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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225301/book-reviewlifting-the-impenetrable-veil-from-yellow-fever-to-ebola-hemorrhagic-fever-and-sars-charles-h-calisher-rock-pile-press-red-feather-lakes-colorado-2013-540-pp-isbn-13-978-0-615-82773-5-35-00
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192048/a-serosurvey-of-diseases-of-free-ranging-gray-wolves-canis-lupus-in-minnesota
#2
Michelle Carstensen, John H Giudice, Erik C Hildebrand, J P Dubey, John Erb, Dan Stark, John Hart, Shannon Barber-Meyer, L David Mech, Steve K Windels, Andrew J Edwards
We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192047/wild-birds-a-source-of-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-infection-for-the-endangered-attwater-s-prairie-chicken-tympanuchus-cupido-attwateri
#3
Pamela J Ferro, Michael E Morrow, Joseph P Flanagan, Brent Ortego, Rebecca E Chester, James M Mueller, Blanca Lupiani
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infects a wide range of avian species. Since 1998, when it was first reported in a captive flock of the endangered Attwater's Prairie-chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri; APC), REV has plagued APC recovery efforts. While REV frequently occurs in captive bird flocks throughout the world, including commercial poultry, the reservoir for initial infection of flocks is poorly understood. From 2008-2016, 412 blood samples and 216 liver samples collected from 32 species of birds on or near Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge in Colorado County, Texas, US, and 89 blood samples obtained from a Texas game farm that provides thousands of Northern Bobwhites ( Colinus virginianus ) and Ring-necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) for hunting throughout Texas, were tested for REV by real-time PCR...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192046/distribution-and-seasonal-variation-of-ljungan-virus-in-bank-voles-myodes-glareolus-in-fennoscandia
#4
Cristina Fevola, Chiara Rossi, Roberto Rosà, Åke Nordström, Frauke Ecke, Magnus Magnusson, Andrea L Miller, Jukka Niemimaa, Gert E Olsson, Anne J Jääskeläinen, Birger Hörnfeldt, Heikki Henttonen, Heidi C Hauffe
Ljungan virus (LV) is a picornavirus originally isolated from Swedish bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) in 1998. The association of LV with human disease has been debated ever since, but fundamental data on the ecology of the virus are still lacking. Here we present results of the first intensive study on the prevalence of LV in bank voles trapped in Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) from 2009-2012 as determined by PCR. Using an LV-specific RT-PCR, LV was detected in the liver of 73 out of 452 (16.2%) individuals and in 13 out of 17 sampling sites across Sweden and Finland (mean per site prevalence 16%, SE 3%, range 0-50%)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192045/radio-transmitter-implantation-and-movement-in-the-wild-timber-rattlesnake-crotalus-horridus
#5
Vanessa Hale, Brian MacGowan, Lorraine Corriveau, David Huse, Andrea F T Currylow, Steve Thompson
Radiotelemetry transmitters have become critical to studies of wildlife ecology. However, little is known about how transmitter implantation surgery affects the mobility of some species, including the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus . Tracking snake movement can provide insights into the effects of transmitter implantation. During 2007-2011, 71 radio transmitters were surgically implanted intracoelomically in 47 timber rattlesnakes. Over 20 of these snakes underwent surgery at least twice in 5 yr to replace old transmitters...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192043/serosurvey-for-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-steller-s-jays-cyanocitta-stelleri-captured-in-coastal-california
#6
Elena West, Erik Hofmeister, M Zach Peery
West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) conducted from 2011-2014 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird IgG enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192042/assessing-timing-and-causes-of-neonatal-lamb-losses-in-a-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis-canadensis-herd-via-use-of-vaginal-implant-transmitters
#7
Jamin L Grigg, Lisa L Wolfe, Karen A Fox, Halcyon J Killion, Jessica Jennings-Gaines, Michael W Miller, Brian P Dreher
We evaluated the use of vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) as a means of detecting, capturing, and radio collaring Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis canadensis) lambs to estimate survival and to facilitate carcass recovery to assess causes of mortality. We focused on one of several bighorn herds in Colorado, USA, suffering from depressed recruitment that was not preceded by a classic all-age die-off. We captured, radio-collared, diagnosed pregnancy by ultrasound examination, and inserted VITs into 15 pregnant ewes from a herd residing near Granite, Colorado...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192041/a-systematic-review-of-carrion-eaters-adaptations-to-avoid-sickness
#8
Daniel T Blumstein, Tiana N Rangchi, Tiandra Briggs, Fabrine Souza De Andrade, Barbara Natterson-Horowtiz
Species that scavenge on dead animals are exposed to enhanced disease risks. Eight hypotheses have been suggested to explain how scavengers avoid becoming sick from their diet. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and found correlative support for four of the eight hypotheses but limited evidence of systematic studies of the hypotheses. We found no support that using urine to sterilize carcasses, having bald heads, eating rapidly, or food-washing behavior reduced disease risk in carrion eaters...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192040/prevalence-of-columbid-herpesvirus-infection-in-feral-pigeons-columba-livia-from-new-south-wales-and-victoria-australia-with-spillover-into-a-wild-powerful-owl-ninox-struena
#9
David N Phalen, Carolina Alvarado, Victoria Grillo, Phillipa Mason, Elizabeth Dobson, Peter Holz
Columbid herpesvirus-1 (CoHV-1) is widespread in feral pigeons ( Columba livia ) in North America and Europe. We used a PCR assay to detect CoHV-1 DNA in oral and cloacal tissues and oral swabs from naturally infected pigeons. Fifty-three feral pigeons from five flocks in Australia (n=3 from south-central Victoria and n=2 from Sydney) were examined for CoHV-1 DNA. We detected CoHV-1 DNA in oral mucosa and cloacal mucosa, with higher concentrations in the oral mucosa. The sensitivity of testing oral swabs was the same as testing the tissue, indicating that testing of oral swabs from live birds is an effective means of screening flocks for CoHV-1 infection...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192039/endemic-infection-of-stranded-southern-sea-otters-enhydra-lutris-nereis-with-novel-parvovirus-polyomavirus-and-adenovirus
#10
Juliana D Siqueira, Terry Ng, Melissa Miller, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Erin Dodd, Francesca Batac, Eric Delwart
Over the past century, the southern sea otter (SSO; Enhydra lutris nereis) population has been slowly recovering from near extinction due to overharvest. The SSO is a threatened species under federal law and a fully protected species under California law. Through a multiagency collaborative program, stranded animals are rehabilitated and released, while deceased animals are necropsied and tissues are cryopreserved to facilitate scientific study. Here, we processed archival tissues to enrich particle-associated viral nucleic acids, which we randomly amplified and deeply sequenced to identify viral genomes through sequence similarities...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151085/natural-infection-of-the-south-american-tapir-tapirus-terrestris-by-theileria-equi
#11
Alexandre Welzel Da Silveira, Gustavo Gomes De Oliveira, Leandro Menezes Santos, Lucas Bezerra da Silva Azuaga, Claudia Regina Macedo Coutinho, Jessica Teles Echeverria, Tamires Ramborger Antunes, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos, Alda Izabel de Souza
Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by Theileria equi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151084/molecular-detection-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-in-wild-cervids-and-hares-in-china
#12
Jifei Yang, Zhijie Liu, Qingli Niu, Jianxun Luo, Xiaolong Wang, Hong Yin
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen of global veterinary and public health significance. Wild ungulates are suggested to serve as reservoirs for this agent in both the US and Europe. We investigated the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in sika deer ( Cervus nippon ), Reeves' muntjac ( Muntiacus reevesi ), tufted deer ( Elaphodus cephalophus ), and Chinese hare ( Lepus sinensis ) in China. We detected A. phagocytophilum in nine (53%) free-ranging wild Reeves' muntjac. No positive sample was found in wild tufted deer, hare, or domesticated sika deer...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151083/bird-feeders-as-locations-for-skunk-uptake-of-oral-rabies-vaccine-baits
#13
Tad Theimer, Tisheena Talk, Shylo Johnson, David L Bergman
Significantly more (54%, P=0.003) placebo baits placed under 26 bird feeders in Arizona were removed by striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) than at paired, nonfeeder locations (19%). Baiting at bird feeders could supplement traditional oral rabies vaccine bait placement in urban-suburban areas while engaging the public in rabies control efforts.
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151080/capture-of-free-ranging-mule-deer-odocoileus-hemionus-with-a-combination-of-medetomidine-azaperone-and-alfaxalone
#14
Amélie Mathieu, Nigel Caulkett, Patrick M Stent, Helen M Schwantje
The combination of medetomidine, azaperone, and alfaxalone has been successfully used to anesthetize captive white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ). This same combination was utilized to immobilize free-ranging female mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus ; MD) in urban and nonurban environments (14 urban MD, 14 nonurban MD) in British Columbia, Canada. Physiologic data were collected to assess the safety and reliability of this drug combination under field conditions. Each deer received estimated dosages of 0...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151079/exposure-to-lyssaviruses-in-bats-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#15
Lem's N Kalemba, Michael Niezgoda, Amy T Gilbert, Jeffrey B Doty, Ryan M Wallace, Jean M Malekani, Darin S Carroll
Lyssavirus infections in the Democratic Republic of Congo are poorly documented. We examined 218 bats. No lyssavirus antigens were detected but Lagos bat virus (LBV) neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were detected in Eidolon helvum and Myonycteris torquata . Four samples with LBV VNA reacted against Shimoni bat virus.
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151078/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-marine-brucella-from-a-southern-sea-otter-enhydra-lutris-nereis-california-usa
#16
Melissa A Miller, Tristan L Burgess, Erin M Dodd, Jack C Rhyan, Spencer S Jang, Barbara A Byrne, Frances M Gulland, Michael J Murray, Sharon Toy-Choutka, Patricia A Conrad, Cara L Field, Inga F Sidor, Woutrina A Smith
We characterize Brucella infection in a wild southern sea otter ( Enhydra lutris nereis) with osteolytic lesions similar to those reported in other marine mammals and humans. This otter stranded twice along the central California coast over a 1-yr period and was handled extensively at two wildlife rehabilitation facilities, undergoing multiple surgeries and months of postsurgical care. Ultimately the otter was euthanized due to severe, progressive neurologic disease. Necropsy and postmortem radiographs revealed chronic, severe osteoarthritis spanning the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left hind fifth digit...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151077/an-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolate-with-possible-human-and-domestic-animal-origin-from-a-free-living-lear-s-macaw-anodorhynchus-leari
#17
André B S Saidenberg, Terezinha Knöbl, Priscilla A Melville, Eveline Zuniga, Sandra R S Salaberry, Nilson R Benites, Paulo E Brandão
An atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was isolated from an asymptomatic nestling of the endangered Lear's Macaw. Phylogenetically, it was identical to bovine and human strains and highly similar to other human and domestic animal isolates. We discuss potential routes of transmission and risks to conservation of this species.
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139956/bacterial-microbiota-in-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina-from-the-north-sea-of-schleswig-holstein-germany-around-the-time-of-morbillivirus-and-influenza-epidemics
#18
Ursula Siebert, Marion Rademaker, Sophie A Ulrich, Peter Wohlsein, Katrin Ronnenberg, Ellen Prenger-Berninghoff
We present microbiologic findings in harbor seal (phoca; Phoca vitulina ) carcasses collected from the North Sea of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, 1996-2014, and interpret results in relation to potential variations caused by phocine distemper virus and influenza A virus mass mortalities. We conducted microbiologic investigations on 2,124 tissue samples from lung, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes from 549 dead harbor seals of the German North Sea. A large variety of bacteria, including potentially pathogenic species such as Bordetella bronchiseptica , Brucella spp...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139955/cattle-derived-salmonella-enterica-serovar-dublin-infections-in-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-in-tyrol-austria
#19
Walter Glawischnig, Judit Lazar, Alice Wallner, Christian Kornschober
Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is endemic in the cattle population in some areas of the Austrian province Tyrol, and each year single dairy farms have experienced clinical infections. To ascertain if Tyrolean red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) act as a reservoir for Salmonella spp., we tested hepatic tissue and intestinal content from foxes hunted in the years 2015-2016 by using microbiological methods. In addition, we included several fox fecal samples collected on a mountain pasture near chamois carcasses in the investigation...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139954/a-need-for-dynamic-hematology-and-serum-biochemistry-reference-tools-novel-use-of-sine-wave-functions-to-produce-seasonally-varying-reference-curves-in-platypuses-ornithorhynchus-anatinus
#20
James W Macgregor, Carly S Holyoake, Joanne H Connolly, Ian D Robertson, Patricia A Fleming, Kristin S Warren
Seasonal changes in hematology and serum biochemistry results, described by separate reference intervals for different seasons, have been reported in many animals. We developed a novel method to investigate seasonal variation in values and a reference tool (the reference curve) based on sine wave functions that, for suitable variables, represents data more appropriately than a fixed reference interval. We applied these techniques to values observed in blood samples from 126 adult wild platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus ) (58 females and 68 males)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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