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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809648/isolation-of-mycobacterium-bovis-from-free-ranging-wildlife-in-south-korea
#1
Yunho Jang, Soyoon Ryoo, Hyunkyoung Lee, Narae Kim, Hang Lee, So-Young Park, Woong-Seog Song, Jong-Taek Kim, Hee Soo Lee, Jae Myung Kim
We demonstrate Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild boar ( Sus scrofa ) in South Korea. During 2012-15, we attempted to isolate M. bovis from 847 wild animals, mainly Korean water deer ( Hydropotes inermis argyropus), raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides ), and wild boar, from 11 regions in South Korea. We isolated M. bovis from three of 118 wild boar (2.5%) captured in Gyeonggi Province, where bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks have also occurred in livestock. Spoligotypes and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats types of these M...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809647/limited-antibody-evidence-of-exposure-to-mycobacterium-bovis-in-feral-swine-sus-scrofa-in-the-usa
#2
Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S Miller, Theodore D Anderson, Kristy L Pabilonia, Jonathan R Lewis, Rebecca L Mihalco, Christian Gortazar, Thomas Gidlewski
Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788057/low-copper-levels-associated-with-low-carcass-weight-in-wild-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-in-norway
#3
Kjell Handeland, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Syverin Lierhagen, Marthe Opland, Attila Tarpai, Turid Vikøren
Copper (Cu) deficiency is associated with several disease syndromes, including poor growth, in farmed red deer ( Cervus elaphus ), but little is known of the consequences of low Cu levels in free-ranging populations. Low hepatic Cu levels have been documented in several wild red deer populations along the west coast of Norway, with the lowest values found on the island of Hitra. We studied the relationship between liver Cu concentration and slaughter weight in 63 red deer calves and 69 yearlings shot on Hitra during the autumn hunting season of 2009...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788056/comparison-of-current-methods-for-the-detection-of-chronic-mycoplasmal-urtd-in-wild-populations-of-the-mojave-desert-tortoise-gopherus-agassizii
#4
Franziska C Sandmeier, Chava L Weitzman, K Nichole Maloney, C Richard Tracy, Nathan Nieto, Mike B Teglas, Kenneth W Hunter, Sally DuPré, C M Gienger, Michael W Tuma
Pathogens that cause subclinical diseases or exhibit low infection intensities are difficult to quantify in wild populations. Mojave desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii ) have been the focus of much research aimed at measuring the presence of upper respiratory disease (URTD) and URTD-associated pathogens, and techniques used to quantify disease in Gopherus species have also been used for disease surveillance in other species of turtles and tortoises of conservation concern. Published surveys of G. agassizii populations have found a relatively low prevalence of URTD, with most URTD-positive animals exhibiting moderate, intermittent signs of morbidity...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788055/diagnosis-and-implications-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-banded-mongooses-mungos-mungo-in-the-kruger-national-park-south-africa
#5
Angela C Brüns, Manfred Tanner, Mark C Williams, Louise Botha, Amanda O'Brien, Geoffrey T Fosgate, Paul D Van Helden, John Clarke, Anita L Michel
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was first diagnosed in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in 1990. Research has since focused on the maintenance host, the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) and clinically affected lion ( Panthera leo ). However, little is known about the role of small predators in tuberculosis epidemiology. During 2011-12, we screened banded mongooses ( Mungos mungo ) in the bTB high-prevalence zone of the KNP for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members. Fecal swabs, tracheal swabs, and tracheal lavages of 76 banded mongooses caught in cage traps within a 2-km radius of Skukuza Rest Camp were submitted for Mycobacterium culture, isolation, and species identification...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788054/diphtheritic-stomatitis-in-yellow-eyed-penguins-megadyptes-antipodes-in-new-zealand
#6
Maurice R Alley, Rod B Suepaul, Bruce McKinlay, Melanie J Young, Jianning Wang, Kerri J Morgan, Stuart A Hunter, Brett D Gartrell
Diphtheritic stomatitis is a seasonal disease that has been recognized as a syndrome in Yellow-eyed Penguin ( Megadyptes antipodes ) chicks in New Zealand for >10 yr. It was present in about 50% of 234 chicks examined since 2002 and is characterized by a thick serocellular exudate in the oral cavity of 1-4-wk-old chicks. The syndrome includes inanition, weight loss, and death in many affected birds. Microscopically, the lesions varied in severity. Most affected chicks had severe, locally extensive, ulcerative stomatitis with large amounts of exudate containing numerous bacteria; a smaller number had mild focal lesions with smaller amounts of exudate and bacteria...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763829/prevalence-and-distribution-of-wellfleet-bay-virus-exposure-in-the-common-eider-somateria-mollissima
#7
Jennifer R Ballard, Randall Mickley, Samantha E J Gibbs, Chris Dwyer, Catherine Soos, N Jane Harms, H Grant Gilchrist, Jeffrey S Hall, J Christian Franson, G Randy Milton, Glen Parsons, Brad Allen, Jean-Francois Giroux, Stéphane Lair, Daniel G Mead, John R Fischer
Between 1998 and 2014, recurrent mortality events were reported in the Dresser's subspecies of the Common Eider ( Somateria mollissima dresseri) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA near Wellfleet Harbor. The early die-offs were attributed to parasitism and emaciation, but beginning in 2006 a suite of distinct lesions was observed concomitant with the isolation of a previously unknown RNA virus. This novel pathogen was identified as an orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus and was named Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763828/mortality-of-western-burrowing-owls-athene-cunicularia-hypugaea-associated-with-brodifacoum-exposure
#8
Anne Justice-Allen, Kerrie Anne Loyd
Western Burrowing Owls ( Athene cunicularia hypugaea) frequently occupy periurban areas, where they may be exposed to pest control agents. This short communication describes necropsy findings and detected brodifacoum rodenticide levels for four Western Burrowing Owls in Lake Havasu City, Arizona, US, 2013-15. Levels detected ranged from 0.077 mg/kg to 0.497 mg/kg. Brodifacoum, one of several second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides recently removed from the general consumer market, is still available for use by licensed pesticide applicators...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763827/serosurvey-for-selected-viral-pathogens-among-sympatric-species-of-the-african-large-predator-guild-in-northern-botswana
#9
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749195/abdominal-cysticercosis-in-a-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes
#10
Christopher James Whipp, Pierre-Yves Daoust, Gary Conboy, Hans Gelens
A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749194/sheep-associated-malignant-catarrhal-fever-like-skin-disease-in-a-free-ranging-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-alberta-canada
#11
Owen M Slater, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Manigandan Lejeune, David Gummer, Bryan Macbeth, Amy Warren, Tomy Joseph, Hong Li, Cristina W Cunha, Pádraig J Duignan
Malignant catarrhal fever-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) from Alberta, Canada, in June 2015. Antemortem and gross pathology findings included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss, and bilaterally symmetric alopecia with hyperpigmentation and crusting over the face, medial surfaces of the pinnae, dorsal trunk, distal limbs, perineal area, and tail. Histologically, the skin lesions were characterized by granulomatous mural folliculitis with numerous multinucleated giant cells and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with previous reports of chronic ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749193/venous-blood-gas-electrolyte-and-hematologic-analytes-of-the-mottled-duck-anas-fulvigula
#12
Cameron Ratliff, Jordan Gentry, James Kusmierczyk, Kevin M Hartke, Mark J Acierno, Jeffrey M B Musser, Karen E Russell, J Jill Heatley
We collected venous blood samples from 83 apparently healthy Mottled Ducks ( Anas fulvigula ) July 2012-August 2013 on the Texas, USA, Gulf Coast and measured blood gas, electrolyte, biochemical, and hematologic parameters. Age, sex, body condition score, capture year, capture type, and time of day had significant statistical, but not clinically relevant, effects on several analytes. Ducks caught by rocket net had findings consistent with greater stress compared with hand-caught ducks. These analyte data for healthy free-living Mottled Ducks may be useful in the assessment of Mottled Duck population health and in the management and treatment of individual ducks affected by environmental stressors...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749192/the-occurrence-of-pathogens-in-an-endangered-population-of-american-badgers-taxidea-taxus-jacksoni-in-ontario-canada
#13
Danielle M Ethier, Joshua B Sayers, Christopher J Kyle, Joseph J Nocera, Davor Ojkic, Douglas Campbell
American badgers ( Taxidea taxus jacksoni) at the periphery of the species' range in Ontario, Canada, are listed as endangered because of an estimated population size of <200 mature individuals. The main threats faced by this population include habitat loss and road mortality. However, on 18 November 2013, a radio-implanted badger was found nonresponsive in an agricultural field with signs consistent with canine distemper virus infection, which was subsequently confirmed. This prompted our investigation into the occurrence of pathogens in this endangered carnivore to better quantify the level of risk infectious disease poses to population persistence...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723384/physiologic-biomarkers-and-hendra-virus-infection-in-australian-black-flying-foxes-pteropus-alecto
#14
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, David Mayer, Alice Broos, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Bats of the genus Pteropus (Pteropodidae), colloquially known as flying foxes, are recognized as the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for mortality in horses and humans. Some previous studies have suggested that physiologic and ecologic factors promote Hendra virus infection in flying foxes, and by extension, spillover to horses and humans. However, the impact of Hendra virus infection on relevant physiologic biomarkers in flying foxes has not been measured. Over 12 mo in eastern Australia, we captured and sampled 446 individual black flying foxes ( Pteropus alecto ), a putative primary reservoir host species, and measured a suite of hematologic, plasma biochemistry, and urinary biomarkers...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723383/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-serovars-and-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-an-opportunistic-gull-species-yellow-legged-gull-larus-michahellis
#15
Lourdes Migura-Garcia, Raül Ramos, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar
Wildlife is a natural reservoir of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the most important human foodborne pathogens worldwide. Free-living birds have the potential to transport, over large distances, such zoonotic bacteria that may harbor antimicrobial resistance traits. On the northeastern Iberian coast, we assessed the role of Yellow-legged Gulls ( Larus michahellis ) as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter isolates recovered from gulls at three colonies, with varying degrees of dependence on refuse dumps as food sources...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723382/wildlife-health-2-0-bridging-the-knowledge-to-action-gap
#16
Craig Stephen
The unprecedented threats to the health and sustainability of wildlife populations are inspiring conversations on the need to change the way knowledge is generated, valued, and used to promote action to protect wildlife health. Wildlife Health 2.0 symbolizes the need to investigate how to improve connections between research expertise and policy or practices to protect wildlife health. Two imperatives drive this evolution: 1) growing frustrations that research is inadequately being used to inform management decisions and 2) the realization that scientific certainty is context specific for complex socioecologic issues, such as wildlife health...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705104/a-serosurvey-of-greater-sage-grouse-centrocercus-urophasianus-in-nevada
#17
Nancy L Sinai, Peter S Coates, Katelyn M Andrle, Chad Jefferis, C Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Maurice E Pitesky
To better understand the potential avian diseases in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ) in the Great Basin in Nevada, we collected 31 blood samples March-April 2014 and tested for antibodies to eight viruses and two bacteria. Specifically, sera were tested for antibodies to avian leukosis virus type A, B, and J (ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J, respectively), infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, reticuloendothelial virus, avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus, Pasteurella multocida (PM), and Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705103/retrospective-analysis-of-the-epidemiologic-literature-1990-2015-on-wildlife-associated-diseases-from-the-republic-of-korea
#18
Jusun Hwang, Kyunglee Lee, Young-Jun Kim, Jonathan M Sleeman, Hang Lee
To assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the ROK. We identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. The majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. Most studies that focused on human and livestock health were cross-sectional whereas wildlife health studies were mostly case reports...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705102/toxoplasmatinae-parasites-in-bats-from-bahia-state-brazil
#19
Rogério Fernando de Jesus, Gabriel Menezes Rodrigues, Evandro Moraes Silva, Aroldo José Borges Carneiro, Carlos Roberto Franke, Rogério de Magalhães Cunha, Luís Fernando Pita Gondim
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are widespread cyst-forming coccidian parasites of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. Whereas T. gondii is a zoonotic disease, N. caninum is restricted to nonhuman animals. Some chiropteran species can be infected by T. gondii and present fatal toxoplasmosis. In most cases, T. gondii -infected bats are believed to remain asymptomatic and to act as an infection source to other animals. It is not known whether N. caninum can infect bats...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705101/chemical-restraint-of-free-ranging-south-american-coatis-nasua-nasua-with-a-combination-of-tiletamine-and-zolazepam
#20
Valéria Amorim Conforti, Fernando Cesar Cascelli de Azevedo, Otávio Luís de Oliveira Henriques Paulo, Wanderlei de Moraes, James Albert Deddens
We describe the use of a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam (Zoletil() for chemical restraint of South American coatis ( Nasua nasua ) under field conditions. We immobilized 53 coatis from a free-ranging population at Iguaçu National Park, Brazil, with Zoletil. Males and females (1.0-8.7 kg) of different age groups participated in the study. Four dosage (milligram per kilogram body weight) groups were created based on quartiles as follows: 1) 4.76-6.68 mg/kg (n=13), 2) 6.83-7.71 mg/kg (n=13), 3) 7.72-8...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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