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Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology

Iain A Bruce, Ingo Todt
Cochlear implantation (CI), with attempted preservation of residual natural low-frequency hearing, is an increasingly accepted application of this technology, with potential benefits to the patient when listening in noise and in music appreciation. The full extent of the benefits of combining preserved natural hearing and electrical stimulation remain under evaluation. Various factors appear to influence the success of hearing preservation (HP) during CI, including electrode design, surgical approach, insertional trauma, steroid usage and patient factors...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Hannah J D North, Simon K W Lloyd
Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are almost pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). As a result of these tumors, hearing loss is the presenting symptom in 60% of adults and 30% of children with NF2. It is often bilateral. The best means of preserving hearing in patients with NF2 is conservative management. Even so at least 28% of patients have progression of hearing loss following diagnosis. The likelihood of progression of hearing loss is, at least in part, determined by the type of mutation. Treatment of vestibular schwannomas often has a detrimental effect on hearing...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Simon R Freeman, Levent Sennaroglu
Approximately 2% of congenital profound deafness cases are due to cochlear nerve (CN) deficiency. MRI is essential to confirm if the nerve is deficient, but because of limitations with resolution, especially when the internal auditory canal is narrowed, it is often unable to distinguish between hypoplasia and aplasia. A full audiometric test battery should always be performed, even if the MRI suggests CN aplasia, as there will sometimes be evidence of audition. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem response testing can be carried out transtympanically via the round window or using an intracochlear test electrode to help determine the status of the CN...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Philip A Bird, Michael J Bergin
Surgery aimed at hearing rehabilitation risks damaging residual inner ear function, especially cochlear implant surgery. Pharmacological intervention to reduce this risk has shown great promise in animal models. The challenge is to deliver medication to the appropriate part of the inner ear in appropriate concentrations for long enough to be effective. Barriers to achieving these goals include: the blood/labyrinth barrier, limiting systemic drug delivery to the inner ear, slow rates of diffusion from the base of the cochlea to the apex, limiting intratympanic delivery from the middle ear to the cochlear apex, delayed intracochlear fibrosis, requiring extended medication delivery postoperatively...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Arnaud Deveze, Han Matsuda, Maya Elziere, Tetsuo Ikezono
Perilymphatic fistula (PLF) is defined as an abnormal communication between the fluid (perilymph)-filled space of the inner ear and the air-filled space of the middle ear and mastoid, or cranial spaces. PLF is located in the round or oval window, fractured bony labyrinth, microfissures, anomalous footplate, and can occur after head trauma or barotrauma, chronic inflammation, or in otic capsule dehiscence. This clinical entity was initially proposed more than a century ago, yet it has remained a topic of controversy for more than 50 years...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
James R Tysome, Holger Sudhoff
The Eustachian tube is a complex structure connecting the middle ear to the nasopharynx that contributes to the normal function of the middle ear. Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is thought to contribute to the majority of middle ear pathology, although the mechanisms and the degree to which it contributes to middle ear disease is poorly understood. We describe the anatomy and physiology of the Eustachian tube, define ETD, discuss the methods for measuring ETD and describe recent advances in treatment.
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Alistair Mitchell-Innes, Shakeel R Saeed, Richard Irving
This chapter discusses the multifaceted future of cochlear implant design. Current research is focused on novel strategies relating to the electrode array, aiming to improve the neuronal health and spatial selectivity, and reduce the power consumption. Future design iterations will most likely improve the neuronal health by reducing insertion trauma, minimizing the inflammatory pathway that follows electrode insertion or through the use of neurotrophins or stem cells. Improvements in spatial selectivity and in speech recognition in difficult listening environments can be achieved through changes in the electrode/neural interface...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Hidemi Miyazaki, Per Caye-Thomasen
A new electrophysiological system for intraoperative, continuous, near-real time monitoring of cochlear nerve function through acoustic stimulation in the ear canal and recording of the evoked dorsal cochlear nucleus potentials (DNAPs) by a specially designed DNAP electrode placed directly on the brainstem is described. The system is denominated "(cerebellopontine angle) CPA Master" and is designed for hearing preservation surgery in the cerebello-pontine angle, through the retro-sigmoid or the retro-labyrinthine approach...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Manohar Bance, Andrzej Zarowski, Robert A Adamson, Jan W Casselman
Despite steady improvements in cross-sectional imaging of the ear, current technologies still have limitations in terms of resolution, diagnosis, functional assessment and safety. In this chapter, state-of-the-art imaging techniques in current clinical practice are presented including cone-beam computerized tomography, non-echo planar imaging magnetic resonance imaging, imaging for labyrinthine hydrops and imaging of the central auditory pathways. Potential future imaging modalities are also presented, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) of the ear...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Neil P Donnelly, Ronald J E Pennings
Hearing implant technology is evolving at a rapid rate and more than ever patients with hearing loss are benefiting from these emerging hearing devices. Active middle ear implants are alternatives to hearing aids and bone conducting devices, offering patients an expanded range in improving their hearing. This chapter looks at the devices currently available, their indications and the literature regarding their outcomes.
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Manohar Bance
Middle ear hearing reconstruction is unpredictable. Difficulties arise because of host factors, such as ventilation or scarring, surgical technique factors, such as prosthesis placement and stabilization, and design and mechanical factors influencing the properties of the prosthesis. Often there is a balancing act between choosing optimal stability, and maximizing the mechanical vibrations of the prosthesis. We review our and other investigators' work, in design and ideal placement of middle ear prostheses...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Colette M McKay
The functional changes that occur in the brain due to deafness may affect the way the auditory system processes sound after cochlear implantation. Brain plasticity plays a crucial role in the success of cochlear implantation to facilitate or develop spoken language in profoundly deaf individuals. The functional plasticity that occurs in postlingually deaf adults during periods of deafness can both support and hinder speech understanding with a cochlear implant, depending on the nature and degree of functional changes...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Henning Frenzel
Microtia and atresia cause significant conductive hearing loss of up to 60 dB HL. The bilateral cases suffer from severely restricted communication abilities and require immediate acoustic stimulation. There is also growing evidence that unilateral cases benefit from an early and selective stimulation of the affected side. Hearing restoration can be performed in selected cases of minor malformation by classic middle ear reconstruction. However, the majority of patients presumably benefit better from a hearing aid...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
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2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
R W J McLeod, J F Culling, D Jiang
The number of marketed bone-conduction hearing implants (BCHIs) has been steadily growing, with multiple percutaneous devices and transcutaneous devices now available. However, studies assessing efficacy often have small sample sizes and employ different assessment methodologies. Thus, there is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians to the most appropriate device for each patient. This paper outlines audiological guidelines for the latest devices, as well as research from the most up-to-date clinical trials...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
John Martin Hempel, Florian Simon, Joachim Michael Müller
The indications for cochlear implantation (CI) have expanded over the last few years. There is evidence that some adult patients with pre- or perilingual onset of deafness may gain from implantation. Similarly, CI in patients with single-sided deafness may offer significant benefits in terms of quality of life and social as well as academic development. In this setting, directional hearing may be restored and speech comprehension, especially in noise, may be optimized. In patients with intractable tinnitus and profound hearing loss, CI not only improves speech perception, but also helps to reduce the tinnitus in the deaf ear...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Hsueh-Yu Li
Initially described in 1981, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty was the first surgical procedure specially designed at the palatal level for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To date, palatal surgery remains the most commonly used surgery for OSA. The advancement of this surgery over the past 30 years has been a process of evolution in concepts, examination, and technique to increase safety and effectiveness in the treatment of OSA. Concept changes have emerged in the disease etiology, purpose of surgery, treatment priorities, staging of operations, integration therapy, and surgical endpoints...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Michael Friedman, Anna M Salapatas, Lauren B Bonzelaar
In the practice of sleep medicine, the first step is identification of those patients at high risk for sleep apnea. Nearly every physician and every hospital has preferred methods of screening. Many patient questionnaires or surveys as well as some objective physical measurements have been suggested to predict the presence of sleep apnea. Screening is well established, and laboratory and home testing are widely available. An early assessment with a physical examination can help direct treatment planning. The Friedman tongue position, lingual tonsil hypertrophy grading, and the effects of oral positioning on the hypopharynx should be used in early assessment for treatment planning, and as screening tools to assess the sight of obstruction...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
David P White
The primary pathological event in the disorder obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the partial or complete closure of the pharyngeal airway during sleep in an individual with a widely patent airway during wakefulness. This yields an apnea or hypopnea with resulting hypoxia and hypercapnia, and most often requires an arousal to terminate the event. These events occur in a repetitive manner during sleep, yielding intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation with their associated adverse effects on the health and quality of life of the afflicted individual...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
David M Johnson, Ryan J Soose
Numerous studies report that difficulty breathing through the nose is associated with reduced sleep quality, increased daytime dysfunction, and increased risk of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Additionally, chronic nasal obstruction often complicates and limits successful medical device therapy for OSA, particularly with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). When medical evaluation and management of the nose is inadequate, surgical therapy to lower nasal resistance has been shown to substantially improve sleep and breathing outcome measures...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
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