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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Martha Hensel, Miranda Bertram, Raquel Rech, Gabriel L Hamer, Sarah A Hamer
Sandhill Cranes (Antigone canadensis) of the midcontinent population (MCP) and Rocky Mountain population (RMP) are migratory game birds with stable populations that travel between Canada and the southern USA and Mexico. In the winters of 2012-14, we performed gross and histologic examinations of 43 hunter-harvested Sandhill Cranes in Texas (MCP) and New Mexico (RMP) to assess the impact of disease on populations. Lesions were significantly more common in the MCP relative to the RMP, likely reflecting differential environmental exposure to pathogens and parasites...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Giulio Grandi, Henrik Uhlhorn, Erik Ågren, Torsten Mörner, Federico Righi, Eva Osterman-Lind, Aleksija Neimanis
Our objectives were to determine prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dead or euthanized emaciated moose in central and southern Sweden (n=50) and to assess parasite intensity as a major contributing factor in the poor condition of these moose. All animals were infected and most had gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven parasite species were found in the abomasa and 10 species were found in the small intestine. Coinfections were commonly found in the abomasum (Ostertagia antipini and Mazamastrongylus dagestanica) and in the small intestine (Nematodirella alcidis and Trichostrongylus capricola)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Catherine R Allen, Arlind Mara, Edan R Tulman, David H Ley, Steven J Geary
In 1994 Mycoplasma gallisepticum was found to be the etiologic agent of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, a rapidly expanding epidemic caused by a genetically discrete, House Finch-associated strain of M. gallisepticum (HFMG). While most prominent in House Finches, HFMG has been reported in other members of the family Fringillidae, including American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis), Purple Finches (Haemorhous purpureus), Pine Grosbeaks (Pinicola enucleator), and Evening Grosbeaks (Coccothraustes vespertinus)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Zoe R Barandongo, John K E Mfune, Wendy C Turner
Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Nadezhda S Sulikhan, Martin Gilbert, Ekaterina Yu Blidchenko, Sergei V Naidenko, Galina V Ivanchuk, Tatiana Yu Gorpenchenko, Mikhail V Alshinetskiy, Elena I Shevtsova, John M Goodrich, John C M Lewis, Mikhail S Goncharuk, Olga V Uphyrkina, Vyatcheslav V Rozhnov, Sergey V Shedko, Denise McAloose, Dale G Miquelle
The critically endangered population of Far Eastern leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) may number as few as 60 individuals and is at risk from stochastic processes such as infectious disease. During May 2015, a case of canine distemper virus (CDV) was diagnosed in a wild leopard exhibiting severe neurologic disease in the Russian territory of Primorskii Krai. Amplified sequences of the CDV hemagglutinin gene and phosphoprotein gene aligned within the Arctic-like clade of CDV, which includes viruses from elsewhere in Russia, China, Europe, and North America...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Tariku Mekonnen Gutema, Anagaw Atickem, Alemayehu Lemma, Afework Bekele, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Dietmar Zinner, Wenche Kristin Farstad, Jon M Arnemo, Nils C Stenseth
We captured 14 individual African wolves (Canis lupaster) a total of 16 times in the Ethiopian Highlands in April 2015 and March 2016 by using rubber-lined foothold traps and immobilized them with dexmedetomidine-ketamine. Traps were baited with sheep meat and surveyed every 2 h. Capture efficiency (number of captures per number of visits) was 0.94, and capture rate (number of captures per number of trap nights) was 0.24. Trapped wolves were immobilized with 0.025 mg/kg dexmedetomidine and 8-10 mg/kg ketamine on the basis of respective estimated body mass...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Nicole D Taurisano, Brian P Butler, Diana Stone, Harry Hariharan, Paul J Fields, Hugh W Ferguson, Martin Haulena, Paul Cotrell, Ole Nielsen, Stephen Raverty
Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids (n=66), otariids (n=12), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters (Enhydra lutris; n=2)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Fernanda L N Attademo, Jean C R Silva, Fábia O Luna, Joana Ikeda, Ernesto F C Foppel, Gláucia P Sousa, Augusto C Bôaviagem-Freire, Rodrigo M Soares, Thalita Faita, Maria C A Batinga, Lara B Keid
We surveyed 13 carcasses of marine mammals (12 Trichechus manatus and one Stenella clymene) that had stranded in northeastern Brazil during 1990-2013 for infectious diseases by screening tissues from the collection of the Brazilian National Center of Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammal, Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were investigated by culturing and PCR of tissue samples, whereas Sarcocystidae parasites, Leptospira spp., and Morbillivirus were surveyed for using specific PCR assays...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Felipe A Hernández, Katherine A Sayler, Courtney Bounds, Michael P Milleson, Amanda N Carr, Samantha M Wisely
Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, USA...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sarah A Billeter, Lynn M Osikowicz, Joseph E Burns, Lora Konde, Ben J Gonzales, Renjie Hu, Michael Y Kosoy
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from 44 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and 10 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in southern California during health inspections in 2015-16. Specimens were identified and screened by PCR analysis to determine the presence and prevalence of Bartonella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia species in ticks associated with these wild ruminants. None of the 60 Dermacentor hunteri and 15 Dermacentor albipictus ticks tested yielded positive PCR results. Additional tick specimens should be collected and tested to determine the prevalence of these confirmed or suspected tickborne pathogens within ruminant populations...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
E Jane Kelly, Annette Roug, Covy Jones, Josee Seamons, Jeffery O Hall
In 2015, an emaciated Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis) ram was submitted to the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. There were numerous thick-walled abscesses subcutaneously and internally, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated in pure culture. In addition, the ram was severely copper deficient, with a liver copper concentration of 1.6 mg/kg.
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Indira Trüeb, Ricardo D Portela, Carlos R Franke, Ianei O Carneiro, Gilmar J Ribeiro, Rodrigo P Soares, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo
Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania sp. are important protozoan parasites for humans and animals in the Americas, causing Chagas disease and cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. These vector-borne diseases affect permanent and transient populations in developing tropical countries that exhibit favorable conditions for the perpetuation of the parasite cycle. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of infection with these parasites in wild animals from urban rainforest fragments in the city of Salvador, the largest city in the northeast region of Brazil...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jacob L Berl, Amy J Kuenzi, Elizabeth A Flaherty, Robert K Swihart
Comparatively little is known about hantavirus prevalence within rodent populations from the Midwestern US, where two species of native mice, the prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis), are dominant members of rodent communities. We sampled both species in central Indiana and tested individuals for presence of hantavirus antibodies to determine whether seroprevalence (percent of individuals with antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus antigen) differed between species, or among different habitat types within fragmented agro-ecosystems...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Erin M Lehmer, Kathryn Lavengood, Mason Miller, Jacob Rodgers, Steven D Fenster
Simultaneous infections with multiple pathogens can alter the function of the host's immune system, often resulting in additive or synergistic morbidity. We examined how coinfection with the common pathogens Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Bartonella sp. affected aspects of the adaptive and innate immune responses of wild deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Adaptive immunity was assessed by measuring SNV antibody production; innate immunity was determined by measuring levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood and the complement activity of plasma...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Danielle E Buttke, Alicia Walker, I-Shuo Huang, Leanne Flewelling, Julia Lankton, Anne E Ballmann, Travis Clapp, James Lindsay, Paul V Zimba
On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30-40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
M Colter Chitwood, Barbara J Keller, Harith Saeed Al-Warid, Kelly Straka, Aaron M Hildreth, Lonnie Hansen, Joshua J Millspaugh
Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is an important cause of mortality of elk (Cervus canadensis) in populations in the eastern US and has been implicated in the failure of several restoration attempts. From 2011 to 2013, the Missouri Department of Conservation translocated 108 adult and yearling elk from Kentucky (US) to southern Missouri (US) to establish a free-ranging population. From release in spring 2011 through August 2015, we monitored 167 elk (adult, yearling, and calf) to determine causes of mortality...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Federico Giannitti, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Eric Delwart, Marc Schwabenlander, Janet Foley
Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and closely related (ADV-like) viruses are Parvoviridae members (genus Amdoparvovirus) that primarily infect farmed mustelids and have been detected in humans and free-ranging Carnivora from North America. We describe ADV-like/ Amdoparvovirus sp. infection in four free-ranging striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from the Midwestern United States.
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kurnia Oktavia Khairani, Daryl Nydam, M Julia Felippe, Pat McDonough, Jason Barry, Rois Mahmud, M Haryono, Robin W Radcliffe
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) of Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP) is the crown jewel of Indonesia's rich natural history. The park lies on a peninsula surrounded by coastline and agriculture-dominated landscapes. The invasion of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) into the park carries a substantial health risk to the Javan rhinoceros and threatens plans to establish a new population outside of its only current range in UKNP. Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), known locally as septicemia epizootica and caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2, could thwart Indonesia's efforts to expand the range of the Javan rhinoceros...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Megan E Winzeler, David L Haskins, Stacey L Lance, Tracey D Tuberville
Ranaviruses have the ability to infect amphibians, fish, and reptiles, and they have caused multiple amphibian die-off events in the US and Europe. Their prevalence in amphibian populations is much more commonly studied than in chelonian populations. We examined blood samples (n=286) from eight aquatic turtle species collected during 2008-14 on the Savannah River, South Carolina, USA, as part of long-term mark-recapture efforts. Previous studies in the southeastern US found high prevalence of Ranavirus in amphibians, but we did not detect Ranavirus in any of the turtles sampled, suggesting the absence of the virus or its presence at a very low prevalence in aquatic turtles across the Savannah River site during the years tested...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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October 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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