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Gilbert R Thompson
A phenocopy is an environmentally-defined phenotype that mimics another, genetically-determined phenotype. The severity of hypercholesterolaemia, extent of down regulation of LDL receptor expression and aortic root localisation of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits strikingly resemble the cardinal features of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in humans, suggesting that the former is a phenocopy of the latter. This review compares the metabolic and pathological consequences of induced hypercholesterolaemia in rabbits with those of homozygous FH and contrasts their ease of reversibility on resumption of a normal diet with the refractoriness to lipid-lowering therapy of homozygotes, in whom major adverse cardiovascular events and survival depend upon the prevailing level of serum cholesterol...
July 26, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Paolo Raggi, Jacques Genest, Jon T Giles, Katey J Rayner, Girish Dwivedi, Robert S Beanlands, Milan Gupta
Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902) recognized inflammation in histological preparations of coronary arteries and proposed that inflammation plays a causal role in atherosclerosis. Despite this seminal observation, the main focus of research and drug development programs has been cholesterol alone, and inflammation received less attention over time. However, during the past several decades extensive observations supported the importance of inflammation in the development and destabilization of atherosclerosis. Studies in patients affected by rheumatological diseases suggested an interaction between chronic inflammation and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
July 25, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Rabia Shekh Muhammad, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Safa Kinaneh, Mohammad Agbaria, Edmond Sabo, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Nina Volkova, Shadi Hamoud
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased oxidative stress is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Emerging evidence highlights the role of heparanase in atherogenesis, where heparanase inhibitor PG545 reduces oxidative stress in apolipoprotein E deficient mice (E0 mice). Herein, we studied the effects of PG545 on atherosclerosis progression in E0 mice. METHODS: Male E0 mice fed a high-fat diet (n = 20) were divided into 3 groups treated with weekly intraperitoneal injections of either low (0...
July 24, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Cecilia Vecoli, Andrea Borghini, Silvia Pulignani, Antonella Mercuri, Stefano Turchi, Clara Carpeggiani, Eugenio Picano, Maria Grazia Andreassi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) depletion has been recently associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. However, the integrity of mtDNA is another key aspect of the energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. We investigated the prognostic role of peripheral blood common mitochondrial deletion (mtDNA4977 ) and mtDNA-CN on long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)...
July 24, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Jyoti Patel, Gillian Douglas, Alastair G Kerr, Ashley B Hale, Keith M Channon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion promotes the development of aortic aneurysms and accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. In order to elucidate the role of hematopoietic cells in these pathologies, irradiation and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are commonly utilized. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of irradiation and BMT on abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysm formation and acute leukocyte recruitment in the aortic root and descending aorta, in an experimental mouse model of aortic aneurysm formation...
July 23, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Jean Sébastien Saulnier-Blache, Rory Wilson, Kristaps Klavins, Delyth Graham, Ioana Alesutan, Gabi Kastenmüller, Rui Wang-Sattler, Jerzy Adamski, Michael Roden, Wolfgang Rathmann, Jochen Seissler, Christine Meisinger, Wolfgang Koenig, Joachim Thiery, Karsten Suhre, Annette Peters, Makuto Kuro-O, Florian Lang, Guido Dallmann, Christian Delles, Jakob Voelkl, Melanie Waldenberger, Jean-Loup Bascands, Julie Klein, Joost P Schanstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preclinical experiments on animal models are essential to understand the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolomics allows access to the metabolic perturbations associated with CVD in heart and vessels. Here we assessed which potential animal CVD model most closely mimics the serum metabolite signature of increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in humans, a clinical parameter widely accepted as a surrogate of CVD. METHODS: A targeted mass spectrometry assay was used to quantify and compare a series of blood metabolites between 1362 individuals (KORA F4 cohort) and 5 animal CVD models: ApoE- / - , Ldlr- / - , and klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) and SHRSP rats with or without salt feeding...
July 21, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Stefano Del Prato, Maja Bujas-Bobanovic, Michael J Louie, Alexia Letierce, Desmond Thompson, Helen M Colhoun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alirocumab, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, significantly reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of alirocumab in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with versus without mixed dyslipidaemia (MDL, defined as baseline LDL-C ≥70 mg/dL [1.8 mmol/L] and triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL [1.7 mmol/L]). METHODS: Data from 812 individuals with T2DM, from the placebo-controlled, 78-week, Phase 3 ODYSSEY LONG TERM trial of alirocumab 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W), on a background of maximally tolerated statins ± other lipid-lowering therapies, were pooled according to MDL status...
July 21, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Guilherme Pinheiro Machado, Gustavo Neves de Araujo, Marco Wainstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Peige Song, Wei Xia, Yajie Zhu, Manli Wang, Xinlei Chang, Shuai Jin, Jingpin Wang, Lin An
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The national representative prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) or carotid plaque (CP) in the general Chinese population has never been estimated. We aim to generate the prevalence and number of people with CAS and CP in the general Chinese population. METHODS: We searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodical, PubMed, Embase and Medline. Articles reporting the prevalence of CAS or CP in the general Chinese population were included...
July 20, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Zihan Liu, Mengqian Zhang, Tengfei Zhou, Qiang Shen, Xiaomei Qin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a key role during development and progression of vascular remodeling diseases. Recent studies show that GLP-1 can inhibit intima thickening to delay the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, in VSMCs phenotype switching and the related mechanisms. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the effect of Exendin-4 on expression of markers of contractile VSMCs...
July 20, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Catherine Gebhard, David Rhainds, Gang He, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Shahar Lavi, J David Spence, Lawrence Title, Simon Kouz, Philippe L L'Allier, Jean Grégoire, Reda Ibrahim, Mariève Cossette, Marie-Claude Guertin, Robert Beanlands, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), has been associated with atheroprotection. However, its relation to plaque characteristics has not been confirmed to date. We aimed to determine the relationship between plasma LCAT mass concentration and plaque burden in a multi-center imaging study. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-seven patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) imaging...
July 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Pierre Abraham, Yongquan Gu, Lianrui Guo, Knut Kroeger, Nafi Ouedraogo, Paul Wennberg, Samir Henni
Exertional lower limb pain is a frequent diagnostic issue in elderly patients. Arterial claudication results from the mismatch between the oxygen requirement of, and oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles. Non-invasive vascular investigations (ultrasound imaging, plethysmography or segmental pressure) are used in routine at rest or following exercise, but none can be used during walking or to directly monitor cutaneous oxygen delivery to the limb. Here, we review the methods, tips and traps of the transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement technique and potential applications...
July 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Xiao-Hua Yu, Da-Wei Zhang, Xi-Long Zheng, Chao-Ke Tang
C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 9 (CTRP9), a newly discovered adipokine, is the closest paralog of adiponectin. After proteolytic cleavage, it can release the globular domain (gCTRP9) that serves as the major circulatory isoform. Upon binding to adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and N-cadherin, CTRP9 can activate a variety of signaling pathways to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, vascular relaxation and cell differentiation. Circulating CTRP9 levels are significantly decreased in patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease...
July 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Brahim Harbaoui, David Nanchen, Pierre Lantelme, Baris Gencer, Dick Heg, Roland Klingenberg, Lorenz Räber, David Carballo, Christian M Matter, Stephan Windecker, François Mach, Nicolas Rodondi, Eric Eeckhout, Pierre Monney, Panagiotis Antiochos, Juerg Schwitter, Patrizio Pascale, Stephane Fournier, Pierre-Yves Courand, Thomas F Lüscher, Olivier Muller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pulse pressure (PP) is a surrogate of aortic stiffness (AS) easily obtainable. The link between AS and cardio-vascular disease is documented, however, data regarding acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are scarce and contradictory. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of PP measured at admission, with regard to major adverse outcomes (all-cause mortality, recurrence of MI, and stroke), during the first year following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The SPUM-ACS project is a prospective cohort study of patients with ACS conducted in 4 Swiss University hospitals...
July 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Ana Palanca, Esmeralda Castelblanco, Hèctor Perpiñán, Àngels Betriu, Berta Soldevila, José Manuel Valdivielso, Marcelino Bermúdez, Xavier Duran, Elvira Fernández, Manel Puig-Domingo, Per-Henrik Groop, Núria Alonso, Dídac Mauricio
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors fail to fully account for the increase in cardiovascular risk in these patients. This study aims to analyse the prevalence and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in CKD patients with and without diabetes. METHODS: We included data from CKD patients with and without diabetes free from previous cardiovascular events from the NEFRONA cohort...
July 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Heng-Chih Pan, Kuei-Mei Chou, Chin-Chan Lee, Ning-I Yang, Chiao-Yin Sun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is a global health problem that is associated with a wide variety of vascular complications and associated morbidity and mortality. Klotho is an enzyme and transmembrane protein, and increasing evidence suggests that Klotho may contribute to reduced oxidative stress, improved endothelial function, and vasoprotection. To date, the physiological role of Klotho in vascular complications associated with diabetes is unclear. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 252 patients with type 2 diabetes, who visited an outpatient clinic at our hospital between 2009 and 2011...
July 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Mouaz H Al-Mallah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Denuja Karunakaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Dean J Kereiakes, Norman E Lepor, Robert Gerber, L Veronica Lee, Joe Elassal, Desmond Thompson, C Michael Gibson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and prior revascularization are at high risk of further cardiovascular events and may require additional lipid-lowering therapies beyond maximally tolerated statin therapy. We assessed the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, in patients with ASCVD, with or without prior coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] or coronary artery bypass graft [CABG])...
July 10, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Annelotte Vos, Remko Kockelkoren, Jill B de Vis, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Irene C van der Schaaf, Birgitta K Velthuis, Willem P T M Mali, Pim A de Jong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Calcifications of the intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) are an important risk factor for stroke. The calcifications can occur both in the intimal and medial layer of the vascular wall. The aim of this study is to assess whether medial calcification in the iICA is differently related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease, compared to intimal calcification. METHODS: Unenhanced thin slice computed tomography (CT) scans from 1132 patients from the Dutch acute stroke study cohort were assessed for dominant localization of calcification (medial or intimal) by one of three observers based on established methodology...
July 7, 2018: Atherosclerosis
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