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Journal of Experimental Biology

Olivia Hicks, Sarah J Burthe, Francis Daunt, Mark Newell, Olivier Chastel, Charline Parenteau, Jonathan A Green
Parasites often prompt sub-lethal costs to the host by eliciting immune responses. These costs can be hard to quantify but are crucial to our understanding of their host's ecology. Energy is a fundamental currency to quantify these costs, as energetic trade-offs often exist between key fitness-related processes. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) comprises of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and energy available for activity which are linked via the energy management strategy of an organism. Parasitism may play a role in the balance between self-maintenance and activity, as immune costs can be expressed in elevated RMR...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kayly M Lembke, Alexander D Law, Jasmine Ahrar, David B Morton
Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA binding protein that regulates transcription, translation, and alternative splicing of mRNA. We have shown previously that null mutations of the Drosophila orthologue, Tar DNA-binding homologue ( tbph ), causes severe locomotion defects in larvae that are mediated by a reduction in the expression of the type II voltage-gated calcium channel, cacophony ( cac ). We also showed that TDP-43 regulates the inclusion of alternatively spliced exons of cacophony ; tbph mutants showed significantly increased expression of cacophony isoforms lacking exon 7, a particularly notable finding as only one out of the 15 predicted isoforms lacks exon 7...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Elizabeth F Johnston, Todd E Gillis
The collagen content of the rainbow trout heart increases in response to cold acclimation, and decreases with warm acclimation. This ability to remodel the myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) makes these fish useful models to study the cellular pathways involved in collagen regulation in the vertebrate heart. Remodeling of the ECM in the mammalian heart is regulated, in part, by myofibroblasts which arise from pre-existing fibroblasts in response to transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). We have previously demonstrated that treatment of cultured rainbow trout cardiac fibroblasts with human TGF-β1 causes an increase in collagen production...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Allison Campbell, Ashlyn Dykes, Patricia Mire
Animals employ hair bundles on hair cells to detect flow, vibrations, and gravity. Hair bundles on sea anemone tentacles detect nearby vibrations in the water column produced by prey movements and then regulate discharge of cnidae to capture prey. This study investigates (i): the progressive effects of periodic water flow on hair bundle morphology and density of hair bundles and cnidae in sea anemones, (ii): the reversibility of the flow response and (iii): the ability of the response to be expedited with increased flow duration...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Luis Miguel Senzano, Denis Vieira Andrade
Terrestrial anurans often experience fluctuations in body temperature and hydration state, which are known to influence evaporative water loss through the skin (EWLSkin ) and lungs (EWLResp ). These effects arises from associated changes in skin permeability, metabolism and lung ventilation. Herein, we determined the rates of EWLSkin and EWLResp in the terrestrial toad, Rhinella schneideri , at different temperatures and hydration states. We measured oxygen uptake rates to verify whether alterations in the partitioning between EWLSkin and EWLResp were associated to metabolic induced changes in pulmonary gas exchange...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Zachary A Batz, Peter A Armbruster
Diapause is an alternative life-history strategy that allows organisms to enter developmental arrest in anticipation of unfavorable conditions. Diapause is widespread among insects and plays a key role in enhancing overwinter survival as well as defining the seasonal and geographic distributions of populations. Next generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of the transcriptional basis for this crucial adaptation but less is known about regulation of embryonic diapause physiology at the metabolite level...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hannah Page, Andrew Sweeney, Anna Pilko, Noa Pinter-Wollman
Uncovering how and why animals explore their environment is fundamental for understanding population dynamics, the spread of invasive species, species interactions etc. In social animals, individuals within a group can vary in their exploratory behavior and the behavioral composition of the group can determine its collective success. Workers of the invasive Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile ) exhibit individual variation in exploratory behavior, which affects the colony's collective nest selection behavior...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Chase T Kinsey, Lance D McBrayer
Recent work indicates that bipedal posture in lizards is advantageous during obstacle negotiation (Parker and McBrayer, 2016). However, little is known about how bipedalism occurs beyond a lizard's acceleratory threshold. Furthermore, no study to date has examined the effects of forelimb position on the body center of mass in the context of bipedalism. This study quantified the frequency of bipedalism when sprinting with vs. without an obstacle at 0.8 meters from initiating a sprint. Forelimb positions were quantified during bipedal running at the start of a sprint and when crossing an obstacle...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Martin N Andersson, Johan Nilsson, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Caroline Isaksson
Diet and ambient temperature affect animal physiology, survival and reproductive success. However, knowledge of how these environmental factors interact to shape physiological processes and life-history traits of birds and other animals is largely lacking. By exposing adult great tits ( Parus major ) to two contrasting diets (saturated or unsaturated fatty acids; SFA and UFA, respectively) and ambient temperatures (3°C versus 20°C) that the birds encounter in nature, we investigated the effects of these two factors on several physiological parameters...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Victor Manuel Ortega-Jiménez, Robert Dudley
Hummingbirds are observationally well known for their capacity to vertically ascend whilst hovering, but the underlying mechanics and possible energetic limits to ascent rates are unclear. Decelerations during vertical ascent to a fixed target may also be associated with specific visual responses to regulate the body's trajectory. Here, we studied climbing flight and subsequent deceleration in male Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna ) over an approximately two meter vertical distance. Birds reached vertical speeds and accelerations up to ∼4 m/s and 10 m/s2 , respectively, through use of flapping frequencies as high as 56 Hz and stroke amplitudes slightly greater than 180°...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Michaela Warnecke, Silvio Macías, Benjamin Falk, Cynthia F Moss
To navigate in the natural environment, animals must adapt their locomotion in response to environmental stimuli. The echolocating bat relies on auditory processing of echo returns to represent its surroundings. Recent studies have shown that echo flow patterns influence bat navigation, but the acoustic basis for flight path selection remains unknown. To investigate this problem, we released bats in a flight corridor with walls constructed of adjacent individual wooden poles, which returned cascades of echoes to the flying bat...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Leonie Kirszenblat, Deniz Ertekin, Joseph Goodsell, Yanqiong Zhou, Paul J Shaw, Bruno van Swinderen
Although sleep deprivation is known to impair attention in humans and other mammals, the underlying reasons are not well understood, and whether similar effects are present in non-mammalian species is not known. We therefore sought to investigate whether sleep is important for optimizing attention in an invertebrate species, the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster We developed a high-throughput paradigm to measure visual attention in freely-walking Drosophila , using competing foreground/background visual stimuli...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Olivier Bles, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Stamatios C Nicolis
Insect societies are often composed of many individuals, achieving collective decisions that depend on environmental and colonial characteristics. For example, ants are able to focus their foraging effort on the most rewarding food source. While this phenomenon is well known, the link between the food source quality and the intranidal food dissemination networks and its dynamics has been neglected. Here we analysed the global dynamics of the food dissemination in Camponotus cruentatus workers, after feeding on a low (0...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Melanie D Massey, Sarah M Holt, Ronald J Brooks, Njal Rollinson
For many oviparous animals, incubation temperature influences sex through temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Although climate change may skew sex ratios in species with TSD, few available methods predict sex under natural conditions, fewer still are based on mechanistic hypotheses of development, and field tests of existing methods are rare. We propose a new approach that calculates the probability of masculinization (PM) in natural nests. This approach subsumes the mechanistic hypotheses describing the outcome of TSD, by integrating embryonic development with the temperature-sex reaction norm...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hui-Ying Yeh, Hui-Yun Tseng, Chung-Ping Lin, Chen-Pan Liao, Jung-Ya Hsu, Wen-San Huang
Terrestrial species, especially non-vagile ones (those unable to fly or swim), cannot cross oceans without exploiting other animals or floating objects. However, the colonisation history of flightless Pachyrhynchus weevils, inferred from genetic data, reveals their ability to travel long distances to colonise remote islands. Here, we used captive-bred P. jitanasaius to analyse (i) the physiological tolerance of weevils (egg, larva and adult stages) to different levels of salinity; (ii) the survival rate of larvae in a simulated ocean environment in the laboratory; and (iii) the survival rate of larvae in a field experiment in the ocean using fruit of the fish poison tree floating on the Kuroshio Current in the Pacific Ocean...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Michael A Sackville, Ryan B Shartau, Christian Damsgaard, Malthe Hvas, Le My Phuong, Tobias Wang, Mark Bayley, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Colin J Brauner
Preferentially regulating intracellular pH (pHi ) confers exceptional CO2 tolerance on fishes, but is often associated with reductions in extracellular pH (pHe ) compensation. It is unknown if these reductions are due to intrinsically lower capacities for pHe compensation, hypercarbia-induced reductions in water pH or other factors. To test how water pH affects capacities and strategies for pH compensation, we exposed the CO2 tolerant fish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus to 3 kPa P CO2 for 20 h at ecologically relevant water pH's of 4...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Callum F Ross, Laura B Porro, Anthony Herrel, Susan E Evans, Michael J Fagan
In vivo bone strain data provide direct evidence of strain patterns in the cranium during biting. Compared to mammals, in vivo bone strains in lizard skulls are poorly documented. This paper presents strain data from the skulls of Anolis equestris , Gekko gecko , Iguana iguana and Salvator merianae during transducer biting. Analysis of variance was used to investigate effects of bite force, bite point, diet, cranial morphology and cranial kinesis on strain magnitudes. Within individuals the most consistent determinants of variance in bone strain magnitudes are gage location and bite point, with the importance of bite force varying between individuals...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Pavel Horký, Ondřej Slavík, Karel Douda
Parasites alter their host behaviour and vice versa as a result of mutual adaptations in the evolutionary arms race. One of these adaptations involves changes in host thermoregulation, which has the potential to harm the parasite and thereby act as a defence mechanism. We used a model of the brown trout Salmo trutta experimentally parasitised with ectoparasitic larvae called glochidia from the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera to reveal whether parasitation alters fish behavioural thermoregulation...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Tim S Jessop, Jonathan Webb, Tim Dempster, Benjamin Feit, Mike Letnic
Animals use irruptive movement to avoid exposure to stochastic and pervasive environmental stressors that impact fitness. Beneficial irruptive movements transfer individuals from high-stress areas (conferring low fitness) to alternate localities that may improve survival or reproduction. However, being stochastic, environmental stressors can limit an animal's preparatory capacity to enhance irruptive movement performance. Thus individuals must rely on standing, or rapidly induced, physiological and behavioural responses...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Bianca F Menezes, Judit Salces-Ortiz, Heloïse Muller, Nelly Burlet, Sonia Martinez, Marie Fablet, Cristina Vieira
Phenotypic variance is attributed to genetic and non-genetic factors, and only the former are supposed to be inherited and thus suitable for the action of selection. Although increasing amounts of data suggest that non-genetic variability may be inherited, we have limited empirical data in animals. Here, we performed an artificial selection experiment using Drosophila melanogaster inbred lines. We quantified the response to selection for a decrease in chill coma recovery time and an increase in starvation resistance...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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