychophysical task, in which they had to adjust the eyes of a virtual head to gaze at the edge of the range where mutual eye-contact was experienced...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Nexhmedin Morina, Jaap Lancee, Arnoud Arntz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Literature suggests that imagery rescripting (ImRs) is an effective psychological intervention. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of ImRs for psychological complaints that are associated with aversive memories. Relevant publications were collected from the databases Medline, PsychInfo, and Web of Science. RESULTS: The search identified 19 trials (including seven randomized controlled trials) with 363 adult patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (eight trials), social anxiety disorder (six trials), body dysmorphic disorder (two trials), major depression (one trial), bulimia nervosa (one trial), or obsessive compulsive disorder (one trial)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Victoria Pile, Simone P W Haller, Chii Fen Hiu, Jennifer Y F Lau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Young people with social anxiety display poor social functioning but it is unclear whether this is underscored by difficulties in key social cognitive abilities, such as perspective taking. Here, we examined whether increased social anxiety is associated with reduced accuracy on a perspective taking task and whether this relationship is stronger at particular periods within adolescence. METHODS: Fifty-nine adolescents aged 11-19 years completed the computerised Director Task (DT) and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescence...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Alex Wiebe, Anette Kersting, Thomas Suslow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alexithymia is a multidimensional personality construct including the components difficulties identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties describing feelings (DDF), and externally oriented thinking (EOT). Different features of alexithymia are thought to reflect specific deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions. The aim of the present study was to examine for the first time patterns of deployment of attention as a function of alexithymia components in healthy persons by using eye-tracking technology...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Danique Smeijers, Janna N Vrijsen, Iris van Oostrom, Linda Isaac, Anne Speckens, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). METHODS: Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Melanie K T Takarangi, Diane Nayda, Deryn Strange, Reginald D V Nixon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People exposed to trauma often experience intrusive thoughts and memories about that event. Research examining people's responses to trauma assumes that people can accurately notice the occurrence of symptoms. However, we know from the broader cognitive literature on 'mind-wandering' that people are not always aware of their current focus of attention. That lack of awareness has implications for our theoretical and practical understanding of how trauma survivors recover from their experience...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Steffen Moritz, Anja S Göritz, Benjamin McLean, Stefan Westermann, Jeannette Brodbeck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Affective versus nonaffective psychoses are today no longer regarded as mutually exclusive disorders. Theorists have recently highlighted the role of affective symptoms in the formation of paranoid beliefs, particularly negative beliefs about the self, interpersonal sensitivity, sleep disturbances, and worrying, which exist along a continuum in the general population. For the present study, we tested the bidirectional causal relationships between paranoia and affect...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Katharina Koppe, Klaus Rothermund
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that clinging to unattainable goals is linked to the onset of depression. The present study investigated whether symptoms of a clinical depression are adaptive in that they facilitate disengagement from unattainable goals. METHODS: A group of depressive inpatients (n = 40) was compared to a non-depressive control group (n = 38) in regard to how much time they spent on unsolvable anagrams, while controlling for group differences in the time spent on solvable anagrams...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Anke M Klein, Rianne van Niekerk, Giovanni Ten Brink, Ronald M Rapee, Jennifer L Hudson, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to self-reports. This study simultaneously addressed several types of cognitive biases in children, to investigate attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias and fear-related associations, their interrelations and the prediction of behavior...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Bunmi O Olatunji, Andrew Tomarken, Brian Wentworth, Laura Fritzsche
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The current study examines effects of exposure in multiple contexts on fear reduction and renewal and the moderating effect of baseline threat-specific and nonspecific emotionality. METHODS: Snake-fearful participants received a negative or neutral emotion induction and were randomized to video exposure to a snake in a single context, multiple context, or a no exposure control group. RESULTS: Anxiety in response to video presentations of a snake was significantly reduced in the two exposure groups compared to the control group, especially among those with heightened baseline threat-specific emotionality as indicated by snake anxiety ratings at baseline...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Zhongming Zhang, Mengyun Wang, Xiaocui Miao, Yijuan Li, Glenn Hitchman, Zhen Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) hypothesis predicts that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a deficit in subjective convictions, which may lead to a reliance on external substitutes for the perceptions of an individual's internal states. Two well-designed studies were performed for the present work that adopted a false bio-feedback procedure in a muscle tension task to examine the SPIS hypothesis. METHODS: The false bio-feedback paradigm was used to investigate our hypothesis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Robert M Ross, Bjoern Hartig, Ryan McKay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. METHODS: We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Monique C Pfaltz, Gwyneth W Y Wu, Guanyu Liu, Amelia P Tankersley, Ashley M Stilley, Michael M Plichta, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In nonclinical populations, adopting a third-person perspective as opposed to a first-person perspective while analyzing negative emotional experiences fosters understanding of these experiences and reduces negative emotional reactivity. We assessed whether this generalizes to people with major depression (MD). Additionally, we assessed whether the emotion-reducing effects of adopting a third-person perspective also occur when subjects with MD and HC subjects analyze positive experiences...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Charlotte E Wittekind, Lena Jelinek, Birgit Kleim, Christoph Muhtz, Steffen Moritz, Fabrice Berna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by altered autobiographical memories (AM) of the traumatic incident itself as well as of non-trauma-related events. Several studies have shown that trauma-exposed individuals developing PTSD have a reduced capacity to access specific past events that are not related to the traumatic event compared to those who do not develop PTSD. However, one study including a group of elderly adults did not find significant differences in AM between PTSD and non-PTSD participants...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lu Dong, Jason Y Lee, Allison G Harvey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. METHODS: Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual...
March 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Samuel W Onderdonk, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During EMDR trauma therapy, performing EM taxes WM, and simultaneously recalled memories become less vivid. It has been proposed that this WM occupation results from CVI which occurs during EM. This study sought to compare the effects of EM on memory to a task presenting identical visual stimulus to stationary eyes.. METHOD: In Study 1, participants recorded RT while performing two tasks: EM, and a task with visually identical images displayed on screen...
December 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Ella L James, Alex Lau-Zhu, Hannah Tickle, Antje Horsch, Emily A Holmes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visuospatial working memory (WM) tasks performed concurrently or after an experimental trauma (traumatic film viewing) have been shown to reduce subsequent intrusive memories (concurrent or retroactive interference, respectively). This effect is thought to arise because, during the time window of memory consolidation, the film memory is labile and vulnerable to interference by the WM task. However, it is not known whether tasks before an experimental trauma (i...
December 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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