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Atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107707/uremia-modulates-the-phenotype-of-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Marie Madsen, Annemarie Aarup, Sebastian Albinsson, Karsten Hartvigsen, Charlotte M Sørensen, Karolina Turczynska, Lars B Nielsen, Tanja Xenia Pedersen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease leads to uremia and markedly accelerates atherosclerosis. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial media plays a key role in accelerating atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia per se modulates the phenotype of aortic SMCs in vivo. METHODS: Moderate uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) and wildtype C57Bl/6 mice. Plasma analysis, gene expression, histology, and myography were used to determine uremia-mediated changes in the arterial wall...
December 23, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038378/the-causal-effects-of-alcohol-on-lipoprotein-subfraction-and-triglyceride-levels-using-a-mendelian-randomization-analysis-the-nagahama-study
#2
Yasuharu Tabara, Hidenori Arai, Yuhko Hirao, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Kazuya Setoh, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Shinji Kosugi, Yasuki Ito, Takeo Nakayama, Fumihiko Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption may increase circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the effect of alcohol on biologically important lipoprotein subfractions remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to clarify the effects of alcohol on lipoprotein subfractions using a Mendelian randomization analysis. METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 8364 general Japanese individuals...
December 22, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034508/endothelial-progenitor-cell-release-is-usually-considered-a-beneficial-effect-problems-in-interpreting-the-acute-effects-of-e-cigarette-use
#3
LETTER
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Riccardo Polosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027788/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-a-comparison-of-metabolically-versus-genetically-driven-excess-fat-hepatic-storage
#4
Alessia Di Costanzo, Laura D'Erasmo, Licia Polimeni, Francesco Baratta, Paola Coletta, Michele Di Martino, Lorenzo Loffredo, Ludovica Perri, Fabrizio Ceci, Anna Montali, Gabriella Girelli, Bruna De Masi, Antonio Angeloni, Carlo Catalano, Marianna Maranghi, Maria Del Ben, Francesco Angelico, Marcello Arca
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently associated with atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether this association is related to excess fat liver storage per se or to metabolic abnormalities that typically accompany NAFLD. To investigate this, we compared individuals with hepatic steatosis driven by metabolic disturbances to those with hepatic steatosis associated with the rs738409 GG genotype in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3)...
December 21, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033544/complement-receptor-1-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk
#5
Marijke A de Vries, Stella Trompet, Simon P Mooijaart, Roelof A J Smit, Stefan Böhringer, Manuel Castro Cabezas, J Wouter Jukema
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis. The complement system is involved in atherogenesis, and the complement receptor 1 (CR1) plays a role facilitating the clearance of immune complexes from the circulation. Limited evidence suggests that CR1 may be involved in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between CR1 gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CR1 region (n = 73) on chromosome 1 were assessed in 5244 participants in PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) (mean age 75...
December 20, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104544/molecular-genetics-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-israel-revisited
#6
Ronen Durst, Uche Ken Ibe, Shoshi Shpitzen, Daniel Schurr, Osnat Eliav, Marta Futema, Ros Whittall, Auryan Szalat, Vardiella Meiner, Hilla Knobler, Dov Gavish, Yaakov Henkin, Avishay Ellis, Ardon Rubinstein, Dror Harats, Rafael Bitzur, Bruno Hershkovitz, Steve E Humphries, Eran Leitersdorf
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the genes for LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type9 (PCSK9). The purpose of the current investigation was to define the current spectrum of mutations causing FH in Israel. METHODS: New families were collected through the MEDPED (Make Early Diagnosis Prevent Early Death) FH program. Molecular analysis of the LDLR, PCSK9 and APOB genes was done using High Resolution Melt and direct sequencing in 67 index cases...
December 18, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038769/peripheral-arterial-disease-and-loss-of-physical-function-just-two-old-friends
#7
EDITORIAL
Clemens Höbaus, Regina Roller-Wirnsberger, Schernthaner Gerit-Holger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038380/the-p2y2-nucleotide-receptor-is-an-inhibitor-of-vascular-calcification
#8
Shaomin Qian, Jenna N Regan, Maxwell T Shelton, April Hoggatt, Khalid S Mohammad, Paul B Herring, Cheikh I Seye
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mutations in the 5'-nucleotidase ecto (NT5E) gene that encodes CD73, a nucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine, are linked to arterial calcification. However, the role of purinergic receptor signaling in the pathology of intimal calcification is not well understood. In this study, we examined whether extracellular nucleotides acting via P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) modulate arterial intimal calcification, a condition highly correlated with cardiovascular morbidity. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E, P2Y2R double knockout mice (ApoE(-/-)P2Y2R(-/-)) were used to determine the effect of P2Y2R deficiency on vascular calcification in vivo...
December 15, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068560/effect-of-sarpogrelate-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-antagonist-on-characteristics-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Dong-Hwa Lee, Eun Ju Chun, Jee Hye Hur, Se Hee Min, Jie-Eun Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Seung Jin Han, Doo Kyoung Kang, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sarpogrelate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A antagonist, is a potential antiplatelet agent. We performed a randomized study to evaluate the effect of sarpogrelate on vascular health in Korean patients with diabetes. METHODS: Forty diabetic patients aged 58.6 ± 6.8 years with 10-75% coronary artery stenosis, as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography, were randomly assigned to sarpogrelate 300 mg/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day (SPG + ASA group) or aspirin 100 mg/day alone (ASA group) for 6 months...
December 10, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033543/thoracic-aortic-calcium-cardiovascular-disease-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-asymptomatic-individuals-with-zero-coronary-calcium-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#10
Joonseok Kim, Matthew J Budoff, Khurram Nasir, Nathan D Wong, Joseph Yeboah, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Steve Shea, Zeina A Dardari, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: TAC is associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, the independent 10-year prognostic value of TAC in individuals with CAC = 0 beyond traditional risk factors is not well established. METHODS: 3415 MESA participants with baseline CAC = 0 were followed for CHD, CVD events and all-cause mortality. TAC was measured in the ascending and descending aorta in all participants and quantified using Agatston's score. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to study the associations between TAC and incident CHD, CVD events and all-cause mortality...
December 10, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038379/high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-associated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-inhibits-macrophage-apoptosis-by-stimulating-stat3-activity-and-survivin-expression
#11
Renata Feuerborn, Susen Becker, Francesco Potì, Petra Nagel, Martin Brodde, Harmut Schmidt, Christina Christoffersen, Uta Ceglarek, Ralph Burkhardt, Jerzy-Roch Nofer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophage apoptosis is critically involved in atherosclerosis. We here examined the effect of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its component sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on apoptosis in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. METHODS: Mitochondrial or endoplasmic reticulum-dependent apoptosis was induced by exposure of macrophages to etoposide or thapsigargin/fukoidan, respectively. RESULTS: Cell death induced by these compounds was inhibited by S1P as inferred from reduced annexin V binding, TUNEL staining, and caspase 3, 9 and 12 activities...
December 9, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007302/can-micrornas-improve-prediction-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-growth
#12
EDITORIAL
Luiz Sérgio F Carvalho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012444/carotid-artery-plaques-and-intima-medial-thickness-in-familial-hypercholesteraemic-patients-on-long-term-statin-therapy-a-case-control-study
#13
Sven Bos, Martijne H C Duvekot, Gert-Jan R Ten Kate, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Monique T Mulder, Arend F L Schinkel, Koen Nieman, Gerald F Watts, Eric J G Sijbrands, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Statins reduce subclinical atherosclerosis and premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, some FH patients still develop ASCVD despite statin therapy. We compared subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by carotid plaque presence and intima media thickness (C-IMT), in long-term statin-treated FH patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, we analysed whether carotid ultrasonography findings associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis...
December 2, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010936/oscillatory-shear-stress-flow-mediated-dilatation-and-circulating-microparticles-at-sea-level-and-high-altitude
#14
Joshua C Tremblay, Stephen R Thom, Ming Yang, Philip N Ainslie
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposing the endothelium to acute periods of imposed oscillatory shear stress reduces endothelial function and elevates circulating microparticles (MPs). Oscillatory shear stress may be especially pathogenic when superimposed on hypoxia, an environmental stimulus that disrupts the endothelial milieu. We examined the effects of acute manipulation of oscillatory shear stress on endothelial function and circulating MPs at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA). METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 12) participated, once at SL and once on the second or third day at HA (3800 m)...
December 2, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024183/altered-leukocyte-distribution-under-hypercholesterolemia-a-cross-sectional-study-in-children-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#15
Jacob J Christensen, Liv T Osnes, Bente Halvorsen, Kjetil Retterstøl, Martin P Bogsrud, Cecilie Wium, Arne Svilaas, Ingunn Narverud, Stine M Ulven, Pål Aukrust, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have elevated LDL cholesterol from the first year of life, and represent a model of early-stage atherosclerosis. Data suggest that adults with FH have alterations in circulating monocyte subpopulations towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype, but it is not known whether FH children have similar perturbations. In addition, there are no data on the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in FH children. The objective of the present study was to characterize the distributions of circulating monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations in children with FH and healthy, normocholesterolemic children...
December 1, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012646/myocardin-a-novel-player-in-atherosclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Xiao-Dan Xia, Zhen Zhou, Xiao-Hua Yu, Xi-Long Zheng, Chao-Ke Tang
Myocardin (MYOCD) the most important coactivator of serum response factor (SRF), plays a critical role specifically in the development of cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Binding of Myocardin to the SRF on the CArG box-containing target genes can transcriptionally activate a variety of downstream muscle-specific genes, such as Sm22α, Acta2, Myh11, and several other signaling pathways. Myocardin expression represents a contractile and differentiated SMC phenotype. Loss of Myocardin, however, represents a synthetic and dedifferentiated phenotype, a hallmark in atherosclerosis...
December 1, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012645/the-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-atherosclerosis
#17
REVIEW
John Kokkinos, Shudi Tang, Kerry-Anne Rye, Kwok Leung Ong
The metabolic properties of the endocrine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been extensively studied in the past decade. Previous studies have demonstrated the lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of FGF21. FGF21 is mainly secreted in the liver and adipose tissue in response to a range of physiological and pathological stimuli. In animal and in vitro studies, FGF21 has been shown to improve lipid profiles and inhibit key processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects on the cardiovascular system via adiponectin dependent and independent mechanisms...
December 1, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940403/markers-of-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-associate-with-complex-plasma-lipids-in-metabolic-syndrome-subjects
#18
Paul J Nestel, Anmar A Khan, Nora E Straznicky, Natalie A Mellett, Kaushala Jayawardana, Pyushkumar A Mundra, Gavin W Lambert, Peter J Meikle
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plasma sphingolipids including ceramides, and gangliosides are associated with insulin resistance (IR) through effects on insulin signalling and glucose metabolism. Our studies of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) showed close relationships between IR and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity including arterial norepinephrine (NE). We have therefore investigated possible associations of IR and SNS activity with complex lipids that are involved in both insulin sensitivity and neurotransmission...
December 1, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031149/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-a-careful-symptom-evaluation-and-high-sensitive-troponin-in-patients-with-suspected-stable-angina-pectoris-without-prior-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Debbie M Madsen, Axel C P Diederichsen, Susanne E Hosbond, Oke Gerke, Hans Mickley
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Typical angina pectoris (AP) and high-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) are independently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and future cardiovascular events (CVE). This study aimed to assess the individual and combined diagnostic and prognostic impact of symptoms and hs-TnI in stable chest pain patients without prior cardiovascular disease. METHODS: During a one-year period, 487 patients with suspected stable AP underwent invasive or CT-coronary angiography (significant stenosis ≥50%)...
November 28, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940038/increased-levels-of-legumain-in-plasma-and-plaques-from-patients-with-carotid-atherosclerosis
#20
Ngoc Nguyen Lunde, Sverre Holm, Tuva B Dahl, Inass Elyouncha, Bjørnar Sporsheim, Ida Gregersen, Azhar Abbas, Mona Skjelland, Terje Espevik, Rigmor Solberg, Harald Thidemann Johansen, Bente Halvorsen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The cysteine protease legumain has been shown to be up-regulated in unstable atherosclerotic plaques. This study aims to further elucidate legumain in atherosclerosis, by examining legumain in plasma and carotid plaques from patients with carotid stenosis. Furthermore, legumain secretion from monocyte-derived macrophages treated with atherogenic lipids during macrophage polarization was studied. METHODS: Plasma levels of legumain from patients with carotid stenosis (n = 254), healthy controls (n = 91), and secreted from monocyte-derived macrophages were assessed by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay...
November 28, 2016: Atherosclerosis
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