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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Kevin D Eckert, David A Keiter, James C Beasley
Knowledge of animal visitation to locations where species aggregate is valuable for evaluating potential pathways of inter- and intra-specific transmission of infectious diseases. There is no research evaluating the potential of wallows created by invasive wild pigs ( Sus scrofa) as locations of transmission of infectious diseases. We monitored wild pig wallows by using trail cameras to determine the frequency with which wild pigs and native vertebrate species visited wallows and to characterize these interactions for their potential for disease transmission...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Fabio Castagna, Vincenzo Musella, Luigi Esposito, Anselmo Poerio, Laura Rinaldi, Antonio Bosco, Giuseppe Cringoli, Domenico Britti
In Calabria, as in other Italian regions, the wild boar (Sus scrofa) population has increased considerably in the last few years. The presence of this wild ungulate, a huntable species, was detected throughout this region. Wild boars are a host for many endoparasites, some of which are zoonotic. Our aim was to acquire data on the prevalence endoparasites in wild boar in the region of Calabria, Italy, where such information is limited. We used 60 wild boars culled during the 2014-15 hunting season. We used FLOTAC dual techniques for fecal microscopic exams, as well as qualitative and quantitative microscopic examination with a sensitivity level of 2 eggs/g of feces...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Julie Wittrock, Colleen Duncan, Craig Stephen
Our objectives were to establish if the determinant of health model used in the fields of human population and public health could be adapted to wildlife health; if it was applicable to more than one species; and if it reflected how fish and wildlife managers conceptualized health in practice. A conceptual model was developed using a scoping review on fish and wildlife health and resilience coupled with a participatory process with experts on barren ground caribou ( Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) health...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Hanna Retallack, Mark S Okihiro, Elliot Britton, Sean Van Sommeran, Joseph L DeRisi
During March to August of 2017, hundreds of leopard sharks ( Triakis semifasciata) stranded and died on the shores of San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Similar mass stranding events occurred in 1967 and 2011, but analysis of those epizootics was incomplete, and no etiology was confirmed. Our investigation of the 2017 epizootic revealed severe meningoencephalitis in stranded sharks, raising suspicion for infection. We pursued a strategy for unbiased pathogen detection using metagenomic next-generation sequencing followed by orthogonal validation and further screening...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kidong Son, Sae-Mi Lee, Yong-Sik Kim, Young-Kwan Kim, Sook-Young Lee, Weon-Hwa Jheong, Jae-Ku Oem
Canine parvovirus (CPV) was detected in three of 136 samples from dead raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides) in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) during 2016-17. By sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the complete VP2 gene, the strain belonged to CPV-2 and would be distinct from the previous reported CPV-2a and CPV-2b strains from Korean domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris). The results indicated that the CPV strains from raccoon dogs and domestic dogs might be not circulated between wild and domestic carnivores in Korea...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Caroline Van Hemert, Timothy J Spivey, Brian D Uher-Koch, Todd C Atwood, David R Sinnett, Brandt W Meixell, Jerry W Hupp, Kaijun Jiang, Layne G Adams, David D Gustine, Andrew M Ramey, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are maintained in wild waterbirds and have the potential to infect a broad range of species, including wild mammals. The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska supports a diverse suite of species, including waterfowl that are common hosts of IAVs. Mammals co-occur with geese and other migratory waterbirds during the summer breeding season, providing a plausible mechanism for interclass transmission of IAVs. To estimate IAV seroprevalence and identify the subtypes to which geese, loons, Arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus), caribou ( Rangifer tarandus), and polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) are potentially exposed, we used a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to screen for antibodies to IAVs in samples collected during spring and summer of 2012-16...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kate G Slankard, Cynthia L Gaskill, Lynne M Cassone, Cody M Rhoden
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are widely used across North America to control rodent infestations but may cause direct mortality or nonlethal effects when secondarily consumed by raptors. Barn Owls ( Tyto alba) are at high risk for secondary consumption because they specialize in rodent prey and often live in human-made structures. We investigated the exposure of Barn Owls in Kentucky, US, to ARs and to dicoumarol, an anticoagulant compound naturally found in certain moldy forages. We tested the liver tissue of 48 Barn Owl carcasses collected during 2012-16...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jaime Rudd, Deana Clifford, Don Richardson, Brian Cypher, Tory Westall, Erica Kelly, Janet Foley
A fatal outbreak of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in San Joaquin kit foxes ( Vulpes macrotis mutica) in Bakersfield, California, USA is causing the once-stable population to decline. Given the fatality of the disease in this already-endangered species experiencing continued population declines, city-wide interventions are underway. To optimize medical management of mange-infested kit foxes, we documented serum biochemistry and hematology values for 11 kit foxes with mange collected from January-May 2015 and compared them to historical data from 18 healthy Bakersfield kit foxes...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Eliška Vitásková, Ladislav Molnár, Ivan Holko, Peter Supuka, Lenka Černíková, Eva Bártová, Kamil Sedlák
We tested sera of 24 free-ranging European brown bears ( Ursus arctos) from six regions of Slovakia for antibodies to 10 viral agents. We tested sera by an indirect fluorescence antibody test for antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine adenovirus, canine parainfluenza virus type 2 (CPIV-2), and canine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV-1). We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to hepatitis E virus, bluetongue virus, West Nile virus (WNV), and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Benoît Cruciani, Francis Shneider, Stéphane Ciccione, Mathieu Barret, Pascal Arné, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Claire Vergneau-Grosset
All sea turtle species are listed on the Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature due to multiple threats. Among these, disease is a frequent cause of stranded sea turtles encountered in rehabilitation centers. Since 2013, we found joint swelling in 13 sea turtles belonging to all four sea turtle species submitted to the Kélonia Sea Turtle Observatory of Reunion Island, France. Affected sea turtles presented with lameness, anorexia, and lethargy. Polyarthritis was radiographically confirmed and lesions were characterized by progressive osteolysis of bones surrounding joints...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lisa Yon, J Paul Duff, Erik O Ågren, Károly Erdélyi, Ezio Ferroglio, Jacques Godfroid, Jean Hars, Gete Hestvik, Dan Horton, Thijs Kuiken, Antonio Lavazza, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, An Martel, Aleksija Neimanis, Frank Pasmans, Stephen Price, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis, Frederik Widén, Dolores Gavier-Widén
Many infectious diseases originating from, or carried by, wildlife affect wildlife conservation and biodiversity, livestock health, or human health. We provide an update on changes in the epidemiology of 25 selected infectious, wildlife-related diseases in Europe (from 2010-16) that had an impact, or may have a future impact, on the health of wildlife, livestock, and humans. These pathogens were selected based on their: 1) identification in recent Europe-wide projects as important surveillance targets, 2) inclusion in European Union legislation as pathogens requiring obligatory surveillance, 3) presence in recent literature on wildlife-related diseases in Europe since 2010, 4) inclusion in key pathogen lists released by the Office International des Epizooties, 5) identification in conference presentations and informal discussions on a group email list by a European network of wildlife disease scientists from the European Wildlife Disease Association, or 6) identification as pathogens with changes in their epidemiology during 2010-16...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jo A Crum, Daniel G Mead, Mark W Jackwood, Jamie E Phillips, David E Stallknecht
During summer and early fall of 2012, the US experienced the largest outbreak of hemorrhagic disease (HD) on record; deer (both Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus) in 35 states were affected, including many northern states where HD typically does not occur. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was the predominant virus isolated, with serotype 2 (EHDV-2) representing 66% (135/205) of all isolated viruses. Viruses within the EHDV serogroup are genetically similar, but we hypothesized that subtle genetic distinctions between viruses would exist across the geographic range of the outbreak if multiple EHDV-2 strains were responsible...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Krysta H Rogers, David H Ley, Leslie W Woods
We describe an investigation of an outbreak of conjunctivitis in juvenile House Finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus) and California Scrub-jays ( Aphelocoma californica) at a central California wildlife rehabilitation facility. In late May 2015, the facility began admitting juvenile finches, the majority with normal eyes at intake. In June, with juvenile finches already present, the facility admitted additional juvenile scrub-jays, again all with normal eyes at intake. In July, after conjunctivitis was observed in increasing numbers of juvenile finches and scrub-jays, carcasses were submitted for postmortem examination...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Marlene K Haggblade, Woutrina A Smith, Jean Bosco Noheri, Clementine Usanase, Antoine Mudakikwa, Michael R Cranfield, Kirsten V K Gilardi
Mountain gorillas ( Gorilla beringei beringei) are one of the most critically endangered great apes in the world. The most common cause of mountain gorilla morbidity and mortality is trauma (e.g., injury from conspecifics or snare entrapment). We conducted a retrospective case-control study of free-ranging, human-habituated mountain gorillas to evaluate factors associated with snare entrapment and the results of clinical intervention. Data were collected from clinical records on all clinical intervention cases ( n=132) in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, conducted between 1995-2015...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Marcos A Mendonça, Marcone L Santos, Thiago D Barral, Fernanda L Attademo, Raphael B Costa, Roberto Meyer, Stella M Barrouin-Melo, Ricardo D Portela
The West Indian manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies that inhabits coastal areas of Central and South America, has been listed as a vulnerable species because of the rapid decline in its population. Commercially available immunologic reagents specific for sirenians are lacking, limiting the development of sensitive immunodiagnostic assays. We observed the affinity of the microbial proteins A and G to T. m. manatus immunoglobulins. Manatee serum pools were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the affinity intensity followed by western blotting to confirm the specific binding of proteins A and G to immunoglobulins...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Matthew D Nichols, Wayne D Lord, Michelle L Haynie, Robert E Brennan, Victoria L Jackson, Wendy S Monterroso
Trypanosoma cruzi is a vector-borne protozoan parasite that infects seven million individuals in Central and South America and is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. There are increasing reports of endemic transmission within the southern US. Trypanosoma cruzi occurs in wild raccoons and dogs in Oklahoma, but its endemicity in the state is poorly studied. We suspected Mexican free-tailed bats ( Tadarida brasiliensis) contributed to the endemicity of T. cruzi in Oklahoma due to their annual migration from Central America to their North American maternity roosts...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Bret A Moore, Christopher J Murphy, Annajane Marlar, Richard R Dubielzig, Leandro B C Teixeira, William T Ferrier, Steven R Hollingsworth
We describe a case series of photoreceptor dysplasia with secondary retinal degeneration in juvenile peregrine falcons. Six Peregrine Falcons ( Falco peregrinus) and three Peregrine Falcon × Prairie Falcon ( Falco mexicanus) hybrids had early-life visual deficits. Eight birds had visual defects shortly after hatching, and one bird had visual deficits first noticed at 5 mo of age. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed in each animal. Eight of the animals had electroretinograms, and nine of the animals had their eyes examined histologically after euthanasia...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Anni Yang, Juan Pablo Gomez, Catherine G Haase, Kelly M Proffitt, Jason K Blackburn
Brucellosis, caused by bacteria in the genus Brucella, is an infectious zoonosis affecting animals and humans worldwide. Free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus canadensis nelsoni) and bison ( Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (areas of southwestern Montana, eastern Idaho, and northwestern Wyoming, USA) are the self-sustaining reservoirs of bovine brucellosis ( Brucella abortus) and elk are considered the primary source of livestock infections. It has been hypothesized that Brucella-exposed elk might have different physiologic status (pregnancy rates and body condition) and migration behaviors than would healthy elk...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Terri Hathcock, Anil Poudel, Yuan Kang, Patrick Butaye, Donna Raiford, Tyler Mobley, Chengming Wang, Jamie Bellah
Abstract  Wild birds inhabit in a wide variety of environments and can travel great distances. Thus, wild birds can possibly spread antimicrobial resistance along the way, and this may represent a potential public health concern. We characterized antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in wild raptors in the southeastern US. Cloacal samples were collected from 118 wild raptors of 17 species from 18 counties in Alabama and 15 counties in Georgia. A total of 112 E. coli and 76 E...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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