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Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653395/learning-physical-parameters-from-dynamic-scenes
#1
Tomer D Ullman, Andreas Stuhlmüller, Noah D Goodman, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Humans acquire their most basic physical concepts early in development, and continue to enrich and expand their intuitive physics throughout life as they are exposed to more and varied dynamical environments. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian framework to explain how people can learn physical parameters at multiple levels. In contrast to previous Bayesian models of theory acquisition (Tenenbaum, Kemp, Griffiths, & Goodman, 2011), we work with more expressive probabilistic program representations suitable for learning the forces and properties that govern how objects interact in dynamic scenes unfolding over time...
April 10, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587183/dynamic-cognitive-models-of-intertemporal-choice
#2
Junyi Dai, Timothy J Pleskac, Thorsten Pachur
Traditionally, descriptive accounts of intertemporal choice have relied on static and deterministic models that assume alternative-wise processing of the options. Recent research, by contrast, has highlighted the dynamic and probabilistic nature of intertemporal choice and provided support for attribute-wise processing. Currently, dynamic models of intertemporal choice-which account for both the resulting choice and the time course over which the construction of a choice develops-rely exclusively on the framework of evidence accumulation...
March 24, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587182/the-role-of-domain-general-cognitive-resources-in-children-s-construction-of-a-vitalist-theory-of-biology
#3
Igor Bascandziev, Nathan Tardiff, Deborah Zaitchik, Susan Carey
Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment)...
March 24, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524679/subjective-randomness-as-statistical-inference
#4
Thomas L Griffiths, Dylan Daniels, Joseph L Austerweil, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs...
March 7, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522980/beyond-markov-accounting-for-independence-violations-in-causal-reasoning
#5
Bob Rehder
Although many theories of causal cognition are based on causal graphical models, a key property of such models-the independence relations stipulated by the Markov condition-is routinely violated by human reasoners. This article presents three new accounts of those independence violations, accounts that share the assumption that people's understanding of the correlational structure of data generated from a causal graph differs from that stipulated by causal graphical model framework. To distinguish these models, experiments assessed how people reason with causal graphs that are larger than those tested in previous studies...
March 6, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501776/the-role-of-sensorimotor-processes-in-social-group-contagion
#6
Emiel Cracco, Marcel Brass
Although it is well known that action observation triggers an imitative response, not much is known about how these responses develop as a function of group size. Research on social contagion suggests that imitative tendencies initially increase but then stabilize as groups become larger. However, these findings have mainly been explained in terms of interpretative processes. Across seven experiments (N = 322), the current study investigated the contribution of sensorimotor processes to social group contagion by looking at the relation between group size and automatic imitation in a task that involved minimal interpretation...
March 1, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501775/modeling-2-alternative-forced-choice-tasks-accounting-for-both-magnitude-and-difference-effects
#7
Roger Ratcliff, Chelsea Voskuilen, Andrei Teodorescu
We present a model-based analysis of two-alternative forced-choice tasks in which two stimuli are presented side by side and subjects must make a comparative judgment (e.g., which stimulus is brighter). Stimuli can vary on two dimensions, the difference in strength of the two stimuli and the magnitude of each stimulus. Differences between the two stimuli produce typical RT and accuracy effects (i.e., subjects respond more quickly and more accurately when there is a larger difference between the two). However, the overall magnitude of the pair of stimuli also affects RT and accuracy...
March 1, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454819/some-inferences-still-take-time-prosody-predictability-and-the-speed-of-scalar-implicatures
#8
Yi Ting Huang, Jesse Snedeker
Experimental pragmatics has gained many insights from understanding how people use weak scalar terms (like some) to infer that a stronger alternative (like all) is false. Early studies found that comprehenders initially interpret some without an upper bound, but later results suggest that this inference is sometimes immediate (e.g., Grodner, Klein, Carbary, & Tanenhaus, 2010). The present paper explores whether rapid inferencing depends on the prosody (i.e., summa rather than some of) or predictability of referring expressions (e...
February 15, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407637/planning-to-speak-in-l1-and-l2
#9
Agnieszka E Konopka, Antje Meyer, Tess A Forest
The leading theories of sentence planning - Hierarchical Incrementality and Linear Incrementality - differ in their assumptions about the coordination of processes that map preverbal information onto language. Previous studies showed that, in native (L1) speakers, this coordination can vary with the ease of executing the message-level and sentence-level processes necessary to plan and produce an utterance. We report the first series of experiments to systematically examine how linguistic experience influences sentence planning in native (L1) speakers (i...
January 25, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500961/heuristics-as-bayesian-inference-under-extreme-priors
#10
Paula Parpart, Matt Jones, Bradley C Love
Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358094/how-people-learn-about-causal-influence-when-there-are-many-possible-causes-a-model-based-on-informative-transitions
#11
Cory Derringer, Benjamin Margolin Rottman
Four experiments tested how people learn cause-effect relations when there are many possible causes of an effect. When there are many cues, even if all the cues together strongly predict the effect, the bivariate relation between each individual cue and the effect can be weak, which can make it difficult to detect the influence of each cue. We hypothesized that when detecting the influence of a cue, in addition to learning from the states of the cues and effect (e.g., a cue is present and the effect is present), which is hypothesized by multiple existing theories of learning, participants would also learn from transitions - how the cues and effect change over time (e...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331899/the-speed-of-memory-errors-shows-the-influence-of-misleading-information-testing-the-diffusion-model-and-discrete-state-models
#12
Jeffrey J Starns, Chad Dubé, Matthew E Frelinger
In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310002/young-infants-expect-an-unfamiliar-adult-to-comfort-a-crying-baby-evidence-from-a-standard-violation-of-expectation-task-and-a-novel-infant-triggered-video-task
#13
Kyong-Sun Jin, Jessica L Houston, Renée Baillargeon, Ashley M Groh, Glenn I Roisman
Do infants expect individuals to act prosocially toward others in need, at least in some contexts? Very few such expectations have been uncovered to date. In three experiments, we examined whether infants would expect an adult alone in a scene with a crying baby to attempt to comfort the baby. In the first two experiments, 12- and 4-month-olds were tested using the standard violation-of-expectation method. Infants saw videotaped events in which a woman was performing a household chore when a baby nearby began to cry; the woman either comforted (comfort event) or ignored (ignore event) the baby...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328949/conditionals-and-inferential-connections-a-hypothetical-inferential-theory
#14
Igor Douven, Shira Elqayam, Henrik Singmann, Janneke van Wijnbergen-Huitink
Intuition suggests that for a conditional to be evaluated as true, there must be some kind of connection between its component clauses. In this paper, we formulate and test a new psychological theory to account for this intuition. We combined previous semantic and psychological theorizing to propose that the key to the intuition is a relevance-driven, satisficing-bounded inferential connection between antecedent and consequent. To test our theory, we created a novel experimental paradigm in which participants were presented with a soritical series of objects, notably colored patches (Experiments 1 and 4) and spheres (Experiment 2), or both (Experiment 3), and were asked to evaluate related conditionals embodying non-causal inferential connections (such as "If patch number 5 is blue, then so is patch number 4")...
March 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294373/the-detour-problem-in-a-stochastic-environment-tolman-revisited
#15
Pegah Fakhari, Arash Khodadadi, Jerome R Busemeyer
We designed a grid world task to study human planning and re-planning behavior in an unknown stochastic environment. In our grid world, participants were asked to travel from a random starting point to a random goal position while maximizing their reward. Because they were not familiar with the environment, they needed to learn its characteristics from experience to plan optimally. Later in the task, we randomly blocked the optimal path to investigate whether and how people adjust their original plans to find a detour...
March 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241033/the-elimination-of-positive-priming-with-increasing-prime-duration-reflects-a-transition-from-perceptual-fluency-to-disfluency-rather-than-bias-against-primed-words
#16
Kevin W Potter, Chris Donkin, David E Huber
With immediate repetition priming of forced choice perceptual identification, short prime durations produce positive priming (i.e., priming the target leads to higher accuracy, while priming the foil leads to lower accuracy). Many theories explain positive priming following short duration primes as reflecting increased perceptual fluency for the primed target (i.e., decreased identification latency). However, most studies only examine either accuracy or response times, rather than considering the joint constraints of response times and accuracy to properly address the role of decision biases and response caution...
March 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272732/a-neural-model-of-retrospective-attention-in-visual-working-memory
#17
Paul M Bays, Robert Taylor
An informative cue that directs attention to one of several items in working memory improves subsequent recall of that item. Here we examine the mechanism of this retro-cue effect using a model of short-term memory based on neural population coding. Our model describes recalled feature values as the output of an optimal decoding of spikes generated by a tuned population of neurons. This neural model provides a better account of human recall data than an influential model that assumes errors can be described as a mixture of normally distributed noise and random guesses...
February 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222983/the-action-is-in-the-task-set-not-in-the-action
#18
Maria M Robinson, John Clevenger, David E Irwin
In 7 experiments we contrasted two accounts for novel sources of attentional bias. According to the action-based account, executing a motor response towards an object causes people to allocate attention preferentially towards properties of that object in a subsequent task even when properties of the acted-on object are task irrelevant. This remarkable view entails that motor processing is in itself sufficient to affect later attentional processing, in the absence of stimulus evaluation and motor preparation...
February 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220640/invariants-in-probabilistic-reasoning
#19
Fintan Costello, Paul Watts
Recent research has identified three invariants or identities that appear to hold in people's probabilistic reasoning: the QQ identity, the addition law identity, and the Bayes rule identity (Costello and Watts, 2014, 2016a, Fisher and Wolfe, 2014, Wang and Busemeyer, 2013, Wang et al., 2014). Each of these identities represent specific agreement with the requirements of normative probability theory; strikingly, these identities seem to hold in people's judgements despite the presence of strong and systematic biases against the requirements of normative probability theory in those very same judgements...
February 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154187/compositional-inductive-biases-in-function-learning
#20
Eric Schulz, Joshua B Tenenbaum, David Duvenaud, Maarten Speekenbrink, Samuel J Gershman
How do people recognize and learn about complex functional structure? Taking inspiration from other areas of cognitive science, we propose that this is achieved by harnessing compositionality: complex structure is decomposed into simpler building blocks. We formalize this idea within the framework of Bayesian regression using a grammar over Gaussian process kernels, and compare this approach with other structure learning approaches. Participants consistently chose compositional (over non-compositional) extrapolations and interpolations of functions...
December 2017: Cognitive Psychology
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