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Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647542/parallel-interactive-retrieval-of-item-and-associative-information-from-event-memory
#1
Gregory E Cox, Amy H Criss
Memory contains information about individual events (items) and combinations of events (associations). Despite the fundamental importance of this distinction, it remains unclear exactly how these two kinds of information are stored and whether different processes are used to retrieve them. We use both model-independent qualitative properties of response dynamics and quantitative modeling of individuals to address these issues. Item and associative information are not independent and they are retrieved concurrently via interacting processes...
June 22, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641208/an-associative-account-of-the-development-of-word-learning
#2
Vladimir M Sloutsky, Hyungwook Yim, Xin Yao, Simon Dennis
Word learning is a notoriously difficult induction problem because meaning is underdetermined by positive examples. How do children solve this problem? Some have argued that word learning is achieved by means of inference: young word learners rely on a number of assumptions that reduce the overall hypothesis space by favoring some meanings over others. However, these approaches have difficulty explaining how words are learned from conversations or text, without pointing or explicit instruction. In this research, we propose an associative mechanism that can account for such learning...
June 20, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623726/diagnostic-causal-reasoning-with-verbal-information
#3
Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer
In diagnostic causal reasoning, the goal is to infer the probability of causes from one or multiple observed effects. Typically, studies investigating such tasks provide subjects with precise quantitative information regarding the strength of the relations between causes and effects or sample data from which the relevant quantities can be learned. By contrast, we sought to examine people's inferences when causal information is communicated through qualitative, rather vague verbal expressions (e.g., "X occasionally causes A")...
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601710/evolution-of-word-meanings-through-metaphorical-mapping-systematicity-over-the-past-millennium
#4
Yang Xu, Barbara C Malt, Mahesh Srinivasan
One way that languages are able to communicate a potentially infinite set of ideas through a finite lexicon is by compressing emerging meanings into words, such that over time, individual words come to express multiple, related senses of meaning. We propose that overarching communicative and cognitive pressures have created systematic directionality in how new metaphorical senses have developed from existing word senses over the history of English. Given a large set of pairs of semantic domains, we used computational models to test which domains have been more commonly the starting points (source domains) and which the ending points (target domains) of metaphorical mappings over the past millennium...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601709/from-information-processing-to-decisions-formalizing-and-comparing-psychologically-plausible-choice-models
#5
Daniel W Heck, Benjamin E Hilbig, Morten Moshagen
Decision strategies explain how people integrate multiple sources of information to make probabilistic inferences. In the past decade, increasingly sophisticated methods have been developed to determine which strategy explains decision behavior best. We extend these efforts to test psychologically more plausible models (i.e., strategies), including a new, probabilistic version of the take-the-best (TTB) heuristic that implements a rank order of error probabilities based on sequential processing. Within a coherent statistical framework, deterministic and probabilistic versions of TTB and other strategies can directly be compared using model selection by minimum description length or the Bayes factor...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586634/where-do-hypotheses-come-from
#6
Ishita Dasgupta, Eric Schulz, Samuel J Gershman
Why are human inferences sometimes remarkably close to the Bayesian ideal and other times systematically biased? In particular, why do humans make near-rational inferences in some natural domains where the candidate hypotheses are explicitly available, whereas tasks in similar domains requiring the self-generation of hypotheses produce systematic deviations from rational inference. We propose that these deviations arise from algorithmic processes approximating Bayes' rule. Specifically in our account, hypotheses are generated stochastically from a sampling process, such that the sampled hypotheses form a Monte Carlo approximation of the posterior...
June 3, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500981/some-consequences-of-normal-aging-for-generating-conceptual-explanations-a-case-study-of-vitalist-biology
#7
Nathan Tardiff, Igor Bascandziev, Kaitlin Sandor, Susan Carey, Deborah Zaitchik
Accumulating evidence suggests that not only diseases of old age, but also normal aging, affect elderly adults' ability to draw on the framework theories that structure our abstract causal-explanatory knowledge, knowledge that we use to make sense of the world. One such framework theory, the cross-culturally universal vitalist biology, gives meaning to the abstract concepts life and death. Previous work shows that many elderly adults are animists, claiming that active, moving entities such as the sun and the wind are alive (Zaitchik & Solomon, 2008)...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478330/cue-combination-in-human-spatial-navigation
#8
Xiaoli Chen, Timothy P McNamara, Jonathan W Kelly, Thomas Wolbers
This project investigated the ways in which visual cues and bodily cues from self-motion are combined in spatial navigation. Participants completed a homing task in an immersive virtual environment. In Experiments 1A and 1B, the reliability of visual cues and self-motion cues was manipulated independently and within-participants. Results showed that participants weighted visual cues and self-motion cues based on their relative reliability and integrated these two cue types optimally or near-optimally according to Bayesian principles under most conditions...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458050/comparing-different-kinds-of-words-and-word-word-relations-to-test-an-habituation-model-of-priming
#9
Cory A Rieth, David E Huber
Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441519/grounding-principles-for-inferring-agency-two-cultural-perspectives
#10
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research investigates cultural variation in grounding principles for inferring agency in order to address an important theoretical debate: does cultural diversity in agency concepts reflect an animistic overextension of (universal) folkpsychology, as many have argued, or an alternative theory of folkcommunication based on relational principles? In two experiments, mind perception measures were adapted to assess beliefs concerning the agency of non-animal kinds (plants, abiotic kinds, complex artifacts) among Indigenous Ngöbe adults in Panama and US college students...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441518/learning-to-allocate-limited-time-to-decisions-with-different-expected-outcomes
#11
Arash Khodadadi, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome R Busemeyer
The goal of this article is to investigate how human participants allocate their limited time to decisions with different properties. We report the results of two behavioral experiments. In each trial of the experiments, the participant must accumulate noisy information to make a decision. The participants received positive and negative rewards for their correct and incorrect decisions, respectively. The stimulus was designed such that decisions based on more accumulated information were more accurate but took longer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391054/breaking-the-rules-in-perceptual-information-integration
#12
Maxim A Bushmakin, Ami Eidels, Andrew Heathcote
We develop a broad theoretical framework for modelling difficult perceptual information integration tasks under different decision rules. The framework allows us to compare coactive architectures, which combine information before it enters the decision process, with parallel architectures, where logical rules combine independent decisions made about each perceptual source. For both architectures we test the novel hypothesis that participants break the decision rules on some trials, making a response based on only one stimulus even though task instructions require them to consider both...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288392/social-cues-modulate-the-representations-underlying-cross-situational-learning
#13
Kyle MacDonald, Daniel Yurovsky, Michael C Frank
Because children hear language in environments that contain many things to talk about, learning the meaning of even the simplest word requires making inferences under uncertainty. A cross-situational statistical learner can aggregate across naming events to form stable word-referent mappings, but this approach neglects an important source of information that can reduce referential uncertainty: social cues from speakers (e.g., eye gaze). In four large-scale experiments with adults, we tested the effects of varying referential uncertainty in cross-situational word learning using social cues...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254614/the-impact-of-object-type-on-the-spatial-analogies-in-korean-preschoolers
#14
Youjeong Park, Marianella Casasola
We tested young children's spatial reasoning in a match-to-sample task, manipulating the objects in the task (abstract geometric shapes, line drawings of realistic objects, or both). Korean 4- and 5-year-old children (N=161) generalized the target spatial configuration (i.e., on, in, above) more easily when the sample used geometric shapes and the choices used realistic objects than the reverse (i.e., realistic-object sample to geometric-shape choices). With within-type stimuli (i.e., sample and choices were both geometric shapes or both realistic objects), 5-year-old, but not 4-year-old, children generalized the spatial relations more easily with geometric shapes than realistic objects...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254613/speeded-saccadic-and-manual-visuo-motor-decisions-distinct-processes-but-same-principles
#15
Aline Bompas, Craig Hedge, Petroc Sumner
Action decisions are considered an emergent property of competitive response activations. As such, decision mechanisms are embedded in, and therefore may differ between, different response modalities. Despite this, the saccadic eye movement system is often promoted as a model for all decisions, especially in the fields of electrophysiology and modelling. Other research traditions predominantly use manual button presses, which have different response distribution profiles and are initiated by different brain areas...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235559/task-inhibition-conflict-and-the-n-2-repetition-cost-a-combined-computational-and-empirical-approach
#16
Nicholas J Sexton, Richard P Cooper
Task inhibition (also known as backward inhibition) is an hypothesised form of cognitive inhibition evident in multi-task situations, with the role of facilitating switching between multiple, competing tasks. This article presents a novel cognitive computational model of a backward inhibition mechanism. By combining aspects of previous cognitive models in task switching and conflict monitoring, the model instantiates the theoretical proposal that backward inhibition is the direct result of conflict between multiple task representations...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340356/acquiring-variation-in-an-artificial-language-children-and-adults-are-sensitive-to-socially-conditioned-linguistic-variation
#17
Anna Samara, Kenny Smith, Helen Brown, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189037/how-the-twain-can-meet-prospect-theory-and-models-of-heuristics-in-risky-choice
#18
Thorsten Pachur, Renata S Suter, Ralph Hertwig
Two influential approaches to modeling choice between risky options are algebraic models (which focus on predicting the overt decisions) and models of heuristics (which are also concerned with capturing the underlying cognitive process). Because they rest on fundamentally different assumptions and algorithms, the two approaches are usually treated as antithetical, or even incommensurable. Drawing on cumulative prospect theory (CPT; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) as the currently most influential instance of a descriptive algebraic model, we demonstrate how the two modeling traditions can be linked...
March 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160610/learning-in-settings-with-partial-feedback-and-the-wavy-recency-effect-of-rare-events
#19
Ori Plonsky, Ido Erev
Analyses of human learning reveal a discrepancy between the long- and the short-term effects of outcomes on subsequent choice. The long-term effect is simple: favorable outcomes increase the choice rate of an alternative whereas unfavorable outcomes decrease it. The short-term effects are more complex. Favorable outcomes can decrease the choice rate of the best option. This pattern violates the positive recency assumption that underlies the popular models of learning. The current research tries to clarify the implications of these results...
March 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039761/personal-change-and-the-continuity-of-the-self
#20
Sarah Molouki, Daniel M Bartels
Five studies explore how anticipating different types of personal change affects people's perceptions of their own self-continuity. The studies find that improvements are seen as less disruptive to personal continuity than worsening or unspecified change, although this difference varies in magnitude based on the type of feature being considered. Also, people's expectations and desires matter. For example, a negative change is highly disruptive to perceived continuity when people expect improvement and less disruptive when people expect to worsen...
March 2017: Cognitive Psychology
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