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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Blake Lowrey, Carson J Butler, William H Edwards, Mary E Wood, Sarah R Dewey, Gary L Fralick, Jessica Jennings-Gaines, Halcyon Killion, Douglas E McWhirter, Hollie M Miyasaki, Shawn T Stewart, Kevin S White, Patrick J White, Robert A Garrott
In contrast to broad range expansion through translocations, many mountain goat ( Oreamnos americanus) populations have shown signs of decline. Recent documentation of pneumonia in mountain goats highlights their susceptibility to bacterial pathogens typically associated with bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis) epizootics. Respiratory pathogen communities of mountain goats are poorly characterized yet have important implications for management and conservation of both species. We characterized resident pathogen communities across a range of mountain goat populations as an initial step to inform management efforts...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
John A Reed, Matthew G Sexson, Matthew M Smith, Joel A Schmutz, Andrew M Ramey
We assessed hematozoa infection in Spectacled Eiders ( Somateria fischeri) at two areas in Alaska. No Haemoproteus or Plasmodium species were detected. Leucocytozoon prevalence was 6.5% for adults across sites and 41.9% for juveniles sampled in the Arctic, providing evidence for local transmission. All Leucocytozoon haplotypes were previously detected in waterfowl.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Olga L Montenegro, Nestor Roncancio, Diego Soler-Tovar, Jimena Cortés-Duque, Jorge Contreras-Herrera, Sandra Sabogal, Luz Dary Acevedo, Pedro Enrique Navas-Suárez
In South America, wild populations of peccaries coexist with domestic and feral pigs, with poorly understood consequences. We captured 58 collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu) and 15 feral pigs ( Sus scrofa) in locations of Colombia where coexistence of these species is known. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against four viral agents, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), porcine circovirus (PCV-2), and vesicular stomatitis virus (New Jersey and Indiana subtypes) and two bacterial agents, Brucella spp...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Richard W Gerhold, Katherine Kurth, Al Claiborne, Alycia Chapman, Graham Hickling
We analyzed 69 eastern Tennessee wildlife samples for Baylisascaris spp. during 2011. The prevalence of Baylisascaris spp. in raccoons ( Procyon lotor) was 16% (8/49), an increase compared to previous surveys in this region. One Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana) had eggs in its feces, indicating that opossums can play a role in Baylisascaris spp. transmission.
June 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Xuelong Chen, Yanping Qi, Honghai Wang, Yafei Wang, Haixia Wang, Hongbo Ni
Wild birds are natural hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and can transmit viruses to poultry and other species. To monitor the prevalence of AIV antibodies, 211 eggs from wild Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos) and 177 from wild White-winged Terns ( Chlidonias leucopterus) were collected from Zhalong Wetland and Xianghai Wetland in northeastern Republic of China from April to September, 2016. A hemagglutinin inhibition test detected the presence of H1, H3, H5, and H7 subtype-specific antibodies. The prevalences of AIV antibodies of subtypes H1 and H3 were relatively high while the prevalences of H5 and H7 AIV subtype antibody were low...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Marja Isomursu, Aleksija Neimanis, Veera Karkamo, Minna Nylund, Riikka Holopainen, Tiina Nokireki, Tuija Gadd
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) was detected in European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) for the first time ever in Finland in 2016. Reports of dead feral rabbits in Helsinki started to accumulate from April 2016. The Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira received the first animals in late April, and the main necropsy finding was severe, acute necrotizing hepatitis. Genetic material from RHD virus (RHDV) was detected in the liver and was further characterized as RHDV2. The Finnish virus did not group with RHDV strains from a concurrent outbreak in neighboring Sweden, suggesting another origin...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Haerin Rhim, Jieun Bae, Hongcheul Kim, Jae-Ik Han
Avian blood parasites, including Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp., are found worldwide but only limited information of their occurrence is available in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We determined the prevalence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus and their phylogenetic characteristics in wild birds in ROK. Blood samples were collected from 118 wild birds of 27 species in the Chonbuk Province, ROK. While 43 (36%) were positive for avian haemosporidia on microscopic examination of blood smears, 53 (45%) were positive by PCR targeting the cytochrome b gene...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sarah M Gunter, Connor Cordray, Rodion Gorchakov, Ina Du, Bob Dittmar, Eric L Brown, Kristy O Murray, Melissa S Nolan
Chagas disease, a vector-borne parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the Americas. Mammalian reservoir species play a large role in propagating the sylvatic transmission cycle of this disease, and this cycle can spill over, resulting in human infections. Our understanding of the wildlife species implicated in propagating this transmission cycle is incomplete. We investigated white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) as a potential novel reservoir for this parasite...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lieze Oscar Rouffaer, Mieke Steensels, Marc Verlinden, Muriel Vervaeke, Roschong Boonyarittichaikij, An Martel, Bénédicte Lambrecht
At the end of the summer of 2016, unusually high levels of mortality were detected in Passeriformes and Strigiformes in Flanders, Belgium, mainly in European Blackbirds ( Turdus merula). A passive surveillance program demonstrated a widespread Usutu virus outbreak and revealed a coinfection with Plasmodium in 99% of the dead passerine birds that were necropsied.
June 11, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Michael S McEntire, Ashley Pich, Martin Zordan, Diane Barber, Nathan Rains, Devin Erxleben, J Jill Heatley, Carlos R Sanchez
The Texas horned lizard ( Phrynosoma cornutum) is a threatened species in Texas (federal category C2). Causes for population declines in this species are likely multiple. Disease and health assessments using traditional methods, including hematology, have been minimally studied in Phrynosoma spp. Apparently healthy, free-ranging Texas horned lizard from four locations in Texas ( n=53) and captive Texas horned lizards maintained at the Fort Worth Zoo ( n=16) were sampled to establish hematologic reference intervals...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Matthew C Allender, Ashley C Barthel, Jeremy M Rayl, Karen A Terio
The pathogenicity of frog virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus varies in adult chelonian species at different environmental temperatures, but differences in pathogenicity at different temperatures has yet to be determined in juveniles. Our objective was to determine the susceptibility to FV3-like ranavirus in four species of juvenile chelonians: red-eared sliders (RES; Trachemys scripta elegans), Mississippi map turtles ( Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii), false map turtles (FMT; Graptemys pseudogeographica), and eastern river cooters ( Pseudemys concinna concinna) at two environmental temperatures...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Bradley S Cohen, Emily H Belser, Shamus P Keeler, Michael J Yabsley, Karl V Miller
Trueperella pyogenes, a bacterial opportunistic pathogen residing along the skin layer of apparently healthy animals, is the etiologic agent of intracranial abscessation-suppurative meningoencephalitis, a cause of mortality for male white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus). Occurrence of this disease has been speculated to be influenced by virulence of T. pyogenes residing on white-tailed deer in geographically distinct metapopulations. To determine if differences in virulence potential of T. pyogenes could affect occurrence of disease across populations, we examined if frequency of seven virulence genes of T...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kristen LaCroix, John J Callanan, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Sreekumari Rajeev
We describe histopathologic abnormalities in the kidneys of small Indian mongoose ( Herpestes auropunctatus) on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. The lesions observed in moderate to severe cases were suggestive of a chronic nephropathy. Further investigation is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem, potential causes, and predisposing factors.
June 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Pia U Olafson, Donald B Thomas, Melinda A May, Beverly G Buckmeier, Roberta A Duhaime
Nilgai ( Boselaphus tragocamelus) are nonnative bovines that were originally introduced as game animals to one large, South Texas ranch but that are now present throughout southeastern Texas from Baffin Bay to Harlingen and in northern Mexico at least as far west as Durango. Between October 2014 and January 2017, nilgai ( n=517) were examined for the presence of tick ectoparasites, with particular interest in the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus) microplus. These animals were either hunter killed or they were culled as part of federal cooperative harvesting from Cameron and Willacy counties in southeastern Texas...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Petras Prakas, Dalius Butkauskas, Saulius Švažas, Evelina Juozaitytė-Ngugu, Vitas Stanevičius
One morphologic type of sarcocyst was found in 26% (7/27) of Eurasian Coots ( Fulica atra) and was described as Sarcocystis fulicae n. sp. using morphologic, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and ITS1 analysis. By light microscope, cysts were ribbon-shaped and measured 7.3 mm in length by 116 μm wide. Histologically, the cyst wall reached up to 1.2 μm in thickness and seemed smooth. The detected sarcocysts were packed with relatively small banana-shaped bradyzoites that were 6.7×2.0 μm in size. Ultrastructurally, the cyst wall amounted to 1 μm and had many conical protrusions but seemed almost smooth in some places...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
N Jane Harms, Thomas S Jung, Maria Hallock, Katherina Egli
Decreased access to potent narcotics for wildlife applications has stimulated the need to explore alternative drug combinations for ungulate immobilizations. A combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) has been used for some ungulate species, but information on its use in bison ( Bison bison) is limited. We conducted field trials using BAM, in conjunction with atipamezole and naltrexone as antagonists, for reversible field immobilization of bison during ground- and helicopter-based operations...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Benjamin M Dudek, Michael N Kochert, Joseph G Barnes, Peter H Bloom, Joseph M Papp, Richard W Gerhold, Kathryn E Purple, Kenneth V Jacobson, Charles R Preston, Chris R Vennum, James W Watson, Julie A Heath
Avian trichomonosis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, affects bird-eating raptors worldwide. Raptors can develop trichomonosis by feeding on infected prey, particularly Rock Pigeons (C olumba livia), which are a reservoir for T. gallinae. Raptors may be particularly vulnerable to T. gallinae infection in degraded habitats, where changes in resources may cause raptors to switch from foraging on native prey to synanthropic avian species such as Rock Pigeons. Golden Eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos) typically forage on mammals; however, habitat across much of their range is experiencing degradation through changes in land use, climate, and human encroachment...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jacob M Haus, Jolie A Demchur, Justin R Dion, Perry L Habecker, Jacob L Bowman
Postmortem examination of 21 neonatal white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from Delaware identified six fawns with Theileria spp. organisms or suspected infection.
May 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Louise Guevara, Azza Abdelgawad, Cynthia Onzere, Alex D Greenwood, Zeke Davidson, Richard Bishop, Mathew Mutinda
Equid herpesviruses types 1 (EHV-1) and 9 (EHV-9) are unusual among herpesviruses in that they lack strong host specificity, and the full extent of their host range remains unclear. The virus establishes latency for long periods and can be reactivated and shed, resulting in clinical disease in susceptible species. A sensitive and specific peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to study the seroprevalence of both viruses in a broad range of species among both wild and captive populations...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jon D Reuter, Suzanne L Nelson
A population of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) resides throughout the island of St John, US Virgin Islands, predominately in the Virgin Islands National Park. Adult deer ( n=23), ranging from 1 yr to 8 yr old, were assessed to characterize body condition and health. Serologic samples were screened for important viral pathogens in the area, including Zika, chikungunya, bluetongue, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses. Samples were collected in July 2016; males were in velvet and all females were in diestrus...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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