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Schizophrenia Bulletin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666366/child-maltreatment-and-clinical-outcome-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-in-the-eu-gei-high-risk-study
#1
Tamar C Kraan, Eva Velthorst, Manouk Themmen, Lucia Valmaggia, Matthew J Kempton, Phillip McGuire, Jim van Os, Bart P F Rutten, Filip Smit, Lieuwe de Haan, Mark van der Gaag
Background: Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of mental disorders in adulthood. Whether child maltreatment is specifically associated with psychosis risk in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, or leads to a general vulnerability for overall psychopathology in the UHR stage remains unclear. The present study examines the association between child maltreatment and transition to psychosis and other mental disorders. Methods: The sample consisted of 259 UHR individuals from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study...
June 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655205/motor-issues-in-the-clinical-high-risk-phase-of-psychosis
#2
Jason Schiffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637202/adherence-to-antipsychotic-medication-and-criminal-recidivism-in-a-canadian-provincial-offender-population
#3
Stefanie N Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman, Seena Fazel, Lawrence McCandless, Julian M Somers
Preliminary evidence suggests that adherence to antipsychotic medication reduces criminal recidivism among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, existing studies operationalize antipsychotic adherence as a binary variable (usually using a threshold of ≥80%), which does not reflect the prevalence of suboptimal adherence in real-world settings. The purpose of the current analysis was to investigate the association between successive ordinal levels of antipsychotic adherence and criminal recidivism in a well-defined sample of offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 11462)...
June 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637195/at-issue-social-disconnection-in-schizophrenia-and-the-general-community
#4
Michael F Green, William P Horan, Junghee Lee, Amanda McCleery, L Felice Reddy, Jonathan K Wynn
Social disability is a defining characteristic of schizophrenia and a substantial public health problem. It has several components that are difficult to disentangle. One component, social disconnection, occurs extensively in the general community among nonhelp-seeking individuals. Social disconnection is an objective, long-standing lack of social/family relationships and minimal participation in social activities. It is associated with negative health effects, including early mortality, and is distinct from subjective loneliness...
June 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605537/aggressive-behavior-among-persons-with-schizophrenia-and-those-who-are-developing-schizophrenia-attempting-to-understand-the-limited-evidence-on-causality
#5
Sheilagh Hodgins
People with, and those who are developing, schizophrenia are at increased risk to engage in aggressive behavior (AGB). Some incidents lead to criminal prosecution. Most people with schizophrenia who commit crimes engage in delinquency and/or AGB prior to first episode. A large proportion of these individuals have a history of childhood conduct disorder (CD) and brain abnormalities suggestive of abnormal neural development distinctive from that of others with schizophrenia. Factors contributing to schizophrenia that is preceded by CD include failing to learn not-to-behave aggressively in early childhood, impairments in understanding emotions in the faces of others, maltreatment, and subsequent re-victimization...
June 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605528/abnormal-resting-state-connectivity-in-a-substantia-nigra-related-striato-thalamo-cortical-network-in-a-large-sample-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Matteo Martino, Paola Magioncalda, Hua Yu, Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yajing Meng, Wei Deng, Yinfei Li, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Timothy Lane, Niall W Duncan, Georg Northoff, Tao Li
Objective: The dopamine hypothesis is one of the most influential theories of the neurobiological background of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, direct evidence for abnormal dopamine-related subcortical-cortical circuitry disconnectivity is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to test dopamine-related substantia nigra (SN)-based striato-thalamo-cortical resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in SCZ. Method: Based on our a priori hypothesis, we analyzed a large sample resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset from first-episode drug-naïve SCZ patients (n = 112) and healthy controls (n = 82) using the SN as the seed region for an investigation of striato-thalamo-cortical FC...
June 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586483/isolated-mitochondria-transfer-improves-neuronal-differentiation-of-schizophrenia-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-rescues-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-the-disorder
#7
Odile Robicsek, Hila M Ene, Rachel Karry, Ofer Ytzhaki, Eyal Asor, Donna McPhie, Bruce M Cohen, Rotem Ben-Yehuda, Ina Weiner, Dorit Ben-Shachar
Dysfunction of mitochondria, key players in various essential cell processes, has been repeatedly reported in schizophrenia (SZ). Recently, several studies have reported functional recovery and cellular viability following mitochondrial transplantation, mostly in ischemia experimental models. Here, we aimed to demonstrate beneficial effects of isolated active normal mitochondria (IAN-MIT) transfer in vitro and in vivo, using SZ-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiating into glutamatergic neuron, as well as a rodent model of SZ...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586480/lifetime-prevalence-and-correlates-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-affective-and-other-non-affective-psychotic-disorders-in-the-chinese-adult-population
#8
Wing Chung Chang, Corine Sau Man Wong, Eric Yu Hai Chen, Linda Chiu Wa Lam, Wai Chi Chan, Roger Man Kin Ng, Se Fong Hung, Eric Fuk Chi Cheung, Pak Chung Sham, Helen Fung Kum Chiu, Ming Lam, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Tin Po Chiang, Lap Kei Chan, Gary Kar Wai Lau, Allen Ting Chun Lee, Grace Tak Yu Leung, Joey Shuk Yan Leung, Joseph Tak Fai Lau, Jim van Os, Glyn Lewis, Paul Bebbington
Lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders varies widely across studies. Epidemiological surveys have rarely examined prevalences of specific psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia, and the majority used a single-phase design without employing clinical reappraisal interview for diagnostic verification. The current study investigated lifetime prevalence, correlates and service utilization of schizophrenia-spectrum, affective, and other non-affective psychotic disorders in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese adult population aged 16-75 years (N = 5719) based on a territory-wide, population-based household survey for mental disorders in Hong Kong...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586471/intranasal-oxytocin-may-improve-high-level-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-but-not-social-cognition-or-neurocognition-in-general-a-multilevel-bayesian-meta-analysis
#9
Paul-Christian Bürkner, Donald R Williams, Trenton C Simmons, Josh D Woolley
While there is growing interest in the potential for intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) to improve social cognition and neurocognition (ie, nonsocial cognition) in schizophrenia, the extant literature has been mixed. Here, we perform a Bayesian meta-analysis of the efficacy of IN-OT to improve areas of social and neurocognition in schizophrenia. A systematic search of original research publications identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of IN-OT as a treatment for social and neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia for inclusion...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586462/preclinical-models-to-investigate-mechanisms-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#10
Samuel A Barnes, Andre Der-Avakian, Jared W Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575527/neighborhood-influences-on-violent-reoffending-risk-in-released-prisoners-diagnosed-with-psychotic-disorders
#11
Amir Sariaslan, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Seena Fazel
Released prisoners diagnosed with psychotic disorders have elevated rates of violent reoffending risk and their exposure to adverse neighborhood environments may contribute to this risk. We identified all released sentenced prisoners in Sweden between 2003 and 2013 (n = 47226) and followed them up for a median period of 4.4 years. We identified prisoners who had ever been diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (n = 3782) or prescribed antipsychotics (n = 7366). We examined 3 neighborhood characteristics: income, proportion of welfare recipients, and crime rate...
June 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575513/primary-enduring-negative-symptoms-an-update-on-research
#12
Brian Kirkpatrick, Armida Mucci, Silvana Galderisi
We previously proposed that people with schizophrenia who have primary, enduring negative symptoms have a disease-deficit schizophrenia (DS)-that is separate from that affecting people with schizophrenia without these features. Additional evidence consistent with the separate disease hypothesis has accumulated in recent years. White matter changes may be widespread in deficit compared to nondeficit patients and may relate to problems in early brain migration. These 2 patient groups also appear to differ on metabolic measures prior to antipsychotic treatment...
June 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575321/the-validity-and-sensitivity-of-panss-6-in-the-clinical-antipsychotic-trials-of-intervention-effectiveness-catie-study
#13
Søren D Østergaard, Leslie Foldager, Ole Mors, Per Bech, Christoph U Correll
It was recently demonstrated in acutely exacerbated schizophrenia that a 6-item version (PANSS-6: P1 = delusions, P2 = conceptual disorganization, P3 = hallucinations, N1 = blunted affect, N4 = social withdrawal, N6 = lack of spontaneity/flow of conversation) of the 30-item Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-30) was scalable (all items provide unique information regarding syndrome severity) and able to separate the effect of antipsychotics from placebo. Here, we tested the validity and sensitivity of PANSS-6 in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) outpatient study...
June 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575528/increased-striatal-and-reduced-prefrontal-cerebral-blood-flow-in-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#14
Jochen Kindler, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Martinus Hauf, Thomas Dierks, Andrea Federspiel, Sebastian Walther, Benno G Schimmelmann, Daniela Hubl
Increased striatal dopaminergic activity and decreased prefrontal functioning have been reported in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Abnormal metabolic rate might affect resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the respective regions. Here, we examined if striatal and prefrontal rCBF differ between patients with CHR, first-episode psychosis (FEP), chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SZ) and controls. Two cohorts with a total of 122 participants were included and analyzed separately: 32 patients with SZ and 31 healthy controls (HC) from the University Hospital of Psychiatry, and 59 patients from the Bern Early Recognition and Intervention Center (29 with CHR, 12 with FEP, and 18 clinical controls [CC])...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575506/limbic-interference-during-social-action-planning-in-schizophrenia
#15
Katharina Stegmayer, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tim Vanbellingen, Andrea Federspiel, Roland Wiest, René M Müri, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Schizophrenia is characterized by social interaction deficits contributing to poor functional outcome. Hand gesture use is particularly impaired, linked to frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal grey matter deficits. The functional neural correlates of impaired gesturing are currently unclear. We therefore investigated aberrant brain activity during impaired gesturing in schizophrenia. We included 22 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, and education level. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging data using an event-related paradigm to assess brain activation during gesture planning and execution...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575475/abnormal-brain-activation-during-theory-of-mind-tasks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#16
Lisa Kronbichler, Melanie Tschernegg, Anna Isabel Martin, Matthias Schurz, Martin Kronbichler
Social cognition abilities are severely impaired in schizophrenia (SZ). The current meta-analysis used foci of 21 individual studies on functional abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain in order to identify regions that reveal convergent under- or over-activation during theory of mind (TOM) tasks. Studies were included in the analyses when contrasting tasks that require the processing of mental states with tasks which did not. Only studies that investigated patients with an ICD or DSM diagnosis were included...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575442/negative-symptom-therapeutics
#17
William T Carpenter, Robert W Buchanan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535284/cumulative-effects-of-neighborhood-social-adversity-and-personal-crime-victimization-on-adolescent-psychotic-experiences
#18
Joanne Newbury, Louise Arseneault, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Helen L Fisher
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. METHODS: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531307/following-instructions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-the-benefits-of-actions-at-encoding-and-recall
#19
Simon S Y Lui, Tian-Xiao Yang, Chris L Y Ng, Peony T Y Wong, Jessica O Y Wong, Ulrich Ettinger, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
The ability to follow spoken instructions is important to everyday functioning but has seldom been studied in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Recent evidence suggests that action-based processing may facilitate the ability to follow instructions, which relies largely on working memory. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SZ patients may also benefit from action-based advantages in following instructions. Forty-eight clinically stable SZ patients and 48 demographic- and IQ-matched controls completed a following spoken instruction span task involving varied encoding and recall conditions...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525603/genome-wide-association-study-of-psychosis-proneness-in-the-finnish-population
#20
Alfredo Ortega-Alonso, Jesper Ekelund, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Jouko Miettunen, Juha Veijola, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, William Hennah
The current study examined quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a nonpsychotic population, in order to elucidate their underlying genetic architecture and to observe if there is any commonality to that already detected in the studies of individuals with overt psychotic conditions, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Heritability, univariate and multivariate genome-wide association (GWAs) tests, including a series of comprehensive gene-based association analyses, were developed in 4269 nonpsychotic persons participating in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study with information on the following psychometric measures: Hypomanic Personality, Perceptual Aberration, Physical and Social Anhedonia (also known as Chapman's Schizotypia scales), and Schizoidia scale...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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