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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328352/identification-isolation-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-and-type-c-from-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-in-the-people-s-republic-of-china
#1
Meng Li, Xu Zhang, Lingwei Zhu, Haifeng Wang, Na Zhao, Jing Luo, Chengmin Wang, Yutian Wang, Yanhua Liu, Wei Zhou, Bikai Zhang, Huancheng Guo, Hongxuan He
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that can induces gas gangrene or enteritis in poultry and humans and many other mammalian species. Here, we report an outbreak of C. perfringens type A and type C coinfection in wild boars ( Sus scrofa ). In February 2016, 10 dead wild boars, including two fresh carcasses, were found in Zhaosu County, Xinjiang Province, People's Republic of China. The two fresh carcasses were included in this study. Two strains of C. perfringens were isolated, identified, genotyped, and phylogenetically analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328351/natural-infection-of-leptospira-species-in-the-native-rodents-degu-octodon-degus-and-darwin-s-pericote-phyllotis-darwini-in-mediterranean-ecosystem-of-chile
#2
Juana Paola Correa, Antonella Bacigalupo, Carezza Botto-Mahan, Sergio Bucarey, Pedro Eduardo Cattan, Rodrigo García de Cortázar, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque, Juan Ramírez-Estrada
We report natural infections by pathogenic Leptospira of two rodent species endemic to Chile: the degu ( Octodon degus ) and Darwin's pericote ( Phyllotis darwini ). We detected Leptospira DNA in kidney and urine samples taken in different years and sites, reaching 33% infection. The effects of infection in these species requires further evaluation.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328350/risk-factors-for-and-spatial-distribution-of-lymphoproliferative-disease-virus-lpdv-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-in-new-york-state-usa
#3
Katrina Alger, Elizabeth Bunting, Krysten Schuler, Christopher M Whipps
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an oncogenic avian retrovirus that was previously thought to exclusively infect domestic turkeys but was recently shown to be widespread in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) throughout most of the eastern US. In commercial flocks, the virus spreads between birds housed in close quarters, but there is little information about potential risk factors for infection in wild birds. Initial studies focused on distribution of LPDV nationally, but investigation of state-level data is necessary to assess potential predictors of infection and detect patterns in disease prevalence and distribution...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328349/a-mortality-event-in-elk-cervus-elaphus-nelsoni-calves-associated-with-malnutrition-pasteurellosis-and-deer-adenovirus-in-colorado-usa
#4
Karen A Fox, Levi Atwater, Laura Hoon-Hanks, Myrna Miller
This report describes clinical, necropsy, and ancillary diagnostic findings for a mortality event in Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves attributed to malnutrition, pasteurellosis, and an alimentary presentation of adenovirus hemorrhagic disease.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323565/surveillance-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-of-minnesota-during-2015-outbreaks-in-domestic-poultry
#5
Christopher S Jennelle, Michelle Carstensen, Erik C Hildebrand, Paul C Wolf, Daniel A Grear, Hon S Ip, Louis Cornicelli
An outbreak of a novel reassortant of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N2) virus (HPAIV) decimated domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) from March through mid-June, 2015 in the state of Minnesota, USA. In response, as part of broader surveillance efforts in wild birds, we designed a pilot effort to sample and test hunter-harvested Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) for HPAIV in Minnesota counties with known infected poultry facilities. We also collected opportunistic samples from dead Wild Turkeys or live Wild Turkeys showing neurologic signs (morbidity and mortality samples) reported by the public or state agency personnel...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323564/differential-susceptibility-of-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-and-domestic-sheep-ovis-aries-neutrophils-to-mannheimia-haemolytica-leukotoxin-is-not-due-to-differential-expression-of-cell-surface-cd18
#6
Rohana P Dassanayake, Sudarvili Shanthalingam, Weiguo Liu, Eduardo Casas, Subramaniam Srikumaran
Bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are 4- to 8-fold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323563/isolation-of-an-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-strain-from-wild-birds-in-seoul-a-highly-urbanized-area-in-south-korea
#7
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Dong-Hun Lee, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Seong-Su Yuk, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Sang-Won Lee, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song
Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323562/corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-infection-in-patagonian-huemul-hippocamelus-bisulcus
#8
Nelly Morales, Dennis Aldridge, Andrea Bahamonde, Julio Cerda, Claudio Araya, Rodrigo Muñoz, María Esther Saldías, Claudio Lecocq, Marcela Fresno, Pedro Abalos, Patricio Retamal
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an intracellular bacteria and the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in domestic and wildlife species. We report C. pseudotuberculosis infection in Patagonian huemul ( Hippocamelus bisulcus ) from the Cerro Castillo National Reserve, Region of Aysen, Chile. Subcutaneous abscesses in the abdominal and pectoral regions from two animals were sampled and bacteriologic isolation was performed. In both cases, we isolated a C. pseudotuberculosis strain belonging to the ovine genotype...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323561/immobilization-of-asiatic-black-bears-ursus-thibetanus-with-medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine-in-south-korea
#9
Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Jeong-Jin Yang, Seong-Hoon Seok, Byeung-Cheul Song, Seong-Chan Yeon
The Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus ; ABB) is a globally endangered species for which a restoration program has been ongoing in South Korea since 2001. However, there is little information on immobilization protocols for ABBs. We evaluated the use of medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine for their immobilization. During 2005-2013, we anesthetized 60 ABBs (32 males, 28 females; 7 mo to 12 yr old) with medetomidine 0.03-0.045 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine 1.54-2.3 mg/kg; reversal of anesthesia was done with atipamezole 0...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318383/detection-of-brucellosis-in-sika-deer-cervus-nippon-through-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp
#10
Qianhong Liu, Jie Wei, Qingsong Sun, Ben Wang, Yuting Wang, Ying Hu, Wenrong Wu
Brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ) can cause enormous losses to stag breeding, especially in areas in which stag breeding has become an important industry. It also poses a threat to humans because it is a zoonotic disease. Use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been poorly described in the diagnosis of brucellosis in deer. We developed a LAMP assay targeting the omp25 gene sequence to detect brucellosis (Brucella bovis) in sika deer. The reaction can be completed in 60 min at 63 C and, with a detection limit of 17 pg, it was more sensitive than conventional PCR, with its detection limit of 1...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318382/physiologic-parameters-and-their-response-to-handling-stress-in-a-neotropical-migratory-shorebird-during-the-nonbreeding-season
#11
Verónica L D'Amico, María G Palacios, Allan J Baker, Patricia M González, Enrique Madrid, Marcelo Bertellotti
Physiologic traits are promising indicators of population health in the face of rapidly changing environments. We obtained values of diverse physiologic parameters for Two-banded Plovers (Charadrius falklandicus) in coastal sites in Patagonia, Argentina, with the objectives of determining the timeline in which these parameters become affected by the stress of capture and handling and of obtaining reference values for future monitoring of these populations. We analyzed packed cell volume, white blood cell profile, heterophil /lymphocyte ratio, bacterial agglutination titer, and total protein, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in apparently healthy birds...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318381/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-american-black-bears-ursus-americanus-of-the-central-appalachians-usa
#12
John J Cox, Sean M Murphy, Ben C Augustine, Joseph M Guthrie, John T Hast, Sutton C Maehr, Joseph McDermott
We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318380/pup-mortality-and-evidence-for-pathogen-exposure-in-galapagos-sea-lions-zalophus-wollebaeki-on-san-cristobal-island-galapagos-ecuador
#13
Judith Denkinger, Nataly Guevara, Sofia Ayala, Juan Carlos Murillo, Maximilian Hirschfeld, Ignasi Montero-Serra, Katharina Fietz, Tracey Goldstein, Mark Ackermann, Veronica Barragán, Francisco Cabrera, Cristina Chavez, Edward J Dubovi, Jael Martinez, Gabriel Trueba
The Galapagos sea lion ( Zalophus wollebaeki ), an endangered species, experiences high pup mortality (up to 100%) in years when El Niño events reduce food supply in the Galapagos Islands. Mortality of pups in non-El Niño years is estimated to be 5% in undisturbed colonies. From 2009 to 2012 we observed high pup mortality (up to 66%) in colonies close to the Galapagos capital, Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, where contact with humans, domestic animals, and rats is frequent. Gross postmortem findings from 54 pups included hemorrhagic lesions in liver and congestion in lungs; histopathology suggested a possible association with infectious diseases...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318379/prevalence-and-distribution-of-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-in-michigan-bats-submitted-for-rabies-surveillance
#14
Samantha L Darling, Ailam Lim, Julie R Melotti, Daniel J O'Brien, Steven R Bolin
Since 2006, bat populations in North America have suffered devastating mortality from an emerging disease known as white-nose syndrome (WNS). The causal agent of WNS is the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. In April 2014, WNS was discovered in little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus ) in Michigan, and has since been documented in 12 counties. Because current surveillance for WNS focuses primarily on mine-hibernating species in winter, it is subject geographic, species, and seasonal bias. To investigate species affected and potential associations of gender, seasonal life cycle, and region with P...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231033/evaluation-of-a-commercial-field-test-to-detect-african-swine-fever
#15
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Manuele Cocco, Caterina Falconi, Giovanna Dettori, Francesco Feliziani, Maria Luisa Sanna, Annalisa Oggiano, Sandro Rolesu
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important and complex infectious diseases affecting pigs ( Sus scrofa ). The disease has been present in Sardinia, Italy, since 1978. Factors influencing the presence of the disease on the island are the presence of illegally bred pigs, uncontrolled movements of animals, and local traditions. Implementation of public health programs is essential for controlling ASF. The use of new diagnostic techniques on both wild boar (WB) and illegally bred pigs would provide tools for faster and more inexpensive control of the disease...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231032/effects-of-live-trapping-and-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-free-ranging-american-martens-martes-americana
#16
Maria C Spriggs, Lisa I Muller, Paul Keenlance, Robert L Sanders, Jill C Witt, Debra L Miller
Seventy-two free-ranging American martens ( Martes americana ) in Michigan were immobilized using isoflurane from 2011 to 2015. In total, 129 anesthetic procedures were performed with no mortalities. Hypothermia and hyperthermia were the most common anesthetic complications, and the mean rectal temperatures were significantly higher during summer than in winter. Dental abnormalities were common; the majority of abnormal findings were broken or discolored teeth attributed to previous dental trauma and were not trap-induced...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231031/different-serological-profiles-to-cooccurring-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-caliciviruses-in-wild-european-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-across-australia
#17
Tanya E Cox, June Liu, Remy van de Ven, Tanja Strive
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was released in Australia as a biocontrol agent for wild European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) in 1995-96; however, its effects were variable across Australia with the greatest population reductions seen in lower annual rainfall areas (<400 mm). There is speculation that the reduced effectiveness observed at higher annual rainfall sites is at least partially due to the presence of a nonpathogenic calicivirus (RCV-A1). The RCV-A1 is related to RHDV and confers partial and transient protection against lethal RHDV infection in laboratory tests...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225301/book-reviewlifting-the-impenetrable-veil-from-yellow-fever-to-ebola-hemorrhagic-fever-and-sars-charles-h-calisher-rock-pile-press-red-feather-lakes-colorado-2013-540-pp-isbn-13-978-0-615-82773-5-35-00
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192048/a-serosurvey-of-diseases-of-free-ranging-gray-wolves-canis-lupus-in-minnesota
#19
Michelle Carstensen, John H Giudice, Erik C Hildebrand, J P Dubey, John Erb, Dan Stark, John Hart, Shannon Barber-Meyer, L David Mech, Steve K Windels, Andrew J Edwards
We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192047/wild-birds-a-source-of-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-infection-for-the-endangered-attwater-s-prairie-chicken-tympanuchus-cupido-attwateri
#20
Pamela J Ferro, Michael E Morrow, Joseph P Flanagan, Brent Ortego, Rebecca E Chester, James M Mueller, Blanca Lupiani
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infects a wide range of avian species. Since 1998, when it was first reported in a captive flock of the endangered Attwater's Prairie-chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri; APC), REV has plagued APC recovery efforts. While REV frequently occurs in captive bird flocks throughout the world, including commercial poultry, the reservoir for initial infection of flocks is poorly understood. From 2008-2016, 412 blood samples and 216 liver samples collected from 32 species of birds on or near Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge in Colorado County, Texas, US, and 89 blood samples obtained from a Texas game farm that provides thousands of Northern Bobwhites ( Colinus virginianus ) and Ring-necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) for hunting throughout Texas, were tested for REV by real-time PCR...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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