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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671715/potential-of-double-crested-cormorants-phalacrocorax-auritus-american-white-pelicans-pelecanus-erythrorhynchos-and-wood-storks-mycteria-americana-to-transmit-a-hypervirulent-strain-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-between-channel-catfish-culture-ponds
#1
Fred L Cunningham, Madison M Jubirt, Katie C Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Paul Fioranelli, Larry A Hanson
Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium ubiquitous to freshwater and brackish aquatic environments that can cause disease in fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila strain (VAH) that is genetically distinct from less virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that research has shown that Great Egrets ( Ardea alba) can shed viable hypervirulent A...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671714/blood-chemistry-reference-values-for-free-ranging-asiatic-black-bears-ursus-thibetanus-by-season-age-and-sex
#2
Jeong-Jin Yang, Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Yoon-Kyu Lim
Physiological characteristics, such as blood chemistry values, are valuable for evaluating the health of the animals. To our knowledge, these values have never been reported for the free-ranging Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus; ABB). Thus, 28 blood chemistry values from 50 free-ranging ABBs captured in Jirisan National Park, Republic of Korea, from 2005 to 2016 were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish blood chemistry reference values for the free-ranging ABBs during both the hibernating and nonhibernating seasons...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671713/butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-for-the-immobilization-of-captive-caribou-rangifer-tarandus-granti-in-alaska-usa
#3
Cristina M Hansen, Kimberlee B Beckmen
A combination of butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine was used to immobilize four captive caribou ( Rangifer tarandus granti) in Palmer, Alaska, USA. The average induction time for this combination was 5:17±2:06 min. Inductions were smooth, and recoveries were excellent. This drug combination may provide an alternative to the use of potent opioids for immobilizing caribou.
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671712/detection-of-multi-drug-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-a-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-with-extraintestinal-polyinfection
#4
Wei Zhou, Lingwei Zhu, Min Jia, Tiecheng Wang, Bing Liang, Xue Ji, Yang Sun, Jun Liu, Xuejun Guo
Multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from the tissue samples of a giant panda. The E. coli strain SH-YH-DH that we isolated carried a self-transferable plasmid associated with multi-drug-resistant genes ( blaCTX-M-55 , blaTEM-1 , sul1, floR, strB, aac(6')-Ib, and tetA/R). This strain exhibited phenotypic resistance to gentamicin, cefotaxime, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. We report the participation of multi-drug-resistant E...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667874/evaluation-of-a-test-and-cull-strategy-for-reducing-prevalence-of-chronic-wasting-disease-in-mule-deer-odocoileus-hemionus
#5
Lisa L Wolfe, Mary Kay Watry, Michael A Sirochman, Tracey M Sirochman, Michael W Miller
  We evaluated a test and cull strategy for lowering chronic wasting disease (CWD) prevalence in a naturally-infected, free-ranging mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) herd wintering in the town of Estes Park, Colorado, USA and in nearby Rocky Mountain National Park. We tested 48-68% of the estimated number of adult (≥1 yr old) deer annually for 5 yr via tonsil biopsy immunohistochemistry (IHC), collecting 1,251 samples from >700 individuals and removing IHC-positive deer. Among males, CWD prevalence during the last 3 yr of selective culling was lower (one-sided Fisher's exact test P=0...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667873/fish-diseases-prevention-and-control-strategiesfish-diseases-prevention-and-control-strategies-by-galina-jeney-editor-academic-press-london-uk-2017-278-pp-paperback-isbn-9780128045640-ebook-isbn-9780128045855-us-125-either-format
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667872/detecting-european-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-disease-outbreaks-by-monitoring-digital-media
#7
David E Peacock, Tiggy L Grillo
  Digital media and digital search tools offer simple and effective means to monitor for pathogens and disease outbreaks in target organisms. Using tools such as Rich Site Summary feeds, and Google News and Google Scholar specific key word searches, international digital media were actively monitored from 2012 to 2016 for pathogens and disease outbreaks in the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, with a specific focus on the European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus). The primary objective was identifying pathogens for assessment as potential new biocontrol agents for Australia's pest populations of the European rabbit...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617187/bats-recovering-from-white-nose-syndrome-elevate-metabolic-rate-during-wing-healing-in-spring
#8
Melissa B Meierhofer, Joseph S Johnson, Kenneth A Field, Shayne S Lumadue, Allen Kurta, Joseph A Kath, DeeAnn M Reeder
  Host responses to infection with novel pathogens are costly and require trade-offs among physiologic systems. One such pathogen is the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) and has led to mass mortality of hibernating bats in eastern North America. Although infection with Pd does not always result in death, we hypothesized that bats that survive infection suffer significant consequences that negatively impact the ability of females to reproduce. To understand the physiologic consequences of surviving infection with Pd, we assessed differences in wing damage, mass-specific resting metabolic rate, and reproductive rate between little brown myotis ( Myotis lucifugus) that survived a winter in captivity after inoculation with Pd (WNS survivors) and comparable, uninfected bats...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617186/determining-raptor-species-and-tissue-sensitivity-for-improved-west-nile-virus-surveillance
#9
Kendall L Kritzik, Gail Kratz, Nicholas A Panella, Kristen Burkhalter, Rebecca J Clark, Brad J Biggerstaff, Nicholas Komar
  Raptors are a target sentinel species for West Nile virus (WNV) because many are susceptible to WNV disease, they are easily sighted because of their large size, and they often occupy territories near human settlements. Sick and dead raptors accumulate at raptor and wildlife rehabilitation clinics. However, investigations into species selection and specimen type for efficient detection of WNV are lacking. Accordingly, we evaluated dead raptors from north-central Colorado and SE Wyoming over a 4-yr period...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616883/leukocyte-reference-intervals-for-free-ranging-hummingbirds-in-northern-california
#10
Noa Safra, Mary M Christopher, Holly B Ernest, Ruta Bandivadekar, Lisa A Tell
  Hummingbirds are specialized nectarivores and important ecological pollinators that are the focus of conservation efforts as well as scientific investigations of metabolism and flight dynamics. Despite their importance, basic information is lacking about hummingbird blood cells. We aimed to establish reference intervals for total and differential leukocyte counts from healthy free-ranging hummingbirds in northern California. Hummingbirds were captured in five counties in spring and summer of 2012. A drop of blood was used to prepare smears for total white blood cell estimate and 200-cell differential leukocyte counts...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616882/leptospira-spp-in-the-oral-cavity-of-urban-brown-rats-rattus-norvegicus-from-vancouver-canada-implications-for-rat-rat-and-rat-human-transmission
#11
Christina M Donovan, Michael J Lee, Kaylee A Byers, Julie Bidulka, David M Patrick, Chelsea G Himsworth
  We tested the urine and saliva of 137 wild rats ( Rattus norvegicus) from Vancouver, Canada, for the presence of Leptospira spp. Only one saliva sample was found positive and two were suspect, all from urine-positive rats ( n=81), indicating that active shedding of leptospires in saliva is unlikely to occur.
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616881/the-use-of-ketamine-xylazine-or-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-to-immobilize-american-black-bears-ursus-americanus
#12
Ryan H Williamson, Lisa L Muller, Coy Blair
  Wildlife anesthetic protocols must offer rapid inductions and recoveries, be physiologically safe, and be minimally regulated. With this in mind, we evaluated differences in induction and recovery times and physiological parameters in 33 American black bears ( Ursus americanus) anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine (KX) or immobilized with a commercial drug combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM). Dose was based on mass estimated from field observations. Bears were housed at Appalachian Bear Rescue, Townsend, Tennessee, US, or free-ranging within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Tennessee and North Carolina, US) and chemically immobilized for management purposes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595383/mesocestoides-sp-in-wild-northern-bobwhite-colinus-virginianus-and-scaled-quail-callipepla-squamata
#13
Bradley W Kubečka, Nicole J Traub, Vasyl V Tkach, Taylor R Shirley, Dale Rollins, Alan Fedynich
Mesocestoides spp. have a cosmopolitan distribution with zoonotic potential. Mesocestoides tetrathyridia were found under the pericardial sac, on the surface of the crop, and in the peritoneal cavity of a hunter-harvested northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus) and a scaled quail ( Callipepla squamata) collected during the 2016-2017 quail hunting season in northwest and southern Texas, respectively. Molecular analysis indicated that the tetrathyridia from the birds likely belonged to an undescribed species and are identical to pretetrathyridium stages recently found in Scincella lateralis skinks in Oklahoma...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595382/identification-of-novel-gammaherpesviruses-in-a-south-american-fur-seal-arctocephalus-australis-with-ulcerative-skin-lesions
#14
Carlos Sacristán, Fernando Esperón, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Samira Costa-Silva, Juliana Marigo, Eliana Reiko Matushima, Cristiane Kiyomi Miyaji Kolesnikovas, José Luiz Catão-Dias
There are few studies on pathogens affecting free-ranging pinnipeds from South America. We employed molecular techniques to identify a gammaherpesvirus infection by two putative novel herpesvirus species: Otariid herpesvirus 5 (OtHV-5), possibly associated with ulcerative cutaneous lesions, and Otariid herpesvirus 6 (OtHV-6) in a wild South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis) that stranded alive in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. Here we provide new information regarding pinniped herpesviruses, important for the design of future disease surveillance studies...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595381/phylogenetic-analysis-of-pigeon-paramyxoviruses-type-1-identified-in-mourning-collared-doves-streptopelia-decipiens-in-namibia-africa
#15
Umberto Molini, Gottlieb Aikukutu, Siegfried Khaiseb, Giovanni Cattoli, William G Dundon
We generated the complete sequence of the fusion ( F) protein gene from six pigeon paramyxoviruses type 1 (PPMV-1) isolated from mourning collared doves ( Streptopelia decipiens) in Namibia, Africa between 2016 and 2017. All of the isolates had an F gene cleavage site motif of112 RRQKRF117 characteristic of virulent viruses. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses belonged to genotype VIa and were epidemiologically related to PPMV-1s from Asia, Europe, and North America...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595380/evaluation-of-oral-rabies-vaccination-protection-against-rabies-in-wild-caught-raccoons-procyon-lotor
#16
Jesse D Blanton, Michael Niezgoda, Cathleen A Hanlon, Craig B Swope, Jason Suckow, Brandi Saidy, Kathleen Nelson, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Slate
Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) is an effective tactic for wildlife rabies control, particularly for containment of disease spread along epizootic fronts. As part of the continuing evaluation of the ORV program in free-ranging raccoons in the US, 37 raccoons from ORV-baited areas in Pennsylvania were live-trapped and transferred to captivity to evaluate protection against rabies in animals with varying levels of existing neutralizing antibodies, expressed in international units per milliliter (IU/mL). Among the 37 raccoons at the date of capture, 24% (9/37) of raccoons were seronegative (<0...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561712/blood-biochemical-reference-intervals-for-wild-ornate-box-turtles-terrapene-ornata-during-the-active-season
#17
Leigh Anne Harden, Jennifer Fernandez, Joseph R Milanovich, Brock P Struecker, Stephen R Midway
Blood biochemical and hematology analyses are helpful indicators of the physiologic health of animals, particularly when making conservation and management decisions for threatened species. In this study, we 1) established blood biochemical reference intervals for two populations of threatened, free-ranging ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata) in northern Illinois during their active season and 2) examined the effects of individual carapace temperature ( Tc ) on blood biochemical variables by using a Bayesian hierarchic framework...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561711/survey-for-placental-disease-and-reproductive-pathogens-in-the-endangered-hawaiian-monk-seal-neomonachus-schauinslandi
#18
Michelle Barbieri, Colleen Duncan, Albert L Harting, Kristy L Pabilonia, Thea C Johanos, Tracey Goldstein, Stacie J Robinson, Charles L Littnan
There is considerable temporal and spatial variability in the reproductive rates of Hawaiian monk seals (HMS; Neomonachus schauinslandi). Poor reproductive performance limits the recovery of this endangered species; however, causal factors are not fully understood. There is serologic evidence that HMS are exposed to pathogens that can impact reproductive success, but the prevalence of placental infections in HMS has not been evaluated. Placental tissues ( n=50), including tissues from 25% of known HMS births, were opportunistically collected in 2011 from six Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and three main Hawaiian Islands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547359/molecular-and-serological-evidence-of-the-presence-of-midichloria-mitochondrii-in-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-in-france
#19
Valentina Serra, Alessandra Cafiso, Nicoletta Formenti, Hélène Verheyden, Olivier Plantard, Chiara Bazzocchi, Davide Sassera
Midichloria mitochondrii is a tick-borne intracellular bacterium of the order Rickettsiales, found with high prevalence in the sheep tick ( Ixodes ricinus). Midichloria mitochondrii is capable of vertical transmission in the tick, but recently evidence of potential horizontal transmission to the tick hosts through the blood meal has been reported. We investigated the presence of the bacterium in the blood of roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) collected from an area known to be highly infested with I. ricinus ticks...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547358/investigation-of-a-largescale-common-murre-uria-aalge-mortality-event-in-california-in-2015
#20
Corinne Gibble, Rebecca Duerr, Barbara Bodenstein, Kirsten Lindquist, Jackie Lindsey, Jessie Beck, Laird Henkel, Jan Roletto, Jim Harvey, Raphael Kudela
From August through December 2015, beachcast bird survey programs reported increased deposition of common murres ( Uria aalge) on central and northern California beaches, but not on southern California beaches. Coastal wildlife rehabilitation centers received more than 1,000 live, stranded, and debilitated murres from Sonoma County to San Luis Obispo County during August-October. Approximately two-thirds of admitted birds were after-hatch-year birds in emaciated body condition and in various stages of molt, with extremely worn plumage...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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