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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Kathryn A Smith, G Douglas Campbell, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine, Fernando Salgado-Bierman, Nicole M Nemeth
The causes of mortality of free-ranging raptors range from anthropogenic (e.g., trauma) to dynamic environmental conditions that may affect habitat suitability and prey availability. The province of Ontario, Canada, is vulnerable to anthropogenic and environmental changes because of its northern latitudes and expanding human populations, both of which may impact wildlife. We retrospectively evaluated diagnostic data from raptors submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) from 1991 to 2014 (n=1,448)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Camile Lugarini, Renata Hurtado, Jansen de Araujo, Tatiana Ometto, Luciano Thomazelli, Marina de Seixas, Edison Durigon, Jean Carlos Silva
We tested 529 wild birds captured in northeastern Brazil for infection by avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and West Nile. Viruses were not detected by real-time PCR with the exception of one Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea) positive for influenza virus, but this could not be confirmed by viral isolation or gene sequencing.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lisa L Wolfe, Pauline Nol, Matthew P McCollum, Travis Mays, Morgan E Wehtje, William R Lance, Mark C Fisher, Michael W Miller
Previous studies demonstrated that nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMed-A) can effectively immobilize adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and be antagonized using naltrexone and atipamezole, with or without tolazoline. To assess duration of tissue residues for this immobilization package, we immobilized 14 captive adult elk with NalMed-A, then euthanized animals and collected tissues 0, 3, 6, 14, 21, or 28 d later. Except for two animals euthanized immediately, all elk were recovered using naltrexone, atipamezole, and tolazoline...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Tomasz Hauschild, Anna Nowaczek, Agnieszka Marek, Marta Dec
We assessed the antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of 27 Enterococcus faecalis isolates from 25 wild bird species in Poland. Resistance to lincomycin (100%) was most common followed by tetracycline (48%), erythromycin (44%), and ciprofloxacin (22%). High-level resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was observed in 19 and 15% of isolates, respectively. One isolate (4%) exhibited low-level resistance to penicillin and vancomycin, and all isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Antibiotic resistance was linked to the tet(M), tet(L), erm(A), erm(B), msr(A/B), ant(6)-Ia, and aph(3')-IIIa genes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Emily R Whitmer, Becky A Elias, Danielle J Harvey, Michael H Ziccardi
Following an oil spill in the marine environment, chemical dispersants, which increase oil droplet formation and distribution into the water column, are assumed to provide a net benefit to seabirds by reducing the risk of exposure to oil on the water surface. However, few data are available regarding acute, external impacts of exposure to dispersed oil. We evaluated the effects of known concentrations of dispersant and crude oil in artificial seawater on live Common Murres (Uria aalge). Waterproofing and microscopic feather geometry were evaluated over time and compared to pre-exposure values...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Mathieu Garel, Philippe Gibert, Sébastien Lambert, Pierre Menaut, Brigitte Bonetti, Yvette Game, Gaël Reynaud, Kévin Foulché
Understanding the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction is key to the management of epidemics. A pestivirus belonging to the border disease virus group 4 emerged around 2001 in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain and France. The virus had significant demographic impact in some populations, but it was less harmful and more endemic in other places. The determinants of these local variations are still unclear. Here, we documented empirical evidence of self-clearance of the virus in a chamois population in France...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Michał K Krzysiak, Maria Grochowska, Lech Lechowski, Christopher Chase, Magdalena Larska
Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an emerging arbovirus in Europe, is an important pathogen in domestic ruminants; however, its impact on free-ranging wild ruminants is not well studied. Three hundred and forty-seven serum samples collected between 2011 and 2016 from 302 European bison (Bison bonasus) from 12 different sites in Poland were tested for the presence of SBV antibodies. In addition, 86 sera were collected between 2013 and 2016 from three species of cervids for testing for SBV antibodies. After the first detection of the virus in Poland in October 2012, the proportion of SBV-seropositive European bison reached 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kjell Handeland, Lajos Zoltan Muzs, Christine Cuyler, Marianne Heum, Faisal Suhel, Carlos G das Neves
The world's native distribution of muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is restricted to Canada and Greenland, and a muskox-specific gammaherpesvirus has been described from Canadian populations. We analyzed spleen samples from the Kangerlussuaq muskox population in Greenland and identified muskox gammaherpes by PCR and sequencing.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Patricia Velez, Lucía Romero, Jamvier Lopez-Tello, Olga A Callejas-Negrete, Meritxell Riquelme
In situ conservation efforts are assisting the recovery of free-ranging populations of the endangered peninsular pronghorns (Antilocapra americana peninsularis) at the Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We detected a polymicrobial dermal infection. Etiologic agents were identified as a keratinophilic dermatomycete and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Jessica L Schulz, Robert C Dobbs, Jeffrey M Lorch, J Hardin Waddle, Daniel A Grear
We observed Sanderlings (Calidris alba) with facial growths in coastal Louisiana, US during summer of 2016. Severe lesions were associated with lethargy and lack of a flight response. We determined that the skin growth etiology was a bacterium of the genus Dermatophilus, rarely reported infecting birds. Sanderlings also exhibited severe amyloidosis.
October 31, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Justin R Perrault, Michael J Bresette, Cody R Mott, Nicole I Stacy
We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles (Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement (rs=0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).
October 31, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Alice Kent, Bernhard Ehlers, Tom Mendum, Chris Newman, David W Macdonald, Mark Chambers, Christina D Buesching
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be important drivers of population dynamics because of their negative effects on reproduction. However, screening for STDs, especially in wildlife populations, is widely neglected. Using the promiscuous, polygynandrous European badger (Meles meles) as a model, we investigated the presence and prevalence of herpesviruses (HVs) in a wild, high-density population and assessed potential differences in somatic fitness and female reproductive condition between infected and uninfected individuals...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kali Standorf, Galaxia Cortés-Hinojosa, Stephanie Venn-Watson, Rebecca Rivera, Linda L Archer, James F X Wellehan
Adenoviruses are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses, known to infect members of all tetrapod classes, with a similarity between phylogenies of hosts and viruses observed. We characterized bottlenose dolphin adenovirus 2 (BdAdV-2) found in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with enteritis. Virions were seen by negative staining electron microscopy of feces. Initial sequences obtained using conserved PCR primers were expanded using primer walking techniques, and the complete coding sequence was obtained...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Charles A Manire, C Melanie Reiber, Cécile Gaspar, Howard L Rhinehart, Lynne Byrd, Jay Sweeney, Kristi L West
Rehabilitation efforts for live stranded marine mammals are guided by diagnostic measures of blood chemistry and hematology parameters obtained from each individual undergoing treatment. Despite the widespread use of blood parameters, reference values are not available in the literature from healthy rough-toothed dolphins, Steno bredanensis, with which to infer the health status of an animal. We examined serum or plasma chemistry and hematology data from 17 rough-toothed dolphins either housed at Dolphin Quest French Polynesia or during their rehabilitation at the Dolphin and Whale Hospital in Sarasota, Florida between 1994 and 2005...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Malorri R Hughes, Nicholas J Negovetich, Bonny C Mayes, Robert C Dowler
Estimates of the distribution and prevalence of the sinus roundworm (Skrjabingylus chitwoodorum) have been based largely on the inspection of skunk (Mephitidae) skulls showing damage from infections. We examined 595 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and nine hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus) that had tested negative for rabies by the Texas Department of State Health Services between November 2010 and April 2015 to determine species of Skrjabingylus, prevalence and intensity of infection, and distribution of infection in Texas by county...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amy Gilbert, Shylo Johnson, Nikki Walker, Alex Beath, Kurt VerCauteren
In North America, terrestrial wildlife rabies control is achieved by oral rabies vaccination programs that principally target mesocarnivores. Success at rabies control in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) has been more limited and may require additional enhancements to existing bait products or novel bait designs and attractants. We evaluated preference among captive striped skunks for six different flavors of placebo Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB®) "Ultralite" Baits (Artemis Technologies, Guelph, Ontario, Canada)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Carinthia Zapata-Valdés, Rafael Avila-Flores, Kenneth Gage, Jennifer Holmes, John Montenierri, Michael Kosoy, Gerardo Suzán
The presence of keystone species can influence disease dynamics through changes in species diversity and composition of vector and host communities. In this study, we compared 1) the diversity of small mammals; 2) the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of arthropod vectors; and 3) the prevalence of Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Bartonella spp. in vectors, between two grassland communities of northern Sonora, Mexico, one with (La Mesa [LM]) and one without (Los Fresnos [LF]) black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Nola J Parsons, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Adam M Schaefer
The Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds facility near Cape Town, South Africa, receives ∼900 African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) for rehabilitation every year. Data were analyzed from 3,657 adult African Penguins over a 12-yr period (2002-2013), and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether individual history and clinical parameters upon admission could predict the outcome of rehabilitation. Penguins admitted due to molt or debilitation were more likely to die during rehabilitation than those admitted due to oiling...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Martha Hensel, Miranda Bertram, Raquel Rech, Gabriel L Hamer, Sarah A Hamer
Sandhill Cranes (Antigone canadensis) of the midcontinent population (MCP) and Rocky Mountain population (RMP) are migratory game birds with stable populations that travel between Canada and the southern USA and Mexico. In the winters of 2012-14, we performed gross and histologic examinations of 43 hunter-harvested Sandhill Cranes in Texas (MCP) and New Mexico (RMP) to assess the impact of disease on populations. Lesions were significantly more common in the MCP relative to the RMP, likely reflecting differential environmental exposure to pathogens and parasites...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Giulio Grandi, Henrik Uhlhorn, Erik Ågren, Torsten Mörner, Federico Righi, Eva Osterman-Lind, Aleksija Neimanis
Our objectives were to determine prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dead or euthanized emaciated moose in central and southern Sweden (n=50) and to assess parasite intensity as a major contributing factor in the poor condition of these moose. All animals were infected and most had gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven parasite species were found in the abomasa and 10 species were found in the small intestine. Coinfections were commonly found in the abomasum (Ostertagia antipini and Mazamastrongylus dagestanica) and in the small intestine (Nematodirella alcidis and Trichostrongylus capricola)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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