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Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235559/task-inhibition-conflict-and-the-n-2-repetition-cost-a-combined-computational-and-empirical-approach
#1
Nicholas J Sexton, Richard P Cooper
Task inhibition (also known as backward inhibition) is an hypothesised form of cognitive inhibition evident in multi-task situations, with the role of facilitating switching between multiple, competing tasks. This article presents a novel cognitive computational model of a backward inhibition mechanism. By combining aspects of previous cognitive models in task switching and conflict monitoring, the model instantiates the theoretical proposal that backward inhibition is the direct result of conflict between multiple task representations...
February 21, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189037/how-the-twain-can-meet-prospect-theory-and-models-of-heuristics-in-risky-choice
#2
Thorsten Pachur, Renata S Suter, Ralph Hertwig
Two influential approaches to modeling choice between risky options are algebraic models (which focus on predicting the overt decisions) and models of heuristics (which are also concerned with capturing the underlying cognitive process). Because they rest on fundamentally different assumptions and algorithms, the two approaches are usually treated as antithetical, or even incommensurable. Drawing on cumulative prospect theory (CPT; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) as the currently most influential instance of a descriptive algebraic model, we demonstrate how the two modeling traditions can be linked...
February 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160610/learning-in-settings-with-partial-feedback-and-the-wavy-recency-effect-of-rare-events
#3
Ori Plonsky, Ido Erev
Analyses of human learning reveal a discrepancy between the long- and the short-term effects of outcomes on subsequent choice. The long-term effect is simple: favorable outcomes increase the choice rate of an alternative whereas unfavorable outcomes decrease it. The short-term effects are more complex. Favorable outcomes can decrease the choice rate of the best option. This pattern violates the positive recency assumption that underlies the popular models of learning. The current research tries to clarify the implications of these results...
February 1, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039761/personal-change-and-the-continuity-of-the-self
#4
Sarah Molouki, Daniel M Bartels
Five studies explore how anticipating different types of personal change affects people's perceptions of their own self-continuity. The studies find that improvements are seen as less disruptive to personal continuity than worsening or unspecified change, although this difference varies in magnitude based on the type of feature being considered. Also, people's expectations and desires matter. For example, a negative change is highly disruptive to perceived continuity when people expect improvement and less disruptive when people expect to worsen...
December 28, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951435/habit-outweighs-planning-in-grasp-selection-for-object-manipulation
#5
Oliver Herbort, Hanna Mathew, Wilfried Kunde
Object-directed grasping movements are adapted to intended interactions with an object. We address whether adjusting the grasp for object manipulation is controlled habitually, based on past experiences, or by goal-directed planning, based on an evaluation of the expected action outcomes. Therefore, we asked participants to grasp and rotate a dial. In such tasks, participants typically grasp the dial with an excursed, uncomfortable arm posture, which then allows to complete the dial rotation in a comfortable end-state...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918908/likelihood-ratio-sequential-sampling-models-of-recognition-memory
#6
Adam F Osth, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote
The mirror effect - a phenomenon whereby a manipulation produces opposite effects on hit and false alarm rates - is benchmark regularity of recognition memory. A likelihood ratio decision process, basing recognition on the relative likelihood that a stimulus is a target or a lure, naturally predicts the mirror effect, and so has been widely adopted in quantitative models of recognition memory. Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (2009) demonstrated that likelihood ratio models, assuming Gaussian memory strength, are also capable of explaining regularities observed in receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs), such as greater target than lure variance...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914312/today-is-tomorrow-s-yesterday-children-s-acquisition-of-deictic-time-words
#7
Katharine A Tillman, Tyler Marghetis, David Barner, Mahesh Srinivasan
Deictic time words like "yesterday" and "tomorrow" pose a challenge to children not only because they are abstract, and label periods in time, but also because their denotations vary according to the time at which they are uttered: Monday's "tomorrow" is different than Thursday's. Although children produce these words as early as age 2 or 3, they do not use them in adult-like ways for several subsequent years. Here, we explored whether children have partial but systematic meanings for these words during the long delay before adult-like usage...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907808/models-that-allow-us-to-perceive-the-world-more-accurately-also-allow-us-to-remember-past-events-more-accurately-via-differentiation
#8
Aslı Kılıç, Amy H Criss, Kenneth J Malmberg, Richard M Shiffrin
Differentiation is a theory that originally emerged from the perception literature and proposes that with experience, the representation of stimuli becomes more distinct from or less similar to the representation of other stimuli. In recent years, the role of differentiation has played a critical role in models of memory. Differentiation mechanisms have been implemented in episodic memory models by assuming that information about new experiences with a stimulus in a particular context accumulates in a single memory trace and these updated memory traces become more distinct from the representations of other stimuli...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907807/transitional-probabilities-count-more-than-frequency-but-might-not-be-used-for-memorization
#9
Ansgar D Endress, Alan Langus
Learners often need to extract recurring items from continuous sequences, in both vision and audition. The best-known example is probably found in word-learning, where listeners have to determine where words start and end in fluent speech. This could be achieved through universal and experience-independent statistical mechanisms, for example by relying on Transitional Probabilities (TPs). Further, these mechanisms might allow learners to store items in memory. However, previous investigations have yielded conflicting evidence as to whether a sensitivity to TPs is diagnostic of the memorization of recurring items...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889550/to-infinity-and-beyond-children-generalize-the-successor-function-to-all-possible-numbers-years-after-learning-to-count
#10
Pierina Cheung, Miriam Rubenson, David Barner
Recent accounts of number word learning posit that when children learn to accurately count sets (i.e., become "cardinal principle" or "CP" knowers), they have a conceptual insight about how the count list implements the successor function - i.e., that every natural number n has a successor defined as n+1 (Carey, 2004, 2009; Sarnecka & Carey, 2008). However, recent studies suggest that knowledge of the successor function emerges sometime after children learn to accurately count, though it remains unknown when this occurs, and what causes this developmental transition...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865155/intuitive-biological-thought-developmental-changes-and-effects-of-biology-education-in-late-adolescence
#11
John D Coley, Melanie Arenson, Yian Xu, Kimberly D Tanner
A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors)...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876154/corrigendum-to-automatic-and-controlled-stimulus-processing-in-conflict-tasks-superimposed-diffusion-processes-and-delta-functions-cogn-psychol-78-2015-148-174
#12
Rolf Ulrich, Hannes Schröter, Hartmut Leuthold, Teresa Birngruber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821255/how-numbers-mean-comparing-random-walk-models-of-numerical-cognition-varying-both-encoding-processes-and-underlying-quantity-representations
#13
Dale J Cohen, Philip T Quinlan
How do people derive meaning from numbers? Here, we instantiate the primary theories of numerical representation in computational models and compare simulated performance to human data. Specifically, we fit simulated data to the distributions for correct and incorrect responses, as well as the pattern of errors made, in a traditional "relative quantity" task. The results reveal that no current theory of numerical representation can adequately account for the data without additional assumptions. However, when we introduce repeated, error-prone sampling of the stimulus (e...
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821254/the-relationship-between-baseline-pupil-size-and-intelligence
#14
Jason S Tsukahara, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseline condition. Yet these findings were incidental and lacked a clear explanation. Therefore, in the present series of studies we systematically investigated whether pupil size during a passive baseline is associated with individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence...
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721103/selective-attention-diffused-attention-and-the-development-of-categorization
#15
Wei Sophia Deng, Vladimir M Sloutsky
How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features...
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821256/the-parallel-episodic-processing-pep-model-2-0-a-single-computational-model-of-stimulus-response-binding-contingency-learning-power-curves-and-mixing-costs
#16
James R Schmidt, Jan De Houwer, Klaus Rothermund
The current paper presents an extension of the Parallel Episodic Processing model. The model is developed for simulating behaviour in performance (i.e., speeded response time) tasks and learns to anticipate both how and when to respond based on retrieval of memories of previous trials. With one fixed parameter set, the model is shown to successfully simulate a wide range of different findings. These include: practice curves in the Stroop paradigm, contingency learning effects, learning acquisition curves, stimulus-response binding effects, mixing costs, and various findings from the attentional control domain...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631704/visual-perception-of-complex-shape-transforming-processes
#17
Filipp Schmidt, Roland W Fleming
Morphogenesis-or the origin of complex natural form-has long fascinated researchers from practically every branch of science. However, we know practically nothing about how we perceive and understand such processes. Here, we measured how observers visually infer shape-transforming processes. Participants viewed pairs of objects ('before' and 'after' a transformation) and identified points that corresponded across the transformation. This allowed us to map out in spatial detail how perceived shape and space were affected by the transformations...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567237/the-anchor-integration-model-a-descriptive-model-of-anchoring-effects
#18
Brandon M Turner, Dan R Schley
Few experimental effects in the psychology of judgment and decision making have been studied as meticulously as the anchoring effect. Although the existing literature provides considerable insight into the psychological processes underlying anchoring effects, extant theories up to this point have only generated qualitative predictions. While these theories have been productive in advancing our understanding of the underlying anchoring process, they leave much to be desired in the interpretation of specific anchoring effects...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542765/a-pessimistic-view-of-optimistic-belief-updating
#19
Punit Shah, Adam J L Harris, Geoffrey Bird, Caroline Catmur, Ulrike Hahn
Received academic wisdom holds that human judgment is characterized by unrealistic optimism, the tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events and overestimate the likelihood of positive events. With recent questions being raised over the degree to which the majority of this research genuinely demonstrates optimism, attention to possible mechanisms generating such a bias becomes ever more important. New studies have now claimed that unrealistic optimism emerges as a result of biased belief updating with distinctive neural correlates in the brain...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773367/bayesian-change-point-analysis-reveals-developmental-change-in-a-classic-theory-of-mind-task
#20
Sara T Baker, Alan M Leslie, C R Gallistel, Bruce M Hood
Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
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