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Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914312/today-is-tomorrow-s-yesterday-children-s-acquisition-of-deictic-time-words
#1
Katharine A Tillman, Tyler Marghetis, David Barner, Mahesh Srinivasan
Deictic time words like "yesterday" and "tomorrow" pose a challenge to children not only because they are abstract, and label periods in time, but also because their denotations vary according to the time at which they are uttered: Monday's "tomorrow" is different than Thursday's. Although children produce these words as early as age 2 or 3, they do not use them in adult-like ways for several subsequent years. Here, we explored whether children have partial but systematic meanings for these words during the long delay before adult-like usage...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907808/models-that-allow-us-to-perceive-the-world-more-accurately-also-allow-us-to-remember-past-events-more-accurately-via-differentiation
#2
Aslı Kılıç, Amy H Criss, Kenneth J Malmberg, Richard M Shiffrin
Differentiation is a theory that originally emerged from the perception literature and proposes that with experience, the representation of stimuli becomes more distinct from or less similar to the representation of other stimuli. In recent years, the role of differentiation has played a critical role in models of memory. Differentiation mechanisms have been implemented in episodic memory models by assuming that information about new experiences with a stimulus in a particular context accumulates in a single memory trace and these updated memory traces become more distinct from the representations of other stimuli...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907807/transitional-probabilities-count-more-than-frequency-but-might-not-be-used-for-memorization
#3
Ansgar D Endress, Alan Langus
Learners often need to extract recurring items from continuous sequences, in both vision and audition. The best-known example is probably found in word-learning, where listeners have to determine where words start and end in fluent speech. This could be achieved through universal and experience-independent statistical mechanisms, for example by relying on Transitional Probabilities (TPs). Further, these mechanisms might allow learners to store items in memory. However, previous investigations have yielded conflicting evidence as to whether a sensitivity to TPs is diagnostic of the memorization of recurring items...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889550/to-infinity-and-beyond-children-generalize-the-successor-function-to-all-possible-numbers-years-after-learning-to-count
#4
Pierina Cheung, Miriam Rubenson, David Barner
Recent accounts of number word learning posit that when children learn to accurately count sets (i.e., become "cardinal principle" or "CP" knowers), they have a conceptual insight about how the count list implements the successor function - i.e., that every natural number n has a successor defined as n+1 (Carey, 2004, 2009; Sarnecka & Carey, 2008). However, recent studies suggest that knowledge of the successor function emerges sometime after children learn to accurately count, though it remains unknown when this occurs, and what causes this developmental transition...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865155/intuitive-biological-thought-developmental-changes-and-effects-of-biology-education-in-late-adolescence
#5
John D Coley, Melanie Arenson, Yian Xu, Kimberly D Tanner
A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors)...
November 16, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821256/the-parallel-episodic-processing-pep-model-2-0-a-single-computational-model-of-stimulus-response-binding-contingency-learning-power-curves-and-mixing-costs
#6
James R Schmidt, Jan De Houwer, Klaus Rothermund
The current paper presents an extension of the Parallel Episodic Processing model. The model is developed for simulating behaviour in performance (i.e., speeded response time) tasks and learns to anticipate both how and when to respond based on retrieval of memories of previous trials. With one fixed parameter set, the model is shown to successfully simulate a wide range of different findings. These include: practice curves in the Stroop paradigm, contingency learning effects, learning acquisition curves, stimulus-response binding effects, mixing costs, and various findings from the attentional control domain...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821255/how-numbers-mean-comparing-random-walk-models-of-numerical-cognition-varying-both-encoding-processes-and-underlying-quantity-representations
#7
Dale J Cohen, Philip T Quinlan
How do people derive meaning from numbers? Here, we instantiate the primary theories of numerical representation in computational models and compare simulated performance to human data. Specifically, we fit simulated data to the distributions for correct and incorrect responses, as well as the pattern of errors made, in a traditional "relative quantity" task. The results reveal that no current theory of numerical representation can adequately account for the data without additional assumptions. However, when we introduce repeated, error-prone sampling of the stimulus (e...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773367/bayesian-change-point-analysis-reveals-developmental-change-in-a-classic-theory-of-mind-task
#8
Sara T Baker, Alan M Leslie, C R Gallistel, Bruce M Hood
Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721102/exploring-orthographic-neighborhood-size-effects-in-a-computational-model-of-chinese-character-naming
#9
Ya-Ning Chang, Stephen Welbourne, Chia-Ying Lee
Orthographic neighborhood (N) size effects have been extensively studied in English consistently producing a facilitatory effect in word naming tasks. In contrast, several recent studies on Chinese character naming have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of neighborhood size. Response latencies tend to be inhibited by inconsistent characters with large neighborhoods relative to small neighborhoods. These differences in neighborhood effects between languages may depend on the characteristics (depth) of the mapping between orthography and phonology...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876154/corrigendum-to-automatic-and-controlled-stimulus-processing-in-conflict-tasks-superimposed-diffusion-processes-and-delta-functions-cogn-psychol-78-2015-148-174
#10
Rolf Ulrich, Hannes Schröter, Hartmut Leuthold, Teresa Birngruber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821254/the-relationship-between-baseline-pupil-size-and-intelligence
#11
Jason S Tsukahara, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseline condition. Yet these findings were incidental and lacked a clear explanation. Therefore, in the present series of studies we systematically investigated whether pupil size during a passive baseline is associated with individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence...
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721103/selective-attention-diffused-attention-and-the-development-of-categorization
#12
Wei Sophia Deng, Vladimir M Sloutsky
How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features...
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631704/visual-perception-of-complex-shape-transforming-processes
#13
Filipp Schmidt, Roland W Fleming
Morphogenesis-or the origin of complex natural form-has long fascinated researchers from practically every branch of science. However, we know practically nothing about how we perceive and understand such processes. Here, we measured how observers visually infer shape-transforming processes. Participants viewed pairs of objects ('before' and 'after' a transformation) and identified points that corresponded across the transformation. This allowed us to map out in spatial detail how perceived shape and space were affected by the transformations...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567237/the-anchor-integration-model-a-descriptive-model-of-anchoring-effects
#14
Brandon M Turner, Dan R Schley
Few experimental effects in the psychology of judgment and decision making have been studied as meticulously as the anchoring effect. Although the existing literature provides considerable insight into the psychological processes underlying anchoring effects, extant theories up to this point have only generated qualitative predictions. While these theories have been productive in advancing our understanding of the underlying anchoring process, they leave much to be desired in the interpretation of specific anchoring effects...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542765/a-pessimistic-view-of-optimistic-belief-updating
#15
Punit Shah, Adam J L Harris, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur, Ulrike Hahn
Received academic wisdom holds that human judgment is characterized by unrealistic optimism, the tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events and overestimate the likelihood of positive events. With recent questions being raised over the degree to which the majority of this research genuinely demonstrates optimism, attention to possible mechanisms generating such a bias becomes ever more important. New studies have now claimed that unrealistic optimism emerges as a result of biased belief updating with distinctive neural correlates in the brain...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570097/people-s-conditional-probability-judgments-follow-probability-theory-plus-noise
#16
Fintan Costello, Paul Watts
A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494766/the-attention-weighted-sample-size-model-of-visual-short-term-memory-attention-capture-predicts-resource-allocation-and-memory-load
#17
Philip L Smith, Simon D Lilburn, Elaine A Corbett, David K Sewell, Søren Kyllingsbæk
We investigated the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a phase discrimination task that required judgments about the configural relations between pairs of black and white features. Sewell et al. (2014) previously showed that VSTM capacity in an orientation discrimination task was well described by a sample-size model, which views VSTM as a resource comprised of a finite number of noisy stimulus samples. The model predicts the invariance of [Formula: see text] , the sum of squared sensitivities across items, for displays of different sizes...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479271/sense-making-under-ignorance
#18
Samuel G B Johnson, Greeshma Rajeev-Kumar, Frank C Keil
Much of cognition allows us to make sense of things by explaining observable evidence in terms of unobservable explanations, such as category memberships and hidden causes. Yet we must often make such explanatory inferences with incomplete evidence, where we are ignorant about some relevant facts or diagnostic features. In seven experiments, we studied how people make explanatory inferences under these uncertain conditions, testing the possibility that people attempt to infer the presence or absence of diagnostic evidence on the basis of other cues such as evidence base rates (even when these cues are normatively irrelevant) and then proceed to make explanatory inferences on the basis of the inferred evidence...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472912/sequence-sensitive-exemplar-and-decision-bound-accounts-of-speeded-classification-performance-in-a-modified-garner-tasks-paradigm
#19
Daniel R Little, Tony Wang, Robert M Nosofsky
Among the most fundamental results in the area of perceptual classification are the "correlated facilitation" and "filtering interference" effects observed in Garner's (1974) speeded categorization tasks: In the case of integral-dimension stimuli, relative to a control task, single-dimension classification is faster when there is correlated variation along a second dimension, but slower when there is orthogonal variation that cannot be filtered out (e.g., by attention). These fundamental effects may result from participants' use of a trial-by-trial bypass strategy in the control and correlated tasks: The observer changes the previous category response whenever the stimulus changes, and maintains responses if the stimulus repeats...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423486/numerical-morphology-supports-early-number-word-learning-evidence-from-a-comparison-of-young-mandarin-and-english-learners
#20
Mathieu Le Corre, Peggy Li, Becky H Huang, Gisela Jia, Susan Carey
Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared...
August 2016: Cognitive Psychology
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