Read by QxMD icon Read

Cognitive Psychology

Sara T Baker, Alan M Leslie, C R Gallistel, Bruce M Hood
Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Wei Sophia Deng, Vladimir M Sloutsky
How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Ya-Ning Chang, Stephen Welbourne, Chia-Ying Lee
Orthographic neighborhood (N) size effects have been extensively studied in English consistently producing a facilitatory effect in word naming tasks. In contrast, several recent studies on Chinese character naming have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of neighborhood size. Response latencies tend to be inhibited by inconsistent characters with large neighborhoods relative to small neighborhoods. These differences in neighborhood effects between languages may depend on the characteristics (depth) of the mapping between orthography and phonology...
October 6, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Filipp Schmidt, Roland W Fleming
Morphogenesis-or the origin of complex natural form-has long fascinated researchers from practically every branch of science. However, we know practically nothing about how we perceive and understand such processes. Here, we measured how observers visually infer shape-transforming processes. Participants viewed pairs of objects ('before' and 'after' a transformation) and identified points that corresponded across the transformation. This allowed us to map out in spatial detail how perceived shape and space were affected by the transformations...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Brandon M Turner, Dan R Schley
Few experimental effects in the psychology of judgment and decision making have been studied as meticulously as the anchoring effect. Although the existing literature provides considerable insight into the psychological processes underlying anchoring effects, extant theories up to this point have only generated qualitative predictions. While these theories have been productive in advancing our understanding of the underlying anchoring process, they leave much to be desired in the interpretation of specific anchoring effects...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Punit Shah, Adam J L Harris, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur, Ulrike Hahn
Received academic wisdom holds that human judgment is characterized by unrealistic optimism, the tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events and overestimate the likelihood of positive events. With recent questions being raised over the degree to which the majority of this research genuinely demonstrates optimism, attention to possible mechanisms generating such a bias becomes ever more important. New studies have now claimed that unrealistic optimism emerges as a result of biased belief updating with distinctive neural correlates in the brain...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Fintan Costello, Paul Watts
A common view in current psychology is that people estimate probabilities using various 'heuristics' or rules of thumb that do not follow the normative rules of probability theory. We present a model where people estimate conditional probabilities such as P(A|B) (the probability of A given that B has occurred) by a process that follows standard frequentist probability theory but is subject to random noise. This model accounts for various results from previous studies of conditional probability judgment. This model predicts that people's conditional probability judgments will agree with a series of fundamental identities in probability theory whose form cancels the effect of noise, while deviating from probability theory in other expressions whose form does not allow such cancellation...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Philip L Smith, Simon D Lilburn, Elaine A Corbett, David K Sewell, Søren Kyllingsbæk
We investigated the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a phase discrimination task that required judgments about the configural relations between pairs of black and white features. Sewell et al. (2014) previously showed that VSTM capacity in an orientation discrimination task was well described by a sample-size model, which views VSTM as a resource comprised of a finite number of noisy stimulus samples. The model predicts the invariance of [Formula: see text] , the sum of squared sensitivities across items, for displays of different sizes...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Samuel G B Johnson, Greeshma Rajeev-Kumar, Frank C Keil
Much of cognition allows us to make sense of things by explaining observable evidence in terms of unobservable explanations, such as category memberships and hidden causes. Yet we must often make such explanatory inferences with incomplete evidence, where we are ignorant about some relevant facts or diagnostic features. In seven experiments, we studied how people make explanatory inferences under these uncertain conditions, testing the possibility that people attempt to infer the presence or absence of diagnostic evidence on the basis of other cues such as evidence base rates (even when these cues are normatively irrelevant) and then proceed to make explanatory inferences on the basis of the inferred evidence...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Daniel R Little, Tony Wang, Robert M Nosofsky
Among the most fundamental results in the area of perceptual classification are the "correlated facilitation" and "filtering interference" effects observed in Garner's (1974) speeded categorization tasks: In the case of integral-dimension stimuli, relative to a control task, single-dimension classification is faster when there is correlated variation along a second dimension, but slower when there is orthogonal variation that cannot be filtered out (e.g., by attention). These fundamental effects may result from participants' use of a trial-by-trial bypass strategy in the control and correlated tasks: The observer changes the previous category response whenever the stimulus changes, and maintains responses if the stimulus repeats...
September 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Mathieu Le Corre, Peggy Li, Becky H Huang, Gisela Jia, Susan Carey
Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared...
August 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Arthur G Samuel
In listening to speech, people have been shown to apply several types of adjustment to their phonemic categories that take into account variations in the prevailing linguistic environment. These adjustments include selective adaptation, lexically driven recalibration, and audiovisually determined recalibration. Prior studies have used dual task procedures to test whether these adjustments are automatic or if they require attention, and all of these tests have supported automaticity. The current study instead uses a method of targeted distraction to demonstrate that lexical recalibration does in fact require attention...
August 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Anna Shusterman, Peggy Li
Languages differ in how they encode spatial frames of reference. It is unknown how children acquire the particular frame-of-reference terms in their language (e.g., left/right, north/south). The present paper uses a word-learning paradigm to investigate 4-year-old English-speaking children's acquisition of such terms. In Part I, with five experiments, we contrasted children's acquisition of novel word pairs meaning left-right and north-south to examine their initial hypotheses and the relative ease of learning the meanings of these terms...
August 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Henrik Singmann, Karl Christoph Klauer, Sieghard Beller
The present research examines descriptive models of probabilistic conditional reasoning, that is of reasoning from uncertain conditionals with contents about which reasoners have rich background knowledge. According to our dual-source model, two types of information shape such reasoning: knowledge-based information elicited by the contents of the material and content-independent information derived from the form of inferences. Two experiments implemented manipulations that selectively influenced the model parameters for the knowledge-based information, the relative weight given to form-based versus knowledge-based information, and the parameters for the form-based information, validating the psychological interpretation of these parameters...
August 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Steven G Luke, Kiel Christianson
Efficient language processing may involve generating expectations about upcoming input. To investigate the extent to which prediction might facilitate reading, a large-scale survey provided cloze scores for all 2689 words in 55 different text passages. Highly predictable words were quite rare (5% of content words), and most words had a more-expected competitor. An eye-tracking study showed sensitivity to cloze probability but no mis-prediction cost. Instead, the presence of a more-expected competitor was found to be facilitative in several measures...
August 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Kimele Persaud, Pernille Hemmer
Bayesian models of cognition assume that prior knowledge about the world influences judgments. Recent approaches have suggested that the loss of fidelity from working to long-term (LT) memory is simply due to an increased rate of guessing (e.g. Brady, Konkle, Gill, Oliva, & Alvarez, 2013). That is, recall is the result of either remembering (with some noise) or guessing. This stands in contrast to Bayesian models of cognition while assume that prior knowledge about the world influences judgments, and that recall is a combination of expectations learned from the environment and noisy memory representations...
August 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Tom Hartley, Mark J Hurlstone, Graham J Hitch
Immediate memory for spoken sequences depends on their rhythm - different levels of accuracy and patterns of error are seen according to the way in which items are spaced in time. Current models address these phenomena only partially or not at all. We investigate the idea that temporal grouping effects are an emergent property of a general serial ordering mechanism based on a population of oscillators locally-sensitive to amplitude modulations on different temporal scales. Two experiments show that the effects of temporal grouping are independent of the predictability of the grouping pattern, consistent with this model's stimulus-driven mechanism and inconsistent with alternative accounts in terms of top-down processes...
June 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Benjamin M Rottman, Reid Hastie
Making judgments by relying on beliefs about the causal relationships between events is a fundamental capacity of everyday cognition. In the last decade, Causal Bayesian Networks have been proposed as a framework for modeling causal reasoning. Two experiments were conducted to provide comprehensive data sets with which to evaluate a variety of different types of judgments in comparison to the standard Bayesian networks calculations. Participants were introduced to a fictional system of three events and observed a set of learning trials that instantiated the multivariate distribution relating the three variables...
June 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Matthew G Buckley, Alastair D Smith, Mark Haselgrove
The way in which human and non-human animals represent the shape of their environments remains a contentious issue. According to local theories of shape learning, organisms encode the local geometric features of the environment that signal a goal location. In contrast, global theories of shape learning suggest that organisms encode the overall shape of the environment. There is, however, a surprising lack of evidence to support this latter claim, despite the fact that common behaviours seem to require encoding of the global-shape of an environment...
June 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Roman Feiman, Jesse Snedeker
Quantifier words like each, every, all and three are among the most abstract words in language. Unlike nouns, verbs and adjectives, the meanings of quantifiers are not related to a referent out in the world. Rather, quantifiers specify what relationships hold between the sets of entities, events and properties denoted by other words. When two quantifiers are in the same clause, they create a systematic ambiguity. "Every kid climbed a tree" could mean that there was only one tree, climbed by all, or many different trees, one per climbing kid...
June 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"