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Xuting Zhang, Ying Zhou, Wenhong Ding, Ruiting Zhang, Shenqiang Yan, Yujie Deng, Feng Gao, Min Lou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intracranial stenosis (ICS), the common cause of ischemic stroke worldwide, is associated with a high risk of recurrent stroke. We aimed to investigate the relationship between arterial remodeling and antithyroid peroxidase-antibody (TPO-Ab) level in ICS and the effect of TPO-Ab level on the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: We analyzed data of mild-to-severe ICS patients with normal thyroid function who underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in our center...
November 27, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Olga Kordonouri, Karin Lange, Isa Boettcher, Juergen Christoph, Erika Marquardt, Claire Tombois, Laura Galuschka, Doris Stiller, Iris Mueller, Frank Roloff, Baerbel Aschemeier, Thomas Danne
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lipid disorders are often detected very late, particularly in affected young children. We evaluated the feasibility of a screening for LDL-hypercholesterolemia (highLDL) among toddlers and preschoolers. METHODS: Population-based screening has been offered to all children (2-6 years) living in the State of Lower Saxony, Germany, with capillary blood sampling for detection of elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C ≥ 135 mg/dL). Positive results were confirmed by a second measurement...
November 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Yi Yan, Fei He, Zhonghao Li, Ruoting Xu, Ting Li, Jinyu Su, Xianyan Liu, Ming Zhao, Wei Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been well established that ezetimibe blocks cholesterol absorption to prevent the negative effects of a high-fat diet in atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Here we use a transgenic zebrafish, which expresses different fluorescent proteins on either endothelial cells or granulocytes and macrophages, to explore the specific mechanism of ezetimibe and its role in reducing atherosclerosis-related hypercholesteremia. METHODS: Zebrafish larvae were exposed to a control diet, high cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD with ezetimibe treatment...
November 16, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Lauri Vähämurto, Katja Pahkala, Costan G Magnussen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Mika Kähönen, Tomi Laitinen, Leena Taittonen, Päivi Tossavainen, Terho Lehtimäki, Eero Jokinen, Risto Telama, Tapani Rönnemaa, Jorma Viikari, Markus Juonala, Olli T Raitakari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the 1960s and 1970s, Finland, mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) was over 30% higher among Finns residing in the east of the country compared with those residing in the west. Today, CHD mortality remains 20% higher among eastern Finns. The higher incidence of CHD mortality among eastern Finns has largely been explained by higher risk factor levels. Using a unique longitudinal cohort, we aimed to determine if participants who resided in eastern Finland during childhood had higher CHD risk factors in adulthood and from childhood to adulthood...
November 15, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Eva Kritikou, Janine van Duijn, Joya E Nahon, Thomas van der Heijden, Merel Bouwman, Christianne Groeneveldt, Frank H Schaftenaar, Mara J Kröner, Johan Kuiper, Gijs H M van Puijvelde, Ilze Bot
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The development of atherosclerosis is tightly regulated by the innate and adaptive immune system. Communication between these two compartments occurs, among others, upon presentation of lipid antigens to the NKT cell population by CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells. Recent evidence states that also mast cells express CD1d and can directly communicate with NKT cells. However, no such relationship has been reported in atherosclerosis. Here, we aimed to elucidate in vivo the CD1d-mediated interaction between mast cells and NKT cells upon atherosclerosis progression...
November 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Dean Gilham, Laura M Tsujikawa, Christopher D Sarsons, Christopher Halliday, Sylwia Wasiak, Stephanie C Stotz, Ravi Jahagirdar, Michael Sweeney, Jan O Johansson, Norman C W Wong, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Ewelina Kulikowski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apabetalone is an inhibitor of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins. In clinical trials, apabetalone reduced the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with cardiovascular disease and reduced circulating factors that promote vascular calcification (VC). Because VC contributes to MACE, effects of apabetalone on pro-calcific processes were examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apabetalone inhibited extracellular calcium deposition and opposed induction of transdifferentiation markers in human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under osteogenic culture conditions...
November 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Raffaele Gaeta, Antonio Fornaciari, Rossana Izzetti, Davide Caramella, Valentina Giuffra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A small crypt in the Santissima Annunziata Church of Santa Maria della Scala Hospital in Siena (Italy) contained three well-preserved mummies, two of which, dated back to the 15th-16th century, were identified as Salimbene Capacci (1433-1497), Rector of the Hospital, and his wife, Margherita Sozzini (?-1511). The third mummy, dressed in clothes of the 17th century, was not initially identified. METHODS: Accurate bibliographical, taphonomic and anthropological studies allowed the identification of the mummy of Girolamo Macchi, who lived between 1648 and 1734 and worked as "major writer", an accountant, for the Hospital...
November 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Fotios Barkas, Moses Elisaf, Evangelos C Rizos, Evangelos Liberopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Hideki Wada, Tomotaka Dohi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Matteo Pirro, Daniela Francisci, Vanessa Bianconi, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Massimo R Mannarino, Francesco Barsotti, Andrea Spinozzi, Francesco Bagaglia, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Franco Baldelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite hypercholesterolemia has been recognized to increase cardiovascular risk in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, cholesterol-lowering therapy is underused in this population, due to fear of drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated the effects of a nutraceutical combination (NC) on lipid profile, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), subclinical inflammation and arterial stiffness in ART-treated HIV-infected patients...
November 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Jonas T Sertorio, Jose E Tanus-Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Ki-Woong Nam, Hyung-Min Kwon, Han-Yeong Jeong, Jin-Ho Park, Sang Hyuck Kim, Su-Min Jeong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although there is substantial evidence that serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is associated with cerebrovascular diseases, its role in silent brain infarcts (SBIs) has not been addressed. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between serum GGT and the presence of SBI in a neurologically healthy population. METHODS: We evaluated a consecutive series of healthy volunteers recruited between January 2006 and December 2013. We conducted broad examinations in the form of health check-ups, which included brain magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory examinations including assessment of GGT levels...
November 13, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Steve E Humphries, Jackie A Cooper, Nigel Capps, Paul N Durrington, Ben Jones, Ian F W McDowell, Handrean Soran, Andrew H W Neil
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) has proposed that patients with "severe" FH (SFH) would warrant early and more aggressive cholesterol-lowering treatment such as with PCSK9 inhibitors. SFH is diagnosed if LDL-cholesterol (LDLC) > 10 mmol/L, or LDLC >8.0 mmol/L plus one high-risk feature, or LDLC >5 mmol/L plus two high-risk features. Here we compare CHD mortality in SFH and non-SFH (NSFH) patients in the UK prospective Simon Broome Register since 1991, when statin use became routine...
November 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Laurens F Reeskamp, John J P Kastelein, Patrick M Moriarty, P Barton Duell, Alberico L Catapano, Raul D Santos, Christie M Ballantyne
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a common genetic disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Despite multiple LDL-C-lowering therapies, many HeFH patients do not reach LDL-C targets. Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide against apolipoprotein B (apoB), might further lower LDL-C in HeFH patients. We assessed the efficacy and safety of two mipomersen dosing regimens in HeFH patients and explored whether thrice-weekly dosing improves the benefit-risk profile...
November 10, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Allan D Sniderman, Jennifer G Robinson
Whether apoB adds significantly to the assessment of the risk and therapy of the atherogenic dyslipoproteinemias has been vigorously contested over many years. That trapping of apoB lipoprotein particles within the arterial wall is fundamental to the initiation and maturation of atherosclerotic lesions within the arterial wall is now widely accepted. At the same time, the concept that primary prevention should be based on the risk of a cardiovascular event, a measure that integrates the effects of age, sex, blood pressure, lipids and other factors, has also become widely accepted...
November 10, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Pei Xiao, Tao Huang, Yinkun Yan, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Haibo Li, Jie Mi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Considerable attention is given nowadays to the presence of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in children. The current blood lipid classification system for Chinese children was based on the United States National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) cutpoints, which did not take the age, gender and race differences into consideration. This study aimed to develop gender- and age-specific lipid cutpoints for dyslipidemia screening in Chinese children and compare the ability of new cutpoints and NCEP pediatric cutpoints to predict obesity and unfavorable blood pressure (BP) levels...
November 10, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Máté Kétszeri, Andrijana Kirsch, Bianca Frauscher, Foteini Moschovaki-Filippidou, Agnes A Mooslechner, Alexander H Kirsch, Corinna Schabhuettl, Ida Aringer, Katharina Artinger, Gudrun Pregartner, Robert Ekart, Silva Breznik, Radovan Hojs, Walter Goessler, Irene Schilcher, Helmut Müller, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Saša Frank, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Philipp Eller, Kathrin Eller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the putative role of microRNAs (miR)s in uremic vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: We investigated the expression pattern of miRs in two independent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cohorts and in the animal model of uremic DBA/2 mice via quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, DBA/2 mice were treated with intravenous injections of synthetic miR-142-3p mimic and were analysed for functional and morphological vascular changes by mass spectrometry and wire myography...
November 10, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Hidde Douna, Jacob Amersfoort, Frank H Schaftenaar, Sanne Kroon, Gijs H M van Puijvelde, Johan Kuiper, Amanda C Foks
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limiting the pro-inflammatory immune response is critical for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) can modulate the immune response through interleukin-10 (IL-10). Current data regarding Bregs and atherosclerosis is scarce and conflicting. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the frequency of IL-10+ B cells during the development of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) mice and studied the effect of adoptive transfer of IL-10+ B cells on atherosclerosis...
November 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Dragana Bojanin, Jelena Vekic, Tatjana Milenkovic, Rade Vukovic, Aleksandra Zeljkovic, Aleksandra Stefanovic, Jelena Janac, Jasmina Ivanisevic, Katarina Mitrovic, Milica Miljkovic, Vesna Spasojevic-Kalimanovska
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterised by altered distributions of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. Recent studies suggested that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) may contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in T1DM. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between PCSK9 and lipoprotein subclasses in young T1DM patients, with respect to glycemic control...
November 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
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