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Journal of Motor Behavior

Scott W Ducharme, Richard E A van Emmerik
The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of multifractality in unperturbed and constrained locomotion, and to determine if multifractality predicted gait adaptability. Young, healthy participants (n = 15) walked at preferred and slow speeds, as well as asymmetrically (one leg at half speed) on a split-belt treadmill. Stride time multifractality was assessed via local detrended fluctuation analysis, which evaluates the evolution of fluctuations both spatially and temporally. Unperturbed walking exhibited monofractal behavior...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Maria Rönnefarth, Rouven Bathe-Peters, Andreas Jooss, Linus Haberbosch, Michael Scholz, Sein Schmidt, Stephan A Brandt
To evaluate task induced motor fatigue in a well-established finger tapping task, we analyzed tapping parameters and included the time course of measures of force. We hypothesized that a decline in tapping force would reflect task induced motor fatigue, defined by a lengthening of inter-tap intervals (ITI). A secondary aim was to investigate the reliability of tapping data acquisition with the force sensor. Results show that, as expected, tapping speed decreased linearly over time, due to both an increase of ITI and tap duration...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Errol R Hoffmann, Alan H S Chan, Christy K Y Lam
When moving to grasp an object having adjacent obstacles that limit the space available for placing the fingers, the time for the reach/grasp is dependent on the distance of reaching and the space available for finger placement. Here we model the time taken in terms of these variables and develop mathematical models for the reach and grasp phases of the task and the location of obstacles. Data show that the movement to the target may be made under visual control and that, when the obstacles are close to the target object, a visually-controlled movement is made that is modeled by a modified form of Fitts' law...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Timothy Tsz Ting Yam, Shirley Siu Ming Fong
This study compared Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) performance and leg muscle kinetics between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and investigated the association between YBT-LQ performance and muscle kinetics in children with DCD. Forty-eight children with DCD and 51 children without DCD participated in the study. Leg muscle kinetics were measured using surface electromyography when performing YBT-LQ. Children with DCD exhibited an overall lower YBT-LQ scores than controls...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Curtis K H Chu, Thomson W L Wong
This study examined the real-time objective measurement of conscious postural control ("reinvestment") in older adults when standing on a compliant surface using electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence. Twenty-nine older adults participated in the study and their Alpha2 T3-Fz and Alpha2 T4-Fz EEG coherence during standing at three different positions on foam including wide-base standing on foam (WBF), narrow-base standing on foam (NBF) and tandem standing on foam (TAF) were measured. Participants were also required to respond to a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) to determine their perceived task difficulty after each standing position...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Inchon Park, John J Buchanan
This study examined physical training and observational training influences on motor learning and the development of visual discrimination processes. Participants were trained on a bimanual task (relative phase of +90°) defined by a visual training stimulus. There were 2 observational contexts: 1) model-only, watch a learning model, and 2) stimulus-only, watch the visual training stimulus. After 2 d of training, the learning models performed the +90° pattern with reduced error in 2 retention tests. Each observer group showed improvement in performance of the +90° pattern, with the stimulus-only group characterized by a more significant improvement...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Samuel J Wilson, Charles C Williams, Jacob R Gdovin, John D Eason, Lauren A Luginsland, Christopher M Hill, Harish Chander, Chip Wade, John C Garner
The use of vibrating platforms has become increasingly available, and popular at sports and rehabilitation institutes. Given the discrepancies in the literature regarding whole body vibration (WBV) and human reflexive responses, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of WBV on postural response latencies, as well as associated electromyography measures of the lower extremities during balance perturbations. Reflexive responses during backward and forward balance perturbations were examined before, after, and 10 min after a bout of WBV...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Juan López-Pascual, Álvaro Page, Pilar Serra-Añó
This cross-sectional study analyzed the influence of chronic shoulder pain (CSP) on movement variability/kinematics during humeral elevation, with the trunk and elbow motions constrained to avoid compensatory strategies. For this purpose, 37 volunteers with CSP as the injured group (IG) and 58 participants with asymptomatic shoulders as the control group (CG) participated in the study. Maximum humeral elevation (Emax), maximum angular velocity (Velmax), variability of the maximum angle (CVEmax), functional variability (Func_var), and approximate entropy (ApEn) were calculated from the kinematic data...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Chaoyi Wang, Deanna M Kennedy, Stefan Panzer, Charles H Shea
Previous theoretical and empirical work indicates that intentional changes in a bimanual coordination pattern depends on the stability of the bimanual coordination pattern (Kelso, Schotz, & Schöner, 1988; Scholz & Kelso, 1990). The present experiments retest this notion when online Lissajous displays are provided. Switching to and from in-phase and antiphase and to and from 90° and 270° were tested in Experiment 1. Participants were able to very effectively produce the 180°, 90°, and 270° coordination patterns although performance of the in-phase coordination task was even more stable...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
April Karlinsky, Nicola J Hodges
We studied dyad practice to determine whether and how alternating practice blocks with a partner impacts self-directed practice scheduling, learning, and perceptions of practice. Participants were assigned to be Partner 1 (P1) or 2 (P2). P1s had a blocked, random, or self-directed schedule, while all P2s self-directed practice of 3, differently-timed keystroke-sequences. P2s showed both own error-dependent practice (switching sequences following better performance) and partner-dependent practice, with the partner's schedule impacting sequence selection and switching frequency...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Cain C T Clark, Claire M Barnes, Nils J Swindell, Mark D Holton, Daniel D Bingham, Paul J Collings, Sally E Barber, Huw D Summers, Kelly A Mackintosh, Gareth Stratton
There is a dearth of suitable metrics capable of objectively quantifying motor competence. Further, objective movement quality characteristics during free play have not been investigated in pre-school children. The aims of this study were to characterize children's free play physical activity and investigate how gait quality characteristics cluster with free play in pre-school children (3-5 years old). Sixty-one children (39 boys; 4.3 ± 0.7 years, 1.04 ± 0.05 m, 17.8 ± 3.2 kg) completed the movement assessment battery for children and took part in free play while wearing an ankle- and hip-mounted accelerometer...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sílvia Leticia Pavão, Joice Luiza B Arnoni, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
The authors sought to verify the effects of vision on sit-to-stand (STS) movement performance by means of postural sway in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typical children (TC). Participants were 42 TC and 21 children with CP. STS movement was assessed with eyes open and with eyes closed. Area and velocity of center of pressure sway were analyzed in each of the 3 STS phases. We observed greater postural sway during STS movement with eyes closed. Children with CP presented greater postural sway than TC did...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kyra Densing, Hippokrates Konstantinidis, Melanie Seiler
Self-touch serves for regulation of both hyper- and hypoarousal. It remains unclear if different forms of self-touch occur in different contexts, and if the regulatory mechanisms are learned or innate. The authors describe forms and context of self-touch, and explore age differences in stress processing. They analyzed hand movements of 10 pre- and 10 postadolescent girls in low-stress and high-stress settings and found 3 forms of self-touch. In postadolescent participants, self-touch 2 (irregular structure, rhythmical, medium intensity) and 3 (phasic structure, single accent, medium intensity) were used for self-regulation, whereas self-touch 1 (irregular structure, single accent, low intensity) had conversational reasons...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
M F L Ruitenberg, Y E De Dios, N E Gadd, S J Wood, P A Reuter-Lorenz, I Kofman, J J Bloomberg, A P Mulavara, R D Seidler
Using an individual differences approach, we evaluated whether manual and locomotor adaptation are associated in terms of adaptation and savings across days, and whether they rely on shared underlying mechanisms involving visuospatial working memory or visual field dependence. Participants performed a manual and a locomotor adaptation task during 4 separate test sessions over a 3-month period. Reliable adaptation and savings were observed for both tasks. It was further found that higher visuospatial working memory performance and lower visual field dependence scores were associated with faster learning in the manual and locomotor tasks, respectively...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Anthony Vidal, Will Wu, Mimi Nakajima, James Becker
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of focus of attention cues on movement coordination and coordination variability in the lower extremity. Twenty participants performed the standing long jump under both internal and external focus of attention conditions. A modified vector coding technique was used to evaluate the influence of attentional focus cues on lower extremity coordination patterns and coordination variability during the jumps. Participants jumped significantly further under an external focus of attention condition compared with an internal focus of attention condition (p = ...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Mariusz P Furmanek, Stanisław Solnik, Daniele Piscitelli, Omid Rasouli, Ali Falaki, Mark L Latash
The authors used two analyses developed within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to quantify multimuscle synergies during voluntary body sway: analysis of intertrial variance and analysis of motor equivalence with respect to the center of pressure (COP) trajectory. Participants performed voluntary sway tasks in the anteroposterior direction at 0.33 and 0.66 Hz. Muscle groups were identified in the space of muscle activations and used as elemental variables in the synergy analyses. Changing mechanical and vision feedback-based constraints led to significant changes in indices of sway performance such as COP deviations in the uninstructed, mediolateral direction and indices of spontaneous postural sway...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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July 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Etsuo Horikawa
The authors sought to investigate if short-term gaze stability exercises have an effect on postural stability of dynamic standing during neck movement in patients with posterior circulation stroke (PCS). Patients in both PCS and non-PCS groups were assigned to either an intervention or control group. The intervention group performed the gaze stability exercises for 10 min while the control group was merely resting. The center of pressure velocity was calculated to evaluate the postural stability. After intervention, PCS and non-PCS showed a significant reduction in center of pressure velocity during dynamic standing with eyes closed condition, and the PCS group showed a significant improvement in eye-opened condition...
July 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Joo-Hee Park, Heon-Seock Cynn, Kwang Su Cha, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hye-Seon Jeon
The purpose of this study was to compare the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns and reaction times (RTs) of muscle activation between concentric and eccentric biceps brachii contractions under the RT paradigm and to evaluate how the EEG patterns and RTs changed with practice. Sixteen subjects performed 3 sets of 30 repetitions of submaximal voluntary concentric and eccentric biceps contractions. RT, event-related desynchronization (ERD) patterns of mu rhythm onset, and ERD amplitudes were selectively analyzed...
July 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Wouter F van Ginneken, Jamie M Poolton, Catherine M Capio, John van der Kamp, Cynthia S Y Choi, Richard S W Masters
This study investigated whether conscious control is associated with freezing of mechanical degrees of freedom during motor learning. Participants practiced a throwing task using either error-strewn or error-reduced practice protocols, which encourage high or low levels of conscious control, respectively. After 24 hr, participants engaged in a series of delayed retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, propensity for conscious control was assessed using participants' ratings and freezing was gauged through movement variability of the throwing arm...
July 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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