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Schizophrenia Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672741/multimodal-brain-changes-in-first-episode-mania-a-voxel-based-morphometry-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-connectivity-study
#1
José M Goikolea, Danai Dima, Ramón Landín-Romero, Imma Torres, Giuseppe DelVecchio, Marc Valentí, Benedikt L Amann, Caterina Mar Bonnín, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Sophia Frangou, Eduard Vieta
Background: Brain structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder (BD) are well-established findings, but it is uncertain whether these changes are already present in first episode mania (FEM). Methods: We compared 31 FEM subjects, with 31 healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and premorbid IQ. Whole-brain voxel-wise morphometry, functional magnetic resonance imaging during the n-back task, and a functional connectivity analysis were performed. Results: There were no volumetric differences between the 2 groups...
April 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660097/personal-account-one-out-of-a-hundred
#2
Christina E Newhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648618/inflammation-in-schizophrenia-pathogenetic-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#3
Norbert Müller
This paper discusses the current evidence from animal and human studies for a central role of inflammation in schizophrenia. In animal models, pre- or perinatal elicitation of the immune response may increase immune reactivity throughout life, and similar findings have been described in humans. Levels of pro-inflammatory markers, such as cytokines, have been found to be increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have provided evidence that various infectious agents are risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychoses...
April 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635418/dysglycaemia-inflammation-and-psychosis-findings-from-the-uk-alspac-birth-cohort
#4
Benjamin Ian Perry, Rachel Upthegrove, Andrew Thompson, Steven Marwaha, Stanley Zammit, Swaran Preet Singh, Golam Khandaker
Background: Psychosis is associated with both dysglycaemia and low-grade inflammation, but population-based studies investigating the interplay between these factors are scarce. Aims: (1) To explore the direction of association between markers of dysglycaemia, inflammation and psychotic experiences (PEs); and (2) To explore whether dysglycaemia moderates and/or mediates the association between inflammation and PEs. Method: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort were modeled using logistic and linear regression to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between markers of dysglycaemia (ages 9 and 18), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (age 9), and PEs (ages 12 and 18)...
April 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635341/motivation-for-writing
#5
Jason A Jepson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660081/data-driven-analysis-of-functional-connectivity-reveals-a-potential-auditory-verbal-hallucination-network
#6
Dustin Scheinost, Fuyuze Tokoglu, Michelle Hampson, Ralph Hoffman, R Todd Constable
Schizophrenia is a severe global health problem, with over half of such patients experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). A better understanding of the neural correlates differentiating patients experiencing AVHs from patients not experiencing AVHs and healthy controls may identify targets that lead to better treatment strategies for AVHs. Employing 2 data-driven, voxel-based measure of functional connectivity, we studied 46 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (28 experiencing AVHs and 18 not experiencing AVHs)...
April 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618096/utilizing-mutual-information-analysis-to-explore-the-relationship-between-gray-and-white-matter-structural-pathologies-in-schizophrenia
#7
Amanda E Lyall, Peter Savadjiev, Elisabetta C Del Re, Johanna Seitz, Lauren J O'Donnell, Carl-Fredrik Westin, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Tracey Petryshen, Joanne D Wojcik, Paul Nestor, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Jill Goldstein, Larry J Seidman, Robert W McCarley, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki
Schizophrenia has been characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder, with structural brain abnormalities reported at all stages. However, at present, it remains unclear whether gray and white matter abnormalities represent related or independent pathologies in schizophrenia. In this study, we present findings from an integrative analysis exploring the morphological relationship between gray and white matter in 45 schizophrenia participants and 49 healthy controls. We utilized mutual information (MI), a measure of how much information two variables share, to assess the morphological dependence between gray and white matter in three segments of the corpus callsoum, and the gray matter regions these segments connect: (1) the genu and the left and right rostral middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), (2) the isthmus and the left and right superior temporal gyrus (STG), (3) the splenium and the left and right lateral occipital gyrus (LOG)...
April 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618094/clustering-of-schizotypal-features-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients
#8
Simon S Y Lui, Karen S Y Hung, Yi Wang, Karen K Y Ho, Hera K H Yeung, Ya Wang, Jia Huang, Diane C Gooding, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Meehl conceptualized schizotypy as the phenotypic manifestations of a neural integrative defect resulting from a schizophrenia diathesis. The majority of schizotypy studies recruited subjects from the general population and revealed a multidimensional construct. This 2-phase investigation first examined the clustering of schizotypy in 194 unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients using the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scales and then directly compared the cognitive profiles of negative schizotypal individuals and positive schizotypal individuals with schizophrenia patients and controls...
March 31, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608775/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-a-recall-by-genotype-based-approach
#9
Thomas M Lancaster, Stavros L Dimitriadis, Katherine E Tansey, Gavin Perry, Niklas Ihssen, Derek K Jones, Krish D Singh, Peter Holmans, Andrew Pocklington, George Davey Smith, Stan Zammit, Jeremy Hall, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, David E Linden
Risk profile scores (RPS) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain a considerable amount of susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ). However, little is known about how common genetic risk factors for SCZ influence the structure and function of the human brain, largely due to the constraints of imaging sample sizes. In the current study, we use a novel recall-by-genotype (RbG) methodological approach, where we sample young adults from a population cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: N genotyped = 8365) based on their SCZ-RPS...
March 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608759/negative-schizotypy-and-altered-functional-connectivity-during-facial-emotion-processing
#10
Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Wen-Hua Liu, Xin-Hua Wei, Xin-Qing Jiang, Simon S Y Lui, Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Eric F C Cheung, Martin Debbane, Raymond C K Chan
Background: Impairment in facial emotion perception is an important domain of social cognition deficits in schizophrenia. Although impaired facial emotion perception has been found in individuals with negative schizotypy (NS), little is known about the corresponding change in brain functional connectivity. Methods: Sixty-four participants were classified into a high NS group (n = 34) and a low NS group (n = 30) based on their total scores on the Chapman scales for physical and social anhedonia...
March 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590478/probabilistic-category-learning-and-striatal-functional-activation-in-psychosis-risk
#11
Nicole R Karcher, Jessica P Y Hua, John G Kerns
Background: Psychosis risk is associated with striatal dysfunction, including a previous behavioral study that found that psychosis risk is associated with impaired performance on a probabilistic category learning task (PCLT; ie, the Weather Prediction Task), a task strongly associated with striatal activation. The current study examined whether psychosis risk based on symptom levels was associated with both poor behavioral performance and task-related physiological dysfunction in specific regions of the striatum while performing the PCLT...
March 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566220/neuregulin-1-deficiency-modulates-adolescent-stress-induced-dendritic-spine-loss-in-a-brain-region-specific-manner-and-increases-complement-4-expression-in-the-hippocampus
#12
David J Clarke, Tariq W Chohan, Mustafa S Kassem, Kristie L Smith, Rose Chesworth, Tim Karl, Michael P Kuligowski, Sandra Y Fok, Maxwell R Bennett, Jonathon C Arnold
One neuropathological feature of schizophrenia is a diminished number of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) system is involved in the plasticity of dendritic spines, and chronic stress decreases dendritic spine densities in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Here, we aimed to assess whether Nrg1 deficiency confers vulnerability to the effects of adolescent stress on dendritic spine plasticity. We also assessed other schizophrenia-relevant neurobiological changes such as microglial cell activation, loss of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, and induction of complement factor 4 (C4)...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566206/actissist-proof-of-concept-trial-of-a-theory-driven-digital-intervention-for-psychosis
#13
Sandra Bucci, Christine Barrowclough, John Ainsworth, Matthew Machin, Rohan Morris, Katherine Berry, Richard Emsley, Shon Lewis, Dawn Edge, Iain Buchan, Gillian Haddock
Background: Timely access to intervention for psychosis is crucial yet problematic. As such, health care providers are forming digital strategies for addressing mental health challenges. A theory-driven digital intervention that monitors distressing experiences and provides real-time active management strategies could improve the speed and quality of recovery in psychosis, over and above conventional treatments. This study assesses the feasibility and acceptability of Actissist, a digital health intervention grounded in the cognitive model of psychosis that targets key early psychosis domains...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566227/resting-state-networks-of-adolescents-experiencing-depersonalization-like-illusions-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-findings
#14
Mélodie Derome, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Deborah Badoud, Larisa Morosan, Dimitri Van De Ville, François Lazeyras, Stephan Eliez, Raymond Chan, David Rudrauf, Sophie Schwartz, Martin Debbane
The mirror-gazing task (MGT) experimentally induces illusions, ranging from simple color changes in the specular image of oneself, to depersonalization-like anomalous self-experiences (ASE) as in experiencing one's specular image as someone else. The objective was to characterize how connectivity in resting-state networks (RSNs) differed in adolescents reporting such depersonalization-like ASEs during the MGT, in a cross-sectional (Y1) and in a longitudinal manner (a year after). 75 adolescents were recruited; for the cross-sectional analysis, participants were split into 2 groups: those who reported depersonalization-like ASEs on the MGT (ASE), and those who did not (NoASE)...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554369/association-of-schizotypy-with-dimensions-of-cognitive-control-a-meta-analysis
#15
Maria Steffens, Inga Meyhöfer, Kaja Fassbender, Ulrich Ettinger, Joseph Kambeitz
Schizotypy is defined as a time-stable multidimensional personality trait consisting of positive, negative, and disorganized facets. Schizotypy is considered as a model system of psychosis, as there is considerable overlap between the 2 constructs. High schizotypy is associated with subtle but fairly widespread cognitive alterations, which include poorer performance in tasks measuring cognitive control. Similar but more pronounced impairments in cognitive control have been described extensively in psychosis...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554367/perspectives-on-machine-learning-for-classification-of-schizotypy-using-fmri-data
#16
Kristoffer H Madsen, Laerke G Krohne, Xin-Lu Cai, Yi Wang, Raymond C K Chan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is capable of estimating functional activation and connectivity in the human brain, and lately there has been increased interest in the use of these functional modalities combined with machine learning for identification of psychiatric traits. While these methods bear great potential for early diagnosis and better understanding of disease processes, there are wide ranges of processing choices and pitfalls that may severely hamper interpretation and generalization performance unless carefully considered...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548017/coping-strategies-mediate-the-effect-of-stressful-life-events-on-schizotypal-traits-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#17
Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547958/prevalence-rate-and-risk-factors-of-victimization-in-adult-patients-with-a-psychotic-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546321/-i-do-not-know-anything-about-your-hospitalization-the-need-for-triage-at-psychiatric-hospitals
#19
May-May Meijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534245/hyper-and-hypomentalizing-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-fmri-and-behavioral-studies
#20
Vibeke Bliksted, Chris Frith, Poul Videbech, Birgitte Fagerlund, Charlotte Emborg, Arndis Simonsen, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn
Background: Historically, research investigating neural correlates of mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia has focused on patients who have been ill for several years with lengthy exposure to medication. Little is known about the neural and behavioral presentations of theory-of-mind deficits in schizophrenia, shortly after the first episode of psychosis. Methods: We investigated social cognition in 17 recently diagnosed first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients with little or no exposure to antipsychotic medication and 1:1 matched healthy controls...
March 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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