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Schizophrenia Bulletin

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June 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Dinesh K Shukla, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Hongji Chen, Joshua J Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Background: The underlying neurobiological mechanism for abnormal functional connectivity in schizophrenia (SCZ) remains unknown. This project investigated whether glutamate and GABA, 2 metabolites that contribute to excitatory and inhibitory functions, may influence functional connectivity in SCZ. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were acquired from 58 SCZ patients and 61 healthy controls (HC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Yan Wen, Feng Zhang, Xiancang Ma, Qianrui Fan, Wenyu Wang, Jiawen Xu, Feng Zhu, Jingcan Hao, Awen He, Li Liu, Xiao Liang, Yanan Du, Ping Li, Cuiyan Wu, Sen Wang, Xi Wang, Yujie Ning, Xiong Guo
Background: Psychiatric disorders are usually caused by the dysfunction of various brain regions. Incorporating the genetic information of brain regions into correlation analysis can provide novel clues for pathogenetic and therapeutic studies of psychiatric disorders. Methods: The latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), major depression disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were obtained from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC)...
June 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Joseph F Hayes, Suzanne Picot, David P J Osborn, Glyn Lewis, Christina Dalman, Andreas Lundin
Background: We aimed to determine whether late adolescent visual impairment is associated with later psychosis. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of Swedish male military conscripts aged 18 or 19 years from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 1997 (N = 1140710). At conscription, uncorrected and optometry-lens-corrected distance visual acuity was measured. Participants were then followed up to see if they received an inpatient diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder, including schizophrenia (N = 10769)...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Mark F Lenzenweger
The nature and definition of schizotypy, as the latent liability for schizophrenia capable of generating various phenotypic and endophenotypic outcomes, is reviewed. The proceedings of the 2017 meeting of the International Consortium on Schizotypy Research are included in this Special Section and they are presented as illustrations of current research work on schizotypy. The potential leverage of the schizotypy framework for schizophrenia research continues to be realized and these articles present current research efforts that explore new angles of inquiry while building upon past advances...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Nomi Werbeloff, Grazia Rutigliano, Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Daniel Stahl, Philip McGuire, David Osborn
Background: The benefits of indicated primary prevention among individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) are limited by the difficulty in detecting these individuals. To overcome this problem, a transdiagnostic, clinically based, individualized risk calculator has recently been developed and subjected to a first external validation in 2 different catchment areas of the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) NHS Trust. Methods: Second external validation of real world, real-time electronic clinical register-based cohort study...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jianchun Xiao, Emese Prandovszky, Geetha Kannan, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Faith Dickerson, Emily G Severance, Robert H Yolken
It is increasingly evident that the brain is not truly an immune privileged site and that cells of the central nervous system are sensitive to the inflammation generated when the brain is fighting off infection. Among the many microorganisms that have access to the brain, the apicomplexan protozoan Toxoplasma gondii has been one of the most studied. This parasite has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. This article provides a comprehensive review of the status of Toxoplasma research in schizophrenia...
June 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Mhairi McDonald, Eleni Christoforidou, Nicola Van Rijsbergen, Ruchika Gajwani, Joachim Gross, Andrew I Gumley, Stephen M Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Peter J Uhlhaas
Introduction: Identification of participants at clinical high-risk (CHR) for the development of psychosis is an important objective of current preventive efforts in mental health research. However, the utility of using web-based screening approaches to detect CHR participants at the population level has not been investigated. Methods: We tested a web-based screening approach to identify CHR individuals. Potential participants were invited to a website via e-mail invitations, flyers, and invitation letters involving both the general population and mental health services...
June 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Julian Rössler, Lui Unterassner, Thomas Wyss, Helene Haker, Peter Brugger, Wulf Rössler, Diana Wotruba
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia implies that alterations in the dopamine system cause functional abnormalities in the brain that may converge to aberrant salience attribution and eventually lead to psychosis. Indeed, widespread brain disconnectivity across the psychotic spectrum has been revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, the dopaminergic involvement in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) and its putative relationship to the development of psychotic spectrum disorders remains partly unclear-in particular at the low-end of the psychosis continuum...
June 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Yu Sun, Simon L Collinson, John Suckling, Kang Sim
Emerging evidence suggests that schizophrenia is associated with brain dysconnectivity. Nonetheless, the implicit assumption of stationary functional connectivity (FC) adopted in most previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies raises an open question of schizophrenia-related aberrations in dynamic properties of resting-state FC. This study introduces an empirical method to examine the dynamic functional dysconnectivity in patients with schizophrenia. Temporal brain networks were estimated from resting-state fMRI of 2 independent datasets (patients/controls = 18/19 and 53/57 for self-recorded dataset and a publicly available replication dataset, respectively) by the correlation of sliding time-windowed time courses among regions of a predefined atlas...
June 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Michelle H Lim, David L Penn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Naren Rao, Georg Northoff, Abanti Tagore, Pablo Rusjan, Miran Kenk, Alan Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Antonio Strafella, Gary Remington, Romina Mizrahi
Evidence from several lines of research suggests decreased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex as the neurochemical correlates of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ). However, in vivo examination of cortical hypodopaminergia using positron emission tomography (PET) during cognitive task performance in SCZ remains to be investigated. We examined dopamine release in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), using PET while participants were performing a cognitive task...
June 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Laila Asmal, Sanja Kilian, Stefan du Plessis, Frederika Scheffler, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Jean-Paul Fouche, Soraya Seedat, Paola Dazzan, Robin Emsley
Schizophrenia is associated with brain connection irregularities within and between brain regions. Childhood trauma increases the risk of schizophrenia suggesting that the relationships between childhood trauma and brain connectivity requires further investigation. Here, we examine the relationship between childhood trauma (as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 54 minimally treated first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and 51 community matched controls. Patients who experienced high levels of trauma had significantly lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) compared with controls who experienced high levels of childhood trauma...
June 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Meiling Li, Benjamin Becker, Junjie Zheng, Yan Zhang, Heng Chen, Wei Liao, Xujun Duan, Hesheng Liu, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Background: Schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a brain network disorder rooted in dysregulated neurodevelopmental processes. Recent neuroimaging studies revealed disrupted brain connectomic organization in adult schizophrenia patients. However, altered developmental trajectories of the functional connectome during the adolescent maturational stage have not been examined. Methods: The present study combined functional MRI with a graph theoretical approach to examine functional network topology and its age-related development in 39 medication naïve, first-episode patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia and 31 matched controls (age range: 12-18 years)...
May 30, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Rob Sips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Alexandra B Moussa-Tooks, Dae-Jin Kim, Lisa A Bartolomeo, John R Purcell, Amanda R Bolbecker, Sharlene D Newman, Brian F O'Donnell, William P Hetrick
Prominent conceptual models characterize schizophrenia as a dysconnectivity syndrome, with recent research focusing on the contributions of the cerebellum in this framework. The present study examined the role of the cerebellum and its effective connectivity to the cerebrum during sensorimotor synchronization in schizophrenia. Specifically, the role of the cerebellum in temporally coordinating cerebral motor activity was examined through path analysis. Thirty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls completed a finger-tapping fMRI task including tone-paced synchronization and self-paced continuation tapping at a 500 ms intertap interval (ITI)...
May 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Anna R Docherty, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, Richard J Linscott, Katherine G Jonas, David C Cicero, Melissa J Green, Leonard J Simms, Oliver Mason, David Watson, Ulrich Ettinger, Monika Waszczuk, Alexander Rapp, Phillip Grant, Roman Kotov, Colin G DeYoung, Camilo J Ruggero, Nicolas R Eaton, Robert F Krueger, Christopher Patrick, Christopher Hopwood, F Anthony O'Neill, David H Zald, Christopher C Conway, Daniel E Adkins, Irwin D Waldman, Jim van Os, Patrick F Sullivan, John S Anderson, Andrey A Shabalin, Scott R Sponheim, Stephan F Taylor, Rachel G Grazioplene, Silviu A Bacanu, Tim B Bigdeli, Corinna Haenschel, Dolores Malaspina, Diane C Gooding, Kristin Nicodemus, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Christine Mohr, William T Carpenter, Alex S Cohen
The latent structure of schizotypy and psychosis-spectrum symptoms remains poorly understood. Furthermore, molecular genetic substrates are poorly defined, largely due to the substantial resources required to collect rich phenotypic data across diverse populations. Sample sizes of phenotypic studies are often insufficient for advanced structural equation modeling approaches. In the last 50 years, efforts in both psychiatry and psychological science have moved toward (1) a dimensional model of psychopathology (eg, the current Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology [HiTOP] initiative), (2) an integration of methods and measures across traits and units of analysis (eg, the RDoC initiative), and (3) powerful, impactful study designs maximizing sample size to detect subtle genomic variation relating to complex traits (the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium [PGC])...
May 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Hadar Zaman, Stephanie Sampson, Alison Beck, Tarnag Sharma, Fiona Clay, Styliani Spyridi, Sai Zhao, Donna Gillies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Fiona J Charlson, Alize J Ferrari, Damian F Santomauro, Sandra Diminic, Emily Stockings, James G Scott, John J McGrath, Harvey A Whiteford
Introduction: The global burden of disease (GBD) studies have derived detailed and comparable epidemiological and burden of disease estimates for schizophrenia. We report GBD 2016 estimates of schizophrenia prevalence and burden of disease with disaggregation by age, sex, year, and for all countries. Method: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies reporting the prevalence, incidence, remission, and/or excess mortality associated with schizophrenia. Reported estimates which met our inclusion criteria were entered into a Bayesian meta-regression tool used in GBD 2016 to derive prevalence for 20 age groups, 7 super-regions, 21 regions, and 195 countries and territories...
May 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Robert W Buchanan, William T Carpenter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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