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Journal of Wildlife Diseases

Diana M Cárdenas, Roberto V Cucalón, Lex G Medina-Magües, Karina Jones, Rubén A Alemán, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Washington B Cárdenas
Fibropapillomatosis is a neoplastic disease that afflicts sea turtles. Although it is disseminated worldwide, cases of the disease have not been reported in the southeastern Pacific region. We describe a case of fibropapillomatosis in a green sea turtle ( Chelonia mydas) during its rehabilitation at the Machalilla National Park Rehabilitation Center, Ecuador. Viral presence was confirmed by PCR, targeting fragments of the chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) unique long (UL) genes, UL27, UL28, and UL30. The amplicons were sequenced and included in a global phylogenetic analysis of the virus with other reported sequences from GenBank...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Tamieka A Fraser, Roz Holme, Alynn Martin, Pam Whiteley, Merridy Montarello, Cam Raw, Scott Carver, Adam Polkinghorne
The invasive ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei affects the welfare and conservation of Australian marsupials. Molecular data suggest that spillover from other hosts may be responsible for the emergence of this infectious disease, but the scale of such studies is limited. We performed expanded molecular typing of the S. scabiei mitochondrial cox1 gene from 81 skin scrapings from infested wombats ( Vombatus ursinus), koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus), red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes), and dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris) across Australia...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Susan Knowles, Barbara L Bodenstein, Brenda M Berlowski-Zier, Susan M Thomas, Scott F Pearson, Jeffrey M Lorch
We isolated Bisgaard taxon 40 from Rhinoceros Auklets ( Cerorhinca monocerata) with pneumonia and septicemia from Washington, US, found dead in 2016. Previously isolated only from the respiratory tract of a gull (Laridae), little is known about its pathogenic potential and whether it acts as a primary or opportunistic pathogen.
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sarah Zohdy, Lance A Durden, Andrea L Baden
We documented ectoparasites found on wild black-and-white ruffed lemurs ( Varecia variegate) in the southeastern rain forests of Madagascar and describe trends in parasitism. In this study, 235 mesostigmatic mites (1 male, 87 females, 147 nymphs) identified as Liponyssella sp., in the acarine family Macronyssidae, were collected during 87% (34/39) of lemur examinations (mean number/host=7.9). The only other ectoparasite collected was the louse fly ( Allobosca crassipes) in the dipteran family Hippoboscidae, which was collected (3 males, 8 females) during 26% (10/39) of lemur examinations (mean number/host=1...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Stephanie N Kennedy, J Margaret Castellini, Alison B Hayden, Brian S Fadely, Vladimir N Burkanov, Andres Dajles, Todd M O'Hara, Lorrie D Rea
Varying concentrations of the highly conserved acute phase response protein, haptoglobin, can indicate changes to the health and disease status of mammals, including the Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus; SSL). To better understand factors relating to acute phase response in SSLs, circulating haptoglobin concentrations (Hp) were quantified in plasma collected from 1,272 individuals sampled near rookeries and haulouts off the coast of Alaska. We compared Hp in SSLs between sexes and among different age classes (young pups, young-of-the-year, yearlings, subadults, and adults) sampled within distinct regions in Alaska (Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Southeast Alaska)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Claudia Klein, Shemanti Barua, Stefano Liccioli, Alessandro Massolo
Definitive hosts of Neospora caninum are species of canids, such as domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris), coyotes ( Canis latrans) and foxes (XXXXXXX), whereas ruminants, such as cattle ( Bos taurus), sheep ( Ovis aries), and deer (Cervidae) serve as intermediate hosts. We investigated the presence of N. caninum in feces of coyotes in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. One hundred coyote fecal samples were collected from five city parks. Following DNA extraction, the presence of N. caninum DNA was determined by using real-time PCR analysis with a primer and probe pair targeting the Nc5 gene...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Peter M DiGeronimo, Kyle Van Why, Harris Glass, Edward J Dubovi, La'Toya V Latney
Canine influenza virus (CIV) subtypes H3N8 and H3N2 are endemic among domestic dog (XXXX XXXXX) populations in the northeastern US. Infection of free-ranging carnivores with influenza virus has been sporadically reported. Generalist mesocarnivores that exploit anthropogenic, peri-urban habitats share a wide interface with domestic dogs that allows for the transmission of infectious disease. To investigate the potential exposure of free-ranging canids to CIV in Pennsylvania, US, serum samples were obtained from freshly killed coyotes ( Canis latrans, n=67), grey foxes ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n=8), and red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes, n=5) from 24 counties...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amit Kumar, Julie R Melotti, Thomas M Cooley, Scott D Fitzgerald
Three separate mortality events affecting wild eastern fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger) were investigated in suburban areas within southeastern Michigan over a 3-yr period from the summer of 2015 through the winter of 2017. A total of seven squirrels were submitted for investigation. The squirrels were generally in fair to good body condition with moderate fat deposits. The tissues that most commonly exhibited gross or histologic lesions included the lungs, liver, and heart, whereas spleen and brain exhibited lesions less frequently...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Gabriele C Paul, Daniel G Friend
Wild cottontail rabbits ( Sylvilagus spp.), especially young individuals, are one of the most frequent wildlife species presented for rehabilitation at wildlife rehabilitation centers. These species are challenging to rehabilitate, with gastrointestinal (GI) disease being a major cause of morbidity and mortality during the weaning stage. Two organisms, Clostridium spiroforme and Eimeria spp., are frequently associated with GI disease in young domestic rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) and can result in high rates of morbidity and mortality in this species...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
AnaLía Henríquez, Marco Loyola, Jorge Leichtle
Myxomas are an uncommon neoplasm in vertebrates, and are found at a low frequency in birds, both wild and domestic. We report myxomas in two Kelp Gulls ( Larus dominicanus) in Chile, identifying tumors in specimens that were received for necropsy.
July 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Jeffrey M Lorch, Anne E Ballmann, Nancy K Businga
We documented mortality of green frog ( Rana clamitans) tadpoles in Wisconsin, US, attributed to severe Perkinsea infection. Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology. followed by molecular detection of pathogenic Perkinsea clade (PPC) of frogs in the liver. To our knowledge, this represents the first detection of PPC in the midwestern US.
July 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Emmanuelle Robardet, Jonathan Rieder, Jacques Barrat, Florence Cliquet
Tetracycline and rhodamine are bait uptake biomarkers commonly used for decades in oral rabies vaccination campaigns. They require tooth collection and the capture or death of animals. Here, we considered the use of marked baits with plastic beads, a physical biomarker allowing noninvasive scat survey by direct observation in the field. Such methodology would be in compliance with animal welfare concerns. The development of a relative bait uptake estimation on the basis of observation marked scat could indeed be beneficial for the monitoring of oral vaccination programs, especially in programs dedicated to dogs ( Canis familiaris) or protected species...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Elizabeth J Elsmo, Heather Fenton
Although intracranial abscesses are a well-recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), reports of pituitary abscesses in this species are scarce. Pituitary abscesses were the cause of neurologic disease in four adult white-tailed deer from the southeastern United States in 2013-15.
July 17, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Merideth Van Wick, Brianna Hashem
Sarcoptic mange in American black bears ( Ursus americanus) is a recent topic of concern in the mid-Atlantic US as accounts of affected bears have increased in recent years. We describe a black bear with sarcoptic mange that was successfully treated with one oral dose of fluralaner. The outcome of this case has positive implications for the treatment options available for free-ranging black bears.
July 17, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Dawn M Nekorchuk, Lillian R Morris, Valpa Asher, David L Hunter, Sadie J Ryan, Jason K Blackburn
A re-emergence of anthrax, a zoonosis caused by the long-lived, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis, occurred with a multispecies outbreak in southwestern Montana in 2008. It substantially impacted a managed herd of about 3,500 free-ranging plains bison ( Bison bison bison) on a large, private ranch southwest of Bozeman, with about 8% mortality and a disproportionate 28% mortality of mature males; a similar high rate occurred in male Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus canadensis nelson). Grazing herbivores are particularly at risk for anthrax from ingesting spore-contaminated soil and grasses in persistent environmental reservoirs...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lisa L Wolfe, Mary E Wood, Mark C Fisher, Michael A Sirochman
To assess potential seasonal differences in responses to immobilization, we sedated eight orphaned yearling black bears being held for rehabilitation at a wildlife facility in Colorado, US, using a premixed combination of nalbuphine (40 mg/mL), azaperone (10 mg/mL), and medetomidine (10 mg/mL; NalMed-A) in October (autumn) prior to hibernation and again after emergence in May (spring) prior to their release. We dosed all bears at 1 mL NalMed-A per estimated 45 kg body mass (1 mL NalMed-A/45 kg), delivered by intramuscular injection using a pole syringe, to facilitate routine examination and ear tagging...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Chloe King, Chin Y Tay, Hugh I Jones
  The nematodes Abbreviata antarctica von Linstow, 1899, and Abbreviata hastaspicula Jones, 1979, are predominant spirurid nematodes in species of Varanus lizards in Australia. However, genetic knowledge of these two species of nematode is lacking. In this study, nematodes removed from Varanus gouldii were examined using integrated morphologic and molecular methods. We extracted DNA from A. hastaspicula and A. antarctica for PCR and sequencing. Specific 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) primers were designed on the basis of existing 18S rRNA sequences of Physalopterinae strains...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Grace J Vaziri, Sebastían A Muñoz, Ellen S Martinsen, James S Adelman
  Life history trade-offs have been posited to shape wild animals' immune responses against microparasites (e.g., bacteria, viruses). However, coinfection with gut helminths may bias immune phenotypes away from inflammatory responses and could be another mechanism underlying variation in immune responses. We examined how the magnitude of a common and costly response to microparasites, the acute phase response (APR), varied with helminth coinfection at both the individual and the population levels in Song Sparrows ( Melospiza melodia)...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jennifer Ibarra, Roberto L Mera Y Sierra, Gisela Neira, Daniel E J Ibaceta, Miguel D Saggese
We report a case of air sac nematode ( Serratospiculum tendo) infection in an adult male Austral Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus cassini) admitted to a rehabilitation center in Mendoza Province, Argentina, in September 2017. This case of air sac nematodes reported in an Argentine raptor is only the second report of S. tendo in South America. We recommend examination of all raptors, especially those falcon species that include insects in their diet and inhabit open lands and those in rehabilitation centers or kept for falconry, education, or captive breeding...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ana C Matos, Daniela Alves, Sofia Saraiva, Ana S Soares, Tatiana Soriano, Luis Figueira, Fátima Fraga, Manuela Matos, Ana C Coelho
We report a case of Talaromyces marneffei skin infection in an Egyptian mongoose ( Herpestes ichneumon) in Portugal. The isolated fungus was identified through its mycologic characteristics, morphology, and PCR amplification.
June 28, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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