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Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340356/acquiring-variation-in-an-artificial-language-children-and-adults-are-sensitive-to-socially-conditioned-linguistic-variation
#1
Anna Samara, Kenny Smith, Helen Brown, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500981/some-consequences-of-normal-aging-for-generating-conceptual-explanations-a-case-study-of-vitalist-biology
#2
Nathan Tardiff, Igor Bascandziev, Kaitlin Sandor, Susan Carey, Deborah Zaitchik
Accumulating evidence suggests that not only diseases of old age, but also normal aging, affect elderly adults' ability to draw on the framework theories that structure our abstract causal-explanatory knowledge, knowledge that we use to make sense of the world. One such framework theory, the cross-culturally universal vitalist biology, gives meaning to the abstract concepts life and death. Previous work shows that many elderly adults are animists, claiming that active, moving entities such as the sun and the wind are alive (Zaitchik & Solomon, 2008)...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478330/cue-combination-in-human-spatial-navigation
#3
Xiaoli Chen, Timothy P McNamara, Jonathan W Kelly, Thomas Wolbers
This project investigated the ways in which visual cues and bodily cues from self-motion are combined in spatial navigation. Participants completed a homing task in an immersive virtual environment. In Experiments 1A and 1B, the reliability of visual cues and self-motion cues was manipulated independently and within-participants. Results showed that participants weighted visual cues and self-motion cues based on their relative reliability and integrated these two cue types optimally or near-optimally according to Bayesian principles under most conditions...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458050/comparing-different-kinds-of-words-and-word-word-relations-to-test-an-habituation-model-of-priming
#4
Cory A Rieth, David E Huber
Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441519/grounding-principles-for-inferring-agency-two-cultural-perspectives
#5
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research investigates cultural variation in grounding principles for inferring agency in order to address an important theoretical debate: does cultural diversity in agency concepts reflect an animistic overextension of (universal) folkpsychology, as many have argued, or an alternative theory of folkcommunication based on relational principles? In two experiments, mind perception measures were adapted to assess beliefs concerning the agency of non-animal kinds (plants, abiotic kinds, complex artifacts) among Indigenous Ngöbe adults in Panama and US college students...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441518/learning-to-allocate-limited-time-to-decisions-with-different-expected-outcomes
#6
Arash Khodadadi, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome R Busemeyer
The goal of this article is to investigate how human participants allocate their limited time to decisions with different properties. We report the results of two behavioral experiments. In each trial of the experiments, the participant must accumulate noisy information to make a decision. The participants received positive and negative rewards for their correct and incorrect decisions, respectively. The stimulus was designed such that decisions based on more accumulated information were more accurate but took longer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391054/breaking-the-rules-in-perceptual-information-integration
#7
Maxim A Bushmakin, Ami Eidels, Andrew Heathcote
We develop a broad theoretical framework for modelling difficult perceptual information integration tasks under different decision rules. The framework allows us to compare coactive architectures, which combine information before it enters the decision process, with parallel architectures, where logical rules combine independent decisions made about each perceptual source. For both architectures we test the novel hypothesis that participants break the decision rules on some trials, making a response based on only one stimulus even though task instructions require them to consider both...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288392/social-cues-modulate-the-representations-underlying-cross-situational-learning
#8
Kyle MacDonald, Daniel Yurovsky, Michael C Frank
Because children hear language in environments that contain many things to talk about, learning the meaning of even the simplest word requires making inferences under uncertainty. A cross-situational statistical learner can aggregate across naming events to form stable word-referent mappings, but this approach neglects an important source of information that can reduce referential uncertainty: social cues from speakers (e.g., eye gaze). In four large-scale experiments with adults, we tested the effects of varying referential uncertainty in cross-situational word learning using social cues...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254614/the-impact-of-object-type-on-the-spatial-analogies-in-korean-preschoolers
#9
Youjeong Park, Marianella Casasola
We tested young children's spatial reasoning in a match-to-sample task, manipulating the objects in the task (abstract geometric shapes, line drawings of realistic objects, or both). Korean 4- and 5-year-old children (N=161) generalized the target spatial configuration (i.e., on, in, above) more easily when the sample used geometric shapes and the choices used realistic objects than the reverse (i.e., realistic-object sample to geometric-shape choices). With within-type stimuli (i.e., sample and choices were both geometric shapes or both realistic objects), 5-year-old, but not 4-year-old, children generalized the spatial relations more easily with geometric shapes than realistic objects...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254613/speeded-saccadic-and-manual-visuo-motor-decisions-distinct-processes-but-same-principles
#10
Aline Bompas, Craig Hedge, Petroc Sumner
Action decisions are considered an emergent property of competitive response activations. As such, decision mechanisms are embedded in, and therefore may differ between, different response modalities. Despite this, the saccadic eye movement system is often promoted as a model for all decisions, especially in the fields of electrophysiology and modelling. Other research traditions predominantly use manual button presses, which have different response distribution profiles and are initiated by different brain areas...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235559/task-inhibition-conflict-and-the-n-2-repetition-cost-a-combined-computational-and-empirical-approach
#11
Nicholas J Sexton, Richard P Cooper
Task inhibition (also known as backward inhibition) is an hypothesised form of cognitive inhibition evident in multi-task situations, with the role of facilitating switching between multiple, competing tasks. This article presents a novel cognitive computational model of a backward inhibition mechanism. By combining aspects of previous cognitive models in task switching and conflict monitoring, the model instantiates the theoretical proposal that backward inhibition is the direct result of conflict between multiple task representations...
May 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189037/how-the-twain-can-meet-prospect-theory-and-models-of-heuristics-in-risky-choice
#12
Thorsten Pachur, Renata S Suter, Ralph Hertwig
Two influential approaches to modeling choice between risky options are algebraic models (which focus on predicting the overt decisions) and models of heuristics (which are also concerned with capturing the underlying cognitive process). Because they rest on fundamentally different assumptions and algorithms, the two approaches are usually treated as antithetical, or even incommensurable. Drawing on cumulative prospect theory (CPT; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) as the currently most influential instance of a descriptive algebraic model, we demonstrate how the two modeling traditions can be linked...
February 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160610/learning-in-settings-with-partial-feedback-and-the-wavy-recency-effect-of-rare-events
#13
Ori Plonsky, Ido Erev
Analyses of human learning reveal a discrepancy between the long- and the short-term effects of outcomes on subsequent choice. The long-term effect is simple: favorable outcomes increase the choice rate of an alternative whereas unfavorable outcomes decrease it. The short-term effects are more complex. Favorable outcomes can decrease the choice rate of the best option. This pattern violates the positive recency assumption that underlies the popular models of learning. The current research tries to clarify the implications of these results...
February 1, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951435/habit-outweighs-planning-in-grasp-selection-for-object-manipulation
#14
Oliver Herbort, Hanna Mathew, Wilfried Kunde
Object-directed grasping movements are adapted to intended interactions with an object. We address whether adjusting the grasp for object manipulation is controlled habitually, based on past experiences, or by goal-directed planning, based on an evaluation of the expected action outcomes. Therefore, we asked participants to grasp and rotate a dial. In such tasks, participants typically grasp the dial with an excursed, uncomfortable arm posture, which then allows to complete the dial rotation in a comfortable end-state...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918908/likelihood-ratio-sequential-sampling-models-of-recognition-memory
#15
Adam F Osth, Simon Dennis, Andrew Heathcote
The mirror effect - a phenomenon whereby a manipulation produces opposite effects on hit and false alarm rates - is benchmark regularity of recognition memory. A likelihood ratio decision process, basing recognition on the relative likelihood that a stimulus is a target or a lure, naturally predicts the mirror effect, and so has been widely adopted in quantitative models of recognition memory. Glanzer, Hilford, and Maloney (2009) demonstrated that likelihood ratio models, assuming Gaussian memory strength, are also capable of explaining regularities observed in receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs), such as greater target than lure variance...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914312/today-is-tomorrow-s-yesterday-children-s-acquisition-of-deictic-time-words
#16
Katharine A Tillman, Tyler Marghetis, David Barner, Mahesh Srinivasan
Deictic time words like "yesterday" and "tomorrow" pose a challenge to children not only because they are abstract, and label periods in time, but also because their denotations vary according to the time at which they are uttered: Monday's "tomorrow" is different than Thursday's. Although children produce these words as early as age 2 or 3, they do not use them in adult-like ways for several subsequent years. Here, we explored whether children have partial but systematic meanings for these words during the long delay before adult-like usage...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907808/models-that-allow-us-to-perceive-the-world-more-accurately-also-allow-us-to-remember-past-events-more-accurately-via-differentiation
#17
Aslı Kılıç, Amy H Criss, Kenneth J Malmberg, Richard M Shiffrin
Differentiation is a theory that originally emerged from the perception literature and proposes that with experience, the representation of stimuli becomes more distinct from or less similar to the representation of other stimuli. In recent years, the role of differentiation has played a critical role in models of memory. Differentiation mechanisms have been implemented in episodic memory models by assuming that information about new experiences with a stimulus in a particular context accumulates in a single memory trace and these updated memory traces become more distinct from the representations of other stimuli...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907807/transitional-probabilities-count-more-than-frequency-but-might-not-be-used-for-memorization
#18
Ansgar D Endress, Alan Langus
Learners often need to extract recurring items from continuous sequences, in both vision and audition. The best-known example is probably found in word-learning, where listeners have to determine where words start and end in fluent speech. This could be achieved through universal and experience-independent statistical mechanisms, for example by relying on Transitional Probabilities (TPs). Further, these mechanisms might allow learners to store items in memory. However, previous investigations have yielded conflicting evidence as to whether a sensitivity to TPs is diagnostic of the memorization of recurring items...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889550/to-infinity-and-beyond-children-generalize-the-successor-function-to-all-possible-numbers-years-after-learning-to-count
#19
Pierina Cheung, Miriam Rubenson, David Barner
Recent accounts of number word learning posit that when children learn to accurately count sets (i.e., become "cardinal principle" or "CP" knowers), they have a conceptual insight about how the count list implements the successor function - i.e., that every natural number n has a successor defined as n+1 (Carey, 2004, 2009; Sarnecka & Carey, 2008). However, recent studies suggest that knowledge of the successor function emerges sometime after children learn to accurately count, though it remains unknown when this occurs, and what causes this developmental transition...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865155/intuitive-biological-thought-developmental-changes-and-effects-of-biology-education-in-late-adolescence
#20
John D Coley, Melanie Arenson, Yian Xu, Kimberly D Tanner
A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors)...
February 2017: Cognitive Psychology
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