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Schizophrenia Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474698/antibodies-in-the-diagnosis-prognosis-and-prediction-of-psychotic-disorders
#1
Thomas A Pollak, Jonathan P Rogers, Robert G Nagele, Mark Peakman, James M Stone, Anthony S David, Philip McGuire
Blood-based biomarker discovery for psychotic disorders has yet to impact upon routine clinical practice. In physical disorders antibodies have established roles as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive (theranostic) biomarkers, particularly in disorders thought to have a substantial autoimmune or infective aetiology. Two approaches to antibody biomarker identification are distinguished: a "top-down" approach, in which antibodies to specific antigens are sought based on the known function of the antigen and its putative role in the disorder, and emerging "bottom-up" or "omics" approaches that are agnostic as to the significance of any one antigen, using high-throughput arrays to identify distinctive components of the antibody repertoire...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474687/enhanced-automatic-action-imitation-and-intact-imitation-inhibition-in-schizophrenia
#2
Arndis Simonsen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Joshua Charles Skewes, Andreas Roepstorff, Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn, Ole Mors, Vibeke Bliksted
Imitation plays a key role in social learning and in facilitating social interactions and likely constitutes a basic building block of social cognition that supports higher-level social abilities. Recent findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have imitation impairments that could contribute to the social impairments associated with the disorder. However, extant studies have specifically assessed voluntary imitation or automatic imitation of emotional stimuli without controlling for potential confounders...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474680/shared-genetic-risk-of-schizophrenia-and-gray-matter-reduction-in-6p22-1
#3
Jiayu Chen, Vince D Calhoun, Dongdong Lin, Nora I Perrone-Bizzozero, Juan R Bustillo, Godfrey D Pearlson, Steven G Potkin, Theo G M van Erp, Fabio Macciardi, Stefan Ehrlich, Beng-Choon Ho, Scott R Sponheim, Lei Wang, Julia M Stephen, Andrew R Mayer, Faith M Hanlon, Rex E Jung, Brett A Clementz, Matcheri S Keshavan, Elliot S Gershon, John A Sweeney, Carol A Tamminga, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Lars T Westlye, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu
Genetic factors are known to influence both risk for schizophrenia (SZ) and variation in brain structure. A pressing question is whether the genetic underpinnings of brain phenotype and the disorder overlap. Using multivariate analytic methods and focusing on 1,402 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) 108 regions, in 777 discovery samples, we identified 39 SNPs to be significantly associated with SZ-discriminating gray matter volume (GMV) reduction in inferior parietal and superior temporal regions...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474661/models-of-schizotypy-the-importance-of-conceptual-clarity
#4
Phillip Grant, Melissa J Green, Oliver J Mason
The observation of psychosis-like traits that resemble symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, both among healthy relatives of psychotic patients and among the general population, can be traced to the early 20th century.1,2 These traits have since been described within various models of illness and health (ie, normal/abnormal personality, abnormal psychotic continua), each giving rise to concepts such as "schizotypy," "psychoticism," and "psychosis-proneness" that are not necessarily interchangeable, although their subtle distinctions are often overlooked...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471549/glutamate-dehydrogenase-deficient-mice-display-schizophrenia-like-behavioral-abnormalities-and-ca1-specific-hippocampal-dysfunction
#5
Sharon S Lander, Usman Khan, Nicole Lewandowski, Darpan Chakraborty, Frank A Provenzano, Susana Mingote, Sergiy Chornyy, Francesca Frigerio, Pierre Maechler, Hanoch Kaphzan, Scott A Small, Stephen Rayport, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Brain imaging has revealed that the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is hyperactive in prodromal and diagnosed patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), and that glutamate is a driver of this hyperactivity. Strikingly, mice deficient in the glutamate synthetic enzyme glutaminase have CA1 hypoactivity and a SCZ-resilience profile, implicating glutamate-metabolizing enzymes. To address this further, we examined mice with a brain-wide deficit in the glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), encoded by Glud1, which should lead to glutamate excess due to reduced glutamate metabolism in astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471331/cross-cultural-validation-and-extension-of-the-clinical-assessment-interview-for-negative-symptoms-cains-in-the-chinese-context-evidence-from-a-spectrum-perspective
#6
Dong-Jie Xie, Hai-Song Shi, Simon S Y Lui, Chuan Shi, Ying Li, Karen K Y Ho, Karen S Y Hung, Wen-Xiu Li, Zheng-Hui Yi, Eric F C Cheung, Ann M Kring, Raymond C K Chan
The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was designed in accordance with the recent theory and research in social affective neuroscience and to address the psychometric and conceptual limitations of other instruments assessing negative symptoms. The present study aimed to provide a large-scale validation of the CAINS in China and examine its applicability and validity evidence across the schizophrenia spectrum. Using confirmatory factor analysis, our results replicated the original findings in the US development samples that the CAINS possesses a stable 2-factor structure, namely "motivation/pleasure" and "expression"...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471546/longitudinal-analyses-of-blood-transcriptome-during-conversion-to-psychosis
#7
Boris Chaumette, Oussama Kebir, Juliette Pouch, Bertrand Ducos, Fekrije Selimi, Raphael Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs
The biological processes associated with the onset of schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Current hypotheses favor gene × environment interactions as supported by our recent report about DNA methylation changes during the onset of psychosis. Here, we conducted the first longitudinal transcriptomic analysis of blood samples from 31 at-risk individuals who later converted to psychosis and 63 at-risk individuals who did not. Individuals were followed for a maximum of 1 year. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of follow-up and individuals served as their own controls...
February 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471434/disease-definition-for-schizophrenia-by-functional-connectivity-using-radiomics-strategy
#8
Long-Biao Cui, Lin Liu, Hua-Ning Wang, Liu-Xian Wang, Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ting-Ting Liu, Chen Li, Ping Tian, Kang Liu, Wen-Jun Wu, Yi-Huan Chen, Wei Qin, Hong Yin
Specific biomarker reflecting neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia (SZ) is required for its diagnosis and treatment selection of SZ. Evidence from neuroimaging has implicated disrupted functional connectivity in the pathophysiology. We aimed to develop and validate a method of disease definition for SZ by resting-state functional connectivity using radiomics strategy. This study included 2 data sets collected with different scanners. A total of 108 first-episode SZ patients and 121 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the current study, among which 80% patients and HCs (n = 183) and 20% (n = 46) were selected for training and testing in intra-data set validation and 1 of the 2 data sets was selected for training and the other for testing in inter-data set validation, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438561/can-we-predict-psychosis-outside-the-clinical-high-risk-state-a-systematic-review-of-non-psychotic-risk-syndromes-for-mental-disorders
#9
Tae Young Lee, Junhee Lee, Minah Kim, Eugenie Choe, Jun Soo Kwon
Recent evidence has suggested that psychosis could develop not only in people at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) but also in those with clinical risk syndromes for emergent nonpsychotic mental disorders. The proportion of people with these clinical risk syndromes who will develop psychosis rather than to other nonpsychotic mental disorders is undetermined. Electronic databases were searched for studies reporting on clinical risk syndromes for the development of emergent nonpsychotic mental disorders...
February 9, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420822/bifactor-modeling-of-the-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-generalized-psychosis-spans-schizoaffective-bipolar-and-schizophrenia-diagnoses
#10
Ariana E Anderson, Stephen Marder, Steven P Reise, Adam Savitz, Giacomo Salvadore, Dong Jing Fu, Qingqin Li, Ibrahim Turkoz, Carol Han, Robert M Bilder
Objective: Common genetic variation spans schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders, but historically, these syndromes have been distinguished categorically. A symptom dimension shared across these syndromes, if such a general factor exists, might provide a clearer target for understanding and treating mental illnesses that share core biological bases. Method: We tested the hypothesis that a bifactor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), containing 1 general factor and 5 specific factors (positive, negative, disorganized, excited, anxiety), explains the cross-diagnostic structure of symptoms better than the traditional 5-factor model, and examined the extent to which a general factor reflects the overall severity of symptoms spanning diagnoses in 5094 total patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorder...
February 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420805/localization-and-elimination-of-attentional-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-during-visual-search
#11
Robert M G Reinhart, Sohee Park, Geoffrey F Woodman
Theories of the locus of visual selective attention dysfunction in schizophrenia propose that the deficits arise from either an inability to maintain working memory representations that guide attention, or difficulty focusing lower-level visual attention mechanisms. However, these theoretical accounts neglect the role of long-term memory representations in controlling attention. Here, we show that the control of visual attention is impaired in people with schizophrenia, and that this impairment is driven by an inability to shift top-down attentional control from working memory to long-term memory across practice...
February 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394409/schizophrenia-like-dopamine-release-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-nmda-receptor-hypofunction
#12
Kazuhito Nakao, Vivek Jeevakumar, Sunny Zhihong Jiang, Yuko Fujita, Noelia B Diaz, Carlos A Pretell Annan, Karen L Eskow Jaunarajs, Kenji Hashimoto, Juan E Belforte, Kazu Nakazawa
Amphetamine-induced augmentation of striatal dopamine and its blunted release in prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a hallmark of schizophrenia pathophysiology. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction is also implicated in schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether NMDAR hypofunction leads to dopamine release abnormalities. We previously demonstrated schizophrenia-like phenotypes in GABAergic neuron-specific NMDAR hypofunctional mutant mice, in which Ppp1r2-Cre dependent deletion of indispensable NMDAR channel subunit Grin1 is induced in corticolimbic GABAergic neurons including parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons, in postnatal development, but not in adulthood...
January 31, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385619/the-healing-healer-a-psychologist-s-personal-narrative-of-psychosis-and-early-intervention
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385606/rare-variants-in-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-2-as-a-risk-factor-for-schizophrenia-evidence-from-familial-and-cohort-analysis
#14
Jibin John, Aditya Sharma, Prachi Kukshal, Triptish Bhatia, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Smita N Deshpande, B K Thelma
Candidate gene and genome-wide association study based common risk variant identification is being complemented by whole exome sequencing (WES)/whole genome sequencing based rare variant discovery in elucidation of genetic landscape of schizophrenia (SZ), a common neuropsychiatric disorder. WES findings of de novo mutations in case-parent trios have further implied genetic etiology, but do not explain the high genetic risk in general populations. Conversely, WES in multiplex families may be an insightful strategy for the identification of highly penetrant rare variants in SZ and possibly enhance our understanding of disease biology...
January 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385604/mri-indices-of-cortical-development-in-young-people-with-psychotic-experiences-influence-of-genetic-risk-and-persistence-of-symptoms
#15
Leon Fonville, Mark Drakesmith, Stanley Zammit, Glyn Lewis, Derek K Jones, Anthony S David
Background: Psychotic experiences (PEs) are considered part of an extended psychosis phenotype and are associated with an elevated risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Risk of transition increases with persistence of PEs, and this is thought to be modulated by genetic and environmental factors. However, it is unclear if persistence is associated with progressive schizophrenia-like changes in neuroanatomy. Methods: We examined cortical morphometry using MRI in 247 young adults, from a population-based cohort, assessed for the presence of PEs at ages 18 and 20...
January 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385594/7t-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#16
Meredith A Reid, Nouha Salibi, David M White, Timothy J Gawne, Thomas S Denney, Adrienne C Lahti
Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies suggest that abnormalities of the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia may be dependent on illness stage, medication status, and symptomatology. Glutamatergic metabolites appear to be elevated in the prodromal and early stages of schizophrenia but unchanged or reduced below normal in chronic, medicated patients. However, few of these studies have measured metabolites with high-field 7T MR scanners, which offer higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spectral resolution than 3T scanners and facilitate separation of glutamate and glutamine into distinct signals...
January 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385549/the-circuitry-of-dopamine-system-regulation-and-its-disruption-in-schizophrenia-insights-into-treatment-and-prevention
#17
Anthony A Grace, Felipe V Gomes
Despite evidence for a role of the dopamine system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, there has not been substantial evidence that this disorder originates from a pathological change within the dopamine system itself. Current data from human imaging studies and preclinical investigations instead point to a disruption in afferent regulation of the dopamine system, with a focus on the hippocampus. We found that the hippocampus in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia is hyperactive and dysrhythmic, possibly due to loss of parvalbumin interneurons, leading to a hyperresponsive dopamine system...
January 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385625/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-fmri-study-of-response-inhibition-in-early-illness-schizophrenia-and-risk-for-psychosis
#18
Susanna L Fryer, Brian J Roach, Judith M Ford, Kayla R Donaldson, Vince D Calhoun, Godfrey D Pearlson, Kent A Kiehl, Vinod H Srihari, Thomas H McGlashan, Scott W Woods, Daniel H Mathalon
Response inhibition (RI) is a component of the cognitive control systems that support optimal cognition. Cognitive control deficits are well-described in schizophrenia, but are not well characterized in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during Go/NoGo task performance was collected from 30 CHR youth, 23 early illness schizophrenia patients (ESZ), and 72 healthy adolescents and young adults (HC). Voxelwise main effects of group were examined (P < ...
January 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373755/can-we-reduce-the-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-interventional-studies
#19
Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Georgia Crossland, Steffiany Lim, George Gifford, Philip McGuire, Paolo Fusar-Poli
Reduction of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is the key strategy of early interventions for improving the outcomes of first-episode psychosis. Although several controlled interventional studies have been conducted with the aim of reducing DUP, the results are highly inconsistent and conflicting. The current study systematically searches Web of Science and Ovid for English original articles investigating interventions adopted to reduce DUP, compared to a control intervention, up to April 6, 2017. Sixteen controlled interventional studies were retrieved, including 1964 patients in the intervention arm and 1358 in the control arm...
January 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373752/identity-disturbance-feelings-of-emptiness-and-the-boundaries-of-the-schizophrenia-spectrum
#20
Maja Zandersen, Josef Parnas
Historical and current research on borderline personality disorder reveal certain affinities with schizophrenia spectrum psychopathology. This is also the case for the borderline criteria of "identity disturbance" and "feelings of emptiness," which reflect symptomatology frequently found in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Unfortunately, the diagnostic manuals offer limited insight into the nature of these criteria, including possible deviations and similarities with schizophrenia spectrum symptomatology...
January 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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