journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive Psychology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031120/enabling-spontaneous-analogy-through-heuristic-change
#1
Thomas C Ormerod, James N MacGregor
Despite analogy playing a central role in theories of problem solving, learning and education, demonstrations of spontaneous analogical transfer are rare. Here, we present a theory of heuristic change for spontaneous analogical transfer, tested in four experiments that manipulated the experience of failure to solve a source problem prior to attempting a target problem. In Experiment 1, participants solved more source problems that contained an additional financial constraint designed to signal the inappropriateness of moves that maximized progress towards the goal...
October 11, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881224/accent-modulates-access-to-word-meaning-evidence-for-a-speaker-model-account-of-spoken-word-recognition
#2
Zhenguang G Cai, Rebecca A Gilbert, Matthew H Davis, M Gareth Gaskell, Lauren Farrar, Sarah Adler, Jennifer M Rodd
Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect...
September 4, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843070/multi-attribute-multi-alternative-models-of-choice-choice-reaction-time-and-process-tracing
#3
Andrew L Cohen, Namyi Kang, Tanya L Leise
The first aim of this research is to compare computational models of multi-alternative, multi-attribute choice when attribute values are explicit. The choice predictions of utility (standard random utility & weighted valuation), heuristic (elimination-by-aspects, lexicographic, & maximum attribute value), and dynamic (multi-alternative decision field theory, MDFT, & a version of the multi-attribute linear ballistic accumulator, MLBA) models are contrasted on both preferential and risky choice data. Using both maximum likelihood and cross-validation fit measures on choice data, the utility and dynamic models are preferred over the heuristic models for risky choice, with a slight overall advantage for the MLBA for preferential choice...
August 23, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830015/putting-old-tools-to-novel-uses-the-role-of-form-accessibility-in-semantic-extension
#4
Zara Harmon, Vsevolod Kapatsinski
An increase in frequency of a form has been argued to result in semantic extension (Bybee, 2003; Zipf, 1949). Yet, research on the acquisition of lexical semantics suggests that a form that frequently co-occurs with a meaning gets restricted to that meaning (Xu & Tenenbaum, 2007). The current work reconciles these positions by showing that - through its effect on form accessibility - frequency causes semantic extension in production, while at the same time causing entrenchment in comprehension. Repeatedly experiencing a form paired with a specific meaning makes one more likely to re-use the form to express related meanings, while also increasing one's confidence that the form is never used to express those meanings...
August 19, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802853/diversity-not-quantity-in-caregiver-speech-using-computational-modeling-to-isolate-the-effects-of-the-quantity-and-the-diversity-of-the-input-on-vocabulary-growth
#5
Gary Jones, Caroline F Rowland
Children who hear large amounts of diverse speech learn language more quickly than children who do not. However, high correlations between the amount and the diversity of the input in speech samples makes it difficult to isolate the influence of each. We overcame this problem by controlling the input to a computational model so that amount of exposure to linguistic input (quantity) and the quality of that input (lexical diversity) were independently manipulated. Sublexical, lexical, and multi-word knowledge were charted across development (Study 1), showing that while input quantity may be important early in learning, lexical diversity is ultimately more crucial, a prediction confirmed against children's data (Study 2)...
August 10, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818276/the-role-of-incremental-parsing-in-syntactically-conditioned-word-learning
#6
Jeffrey Lidz, Aaron Steven White, Rebecca Baier
In a series of three experiments, we use children's noun learning as a probe into their syntactic knowledge as well as their ability to deploy this knowledge, investigating how the predictions children make about upcoming syntactic structure change as their knowledge changes. In the first two experiments, we show that children display a developmental change in their ability to use a noun's syntactic environment as a cue to its meaning. We argue that this pattern arises from children's reliance on their knowledge of verbs' subcategorization frame frequencies to guide parsing, coupled with an inability to revise incremental parsing decisions...
September 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734172/clear-evidence-for-item-limits-in-visual-working-memory
#7
Kirsten C S Adam, Edward K Vogel, Edward Awh
There is a consensus that visual working memory (WM) resources are sharply limited, but debate persists regarding the simple question of whether there is a limit to the total number of items that can be stored concurrently. Zhang and Luck (2008) advanced this debate with an analytic procedure that provided strong evidence for random guessing responses, but their findings can also be described by models that deny guessing while asserting a high prevalence of low precision memories. Here, we used a whole report memory procedure in which subjects reported all items in each trial and indicated whether they were guessing with each response...
September 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586634/where-do-hypotheses-come-from
#8
Ishita Dasgupta, Eric Schulz, Samuel J Gershman
Why are human inferences sometimes remarkably close to the Bayesian ideal and other times systematically biased? In particular, why do humans make near-rational inferences in some natural domains where the candidate hypotheses are explicitly available, whereas tasks in similar domains requiring the self-generation of hypotheses produce systematic deviations from rational inference. We propose that these deviations arise from algorithmic processes approximating Bayes' rule. Specifically in our account, hypotheses are generated stochastically from a sampling process, such that the sampled hypotheses form a Monte Carlo approximation of the posterior...
August 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647542/parallel-interactive-retrieval-of-item-and-associative-information-from-event-memory
#9
Gregory E Cox, Amy H Criss
Memory contains information about individual events (items) and combinations of events (associations). Despite the fundamental importance of this distinction, it remains unclear exactly how these two kinds of information are stored and whether different processes are used to retrieve them. We use both model-independent qualitative properties of response dynamics and quantitative modeling of individuals to address these issues. Item and associative information are not independent and they are retrieved concurrently via interacting processes...
June 22, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641208/an-associative-account-of-the-development-of-word-learning
#10
Vladimir M Sloutsky, Hyungwook Yim, Xin Yao, Simon Dennis
Word learning is a notoriously difficult induction problem because meaning is underdetermined by positive examples. How do children solve this problem? Some have argued that word learning is achieved by means of inference: young word learners rely on a number of assumptions that reduce the overall hypothesis space by favoring some meanings over others. However, these approaches have difficulty explaining how words are learned from conversations or text, without pointing or explicit instruction. In this research, we propose an associative mechanism that can account for such learning...
June 20, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623726/diagnostic-causal-reasoning-with-verbal-information
#11
Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer
In diagnostic causal reasoning, the goal is to infer the probability of causes from one or multiple observed effects. Typically, studies investigating such tasks provide subjects with precise quantitative information regarding the strength of the relations between causes and effects or sample data from which the relevant quantities can be learned. By contrast, we sought to examine people's inferences when causal information is communicated through qualitative, rather vague verbal expressions (e.g., "X occasionally causes A")...
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601710/evolution-of-word-meanings-through-metaphorical-mapping-systematicity-over-the-past-millennium
#12
Yang Xu, Barbara C Malt, Mahesh Srinivasan
One way that languages are able to communicate a potentially infinite set of ideas through a finite lexicon is by compressing emerging meanings into words, such that over time, individual words come to express multiple, related senses of meaning. We propose that overarching communicative and cognitive pressures have created systematic directionality in how new metaphorical senses have developed from existing word senses over the history of English. Given a large set of pairs of semantic domains, we used computational models to test which domains have been more commonly the starting points (source domains) and which the ending points (target domains) of metaphorical mappings over the past millennium...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601709/from-information-processing-to-decisions-formalizing-and-comparing-psychologically-plausible-choice-models
#13
Daniel W Heck, Benjamin E Hilbig, Morten Moshagen
Decision strategies explain how people integrate multiple sources of information to make probabilistic inferences. In the past decade, increasingly sophisticated methods have been developed to determine which strategy explains decision behavior best. We extend these efforts to test psychologically more plausible models (i.e., strategies), including a new, probabilistic version of the take-the-best (TTB) heuristic that implements a rank order of error probabilities based on sequential processing. Within a coherent statistical framework, deterministic and probabilistic versions of TTB and other strategies can directly be compared using model selection by minimum description length or the Bayes factor...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500981/some-consequences-of-normal-aging-for-generating-conceptual-explanations-a-case-study-of-vitalist-biology
#14
Nathan Tardiff, Igor Bascandziev, Kaitlin Sandor, Susan Carey, Deborah Zaitchik
Accumulating evidence suggests that not only diseases of old age, but also normal aging, affect elderly adults' ability to draw on the framework theories that structure our abstract causal-explanatory knowledge, knowledge that we use to make sense of the world. One such framework theory, the cross-culturally universal vitalist biology, gives meaning to the abstract concepts life and death. Previous work shows that many elderly adults are animists, claiming that active, moving entities such as the sun and the wind are alive (Zaitchik & Solomon, 2008)...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478330/cue-combination-in-human-spatial-navigation
#15
Xiaoli Chen, Timothy P McNamara, Jonathan W Kelly, Thomas Wolbers
This project investigated the ways in which visual cues and bodily cues from self-motion are combined in spatial navigation. Participants completed a homing task in an immersive virtual environment. In Experiments 1A and 1B, the reliability of visual cues and self-motion cues was manipulated independently and within-participants. Results showed that participants weighted visual cues and self-motion cues based on their relative reliability and integrated these two cue types optimally or near-optimally according to Bayesian principles under most conditions...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458050/comparing-different-kinds-of-words-and-word-word-relations-to-test-an-habituation-model-of-priming
#16
Cory A Rieth, David E Huber
Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441519/grounding-principles-for-inferring-agency-two-cultural-perspectives
#17
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research investigates cultural variation in grounding principles for inferring agency in order to address an important theoretical debate: does cultural diversity in agency concepts reflect an animistic overextension of (universal) folkpsychology, as many have argued, or an alternative theory of folkcommunication based on relational principles? In two experiments, mind perception measures were adapted to assess beliefs concerning the agency of non-animal kinds (plants, abiotic kinds, complex artifacts) among Indigenous Ngöbe adults in Panama and US college students...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441518/learning-to-allocate-limited-time-to-decisions-with-different-expected-outcomes
#18
Arash Khodadadi, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome R Busemeyer
The goal of this article is to investigate how human participants allocate their limited time to decisions with different properties. We report the results of two behavioral experiments. In each trial of the experiments, the participant must accumulate noisy information to make a decision. The participants received positive and negative rewards for their correct and incorrect decisions, respectively. The stimulus was designed such that decisions based on more accumulated information were more accurate but took longer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391054/breaking-the-rules-in-perceptual-information-integration
#19
Maxim A Bushmakin, Ami Eidels, Andrew Heathcote
We develop a broad theoretical framework for modelling difficult perceptual information integration tasks under different decision rules. The framework allows us to compare coactive architectures, which combine information before it enters the decision process, with parallel architectures, where logical rules combine independent decisions made about each perceptual source. For both architectures we test the novel hypothesis that participants break the decision rules on some trials, making a response based on only one stimulus even though task instructions require them to consider both...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340356/acquiring-variation-in-an-artificial-language-children-and-adults-are-sensitive-to-socially-conditioned-linguistic-variation
#20
Anna Samara, Kenny Smith, Helen Brown, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
journal
journal
22434
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"