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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820300/meningeal-worm-parelaphostrongylus-tenuis-as-a-cause-of-mortality-in-the-restored-elk-cervus-canadensis-population-in-missouri
#1
M Colter Chitwood, Barbara J Keller, Harith Saeed Al-Warid, Kelly Straka, Aaron M Hildreth, Lonnie Hansen, Joshua J Millspaugh
Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is an important cause of mortality of elk (Cervus canadensis) in populations in the eastern US and has been implicated in the failure of several restoration attempts. From 2011 to 2013, the Missouri Department of Conservation translocated 108 adult and yearling elk from Kentucky (US) to southern Missouri (US) to establish a free-ranging population. From release in spring 2011 through August 2015, we monitored 167 elk (adult, yearling, and calf) to determine causes of mortality...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820299/aleutian-disease-virus-like-virus-amdoparvovirus-sp-infecting-free-ranging-striped-skunks-mephitis-mephitis-in-the-midwestern-united-states
#2
Federico Giannitti, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Eric Delwart, Marc Schwabenlander, Janet Foley
Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and closely related (ADV-like) viruses are Parvoviridae members (genus Amdoparvovirus) that primarily infect farmed mustelids and have been detected in humans and free-ranging Carnivora from North America. We describe ADV-like/ Amdoparvovirus sp. infection in four free-ranging striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from the Midwestern United States.
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820298/surveillance-for-hemorrhagic-septicemia-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-as-an-aid-to-range-expansion-of-the-javan-rhinoceros-rhinoceros-sondaicus-in-ujung-kulon-national-park-indonesia
#3
Kurnia Oktavia Khairani, Daryl Nydam, M Julia Felippe, Pat McDonough, Jason Barry, Rois Mahmud, M Haryono, Robin W Radcliffe
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) of Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP) is the crown jewel of Indonesia's rich natural history. The park lies on a peninsula surrounded by coastline and agriculture-dominated landscapes. The invasion of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) into the park carries a substantial health risk to the Javan rhinoceros and threatens plans to establish a new population outside of its only current range in UKNP. Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), known locally as septicemia epizootica and caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2, could thwart Indonesia's efforts to expand the range of the Javan rhinoceros...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813170/survey-of-aquatic-turtles-on-the-savannah-river-site-south-carolina-for-prevalence-of-ranavirus
#4
Megan E Winzeler, David L Haskins, Stacey L Lance, Tracey D Tuberville
Ranaviruses have the ability to infect amphibians, fish, and reptiles, and they have caused multiple amphibian die-off events in the US and Europe. Their prevalence in amphibian populations is much more commonly studied than in chelonian populations. We examined blood samples (n=286) from eight aquatic turtle species collected during 2008-14 on the Savannah River, South Carolina, USA, as part of long-term mark-recapture efforts. Previous studies in the southeastern US found high prevalence of Ranavirus in amphibians, but we did not detect Ranavirus in any of the turtles sampled, suggesting the absence of the virus or its presence at a very low prevalence in aquatic turtles across the Savannah River site during the years tested...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792786/book-reviewssarcocystosis-of-animals-and-humans-second-edition-by-j-p-dubey-r-calero-bernal-b-m-rosenthal-c-a-speer-and-r-fayer-crc-press-boca-raton-florida-usa-2016-481-pages-isbn-10-1498710123-isbn-13-978-1498710121-140-hardback-or-98-ebook
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767322/anthrax-in-the-mackenzie-wood-bison-bison-bison-athabascae-population-2012-anthrax-outbreak-and-historical-exposure-in-nonoutbreak-years
#6
Dallas New, Brett Elkin, Terry Armstrong, Tasha Epp
Anthrax, caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, poses a threat to wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) conservation. We used descriptive epidemiology to characterize a large outbreak of anthrax in the Mackenzie bison population in the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2012 and investigated historical serologic exposure of the bison to the bacterium in nonoutbreak years. Between late June and early August 2012, 451 bison carcasses were detected; mortality peaked from 13-19 July. A substantial number of calves, yearlings, and adult females died in the 2012 outbreak, unlike in two previous anthrax outbreaks in this population that killed mostly mature males...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753413/anophthalmia-in-a-wild-eastern-gray-squirrel-sciurus-carolinensis
#7
Jamie L Rothenburger, Elizabeth A Hartnett, Fiona M K James, Bruce H Grahn
We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.
July 28, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753412/influence-of-snowfall-on-blood-lead-levels-of-free-flying-bald-eagles-haliaeetus-leucocephalus-in-the-upper-mississippi-river-valley
#8
Ronald A Lindblom, Letitia M Reichart, Brett A Mandernack, Matthew Solensky, Casey W Schoenebeck, Patrick T Redig
Lead poisoning of scavenging raptors occurs primarily via consumption of game animal carcasses containing lead, which peaks during fall firearm hunting seasons. We hypothesized that snowfall would mitigate exposure by concealing carcasses. We categorized blood lead level (BLL) for a subsample of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Upper Mississippi River Valley and described BLL with respect to age, sex, and snowfall. We captured Bald Eagles overwintering in the Upper Mississippi River Valley (n=55) between December 1999 and January 2002...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753411/mass-mortality-attributed-to-acanthocephaliasis-at-a-gull-billed-tern-gelochelidon-nilotica-colony-in-coastal-california
#9
Robert T Patton, Katharine S Goodenough, Susan E W De La Cruz, Hannahrose Nevins, Rebecca Cole, Barbara Bodenstein, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Brian Collins, Jessie Beck, Matthew Sadowski, John Y Takekawa
From 12 May 2013 to 29 May 2013, the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) colony at the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California, experienced a mass die-off of at least 92 adults, representing 71-92% of the breeding population on the US west coast. Cause of death was determined to be peritonitis due to perforations of the intestine by a large quantity of acanthocephala (Profilicolis [=Polymorphus] altmani). This is a unique report of P. altmani infecting G. nilotica, and a report of a great impact to a tern population in southern California...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742423/chemical-immobilization-of-free-ranging-yellow-armadillos-euphractus-sexcinctus-for-implantation-of-intra-abdominal-transmitters
#10
Vinicius Peron de Oliveira Gasparotto, Nina Attias, Flávia Regina Miranda, Grazielle Cristina Garcia Soresini, Ariel da Costa Canena, Guilherme Mourão
Free-ranging yellow armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) from the Brazilian Pantanal were captured for surgical implantation of intra-abdominal radio transmitters. During March 2014, 11 animals were chemically immobilized with a combination of intramuscular ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, midazolam maleate, and atropine sulfate. The mean induction time and initial heart rate in males was higher than in females. The sex of armadillos did not affect the respiratory rate, which increased from the beginning to end of the monitoring time...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742422/virus-isolation-and-molecular-detection-of-bluetongue-and-epizootic-hemorrhagic-disease-viruses-from-naturally-infected-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus
#11
Clara Kienzle, Rebecca L Poulson, Mark G Ruder, David E Stallknecht
Hemorrhagic disease in North America is caused by multiple serotypes of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV). Diagnostic tests for detection of EHDV and BTV include virus isolation (VI), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). Our objective was to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three rRT-PCR protocols for detection of EHDV and BTV from naturally infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We compared the effectiveness of these assays to traditional viral detection methods (e...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715294/avian-pox-discovered-in-the-critically-endangered-waved-albatross-phoebastria-irrorata-from-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-ecuador
#12
Emily M Tompkins, David J Anderson, Kristy L Pabilonia, Kathryn P Huyvaert
The Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) is a critically endangered seabird in a rapidly shrinking population in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The introduction of novel pathogens and parasites poses a threat to population persistence. Monitoring disease prevalence and guarding against the spread of such agents in endemic taxa are conservation priorities for the Galápagos, where recent increases in the prevalence of avian pox may have contributed to population declines and range contractions in other bird species...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715293/surveillance-for-antibodies-against-six-canine-viruses-in-wild-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-japan
#13
Emiko Aoki, Takehisa Soma, Mayumi Yokoyama, Makoto Matsubayashi, Kazumi Sasai
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type (CPV), 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715292/brucella-infection-in-asian-sea-otters-enhydra-lutris-lutris-on-bering-island-russia
#14
Tristan L Burgess, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Alexander Burdin, Verena A Gill, Angela M Doroff, Pamela Tuomi, Woutrina A Smith, Tracey Goldstein
Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715291/isolation-of-brucella-pinnipedialis-from-grey-seals-halichoerus-grypus-in-the-baltic-sea
#15
Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Minna Nylund, Teresa Skrzypczak, Petra Heikkinen, Kaarina Kauhala, Maryne Jay, Marja Isomursu
Brucella infection in seals was reported for the first time in 1994 around the coast of Scotland. Since then, marine mammal Brucella infections were found to be widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Two Brucella species affect marine mammals: Brucella pinnipedialis in pinnipeds and Brucella ceti in cetaceans. We examined the livers of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Finnish coast (n=122) hunted, found dead, or killed as by-catch in fishing gear in 2013-15 as part of population health monitoring...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700323/baylisascaris-schroederi-infection-in-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-foping-national-nature-reserve-china
#16
Zhiwei Peng, Changsheng Zhang, Meiying Shen, Heng Bao, Zhijun Hou, Shaowen He, Yuping Hua
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is the most iconic endangered species in the world, but there is little information about the spatial and temporal distribution of parasites in the wild giant panda population. In total, 193 fecal samples from giant pandas in the Foping National Nature Reserve, People's Republic of China, were analyzed for parasite eggs using a modification of the McMaster technique. The morphology and size of Baylisascaris schroederi eggs were observed under an optical microscope. The prevalence and intensity of B...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700322/molecular-epidemiology-of-avian-poxvirus-in-the-oriental-turtle-dove-streptopelia-orientalis-and-the-biting-midge-culicoides-arakawae-in-the-republic-of-korea
#17
Hae Rim Lee, Bon-Sang Koo, Jong-Taek Kim, Heung-Chul Kim, Myung-Soon Kim, Terry A Klein, Man-Seok Shin, Sanghun Lee, Eun-Ok Jeon, Kyung-Cheol Min, Seung Baek Lee, Yeonji Bae, In-Pil Mo
A total of 600 wild birds were analyzed for the causes of mortality in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from 2011 to 2013. Avian poxvirus (APV) infections were identified as the primary cause of mortality in 39% (29/74) Oriental Turtle Doves (Streptopelia orientalis). At necropsy, all 29 S. orientalis birds, of which, 76% (22/29) were juveniles, had severe diphtheritic lesions in their oral and nasal cavities and on their eyelids, which were the lesions of APV that resulted in mortality. We detected APV infection by chorioallantoic membrane inoculation and molecular study of the partial region of the P4b gene...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700321/tyzzer-s-disease-in-free-ranging-passerine-birds-in-california
#18
Aslı Mete, Krysta H Rogers, Leslie Woods
Tyzzer's disease was diagnosed as the cause of mortality in free-ranging hatch-year passerine birds in Southern California, US. Birds presented with ataxia, tremors, and opisthotonos and died or were euthanized. Postmortem examination of four birds identified encephalitis on microscopy with characteristic stacked, slender bacterial rods visible with special stains. Infection with Clostridium piliforme was confirmed by real-time PCR.
July 12, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700320/problems-in-the-protection-of-reintroduced-przewalski-s-horses-equus-ferus-przewalskii-caused-by-piroplasmosis
#19
Munkhbat Tarav, Makoto Tokunaga, Tatsunari Kondo, Yuko Kato-Mori, Buho Hoshino, Usukhjargal Dorj, Katsuro Hagiwara
The objectives of our research on equine piroplasmosis were to clarify the prevalence of the piroplasms Babesia caballi and Theileria equi among reintroduced Przewalski's horses (takhi, Equus ferus przewalskii) in comparison with horses (Equus caballus) of nomads from around Hustai National Park in Mongolia and to determine the mortality among takhi during 2012 to 2015. The prevalence of T. equi was high in 2014 at 80% among nomadic horses and 84% among takhi. We found no evidence of B. caballi infection among takhi...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665230/documentation-of-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-spp-infection-and-associated-mortality-in-a-common-loon-gavia-immer
#20
Ellen S Martinsen, Inga F Sidor, Sean Flint, John Cooley, Mark A Pokras
We report malaria parasite infection ( Plasmodium spp.) and associated mortality in a Common Loon (Gavia immer) found dead on Lake Umbagog in New Hampshire, US. Necropsy findings showed the bird to be in good body condition but with pericardial edema and splenomegaly. Histopathological examination of brain and heart revealed intraendothelial and intrahistiocytic proliferation of Plasmodium merozoites with myocarditis. By PCR, the presence of Plasmodium parasites was confirmed from all tissues screened including spleen, muscle, and kidney...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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