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Journal of Experimental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158222/trehalose-metabolism-genes-render-rice-white-tip-nematode-aphelenchoides-besseyi-nematoda-aphelenchoididae-resistant-to-anaerobic-environment
#1
Qiaoli Chen, Feng Wang, Danlei Li, Ruizhi Zhang, Yaming Ling
After experiencing anaerobic environments, Aphelenchoides besseyi will enter a state of suspended animation known as anoxybiosis, which may use trehalose for energy supply to survive. To identify the function of trehalose metabolism, two trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes (Ab-tps1 and Ab-tps2) encoding enzymes catalyzing trehalose synthesis and three trehalase (TRE) genes (Ab-ntre1, Ab-ntre2 and Ab-atre) encoding enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of trehalose were identified and investigated. Ab-tps1 and Ab-tps2 were active when A...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150452/a-metabolic-hypothesis-for-the-evolution-of-temperature-effects-on-the-arterial-pco2-and-ph-of-vertebrate-ectotherms
#2
Stanley S Hillman, Michael S Hedrick
Body temperature increases in ectothermic vertebrates characteristically lead to both increases in arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) and declines in resting arterial pH (pHa) of about 0.017 pH units/°C increase in temperature. This 'alphastat' pH pattern has previously been interpreted as being evolutionarily-driven by the maintenance of a constant protonation state on the imidazole moiety of histidine protein residues, hence stabilizing protein structure-function. Analysis of the existing data for interclass responses of ectothermic vertebrates show different degrees of PaCO2 increases and pH declines with temperature between the classes with reptiles>amphibians>fish...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150451/elucidating-mechanisms-for-insect-body-size-partial-support-for-the-oxygen-dependent-induction-of-moulting-hypothesis
#3
Sami M Kivelä, Sonja Viinamäki, Netta Keret, Karl Gotthard, Esa Hohtola, Panu Välimäki
Body size is a key life history trait and knowledge of its mechanistic basis is crucial in life history biology. Such knowledge is accumulating in holometabolous insects, whose growth is characterised and body size affected by moulting. According to the oxygen-dependent induction of moulting (ODIM) hypothesis, moult is induced at a critical mass where oxygen demand of growing tissues overrides the supply that principally grows only at moults. Support for the ODIM hypothesis is controversial partly because of a lack of proper data to explicitly test the hypothesis...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150450/aerobic-power-and-flight-capacity-in-birds-a-phylogenetic-test-of-the-heart-size-hypothesis
#4
Roberto F Nespolo, César González-Lagos, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, Magnus Elfwing, Alvaro Garitano-Zavala, Santiago Mañosa, Juan Carlos Alonso, Jordi Altimiras
Flight capacity is one of the most important innovations in animal evolution; it only evolved in insects, birds, mammals and the extinct pterodactyls. Given that powered flight represents a demanding aerobic activity, an efficient cardiovascular system is essential for the continuous delivery of oxygen to the pectoral muscles during flight. It is well known that the limiting step in the circulation is stroke volume (the volume of blood pumped from the ventricle to the body during each beat), which is determined by the size of the ventricle...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150449/claudin-10-isoform-expression-and-cation-selectivity-change-with-salinity-in-salt-secreting-epithelia-of-f-heteroclitus
#5
William S Marshall, Jason P Breves, Ellen M Doohan, Christian K Tipsmark, Scott P Kelly, George N Robertson, Patricia M Schulte
To provide insight into claudin (Cldn) tight junction (TJ) protein contributions to branchial salt secretion in marine teleost fishes, this study examined cldn-10 TJ protein isoforms of a euryhaline teleost (mummichog; Fundulus heteroclitus) in association with salinity change and measurements of transepithelial cation selectivity. Mummichogs were transferred from fresh water (FW) to seawater (SW, 35 ‰) and from SW to hypersaline SW (2SW, 60 ‰) in a time course with transfer control groups (FW to FW and SW to SW)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150448/taking-a-goal-centred-dynamic-snapshot-as-a-possibility-for-local-homing-in-initially-na%C3%A3-ve-bumblebees
#6
Anne Lobecke, Roland Kern, Martin Egelhaaf
It is essential for central place foragers, such as bumblebees, to return reliably to their nest. Bumblebees, leaving their inconspicuous nest hole for the first time need to gather and learn sufficient information about their surroundings to allow them to return to their nest at the end of their trip, instead of just flying away to forage. Therefore, we assume an intrinsic learning program that manifests itself in the flight structure immediately after leaving the nest for the first time.In this study, we recorded and analysed the first outbound flight of individually marked naïve bumblebees in an indoor environment...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146771/odor-source-localization-in-complex-visual-environments-by-fruit-flies
#7
Nitesh Saxena, Dinesh Natesan, Sanjay P Sane
Flying insects routinely forage in complex and cluttered sensory environments. Their search for a food or a pheromone source typically begins with a whiff of odor, which triggers a flight response, eventually bringing the insect near the odor source. However, pinpointing the precise location of an odor source requires use of both visual and olfactory modalities, aided by odor plumes. Here, we investigated odor-tracking behavior in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) presented with low- or high-contrast visual landmarks, either paired with or separate from an attractive odor cue...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146770/environmental-population-and-life-stage-plasticity-in-the-visual-system-of-atlantic-cod
#8
Ragnhild Valen, Rita Karlsen, Jon Vidar Helvik
The visual system is for many fishes essential in guiding behaviors such as foraging, predator avoidance and mate choice. The marine environment is characterized by large spatiotemporal fluctuations in light intensity and spectral composition. However, visual capabilities are restricted by both space limitations set by eye size, and by the genomic content of light absorbing opsin genes. The rich array of visual opsins in teleosts may be used differentially to tune vision towards specific needs during ontogeny, and to changing light...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146769/the-interaction-of-path-integration-and-terrestrial-visual-cues-in-navigating-desert-ants-what-can-we-learn-from-path-characteristics
#9
Cornelia Buehlmann, A Sofia D Fernandes, Paul Graham
Ant foragers make use of multiple navigational cues to navigate through the world and the combination of innate navigational strategies and the learning of environmental information is the secret of their navigational success. We present here detailed information about the paths of Cataglyphis fortis desert ants navigating by an innate strategy, namely path integration. Firstly, we observe that the ants' walking speed decreases significantly along their homing paths, such that they slow down just before reaching the goal, and maintain a slower speed during subsequent search paths...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146768/adhesive-performance-of-tropical-arboreal-ants-varies-with-substrate-temperature
#10
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133297/evaluating-the-triplet-hypothesis-during-rhythmic-mastication-in-primates
#11
Yashesvini Ram, Callum F Ross
Mammalian mastication involves precise jaw movements including transverse movement of the mandible during the power stroke. Jaw elevation and transverse movement are driven by asymmetrical jaw elevator muscle activity which is thought to include a phylogenetically primitive and conserved triplet motor pattern consisting of: triplet I-balancing side superficial masseter and medial pterygoid, working side posterior temporalis- which reaches onset, peak, and offset first; and triplet II-working side superficial masseter and medial pterygoid, balancing side posterior temporalis-which is active second...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122951/dive-heart-rate-in-harbour-porpoises-is-influenced-by-exercise-and-expectations
#12
Birgitte I McDonald, Mark Johnson, Peter T Madsen
The dive response, a decrease in heart rate (ƒH) and peripheral vasoconstriction, is the key mechanism allowing breath-hold divers to perform long duration dives. This pronounced cardiovascular response to diving has been investigated intensely in pinnipeds, but comparatively little is known for cetaceans, in particular in ecologically relevant settings. Here we studied the dive ƒH response in one the smallest cetaceans, the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). We used a novel multi-sensor data logger to record dive behaviour, ƒH, ventilations and feeding events in three trained porpoises, providing the first evaluation of cetacean ƒH regulation while performing a variety of natural behaviours, including prey capture...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122950/myosin-phosphorylation-potentiated-steady-state-work-output-without-altering-contractile-economy-of-mouse-fast-skeletal-muscles
#13
William Gittings, Jordan Bunda, Rene Vandenboom
Skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) increases (i.e. potentiates) mechanical work output of fast skeletal muscle. The influence of this event on contractile economy (i.e. energy cost/work performed) remains controversial, however. Our purpose was to quantify contractile economy of potentiated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from mouse skeletal muscles with (wildtype, WT) and without (skMLCK ablated, skMLCK(-/-)) the ability to phosphorylate the RLC...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122949/the-effects-of-extended-crawling-on-the-physiology-and-swim-performance-of-loggerhead-and-green-sea-turtle-hatchlings
#14
Karen Pankaew, Sarah L Milton
Following emergence from the nest, sea turtle hatchling dispersal can be disrupted by artificial lights or skyglow from urban areas. Mis- or disorientation may increase exposure to predation, thermal stress, and dehydration, and consume valuable energy, thus decreasing the likelihood of survival. In this study hatchlings were run on a treadmill for 200m or 500m to investigate the physiological impacts of disorientation crawling on loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtle hatchlings...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113989/cold-hearted-bats-uncoupling-of-heart-rate-and-metabolism-during-torpor-at-subzero-temperatures
#15
Shannon E Currie, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Many hibernating animals thermoregulate during torpor and defend their body temperature (Tb) below 10°C by an increase in metabolic rate. Above a critical temperature (Tcrit) animals usually thermoconform. We investigated the physiological responses above and below Tcrit for a small tree dwelling bat (Chalinolobus gouldii, ∼14 g) that is often exposed to subzero temperatures during winter. Through simultaneous measurement of heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2) we show that the relationship between oxygen transport and cardiac function is substantially altered in thermoregulating torpid bats between 1 and -2°C, compared with thermoconforming torpid bats at mild ambient temperatures (Ta 5-20°C)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113988/seasonal-variation-in-the-thermal-responses-to-changing-environmental-temperature-in-the-world-s-northernmost-landbird
#16
Andreas Nord, Lars P Folkow
Arctic homeotherms counter challenges at high latitudes using a combination of seasonal adjustments in pelage/plumage, fat deposition, and intricate thermoregulatory adaptations. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of their thermal responses to cold, particularly in Arctic birds. Here, we have studied the potential use of local heterothermy (i.e., tissue cooling that can contribute to significantly lower heat loss rate) in Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) - the world's northernmost landbird...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097594/aversive-learning-of-odor-heat-associations-in-ants
#17
Lucie Desmedt, David Baracchi, Jean-Marc Devaud, Martin Giurfa, Patrizia d'Ettorre
Ants have recently emerged as useful models for the study of olfactory learning. In this framework, the development of a protocol for the appetitive conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response (MaLER) provided the possibility of studying Pavlovian odor-food learning in a controlled environment. Here we extend these studies by introducing the first Pavlovian aversive learning protocol for harnessed ants in the laboratory. We worked with carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops and first determined the capacity of different temperatures applied to the body surface to elicit the typical aversive mandible opening response (MOR)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097593/maternal-loading-of-a-small-heat-shock-protein-increases-embryo-thermal-tolerance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Brent L Lockwood, Cole R Julick, Kristi L Montooth
Maternal investment is likely to have direct effects on offspring survival. In oviparous animals whose embryos are exposed to the external environment, maternal provisioning of molecular factors like mRNAs and proteins may help embryos cope with sudden changes in the environment. Here we sought to modify the maternal mRNA contribution to offspring embryos and test for maternal effects on acute thermal tolerance in early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster We drove in vivo overexpression of a small heat shock protein gene (Hsp23) in female ovaries and measured the effects of acute thermal stress on offspring embryonic survival and larval development...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097592/low-glucose-availability-stimulates-progesterone-production-by-mouse-ovaries-in-vitro
#19
Kathryn Wilsterman, Aimee Pepper, George E Bentley
Steroid production by the ovary is primarily stimulated by gonadotropins but can also be affected by biological cues that provide information about energy status and environmental stress. To further understand which metabolic cues the ovary can respond to, we exposed gonadotropin-stimulated mouse ovaries in vitro to glucose metabolism inhibitors and measured steroid accumulation in media. Gonadotropin-stimulated ovaries exposed to 2-deoxy-D-glucose increased progesterone production and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA levels...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097591/head-orientation-of-walking-blowflies-is-controlled-by-visual-and-mechanical-cues
#20
José Monteagudo, Jens P Lindemann, Martin Egelhaaf
During locomotion animals employ visual and mechanical cues in order to establish the orientation of their head, which reflects the orientation of the visual coordinate system. However, in certain situations, contradictory cues may suggest different orientations relative to the environment. We recorded blowflies walking on a horizontal or tilted surface surrounded by visual cues suggesting a variety of orientations. We found that the different orientations relative to gravity of visual cues and walking surface were integrated, with the orientation of the surface being the major contributor to head orientation, while visual cues and gravity also play an important role...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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