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Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920399/the-developing-role-of-transparent-surfaces-in-children-s-spatial-representation
#1
Eugenia Gianni, Laura De Zorzi, Sang Ah Lee
Children adeptly use environmental boundaries to navigate. But how do they represent surfaces as boundaries, and how does this change over development? To investigate the effects of boundaries as visual and physical barriers, we tested spatial reorientation in 160 children (2-7 year-olds) in a transparent rectangular arena (Condition 1). In contrast with their consistent success using opaque surfaces (Condition 2), children only succeeded at using transparent surfaces at 5-7 years of age. These results suggest a critical role of visually opaque surfaces in early spatial coding and a developmental change around the age of five in representing locations with respect to transparent surfaces...
June 16, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885534/intuitive-experimentation-in-the-physical-world
#2
Neil R Bramley, Tobias Gerstenberg, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Todd M Gureckis
Many aspects of our physical environment are hidden. For example, it is hard to estimate how heavy an object is from visual observation alone. In this paper we examine how people actively "experiment" within the physical world to discover such latent properties. In the first part of the paper, we develop a novel framework for the quantitative analysis of the information produced by physical interactions. We then describe two experiments that present participants with moving objects in "microworlds" that operate according to continuous spatiotemporal dynamics similar to everyday physics (i...
June 6, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874628/failure-of-self-consistency-in-the-discrete-resource-model-of-visual-working-memory
#3
Paul M Bays
The discrete resource model of working memory proposes that each individual has a fixed upper limit on the number of items they can store at one time,due to division of memory into a few independent "slots". According to this model, responses on short-term memory tasks consist of a mixture of noisy recall (when the tested item is in memory) and random guessing (when the item is not in memory). This provides two opportunities to estimate capacity for each observer: first, based on their frequency of random guesses, and second, based on the set size at which the variability of stored items reaches a plateau...
June 2, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778004/learning-homophones-in-context-easy-cases-are-favored-in-the-lexicon-of-natural-languages
#4
Isabelle Dautriche, Laia Fibla, Anne-Caroline Fievet, Anne Christophe
Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). The present work addresses this apparent discrepancy between learning abilities and typological pattern, with respect to homophony in the lexicon. In a series of five experiments, 20-month-old French children easily learnt a pair of homophones if the two meanings associated with the phonological form belonged to different syntactic categories, or to different semantic categories...
May 16, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778777/modeling-the-dynamics-of-recognition-memory-testing-with-an-integrated-model-of-retrieval-and-decision-making
#5
Adam F Osth, Anna Jansson, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote
A robust finding in recognition memory is that performance declines monotonically across test trials. Despite the prevalence of this decline, there is a lack of consensus on the mechanism responsible. Three hypotheses have been put forward: (1) interference is caused by learning of test items (2) the test items cause a shift in the context representation used to cue memory and (3) participants change their speed-accuracy thresholds through the course of testing. We implemented all three possibilities in a combined model of recognition memory and decision making, which inherits the memory retrieval elements of the Osth and Dennis (2015) model and uses the diffusion decision model (DDM: Ratcliff, 1978) to generate choice and response times...
August 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653395/learning-physical-parameters-from-dynamic-scenes
#6
Tomer D Ullman, Andreas Stuhlmüller, Noah D Goodman, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Humans acquire their most basic physical concepts early in development, and continue to enrich and expand their intuitive physics throughout life as they are exposed to more and varied dynamical environments. We introduce a hierarchical Bayesian framework to explain how people can learn physical parameters at multiple levels. In contrast to previous Bayesian models of theory acquisition (Tenenbaum, Kemp, Griffiths, & Goodman, 2011), we work with more expressive probabilistic program representations suitable for learning the forces and properties that govern how objects interact in dynamic scenes unfolding over time...
August 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524679/subjective-randomness-as-statistical-inference
#7
Thomas L Griffiths, Dylan Daniels, Joseph L Austerweil, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs...
June 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522980/beyond-markov-accounting-for-independence-violations-in-causal-reasoning
#8
Bob Rehder
Although many theories of causal cognition are based on causal graphical models, a key property of such models-the independence relations stipulated by the Markov condition-is routinely violated by human reasoners. This article presents three new accounts of those independence violations, accounts that share the assumption that people's understanding of the correlational structure of data generated from a causal graph differs from that stipulated by causal graphical model framework. To distinguish these models, experiments assessed how people reason with causal graphs that are larger than those tested in previous studies...
June 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501776/the-role-of-sensorimotor-processes-in-social-group-contagion
#9
Emiel Cracco, Marcel Brass
Although it is well known that action observation triggers an imitative response, not much is known about how these responses develop as a function of group size. Research on social contagion suggests that imitative tendencies initially increase but then stabilize as groups become larger. However, these findings have mainly been explained in terms of interpretative processes. Across seven experiments (N = 322), the current study investigated the contribution of sensorimotor processes to social group contagion by looking at the relation between group size and automatic imitation in a task that involved minimal interpretation...
June 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501775/modeling-2-alternative-forced-choice-tasks-accounting-for-both-magnitude-and-difference-effects
#10
Roger Ratcliff, Chelsea Voskuilen, Andrei Teodorescu
We present a model-based analysis of two-alternative forced-choice tasks in which two stimuli are presented side by side and subjects must make a comparative judgment (e.g., which stimulus is brighter). Stimuli can vary on two dimensions, the difference in strength of the two stimuli and the magnitude of each stimulus. Differences between the two stimuli produce typical RT and accuracy effects (i.e., subjects respond more quickly and more accurately when there is a larger difference between the two). However, the overall magnitude of the pair of stimuli also affects RT and accuracy...
June 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500961/heuristics-as-bayesian-inference-under-extreme-priors
#11
Paula Parpart, Matt Jones, Bradley C Love
Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454819/some-inferences-still-take-time-prosody-predictability-and-the-speed-of-scalar-implicatures
#12
Yi Ting Huang, Jesse Snedeker
Experimental pragmatics has gained many insights from understanding how people use weak scalar terms (like some) to infer that a stronger alternative (like all) is false. Early studies found that comprehenders initially interpret some without an upper bound, but later results suggest that this inference is sometimes immediate (e.g., Grodner, Klein, Carbary, & Tanenhaus, 2010). The present paper explores whether rapid inferencing depends on the prosody (i.e., summa rather than some of) or predictability of referring expressions (e...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407637/planning-to-speak-in-l1-and-l2
#13
Agnieszka E Konopka, Antje Meyer, Tess A Forest
The leading theories of sentence planning - Hierarchical Incrementality and Linear Incrementality - differ in their assumptions about the coordination of processes that map preverbal information onto language. Previous studies showed that, in native (L1) speakers, this coordination can vary with the ease of executing the message-level and sentence-level processes necessary to plan and produce an utterance. We report the first series of experiments to systematically examine how linguistic experience influences sentence planning in native (L1) speakers (i...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358094/how-people-learn-about-causal-influence-when-there-are-many-possible-causes-a-model-based-on-informative-transitions
#14
Cory Derringer, Benjamin Margolin Rottman
Four experiments tested how people learn cause-effect relations when there are many possible causes of an effect. When there are many cues, even if all the cues together strongly predict the effect, the bivariate relation between each individual cue and the effect can be weak, which can make it difficult to detect the influence of each cue. We hypothesized that when detecting the influence of a cue, in addition to learning from the states of the cues and effect (e.g., a cue is present and the effect is present), which is hypothesized by multiple existing theories of learning, participants would also learn from transitions - how the cues and effect change over time (e...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331899/the-speed-of-memory-errors-shows-the-influence-of-misleading-information-testing-the-diffusion-model-and-discrete-state-models
#15
Jeffrey J Starns, Chad Dubé, Matthew E Frelinger
In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310002/young-infants-expect-an-unfamiliar-adult-to-comfort-a-crying-baby-evidence-from-a-standard-violation-of-expectation-task-and-a-novel-infant-triggered-video-task
#16
Kyong-Sun Jin, Jessica L Houston, Renée Baillargeon, Ashley M Groh, Glenn I Roisman
Do infants expect individuals to act prosocially toward others in need, at least in some contexts? Very few such expectations have been uncovered to date. In three experiments, we examined whether infants would expect an adult alone in a scene with a crying baby to attempt to comfort the baby. In the first two experiments, 12- and 4-month-olds were tested using the standard violation-of-expectation method. Infants saw videotaped events in which a woman was performing a household chore when a baby nearby began to cry; the woman either comforted (comfort event) or ignored (ignore event) the baby...
May 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587183/dynamic-cognitive-models-of-intertemporal-choice
#17
Junyi Dai, Timothy J Pleskac, Thorsten Pachur
Traditionally, descriptive accounts of intertemporal choice have relied on static and deterministic models that assume alternative-wise processing of the options. Recent research, by contrast, has highlighted the dynamic and probabilistic nature of intertemporal choice and provided support for attribute-wise processing. Currently, dynamic models of intertemporal choice-which account for both the resulting choice and the time course over which the construction of a choice develops-rely exclusively on the framework of evidence accumulation...
March 24, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587182/the-role-of-domain-general-cognitive-resources-in-children-s-construction-of-a-vitalist-theory-of-biology
#18
Igor Bascandziev, Nathan Tardiff, Deborah Zaitchik, Susan Carey
Some episodes of learning are easier than others. Preschoolers can learn certain facts, such as "my grandmother gave me this purse," only after one or two exposures (easy to learn; fast mapping), but they require several years to learn that plants are alive or that the sun is not alive (hard to learn). One difference between the two kinds of knowledge acquisition is that hard cases often require conceptual construction, such as the construction of the biological concept alive, whereas easy cases merely involve forming new beliefs formulated over concepts the child already has (belief revision, a form of knowledge enrichment)...
March 24, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328949/conditionals-and-inferential-connections-a-hypothetical-inferential-theory
#19
Igor Douven, Shira Elqayam, Henrik Singmann, Janneke van Wijnbergen-Huitink
Intuition suggests that for a conditional to be evaluated as true, there must be some kind of connection between its component clauses. In this paper, we formulate and test a new psychological theory to account for this intuition. We combined previous semantic and psychological theorizing to propose that the key to the intuition is a relevance-driven, satisficing-bounded inferential connection between antecedent and consequent. To test our theory, we created a novel experimental paradigm in which participants were presented with a soritical series of objects, notably colored patches (Experiments 1 and 4) and spheres (Experiment 2), or both (Experiment 3), and were asked to evaluate related conditionals embodying non-causal inferential connections (such as "If patch number 5 is blue, then so is patch number 4")...
March 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294373/the-detour-problem-in-a-stochastic-environment-tolman-revisited
#20
Pegah Fakhari, Arash Khodadadi, Jerome R Busemeyer
We designed a grid world task to study human planning and re-planning behavior in an unknown stochastic environment. In our grid world, participants were asked to travel from a random starting point to a random goal position while maximizing their reward. Because they were not familiar with the environment, they needed to learn its characteristics from experience to plan optimally. Later in the task, we randomly blocked the optimal path to investigate whether and how people adjust their original plans to find a detour...
March 2018: Cognitive Psychology
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