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Schizophrenia Bulletin

Paul H Lysaker, Emily Gagen, Abigail Wright, Jenifer L Vohs, Marina Kukla, Phillip T Yanos, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon
The integrated model of insight in schizophrenia suggests that poor insight is the result of multiple factors which compromise persons' abilities to integrate streams of information into a personal awareness of psychiatric challenges, and make adaptive responses. This model hypothesizes that metacognitive deficits, or difficulties forming a complex and integrated understanding of the self and others, influence insight, regardless of other proximal causes including clinical profile. To explore this possibility, we performed a latent class analysis on 324 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
October 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Kelly Allott, Stephen J Wood, Hok Pan Yuen, Alison R Yung, Barnaby Nelson, Warrick J Brewer, Daniela Spiliotacopoulos, Annie Bruxner, Magenta Simmons, Christina Broussard, Sumudu Mallawaarachchi, Christos Pantelis, Patrick D McGorry, Ashleigh Lin
It remains unclear whether the onset of psychosis is associated with deterioration in cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to examine the course of cognitive performance in an ultrahigh risk (UHR) cohort, and whether change in cognition is associated with transition to psychosis and change in functioning. Consecutive admissions to Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic between May 1994 and July 2000 who had completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment at baseline and follow-up were eligible (N = 80)...
October 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Lucy Sykes, Josephine Haddon, Thomas M Lancaster, Arabella Sykes, Karima Azzouni, Niklas Ihssen, Anna L Moon, Tzu-Ching E Lin, David E Linden, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, Trevor Humby, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which encodes the alpha-1 subunit of Cav1.2 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), has been strongly linked to risk for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. How genetic variation in CACNA1C contributes to risk for these disorders is however not fully known. Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with impairments in reversal learning (RL), which may contribute to symptoms seen in these conditions. We used a translational RL paradigm to investigate whether genetic variation in CACNA1C affects RL in both humans and transgenic rats...
October 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Rasmus Schülke, Benjamin Straube
Background: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have severe deficits in speech and gesture processing that contribute considerably to the burden of this disorder. Brain imaging shows left inferior frontal gyrus involvement for impaired processing of co-verbal gestures in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left frontal lobe has been shown to modulate processing of co-verbal gestures in healthy subjects. Although tDCS has been used to reduce symptoms of patients with SSD, the effects of tDCS on gesture processing deficits remain hitherto unexplored...
October 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Masashi Ikeda, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yukihide Momozawa, Takeo Saito, Kenji Kondo, Ayu Shimasaki, Kohei Kawase, Takaya Sakusabe, Yoshimi Iwayama, Tomoko Toyota, Tomoyasu Wakuda, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Yuichiro Watanabe, Satoshi Hoya, Branko Aleksic, Itaru Kushima, Heii Arai, Manabu Takaki, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi, Yuko Okahisa, Tohru Ohnuma, Norio Ozaki, Toshiyuki Someya, Ryota Hashimoto, Takeo Yoshikawa, Michiaki Kubo, Nakao Iwata
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified >100 susceptibility loci for schizophrenia (SCZ) and demonstrated that SCZ is a polygenic disorder determined by numerous genetic variants but with small effect size. We conducted a GWAS in the Japanese (JPN) population (a) to detect novel SCZ-susceptibility genes and (b) to examine the shared genetic risk of SCZ across (East Asian [EAS] and European [EUR]) populations and/or that of trans-diseases (SCZ, bipolar disorder [BD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]) within EAS and between EAS and EUR (trans-diseases/populations)...
October 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jianfeng Zhang, Paola Magioncalda, Zirui Huang, Zhonglin Tan, Xiwen Hu, Zhiguo Hu, Benedetta Conio, Mario Amore, Matilde Inglese, Matteo Martino, Georg Northoff
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by dominant symptom swings across different phases (manic, depressive, and euthymic). Different symptoms in BD such as abnormal episodic memory recall and psychomotor activity have been related to alterations in different regions, ie, hippocampus and motor cortex. How the abnormal regional distribution of neuronal activity relates to specific symptoms remains unclear, however. One possible neuronal mechanism of the relationship is the alteration of the global distribution of neuronal activity manifested in specific local regions; this can be measured as the correlation between the global signal (GS) and local regions...
October 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Johannes Lieslehto, Vesa J Kiviniemi, Tanja Nordström, Jennifer H Barnett, Graham K Murray, Peter B Jones, Tomáš Paus, Juha Veijola
Development of schizophrenia relates to both genetic and environmental factors. Functional deficits in many cognitive domains, including the ability to communicate in social interactions and impaired recognition of facial expressions, are common for patients with schizophrenia and might also be present in individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia. Here we explore whether an individual's polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia is associated with the degree of interregional similarities in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal and gray matter volume of the face-processing network and whether the exposure to early adversity moderates this association...
October 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Kelsey A Bonfils, Paul H Lysaker, Kyle S Minor, Michelle P Salyers
Background: People with schizophrenia experience significant deficits in the kinds of empathic skills that are the foundation for interpersonal relationships. Researchers have speculated that deficits in empathic skills in schizophrenia may be related to disturbances in metacognition and heightened levels of personal distress. To explore this issue, this study examined whether better metacognition and reduced personal distress would be associated with improved performance on cognitive and affective empathy tasks...
October 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Colin A Depp, Dimitri Perivoliotis, Jason Holden, Jennifer Dorr, Eric L Granholm
Psychosocial interventions for serious mental illness are resource intensive and poorly accessible. Brief interventions (eg, single session) that are augmented by follow-on automated mobile health intervention may expand treatment access. This was a randomized single-blind controlled trial with 255 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions: CBT2go, which combined one individual session of cognitive behavioral therapy with automated thought challenging/adaptive behavior delivered through mobile devices; Self-Monitoring (SM), which combined single-session illness psychoeducation with self-monitoring of symptoms; and treatment-as-usual (TAU)...
October 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
David T Turner, Angus MacBeth, Amanda Larkin, Steffen Moritz, Karen Livingstone, Alison Campbell, Paul Hutton
Background: Evidence-based psychological interventions to support treatment decision-making capacity (capacity) in psychosis do not currently exist. This study sought to establish whether reducing the extent to which this group form conclusions based on limited evidence, also known as the "jumping-to-conclusions" (JTC) bias, could improve capacity. Methods: In a randomized controlled open trial, 37 patients aged 16-65 years diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single-session intervention designed to reduce the JTC bias (MCT-JTC; adapted from Metacognitive Training [MCT]) or an attention control (AC) condition designed to control for therapist attention, duration, modality, and face validity...
September 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
James M Gold, Deanna M Barch, Leah M Feuerstahler, Cameron S Carter, Angus W MacDonald, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss, Steven J Luck
Background: Working memory (WM) has been a central focus of cognitive neuroscience research because WM is a resource that is involved in many different cognitive operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of WM paradigms developed in the basic cognitive neuroscience literature, including methods designed to estimate storage capacity without contamination by lapses of attention. Methods: A total of 61 people with schizophrenia, 49 with schizoaffective disorder, 47 with bipolar disorder with psychosis, and 59 healthy volunteers were recruited...
September 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Gregory P Strauss, Farnaz Zamani Esfahlani, Silvana Galderisi, Armida Mucci, Alessandro Rossi, Paoloa Bucci, Paola Rocca, Mario Maj, Brian Kirkpatrick, Ivan Ruiz, Hiroki Sayama
Prior studies using exploratory factor analysis provide evidence that negative symptoms are best conceptualized as 2 dimensions reflecting diminished motivation and expression. However, the 2-dimensional model has yet to be evaluated using more complex mathematical techniques capable of testing structure. In the current study, network analysis was applied to evaluate the latent structure of negative symptoms using a community-detection algorithm. Two studies were conducted that included outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ; Study 1: n = 201; Study 2: n = 912) who were rated on the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS)...
September 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Runar Elle Smelror, Kjetil Nordbø Jørgensen, Vera Lonning, Ian Kelleher, Mary Cannon, Pamela DeRosse, Anil K Malhotra, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Ole A Andreassen, Mathias Lundberg, Tobias Edbom, Neil Cleland, Torill Ueland, Anne Margrethe Myhre, Bjørn Rishovd Rund, Ingrid Agartz
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop standardized scores and scoring tables for test performance in healthy adolescents for the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) for each year from 11 to 19 years of age, by sex, with T scores and percentile ranks. Methods: A total of 502 healthy participants (aged 11-19 years) from 7 cohorts from Ireland, Norway, Sweden, and United States, were included in this multisite study...
September 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Florian Bitsch, Philipp Berger, Arne Nagels, Irina Falkenberg, Benjamin Straube
Schizophrenia is associated with impaired and exaggerated Theory of Mind processes, pointing on alterations in generating a representation of another person's mind. Despite recent work on healthy subjects suggesting that a coupling between the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) and the hippocampus is relevant for building representations of others' intentions, the neural basis of related dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. Therefore, we used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging together with a modified prisoner's dilemma game to test the hypotheses, that patients show dysfunctional social updating on behavioral level accompanied by altered rTPJ-hippocampus coupling on a functional and a structural level...
September 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Benjamin A E Hunt, Elizabeth B Liddle, Lauren E Gascoyne, Lorenzo Magazzini, Bethany C Routley, Krish D Singh, Peter G Morris, Matthew J Brookes, Peter F Liddle
Introduction: Schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) lie on a single spectrum of mental illness and converging evidence suggests similarities in the etiology of the 2 conditions. However, schizotypy is a heterogeneous facet of personality in the healthy population and so may be seen as a bridge between health and mental illness. Neural evidence for such a continuity would have implications for the characterization and treatment of schizophrenia. Based on our previous work identifying a relationship between symptomology in schizophrenia and abnormal movement-induced electrophysiological response (the post-movement beta rebound [PMBR]), we predicted that if subclinical schizotypy arises from similar neural mechanisms to schizophrenia, schizotypy in healthy individuals would be associated with reduced PMBR...
September 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Shin-Ichi Kano, Eisuke Dohi, Indigo V L Rose
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained increasing attention as underexplored intercellular communication mechanisms in basic science and as potential diagnostic tools in translational studies, particularly those related to cancers and neurological disorders. This article summarizes accumulated findings in the basic biology of EVs, EV research methodology, and the roles of EVs in brain cell function and dysfunction, as well as emerging EV studies in human brain disorders. Further research on EVs in neurobiology and psychiatry may open the door to a better understanding of intercellular communications in healthy and diseased brains, and the discovery of novel biomarkers and new therapeutic strategies in psychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Maria Angelique Di Biase, Vanessa L Cropley, Luca Cocchi, Alexander Fornito, Fernando Calamante, Eleni P Ganella, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
Schizophrenia is associated with cortical thickness (CT) deficits and breakdown in white matter microstructure. Whether these pathological processes are related remains unclear. We used multimodal neuroimaging to investigate the relationship between regional cortical thinning and breakdown in adjacent infracortical white matter as a function of age and illness duration. Structural magnetic resonance and diffusion images were acquired in 218 schizophrenia patients and 167 age-matched healthy controls to map CT and fractional anisotropy in regionally adjacent infracortical white matter at various cortical depths...
September 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Hengyi Cao, Sarah C McEwen, Yoonho Chung, Oliver Y Chén, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Ricardo E Carrión, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Alan Anticevic, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon
Memory deficits are a hallmark of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, whether the neural dysfunction underlying these deficits is present before the onset of illness and potentially predicts conversion to psychosis is unclear. In this study, we investigated brain functional alterations during memory processing in a sample of 155 individuals at clinical high risk (including 18 subjects who later converted to full psychosis) and 108 healthy controls drawn from the second phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS-2)...
September 11, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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