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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Kerri Pedersen, Amy T Gilbert, Eric S Wilhelm, Kathleen M Nelson, Amy J Davis, Jordona D Kirby, Kurt C VerCauteren, Shylo R Johnson, Richard B Chipman
From 2014 to 2016, we examined the effect of distributing oral rabies vaccine baits at high density (150 baits/km2 ) in an area of Virginia that was naïve to oral rabies vaccination prior to the study. We also compared the effect of baiting at high density in a naïve area to baiting at standard density (75 baits/km2 ) in an area that had been baited annually for 12 yr. Our results suggested that rabies virus seroconversion in raccoons ( Procyon lotor) gradually increased each year under the high-density bait treatment...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Fernando Nájera, Susana Sánchez-Cuerda, Maria Gil-Molino, Elisa Varela, Rodrigo Serra, Francisco Soler, Nuria Vallverdú-Coll, Julian Panadero, Irene Zorrilla, Alfredo García, Maria Jesus Palacios
A free-ranging Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus) was found dead after 16 mo of being reintroduced. On gross necropsy, necrotic areas in the left biceps femoris and intercostal muscles were identified. Streptococcus canis was isolated from both groups of muscles and was confirmed by PCR, corroborating a necrotizing myositis diagnostic.
December 3, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Pilar Corrêa, Cecília Bueno, Rita Soares, Paula Araujo Gonçalves, Fabiano Matos Vieira, Luís C Muniz-Pereira
We report the occurrence of Oslerus ( Anafilaroides) sp. parasitizing the lung of the jaguarundi ( Puma [ Herpailurus] yagouaroundi) in Brazil.
December 3, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Émilie Bouchard, Stacey A Elmore, Ray T Alisauskas, Gustaf Samelius, Alvin A Gajadhar, Keaton Schmidt, Sasha Ross, Emily J Jenkins
Transmission dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite of importance for wildlife and human health, are enigmatic in the Arctic tundra, where free-ranging wild and domestic felid definitive hosts are absent and rarely observed, respectively. Through a multiyear mark-recapture study (2011-2017), serosurveillance was conducted to investigate transmission of T. gondii in Arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus) in the Karrak Lake region, Nunavut, Canada. Sera from adult foxes and fox pups were tested for antibodies to T...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Alina L Evans, Boris Fuchs, Anne Randi Græsli, Wiebke Neumann, Fredrik Stenbacka, Navinder Singh, Göran Ericsson, Jonas Malmfsten, Jon M Arnemo
Postmortem body temperature is used to estimate time of death in humans, but the available models are not validated for most nonhuman species. Here, we report that cooling in an adult female moose ( Alces alces) equipped with a rumen temperature monitor was extremely slow, with a rumen temperature of 27-28 C as late as 40 h postmortem.
November 28, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ignatius M Viljoen, Tashnica Taime Sylvester, Sven D C Parsons, Robert P Millar, Paul D van Helden, Michele A Miller
Lion ( Panthera leo) populations, classified as vulnerable under the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list of threatened species, are facing a variety of threats, including tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The lack of knowledge on pathogenesis and diagnosis of TB, the prolonged course of the disease, the existence of subclinical infection, and nonspecific clinical signs hamper management of TB in both free-ranging and captive lion populations. Early and accurate antemortem diagnosis of M...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Gabriel C A Costa, Leonardo B Koerich, Marcos H Pereira, Luciana R Dias, Ohanna Figueiredo, Maurício R V Sant'Anna, Nelder F Gontijo, Márcia S Couri, Ricardo N Araujo
Philornis is a neotropical genus of muscid fly that interacts with birds and may affect the development and survival of the birds' offspring. Although Philornis is a relatively common parasite, there is a lack of information about Philornis hosts in several parts of the Americas. In this study, two nests of the Rufous-fronted Thornbird ( Phacellodomus rufifrons) were collected in Pedro Leopoldo, southeast Brazil. The first contained four nestlings of advanced age (about 20 d old) and a recently emerged Philornis torquans female adult fly...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Michelle Magagna, Erica Noland, Lisa A Tell, Guthrum Purdin, Bruce Rideout, Max W Lipman, Dalen Agnew
A histopathologic study of free-ranging hummingbirds in California was performed to identify mortality trends. Tissues from 61 wild hummingbirds representing five native California species collected by the San Diego Zoo from 1996 to 2016 or the Lindsay Wildlife Experience from 2015 to 2017 were histologically examined. Birds were either found dead or moribund at the time of submission or were euthanized due to unresolvable health issues. Long-term rehabilitated birds were excluded from this study. Lesions were sorted by organ, etiology, and gender...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Richard A Kock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Flora Alfano, Giulia Dowgier, Maria Paola Valentino, Giorgio Galiero, Antonella Tinelli, Nicola Decaro, Giovanna Fusco
We report a case in an Italian wolf ( Canis lupus italicus) of pantropic canine coronavirus infection, which has previously been detected only in dogs. The wolf was coinfected by canine parvovirus type 2b and canine adenovirus type 2, which highlighted the crucial role of epidemiologic surveys in European wild carnivores.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Anne Mayer-Scholl, Jens P Teifke, Niclas Huber, Enno Luge, Nadja S Bier, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
Leptospirosis is an occupational risk for military personnel and many cases have been reported worldwide. Rodents are the most important maintenance hosts for Leptospira spp. and may infect both animals and humans. To determine the occurrence and identity of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in rodent and shrew populations in German military camps in Afghanistan, we examined 751 animals ( Mus musculus, Cricetulus migratorius, Meriones libycus, Rattus tanezumi, Crocidura cf. suaveolens, and Suncus etruscus) from four military camps in Northern Afghanistan from 2009-2012...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Iris Marti, Simone R R Pisano, Martin Wehrle, Marina L Meli, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis
A free-ranging adult Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) captured in Switzerland presented with a severe purulent unilateral conjunctivitis. Chlamydia felis was detected in conjunctival swabs by qPCR. Systemic treatment with oxytetracycline and ketoprofen led to complete recovery. Infection with C. felis has not been previously reported in Eurasian lynx.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ellie L Milnes, Grace L Thornton, Pauline Delnatte, Alexandre N Léveillé, John R Barta, Dale A Smith, Nicole M Nemeth
Babesia odocoilei, a tick-borne protozoan hemoparasite of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), is being increasingly recognized as a cause of disease in captive cervids in North America. Historically endemic in white-tailed deer, the natural wildlife reservoir in the southeastern US, B. odocoilei has been recently associated with hemolytic anemia in captive Eurasian tundra reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus), wapiti ( Cervus canadensis), and woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the northcentral and northeastern US and several Canadian provinces...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sylvain Larrat, Ariane Santamaria-Bouvier, Stéphane Lair
The determination of body condition is a fundamental component of an evaluation during postmortem examinations of cetaceans. Three veterinarians experienced in beluga postmortem techniques subjectively evaluated 62 carcasses of beluga whales ( Delphinapterus leucas) in duplicate, using a visual analog scale. The result of evaluation and scoring was repeatable in cachectic animals and animals in very good condition but did not capture the continuum of body condition determinations between the obvious visual conditions...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar, A Alonso Aguirre, Alan A Zavala-Norzagaray, Eduardo Carrera Gonzalez, Alberto Lafón Terrazas, José Leopoldo Aguilar-Faisal
West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in the Americas with its introduction in 1999 and now is considered endemic across the Americas. In 2002, WNV was detected in Mexico, where its occurrence and mortality are considerably lower compared with the United States. However, continuous national surveillance programs in Mexico are nonexistent. Birds are considered the primary hosts and primary geographic dispersers of this pathogen. A total of 200 cloacal and tracheal samples from wild migratory or resident birds were retrospectively analyzed using reverse transcription PCR to detect WNV from birds collected in Mexico from 2008 to 2009...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Isidro O Montelongo-Alfaro, Gerardo Amador-Cano, Jaime L Rábago-Castro, Jesús Genaro Sánchez-Martínez, Flaviano Benavides-González, Héctor H Gojon-Báez
Disease outbreaks and mortalities caused by largemouth bass virus (LMBV) in largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) have been reported in the US. Blood and mucus samples tested by PCR to assess the presence of LMBV in largemouth bass in northeastern Mexico were negative, and further monitoring is needed.
October 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, Adam McKeown, Cecilia Sánchez, David Mayer, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
The spectacled flying fox ( Pteropus conspicillatus) is listed as vulnerable to extinction in Australia. The species' restricted population is in decline, putatively attributed to decreasing habitat, climatic extremes, anthropogenic activities, and more recently, mass mortality events associated with tick paralysis and neonatal cleft palate syndrome. Knowledge of fundamental physiologic parameters of the species is limited. To address this knowledge gap, we sampled 50 wild-caught adult spectacled flying foxes in June (winter) in Far North Queensland, Australia...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kevin D Eckert, David A Keiter, James C Beasley
Knowledge of animal visitation to locations where species aggregate is valuable for evaluating potential pathways of inter- and intra-specific transmission of infectious diseases. There is no research evaluating the potential of wallows created by invasive wild pigs ( Sus scrofa) as locations of transmission of infectious diseases. We monitored wild pig wallows by using trail cameras to determine the frequency with which wild pigs and native vertebrate species visited wallows and to characterize these interactions for their potential for disease transmission...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Fabio Castagna, Vincenzo Musella, Luigi Esposito, Anselmo Poerio, Laura Rinaldi, Antonio Bosco, Giuseppe Cringoli, Domenico Britti
In Calabria, as in other Italian regions, the wild boar (Sus scrofa) population has increased considerably in the last few years. The presence of this wild ungulate, a huntable species, was detected throughout this region. Wild boars are a host for many endoparasites, some of which are zoonotic. Our aim was to acquire data on the prevalence endoparasites in wild boar in the region of Calabria, Italy, where such information is limited. We used 60 wild boars culled during the 2014-15 hunting season. We used FLOTAC dual techniques for fecal microscopic exams, as well as qualitative and quantitative microscopic examination with a sensitivity level of 2 eggs/g of feces...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Julie Wittrock, Colleen Duncan, Craig Stephen
Our objectives were to establish if the determinant of health model used in the fields of human population and public health could be adapted to wildlife health; if it was applicable to more than one species; and if it reflected how fish and wildlife managers conceptualized health in practice. A conceptual model was developed using a scoping review on fish and wildlife health and resilience coupled with a participatory process with experts on barren ground caribou ( Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) health...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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