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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Xiafei Liu, Bin Yan, Qian Wang, Mengmeng Jiang, Changchun Tu, Chuangfu Chen, Sándor Hornok, Yuanzhi Wang
Babesia vesperuginis was molecularly detected in 10% (5/48) of common pipistrelle bats ( Pipistrellus pipistrellus) in Shihezi City, Northwestern China. Interestingly, four bat ticks ( Argas vespertilionis), from Babesia DNA-positive common pipistrelle bats, were also positive for B. vesperuginis. Our findings extend the geographic range of the common pipistrelle bat as a reservoir of B. vesperuginis in Asia.
January 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Anna Malmsten, Ulf Magnusson, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, David González-Barrio, Anne-Marie Dalin
The wild boar ( Sus scrofa) population has increased markedly during the last three decades in Sweden and in other parts of Europe. This population growth may lead to increased contact between the wild boar and the domestic pig ( Sus scrofa scrofa), increasing the risk of transmission of pathogens. The objective of our study was to estimate the seroprevalence of selective pathogens, known to be shared between wild boars and domestic pigs in Europe, in three wild boar populations in Sweden. In total, 286 hunter-harvested female wild boars were included in this study...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Craig M Lind, Ciera M McCoy, Terence M Farrell
Snake fungal disease (SFD) is caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola and its documentation in wild snake populations has risen sharply in the past decade. Little is known regarding the fate of individual, free-ranging snakes afflicted with SFD. We monitored an afflicted population of pigmy rattlesnakes ( Sistrurus miliarius) at Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge in Central Florida, US for 2 yr. The severity of SFD in individual snakes was unrelated to the probability of their recapture later in the study, and half of the snakes diagnosed as severely infected at the onset of the study were recaptured later with no clinical signs of SFD...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jason A Ferrante, Margaret E Hunter, James F X Wellehan
  Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α, and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin (reference genes)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sebastian Ortiz, Sonia M Hernandez, Michael J Yabsley, Trista I Becker, Benjamin Carswell, Yank Moore, Heather Fenton, Charlie S Bahnson, Kevin Niedringhaus, Elizabeth Elsmo, Lillian Orciari, Pamela Yager, Nancy L Stedman, Steven E Nelson, Terry M Norton
  The introduction of rabies virus (RABV) to barrier islands, which are often popular tourist destinations with resource-rich habitats and connectivity and proximity to the mainland, is especially concerning because it can easily become endemic due to factors like dense rabies-vector populations (e.g., raccoons [ Procyon lotor]), high inter- and intraspecies contact rates, and anthropogenic activities such as supplemental feeding of feral cats ( Felis catus). In January 2013, a neurologic raccoon found on the Jekyll Island (JI), Georgia causeway tested positive for rabies...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Mauricio Seguel, Josefina Gutiérrez, Carlos Hernández, Felipe Montalva, Claudio Verdugo
  Although mites of the Orthohalarachne genus are common parasites of otariids, their role as agents of disease and in causing population-level mortality is unknown. In the austral summer of 2016, there was an increase in mortality among South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis) pups at Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. Pups found dead or terminally ill had moderate to marked, multifocal, mucopurulent bronchopneumonia associated with large numbers of respiratory mites ( Orthohalarachne diminuata) and rare Gram-positive cocci...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Melissa M Kalb, Debra L Miller, M Kevin Keel, Jacob L Bowman
  Within a 6-mo period, a radio-collared, white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) doe from Delaware, USA, developed a fatal head mass consistent with osteochondroma. We suspected a retroviral etiology, but test results were negative. Population implications were not suspected, but this case is concerning as these tumors are not thought to cause mortality.
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Todd M O'Hara, Megan Templeton, J Margaret Castellini, Randall Wells, Kimberlee Beckmen, James Berner
  We explored the use of filter paper soaked in whole blood for measuring carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes, often used in feeding ecology or diet studies, to better understand drivers of exposure to contaminants. Our results showed no statistically or biologically relevant differences in C and N stable isotope measures between our gold standard (whole blood with anticoagulant) and eluates from processed, blood-soaked filter paper. Our data supported the effectiveness of using filter paper for assessing C and N stable isotopes in blood to address feeding ecology and other uses...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jo Jarred, Gregory Lewbart, Kelsey Stover, Brittany Thomas, Ricardo Maggi, Edward B Breitschwerdt
  Mycoplasma spp. are known from several chelonian and other reptilian species. We determined if turtles obtained by the Turtle Rescue Team at North Carolina State University are carriers of hemotropic Mycoplasma or Bartonella spp. Spleen samples were collected at necropsy during May through July, 2014 from 53 turtles of seven species. All turtles were dead or were euthanized upon arrival due to severe traumatic injuries, or they died shortly after beginning treatment. We used PCR amplification for both bacterial genera; Bartonella spp...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Robert J Dusek, Anne Justice-Allen, Barbara Bodenstein, Susan Knowles, Daniel A Grear, Laura Adams, Craig Levy, Hayley D Yaglom, Valerie I Shearn-Bochsler, Paula G Ciembo, Christopher R Gregory, Denise Pesti, Branson W Ritchie
  In 2013, a mortality event of nonnative, feral Rosy-faced Lovebirds ( Agapornis roseicollis) in residential backyards in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA was attributed to infection with Chlamydia psittaci. In June 2014, additional mortality occurred in the same region. Accordingly, in August 2014 we sampled live lovebirds and sympatric bird species visiting backyard bird feeders to determine the prevalence of DNA and the seroprevalence of antibodies to C. psittaci using real-time PCR-based testing and elementary body agglutination, respectively...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Radka Lukášová, Ali Halajian, Eva Bártová, Kateřina Kobédová, Lourens H Swanepoel, M Justin O'Riain
  Relatively little is known about protozoan parasites in African animals. Here we investigated the occurrence of protozoan parasites in mammals from South Africa. Oocysts of protozoan parasites were detected in 13 of 56 (23%) fecal samples using conventional microscopic examination methods. Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora spp. were detected in eight (14 %) and five (9 %) samples, respectively. Mixed parasitic infection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Isospora spp. was recorded in banded mongoose ( Mungos mungo)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Maria Domenica Pintore, Walter Mignone, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol, Marco Ballardini, Caterina Lucia Florio, Maria Goria, Angelo Romano, Santo Caracappa, Federica Giorda, Laura Serracca, Alessandra Pautasso, Cristiana Tittarelli, Antonio Petrella, Giuseppe Lucifora, Fabio Di Nocera, Barbara Degli Uberti, Cristiano Corona, Cristina Casalone, Barbara Iulini
  We summarized the neuropathologic findings in 60 cetaceans stranded along the Italian coastline from 2002 to 2014. The following neuropathologic changes were detected in 45% (27/60) of animals: nonsuppurative encephalitides (30%, 18/60), nonspecific lesions (12%, 7/60), suppurative encephalitis (2%, 1/60), and neoplasm (2%, 1/60). No histologic lesions were found in 47% (28/60) of the specimens. Five (8%, 5/60) samples were unsuitable for analysis. Analysis with PCR detected Brucella spp., morbillivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii infection in one, six, and seven individuals, respectively...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jacey Roche Cerda, Lora Rickard Ballweber
  We confirm the presence of Echinococcus canadensis genotypes G8 and G10 in gray wolves ( Canis lupus) and cervids in Idaho. Our results demonstrated that cystic echinococcosis remains a potential public health issue, indicating the need for regular deworming of domestic dogs, who often act as potential bridge hosts.
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Fidisoa Rasambainarivo, Mamy Navalona Andriamihajarivo, Edward Dubovi, Patricia G Parker
Carnivores of Madagascar are at increased risk of extinction due to anthropogenic loss of habitat, hunting, and interactions with introduced carnivores. Interactions between introduced and native animals also present the potential for introduction of pathogens into new geographic areas or host species. Here, we provide serologic data regarding pathogen exposure of domestic and native carnivores from the Betampona Natural Reserve Landscape, a protected area in eastern Madagascar. For the Eupleridae, we found limited evidence of exposure to viruses from domestic animals but greater prevalence for Toxoplasma gondii (39%) and Leptospira interrogans (40%)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
John L Hoogland, Dean E Biggins, Nathaniel Blackford, David A Eads, Dustin Long, Mariana Rivera Rodriguez, Lauren M Ross, Sarah Tobey, Emma M White
At Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico, USA, infusing Gunnison's prairie dog ( Cynomys gunnisoni) burrows with an insecticide dust containing 0.05% deltamethrin killed fleas which transmit bubonic plague. The reduction in the number of fleas per prairie dog was significant and dramatic immediately after infusions, with a suggestion that the reduction persisted for as long as 12 mo. Despite the lower flea counts, however, a plague epizootic killed >95% of prairie dogs after 3 yr of infusions (once per year)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lena C Patiño W, Otto Monge, Gerardo Suzán, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Andrea Chaves
We conducted a study of the two main populations of free-living Scarlet Macaws ( Ara macao) in Costa Rica to detect the causal agents of avian tuberculosis using noninvasive techniques. We analyzed 83 fecal samples collected between February and May 2016 from the central and southern Pacific areas in the country. Using PCR, we first amplified the 16S region of the rRNA, common to all Mycobacterium species. Products from the insertion sequence IS901 and from a 155-base pair (bp) DNA fragment evidenced the presence of both the avian pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subsp...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Erdene-Ochir Tseren-Ochir, Seong-Su Yuk, Bodisaikhan Khishgee, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Sol Jeong, Yu-Jin Kim, Jun-Beom Kim, Ji-Ho Lee, Kyu-Jik Kim, Batchuluun Damdinjav, Chang-Seon Song
Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) constitute some of the most globally prevalent avian viruses and are frequently isolated from wild migratory bird species. Using 1,907 fresh fecal samples collected during the 2012 avian influenza surveillance program, we identified two serotypes of APMV: APMV-4 ( n=10) and APMV-8 ( n=1). Sequences for these isolates phylogenetically clustered with Asian APMV-4 and APMV-8 recently isolated from wild birds in Korea, Japan, China, and Kazakhstan. Analysis by DNA barcoding indicated that the Mongolian APMV-4 and APMV-8 strains were isolated from Anseriformes species including Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos) and Whooper Swans ( Cygnus cygnus)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
B L Slabach, A McKinney, J Cunningham, J T Hast, J J Cox
In the late 20th century, elk ( Cervus elaphus canadensis) were reintroduced into southeastern Kentucky, US. This population has since been used as a stock population for additional elk reintroductions in other eastern states. Although reintroduction and translocation practices are effective, they can disseminate vectors and pathogens. Therefore, we surveyed tick species residing on elk hosts a decade after elk reintroduction in Kentucky by examining 263 captured individuals (female=86; male=177) from 2011 to 2013...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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