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Schizophrenia Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884931/mild-depressive-symptoms-mediate-the-impact-of-childhood-trauma-on-long-term-functional-outcome-in-early-psychosis-patients
#1
Luis Alameda, Philippe Golay, Philipp S Baumann, Pierre Progin, Nadir Mebdouhi, Julien Elowe, Carina Ferrari, Kim Q Do, Philippe Conus
INTRODUCTION: The mechanism linking childhood trauma (CT) to the functional deficits observed in early psychosis (EP) patients is as yet unknown. We aim to examine the potential mediating effect of depressive symptoms in this well-established association. METHODS: Two hundred nine EP subjects aged 18-35 were assessed for functioning and psychopathology after 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of treatment. Patients were classified into early trauma if they had faced at least one experience of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) or neglect (physical or emotional) before age 12, and late trauma if the exposure had occurred between ages 12 and 16...
November 24, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872269/behavioral-biomarkers-of-schizophrenia-in-high-drinker-rats-a-potential-endophenotype-of-compulsive-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#2
Silvia V Navarro, Roberto Alvarez, M Teresa Colomina, Fernando Sanchez-Santed, Pilar Flores, Margarita Moreno
Psychogenic polydipsia, which is compulsive, non-regulatory fluid consumption, is present in 6%-20% of chronic psychiatric patients and frequently associated with the schizophrenia diagnosis. In the present study, we investigated the relation between schizophrenia-like symptoms and biomarkers with a compulsive drinking behavior phenotype in rats. Rats that were selected for low drinking vs high drinking behavior following schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) were assessed in a latent inhibition (LI) paradigm using tone and electrical foot shock and in a spatial reversal learning task to evaluate behavioral inflexibility...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872268/consistent-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-a-multisite-study
#3
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Erik G Jönsson, Helena Fatouros-Bergman, Lena Flyckt, Ingrid Melle, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Lars T Westlye
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental illness with high heritability and complex etiology. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging has implicated disrupted brain network connectivity in the pathophysiology. However, previous findings are inconsistent, likely due to a combination of methodological and clinical variability and relatively small sample sizes. Few studies have used a data-driven approach for characterizing pathological interactions between regions in the whole brain and evaluated the generalizability across independent samples...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872267/endophenotypes-epigenetics-polygenicity-and-more-irv-gottesman-s-dynamic-legacy
#4
David L Braff, Carol A Tamminga
First, we describe the hallmark contributions of Irv Gottesman's pioneering scholarship for schizophrenia research including concepts of polygenicity, gene × environment interactions, epigenetics and the endophenotype concept. Gottesman and colleagues' twin studies showed that genes, not social factors, mediate schizophrenia risk. He then showed that schizophrenia is highly polygenic. Next, he introduced the concept of epigenetics into schizophrenia research. Gottesman then introduced the quantitative endophenotype concept...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872266/diversity-within-the-psychotic-continuum
#5
T M Luhrmann
There has been great interest in the hallucination-like events experienced by the general nonclinical population. Many psychiatric scientists have come to identify these as part of a "psychotic continuum" and have begun to ask what we might learn from these experiences that will enable us to better understand and treat psychosis. While sympathetic to this goal, this paper argues that many of these events in the nonclinical population may be associated with the attention to inner imagery characteristic of much religious practice like unscripted prayer...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872265/disclosing-my-diagnosis
#6
Steve Colori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872264/current-approaches-to-studying-hallucinations-overcoming-barriers-to-progress
#7
Judith M Ford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872263/isolation-and-intellect-a-letter-and-selected-works-by-walter-k-delbridge
#8
Walter K Delbridge, Kate Tucker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872262/from-perception-to-thought-a-phenomenological-approach-to-hallucinatory-experience
#9
Andrea Raballo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872261/comorbid-diabetes-and-depression-in-a-national-sample-of-adults-with-psychosis
#10
Debra L Foley, Andrew Mackinnon, Vera A Morgan, David J Castle, Anna Waterreus, Cherrie A Galletly
OBJECTIVE: People with psychosis have an elevated risk of depression and diabetes but no large-scale study has characterized their relationship. We aimed to assess this association and to evaluate possible explanatory factors. METHODS: Analysis of cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1155 people with psychosis who gave a fasting blood sample and could be tested for diabetes mellitus. The association between current diabetes mellitus and current depression was estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex and current psychotropic medication...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872260/familial-aggregation-and-heritability-of-schizophrenia-and-co-aggregation-of-psychiatric-illnesses-in-affected-families
#11
I-Jun Chou, Chang-Fu Kuo, Yu-Shu Huang, Matthew J Grainge, Ana M Valdes, Lai-Chu See, Kuang-Hui Yu, Shue-Fen Luo, Lu-Shuang Huang, Wen-Yi Tseng, Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty
Strong familial aggregation of schizophrenia has been reported but there is uncertainty concerning the degree of genetic contribution to the phenotypic variance of the disease. This study aimed to examine the familial aggregation and heritability of schizophrenia, and the relative risks (RRs) of other psychiatric diseases, in relatives of people with schizophrenia using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. The study population included individuals with affected first-degree or second-degree relatives identified from all beneficiaries (n = 23 422 955) registered in 2013...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872259/hallucinations-a-systematic-review-of-points-of-similarity-and-difference-across-diagnostic-classes
#12
Flavie Waters, Charles Fernyhough
Hallucinations constitute one of the 5 symptom domains of psychotic disorders in DSM-5, suggesting diagnostic significance for that group of disorders. Although specific featural properties of hallucinations (negative voices, talking in the third person, and location in external space) are no longer highlighted in DSM, there is likely a residual assumption that hallucinations in schizophrenia can be identified based on these candidate features. We investigated whether certain featural properties of hallucinations are specifically indicative of schizophrenia by conducting a systematic review of studies showing direct comparisons of the featural and clinical characteristics of (auditory and visual) hallucinations among 2 or more population groups (one of which included schizophrenia)...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872258/bipolar-at-risk-criteria-an-examination-of-which-clinical-features-have-optimal-utility-for-identifying-youth-at-risk-of-early-transition-from-depression-to-bipolar-disorders
#13
Jan Scott, Steven Marwaha, Aswin Ratheesh, Iain Macmillan, Alison R Yung, Richard Morriss, Ian B Hickie, Andreas Bechdolf
BACKGROUND: A clinical and research challenge is to identify which depressed youth are at risk of "early transition to bipolar disorders (ET-BD)." This 2-part study (1) examines the clinical utility of previously reported BD at-risk (BAR) criteria in differentiating ET-BD cases from unipolar depression (UP) controls; and (2) estimates the Number Needed to Screen (NNS) for research and general psychiatry settings. METHODS: Fifty cases with reliably ascertained, ET-BD I and II cases were matched for gender and birth year with 50 UP controls who did not develop BD over 2 years...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872257/heritability-of-neuropsychological-measures-in-schizophrenia-and-nonpsychiatric-populations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Gabriëlla A M Blokland, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Timothea Toulopoulou, Elisabetta C Del Re, Max Lam, Lynn E DeLisi, Gary Donohoe, James T R Walters, Larry J Seidman, Tracey L Petryshen
Schizophrenia is characterized by neuropsychological deficits across many cognitive domains. Cognitive phenotypes with high heritability and genetic overlap with schizophrenia liability can help elucidate the mechanisms leading from genes to psychopathology. We performed a meta-analysis of 170 published twin and family heritability studies of >800 000 nonpsychiatric and schizophrenia subjects to accurately estimate heritability across many neuropsychological tests and cognitive domains. The proportion of total variance of each phenotype due to additive genetic effects (A), shared environment (C), and unshared environment and error (E), was calculated by averaging A, C, and E estimates across studies and weighting by sample size...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803356/bullying-mediates-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-childhood-and-psychotic-experiences-in-early-adolescence
#15
Timo Hennig, Edo S Jaya, Tania M Lincoln
Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying...
November 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799359/investigating-trauma-as-a-risk-factor-for-psychosis
#16
EDITORIAL
Robert Freedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798225/the-role-of-cognition-and-social-functioning-as-predictors-in-the-transition-to-psychosis-for-youth-with-attenuated-psychotic-symptoms
#17
Jean Addington, Lu Liu, Diana O Perkins, Ricardo E Carrion, Richard S E Keefe, Scott W Woods
In the literature, there have been several attempts to develop prediction models for youth who are at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis. Although there are no specific clinical or demographic variables that seem to consistently predict the later transition to psychosis in those CHR youth, in addition to attenuated psychotic symptoms, the most commonly occuring predictors tend to be poor social functioning and certain cognitive tasks. Unfortunately, there has been little attempt to replicate alogorithms...
October 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798224/amphetamine-enhances-gains-in-auditory-discrimination-training-in-adult-schizophrenia-patients
#18
Neal R Swerdlow, Melissa Tarasenko, Savita G Bhakta, Jo Talledo, Alexis I Alvarez, Erica L Hughes, Brinda Rana, Sophia Vinogradov, Gregory A Light
Targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing enhances higher-order cognition in schizophrenia patients. TCT performance gains can be detected after 1 training session. As a prelude to a potential clinical trial, we assessed a pharmacological augmentation of cognitive therapy (PACT) strategy by testing if the psychostimulant, amphetamine, augments TCT gains in auditory processing speed (APS) in schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects (HS). HS and schizophrenia patients were tested in a screening session (test 1), followed by a double-blind crossover design (tests 2-3), comparing placebo vs amphetamine (10 mg; 7 d between tests)...
October 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798223/ventral-striatal-dysfunction-and-symptom-expression-in-individuals-with-schizotypal-personality-traits-and-early-psychosis
#19
Matthias Kirschner, Oliver M Hager, Larissa Muff, Martin Bischof, Matthias N Hartmann-Riemer, Agne Kluge, Benedikt Habermeyer, Erich Seifritz, Philippe N Tobler, Stefan Kaiser
Striatal abnormalities play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Growing evidence suggests an association between aberrant striatal activity during reward anticipation and symptom dimensions in schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether this holds across the psychosis continuum. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation and its relationship to symptom expression in persons with schizotypal personality traits (SPT) and first-episode psychosis...
October 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798222/predicting-cognition-and-psychosis-in-young-adults-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#20
Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Seetha Ramanathan, Wendy R Kates
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which the trajectories of intellectual, academic achievement, executive functioning, attention, working memory, and emotion recognition tests will be predictive of psychosis in young adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). METHODS: Eighty-two participants with 22q11DS were assessed for psychiatric disorders and neuropsychological functioning with validated instruments. Siblings and community controls were employed as comparison groups...
October 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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