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Journal of Motor Behavior

Meisan Brown-Lum, Jill G Zwicker
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor motor skills that interfere with a child's ability to perform everyday activities. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that implicate DCD, making it difficult to understand why children with DCD struggle to learn motor skills and selecting the best intervention to optimize function. Neuroimaging studies that utilize magnetic resonance imaging techniques have the capacity to play a critical role in helping to guide clinicians to optimize functional outcomes of children with DCD using evidence-based rehabilitation interventions...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Crystal L Massie, Caylen White, Katie Pruit, Aubrey Freel, Kaylin Staley, Morgan Backes
Rehabilitation options to promote neuroplasticity may be enhanced when patients are engaged in motor practice during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve participants completed 3 separate sessions: motor practice, motor practice with rTMS, and rTMS only: motor practice consisted of 30 isometric contractions and subthreshold rTMS was 30, 3-s trains at 10 Hz. Assessments included the Box and Block Test (BBT), force steadiness (10% of the maximum voluntary contraction), and TMS (cortical excitability, intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Robert L Sainburg, Sook-Lei Liew, Scott H Frey, Florence Clark
Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Eduard Pujol, Joaquim Chaler, Laura Sucarrats, Inés López, Blanca Zeballos, Roser Garreta, Zeevi Dvir
An isokinetic-related parameter termed the difference between eccentric-concentric strength ratios at two distinct test velocities (DEC) based on 60° (standard) range of motion (RoM) has been proven to be highly efficient detecting feigned muscular efforts. This study aimed to verify whether a DEC derived from a much shorter test RoM (20°) was equally useful than a long RoM-derived one. Eighteen healthy men (32.4 ± 6.4 years old) took part in a study focusing on shoulder external rotation isokinetic strength...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Travis H Turner, Jenna B Renfroe, Amy Duppstadt-Delambo, Vanessa K Hinson
Speed and control of saccades are related to disease progression and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD). Traditional eye-tracking complexities encumber application for individual evaluations and clinical trials. The authors examined psychometric properties of standalone tasks for reflexive prosaccade latency, volitional saccade initiation, and saccade inhibition (antisaccade) in a heterogeneous sample of 65 PD patients. Demographics had minimal impact on task performance. Thirty-day test-retest reliability estimates for behavioral tasks were acceptable and similar to traditional eye tracking...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Errol R Hoffmann
Heath, Weiler, Marriott, Elliott, and Binstead ( 2011 ) and Heath, Samani, Tremblay, and Elliott ( 2016 ) have claimed that there are dissociable movement times for amplitude and width manipulations in the Fitts' paradigm. This may to some extent be true, but the Heath et al. ( 2011 ) and Heath et al. ( 2016 ) data do not support that contention, as shown in this comment. It is shown that data from the research of Heath et al. is not in the range of index of difficulty where ongoing visual control would be used and hence their fits of data to Fitts' law are spurious...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Robert W M van Deursen, Kate Button, Paulien E Roos
Knee rehabilitation exercises to improve motor control, target movement fluency, and displacement variability. Although knee movement in the frontal plane during exercise is routinely assessed in clinical practice, optimal knee control remains poorly understood. In this study, 29 healthy participants (height: 1.73 ± 0.11 m, mass: 73.5 ± 16.4 kg, age: 28.0 ± 6.9 years) performed 4 repetitions of 5 rehabilitation exercises while motion data were collected using the VICON PlugInGait full-body marker set. Fluency and displacement variability were calculated for multiple landmarks, including center of mass (CoM) and knee joint centers...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Peter Miklovič, Zdeněk Svoboda, Miroslav Janura
The authors investigate the ways in which varied postural responses to translating platform perturbations are associated with the variables of strength and power. Twenty-four physically active and 27 sedentary young adults were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (10 and 20 cm/s) and the respective accelerations (6.4 and 6.9 m/s(2)), constant distance (6 cm), and 4 directions of platform motion (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). They also performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and chair rising/chair jumping tests...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sushma Alphonsa, Boyi Dai, Tami Benham-Deal, Qin Zhu
Previously, we have shown that discrete and continuous rapid aiming tasks are governed by distinct visuomotor control mechanisms by assessing the combined visual illusion effects on the perceived and effective index of difficulty (ID). All participants were perceptually biased by the combined visual illusion before they performed the rapid aiming tasks. In the current study, the authors manipulated the order of performing perceptual and motor tasks to examine whether perceptual or motor experience with the illusory visual target would influence the subsequent perceived and effective ID in discrete and continuous tapping tasks...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Megan C Kirkland, Matthew B Downer, Brett J Holloway, Elizabeth M Wallack, Evan J Lockyer, Natasha C M Buckle, Courtney L Abbott, Michelle Ploughman
Measures of walking such as the timed 25-ft walk test (T25FWT) may not be able to detect subtle impairment in lower limb function among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined bipedal hopping to determine to what extent people with mild (Expanded Disease Severity Scale ≤ 3.5) MS (n = 13) would differ compared to age-, gender-, and education-matched controls (n = 9) and elderly participants (n = 13; ≥ 70 years old). We estimated lower limb power (e.g., hop length, velocity), consistency (e.g., variability of hop length, time), and symmetry (ratio of left to right foot)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Errol R Hoffmann
The 1-target advantage (OTA) has been found to occur in many circumstances and the current best explanation for this phenomenon is that of the movement integration hypothesis. The author's purpose is twofold: (a) to model the conditions under which there is integration of the movement components in a 2-component movement and (b) to study the factors that determine the magnitude of the OTA for both the first and second component of a 2-component movement. Results indicate that integration of movement components, where times for one component are affected by the geometry of the other component, occurs when 1 of the movement components is made ballistically...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Cédrick T Bonnet, Sébastien Szaffarczyk
In studies of postural control, a control task is often used to understand significant effects obtained with experimental manipulations. This task should be the easiest task and (therefore) engage the lowest behavioral variability and cognitive workload. Since 1983, the stationary-gaze task is considered as the most relevant control task. Instead, the authors expected that free looking at small targets (white paper or images; visual angle: 12°) could be an easier task. To verify this assumption, 16 young individuals performed stationary-gaze, white-panel, and free-viewing 12° tasks in steady and relaxed stances...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Claudia Casellato, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Giancarlo Ferrigno
Switching between contexts affects the mechanisms underlying motion planning, in particular it may entail reranking the variables to be controlled in defining the motor solutions. Three astronauts performed multiple sessions of whole-body pointing, in normogravity before launch, in prolonged weightlessness onboard the International Space Station, and after return. The effect of gravity context on kinematic and dynamic components was evaluated. Hand trajectory was gravity independent; center-of-mass excursion was highly variable within and between subjects...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Claire F Michaels, Thábata V B Gomes, Rodolfo N Benda
The theory of direct learning (D. M. Jacobs & C. F. Michaels, 2007 ) has proven useful in understanding improvement in perception and exploratory action. Here the authors assess its usefulness for understanding the learning of a motor skill, bimanual tapping at a difficult phase relation. Twenty participants attempted to learn to tap with 2 index fingers at 2 Hz with a phase lag of 90° (i.e., with a right-right period of 500 ms and a right-left period of 125 ms). There were 30 trials, each with 50 tapping cycles...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Erika Shirley Moreira da Silva, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Righetto Greco, Eloisa Tudella
The authors analyze the influence of different sitting positions (ring and flexion) on the reaching performance (spatiotemporal variables) of full-term infants 6 and 7 months old. In addition, they correlated level of trunk control, measured by the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control, with performance during reaching. The different sitting positions only influenced the reaching movements of 6-month-old infants, who showed the best performance in the ring position. However, this influence was observed only for the trunk displacement, deceleration time, movement units, straightness index and mean velocity...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Brodie J Ward, Ashleigh Thornton, Brendan Lay, Michael Rosenberg
Fundamental movement skill (FMS) assessment remains an important tool in classifying individuals' level of FMS proficiency. The collection of FMS performances for assessment and monitoring has remained unchanged over the last few decades, but new motion capture technologies offer opportunities to automate this process. To achieve this, a greater understanding of the human process of movement skill assessment is required. The authors present the rationale and protocols of a project in which they aim to investigate the visual search patterns and information extraction employed by human assessors during FMS assessment, as well as the implementation of the Kinect system for FMS capture...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Otmar Bock, Valentina Grigorova, Milena Ilieva-Staneva
The authors investigated whether the size of the attention focus can influence saccadic adaptation, and whether this influence changes in older age. Using the scrambled sentence task, young and older participants were either primed for a wide attention focus, or primed of a narrow attention focus, or were not primed for any specific attention focus. Subsequently, all participants underwent a double-step saccadic adaptation paradigm aimed at changing the direction of reflexive saccades. The authors found that compared to the nonprimed control group, priming for a wide attention focus enhanced saccadic adaptation in both age groups by a similar amount; the benefit persisted throughout the adaptation phase, but was absent during the deadaptation phase...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Bulmaro A Valdés, Stephanie M N Glegg, H F Machiel Van der Loos
The authors explored how trunk compensation and hand symmetry in stroke survivors and healthy controls were affected by the distance and height of virtual targets during a bimanual reaching task. Participants were asked to reach to 4 different virtual targets set at: 90% of their arm length at shoulder, xiphoid process, and knee height, and 50% of their arm length at xiphoid process height. For the stroke group, for all targets, the hands' movements were more asymmetrical than those of the healthy group, with more asymmetry observed in the direction of gravity, and trunk forward displacement values were larger and more variable...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Anja Staiger, Theresa Schölderle, Bettina Brendel, Kai Bötzel, Wolfram Ziegler
Measures of performance rates in speech-like or volitional nonspeech oral motor tasks are frequently used to draw inferences about articulation rate abnormalities in patients with neurologic movement disorders. The study objective was to investigate the structural relationship between rate measures of speech and of oral motor behaviors different from speech. A total of 130 patients with neurologic movement disorders and 130 healthy subjects participated in the study. Rate data was collected for oral reading (speech), rapid syllable repetition (speech-like), and rapid single articulator movements (nonspeech)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Gerd Schmitz, Valentina Grigorova
Eye and hand movements can adapt to a variety of sensorimotor discordances. Studies on adaptation of movement directions suggest that the oculomotor and the hand motor system access the same adaptive mechanism related to the polarity of a discordance, because concurrent adaptations to opposite directed discordances strongly interfere. The authors scrutinized whether participants adapt their hand and eye movements to opposite directions (clockwise/counterclockwise) when both motor systems are alternatingly exposed to opposite directed double steps, and whether such adaptation is influenced by the allocation of effector to adaptation direction...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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