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Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173728/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173727/application-of-porous-materials-to-carbohydrate-chemistry-and-glycoscience
#2
Keith J Stine
There is a growing interest in using a range of porous materials to meet research needs in carbohydrate chemistry and glycoscience in general. Among the applications of porous materials reviewed in this chapter, enrichment of glycans from biological samples prior to separation and analysis by mass spectrometry is a major emphasis. Porous materials offer high surface area, adjustable pore sizes, and tunable surface chemistry for interacting with glycans, by boronate affinity, hydrophilic interactions, molecular imprinting, and polar interactions...
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173726/the-synthesis-and-biological-characterization-of-acetal-free-mimics-of-the-tumor-associated-carbohydrate-antigens
#3
Seyed I Sadraei, Michael R Reynolds, John F Trant
Carcinomas express unique carbohydrates, known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), on their surface. These are potential targets for anticancer vaccines; however, to date, no such vaccine has reached the clinic. One factor that may complicate the success of this effort is the lability of the glycosidic bond. Acetal-free carbohydrates are analogues that lack the glycosidic linkage by replacing either the endo or exo oxygen with a methylene. This chapter summarizes the seminal syntheses of the mucin TACAs, provides an overview of common techniques for the synthesis of carbasugars and C-glycosides, reviews the syntheses published to date of acetal-free TACA analogues, and provides an overview of their observed biological activity...
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173725/hyaluronan-and-hyaluronan-fragments
#4
Mary K Cowman
The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is a key component of the microenvironment surrounding cells. In healthy tissues, HA molecules have extremely high molecular mass and consequently large hydrodynamic volumes. Tethered to the cell surface by clustered receptor proteins, HA molecules crowd each other, as well as other macromolecular species. This leads to severe nonideality in physical properties of the biomatrix, because steric exclusion leads to an increase in effective concentration of the macromolecules...
2017: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816109/preface
#5
EDITORIAL
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816108/endoglycosidases-for-the-synthesis-of-polysaccharides-and-glycoconjugates
#6
REVIEW
Chao Li, Lai-Xi Wang
Recent advances in glycobiology have implicated essential roles of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in many important biological recognition processes, including intracellular signaling, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cancer progression, host-pathogen interactions, and immune responses. A detailed understanding of the biological functions, as well as the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, often requires structurally well-defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, which are usually difficult to isolate in pure form from natural sources...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816107/carbohydrate-processing-enzymes-of-the-lysosome-diseases-caused-by-misfolded-mutants-and-sugar-mimetics-as-correcting-pharmacological-chaperones
#7
REVIEW
Arnold E Stütz, Tanja M Wrodnigg
Lysosomal storage diseases are hereditary disorders caused by mutations on genes encoding for one of the more than fifty lysosomal enzymes involved in the highly ordered degradation cascades of glycans, glycoconjugates, and other complex biomolecules in the lysosome. Several of these metabolic disorders are associated with the absence or the lack of activity of carbohydrate-processing enzymes in this cell compartment. In a recently introduced therapy concept, for susceptible mutants, small substrate-related molecules (so-called pharmacological chaperones), such as reversible inhibitors of these enzymes, may serve as templates for the correct folding and transport of the respective protein mutant, thus improving its concentration and, consequently, its enzymatic activity in the lysosome...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816106/recent-advances-toward-robust-n-protecting-groups-for-glucosamine-as-required-for-glycosylation-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed Ramadan El Sayed Aly, El Sayed H El Ashry
2-Amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (d-glucosamine) is among the most abundant monosaccharides found in natural products. This constituent, recognized for its ubiquity, is presented in most instances as its N-acetyl derivative 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc, NAG). It occurs as the β-linked pyranosyl group in polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, and sometimes as the monosaccharide itself, either in its native state or as a glycoconjugate. The compound's acylation profile and other aspects of its structure are important elements in determining the variety of reactivities and functions of the molecule as a whole...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816105/stevia-glycosides-chemical-and-enzymatic-modifications-of-their-carbohydrate-moieties-to-improve-the-sweet-tasting-quality
#9
REVIEW
Gerrit J Gerwig, Evelien M Te Poele, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P Kamerling
Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeteners, especially in food, is their slight bitter aftertaste and astringency...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613817/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
David C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613816/human-milk-oligosaccharides-hmos-structure-function-and-enzyme-catalyzed-synthesis
#11
REVIEW
Xi Chen
The important roles played by human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS), the third major component of human milk, in the health of breast-fed infants have been increasingly recognized, as the structures of more than 100 different HMOS have now been elucidated. Despite the recognition of the various functions of HMOS as prebiotics, antiadhesive antimicrobials, and immunomodulators, the roles and the applications of individual HMOS species are less clear. This is mainly due to the limited accessibility to large amounts of individual HMOS in their pure forms...
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613815/glycosylation-of-cellulases-engineering-better-enzymes-for-biofuels
#12
REVIEW
Eric R Greene, Michael E Himmel, Gregg T Beckham, Zhongping Tan
Cellulose in plant cell walls is the largest reservoir of renewable carbon on Earth. The saccharification of cellulose from plant biomass into soluble sugars can be achieved using fungal and bacterial cellulolytic enzymes, cellulases, and further converted into fuels and chemicals. Most fungal cellulases are both N- and O-glycosylated in their native form, yet the consequences of glycosylation on activity and structure are not fully understood. Studying protein glycosylation is challenging as glycans are extremely heterogeneous, stereochemically complex, and glycosylation is not under direct genetic control...
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613814/synthetic-approaches-to-l-iduronic-acid-and-l-idose-key-building-blocks-for-the-preparation-of-glycosaminoglycan-oligosaccharides
#13
REVIEW
Shifaza Mohamed, Vito Ferro
L-Iduronic acid (IdoA) is an important monosaccharide component of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin, heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. GAGs are complex, highly sulfated polysaccharides that mediate a multitude of physiological and pathological processes via their interactions with a range of diverse proteins. The main challenge in the synthesis of GAG oligosaccharides is the efficient gram-scale preparation of IdoA building blocks since neither IdoA nor L-idose is commercially available or readily accessible from natural sources...
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613813/robert-john-robin-ferrier-1932-2013
#14
Richard Furneaux, Ralf Schwörer, Sarah Wilcox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25626187/serge-david-1921-2014
#15
David Bonnaffé, Claudine Augé, Jacques Augé, Claire David-Mabille
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480509/carbohydrate-topics-from-a-critical-and-integrating-view-preface
#16
Derek Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480508/modulating-lps-signal-transduction-at-the-lps-receptor-complex-with-synthetic-lipid-a-analogues
#17
REVIEW
Aileen F B White, Alexei V Demchenko
Sepsis, defined as a clinical syndrome brought about by an amplified and dysregulated inflammatory response to infections, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite persistent attempts to develop treatment strategies to manage sepsis in the clinical setting, the basic elements of treatment have not changed since the 1960s. As such, the development of effective therapies for reducing inflammatory reactions and end-organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with sepsis remains a global priority...
2014: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480507/mechanism-based-inhibitors-of-glycosidases-design-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Wouter W Kallemeijn, Martin D Witte, Tom Wennekes, Johannes M F G Aerts
This article covers recent developments in the design and application of activity-based probes (ABPs) for glycosidases, with emphasis on the different enzymes involved in metabolism of glucosylceramide in humans. Described are the various catalytic reaction mechanisms employed by inverting and retaining glycosidases. An understanding of catalysis at the molecular level has stimulated the design of different types of ABPs for glycosidases. Such compounds range from (1) transition-state mimics tagged with reactive moieties, which associate with the target active site—forming covalent bonds in a relatively nonspecific manner in or near the catalytic pocket—to (2) enzyme substrates that exploit the catalytic mechanism of retaining glycosidase targets to release a highly reactive species within the active site of the enzyme, to (3) probes based on mechanism-based, covalent, and irreversible glycosidase inhibitors...
2014: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480506/nitrogen-containing-macrocycles-having-a-carbohydrate-scaffold
#19
REVIEW
Mykhaylo A Potopnyk, Sławomir Jarosz
Nitrogen-containing macrocyclic compounds (amines, amides, and N-heterocyclic derivatives) are important targets in supramolecular chemistry. This chapter discusses the importance of aza-macrocycles in general and, in particular, those receptors containing sugar unit(s). The combination of a carbohydrate scaffold bearing nitrogen-containing functional groups in macrocyclic molecules opens a convenient route to chiral receptors having potentially useful properties. The carbohydrate-based macrocycles discussed are classified into several general groups: (1) aza-crown ethers containing a carbohydrate subunit, (2) cyclic homooligomers from amino sugars, (3) sugar-based cryptands, (4) cyclic peptides containing amino sugar units (including C2- and C3-symmetrical macrocyclic glycopeptides), (5) nitrogen- containing glycophanes, and (6) 1,2,3-triazoles containing synthetic cyclodextrin analogues...
2014: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25480505/chemical-synthesis-of-saponins
#20
REVIEW
You Yang, Stephane Laval, Biao Yu
Saponins are a large family of amphiphilic glycosides of steroids and triterpenes found in plants and some marine organisms. By expressing a large diversity of structures on both sugar chains and aglycones, saponins exhibit a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties and serve as major active principles in folk medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicines. Isolation of saponins from natural sources is usually a formidable task due to the microheterogeneity of saponins in Nature. Chemical synthesis can provide access to large amounts of natural saponins as well as congeners for understanding their structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action...
2014: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
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