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Journal of Motor Behavior

Philip W Brownjohn, Rebekah L Blakemore, Jonathan A Fox, Jonathan Shemmell
Paired muscle stimulation is used clinically to facilitate the performance of motor tasks for individuals with motor dysfunction. However, the optimal temporal relationship between stimuli for enhancing movement remains unknown. We hypothesized that synchronous, muscle stimulation would increase the extent to which stimulated muscles are concurrently prepared for movement. We validated a measure of muscle-specific changes in corticomotor excitability prior to movement. We used this measure to examine the preparation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles prior to voluntary muscle contractions before and after paired muscle stimulation at four interstimulus intervals (0, 5, 10, and 75 ms)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Keaton A Inkol, Andrew H Huntley, Lori Ann Vallis
Locomotion requires both proactive and reactive control strategies to maintain balance. The current study aimed to: (i) ascertain upper body postural responses following first exposure to a forward (slip) support-surface perturbation; (ii) investigate effects of repeated perturbation exposure; (iii) establish relationships between arms and other response components (trunk; center of mass control). Young adults (N = 11) completed 14 walking trials on a robotic platform; six elicited a slip response. Kinematic analyses were focused on extrapolated center of mass position (xCoM), bilateral upper- and forearm elevation velocity, trunk angular velocity, and step parameters...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ian T Ruginski, Brandon J Thomas, Michael N Geuss, Jeanine K Stefanucci
We investigated whether anxiety influences perceptual-motor calibration in a braking to avoid a collision task. Participants performed either a discrete braking task (Experiment 1) or a continuous braking task (Experiment 2), with the goal of stopping before colliding with a stop sign. Half of participants performed the braking task after an anxiety induction. We investigated whether anxiety reduced the frequency of crashing and if it influenced the calibration of perception (visual information) and action (brake pressure) dynamically between-trials in Experiment 1 and within-trials in Experiment 2...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Chiaki Ohtaka, Motoko Fujiwara
We investigated the characteristics for force generation and relaxation using graded isometric contractions of the knee extensors. Participants performed the following tasks as quickly and accurately as possible. For the force generation task, force was increased from 0% to 20%, 40% and 60% of the maximal voluntary force (MVF). For the force relaxation task, force was decreased from 60% to 40%, 20% and 0%. The following parameters of the recorded force were calculated: error, time, and rate of force development...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jed A Diekfuss, Christopher K Rhea, Randy J Schmitz, Dustin R Grooms, Robin W Wilkins, Alexis B Slutsky, Louisa D Raisbeck
This study examined the training effect of attentional focus (external focus, internal focus, or no focus instructions) on a dynamic balance task. Participants completed baseline balance testing, seven consecutive days of dynamic balance board training, and retention testing 24 hours after the last session. The novel finding of this study was the presence of a training effect on balance control when adopting an external focus relative to an internal focus or no focus instructions. Further, we report the unique observation that more patterned behavior was adopted regardless of the focus instructions...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jörn Munzert, Jelena Müller, Michael Joch, Mathias Reiser
The expert-novice approach is inappropriate for studying postural control in sport and dance when novices are completely unable to perform relevant postural tasks and experts cannot demonstrate specific skills on everyday postural tasks. We tested expertise-specific differences on 6 static everyday and 5 dynamic dance-like postural tasks of varying difficulty in 13 professional and 12 intermediate nonprofessional dancers. Results showed a clear expert advantage on sway area for dance-like postural tasks, but not for static everyday tasks...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
João Roberto Ventura de Oliveira, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Tércio Apolinário-Souza, Lidiane Aparecida Fernandes, Juliana Otoni Parma, Guilherme Menezes Lage
In aiming movements the limb position drifts away from the defined target after some trials without visual feedback, a phenomenon defined as proprioceptive drift (PD). There are no studies investigating the association between the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and PD in aiming movements. Therefore, cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were applied to the left PPC concomitantly with the performance of movements with or without vision. Cathodal tDCS applied without vision produced a higher level of PD and higher rates of drift accumulation while it decreased peak velocity and maintained the number of error corrections, not affecting movement amplitude...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yuzuko C Nakamura, Carol A O'Sullivan, Nancy S Pollard
The use of both hands simultaneously when manipulating objects is fairly commonplace, but it is not known what factors encourage people to use two hands as opposed to one during simple tasks such as transport. In particular, we are interested in three possible transport strategies: unimanual transport, handing off between hands, and symmetric bimanual transport. In this study, we investigate the effect of object size, weight, and starting and ending position (configuration) as well as the need to balance the object on the use of these three strategies in a bowl-moving task...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Danielle E Levac, Amy S Lu
Augmented feedback has motivational and informational functions in motor learning, and is a key feature of practice in a virtual environment (VE). This study evaluated the impact of narrative (story-based) feedback as compared to standard feedback during practice of a novel task in a VE on typically developing children's motor learning, motivation and engagement. Thirty-eight children practiced navigating through a virtual path, receiving narrative or non-narrative feedback following each trial. All participants improved their performance on retention but not transfer, with no significant differences between groups...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
D Adam Quirk, Cheryl L Hubley-Kozey
Theoretical models suggest trunk muscle activation compensates for spinal systems impairments. The purpose of this study was to determine if two populations (older adults and those recovered from a lower back injury (rLBI)) with spinal system impairments have similar muscle activation patterns to each other, but differ from controls. Trunk electromyograms collected from 12 older adults, 16 rLBI, and 19 controls during two dynamic tasks showed that older adults and rLBI had higher activation amplitudes, sustained temporal and more synergistic activation relative to controls...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Etsuo Horikawa
The authors sought to investigate if short-term gaze stability exercises have an effect on postural stability of dynamic standing during neck movement in patients with posterior circulation stroke (PCS). Patients in both PCS and non-PCS groups were assigned to either an intervention or control group. The intervention group performed the gaze stability exercises for 10 min while the control group was merely resting. The center of pressure velocity was calculated to evaluate the postural stability. After intervention, PCS and non-PCS showed a significant reduction in center of pressure velocity during dynamic standing with eyes closed condition, and the PCS group showed a significant improvement in eye-opened condition...
July 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kristen M Stearns-Reider, Christopher M Powers
The purpose of this study was to determine whether women demonstrate decreased rate of torque development (RTD) of the hip and knee extensors and altered onset timing of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus during a drop-jump task when compared with men. On average, women demonstrated significantly lower normalized RTD of the hip extensors (women: 11.6 ± 1.3 MVT.s-1 , men: 13.1 ± 0.9 MVT.s-1 ; p ≤ .01); however, there was no significant difference in knee extensor RTD. Women also demonstrated significantly earlier activation of their vastus lateralis (women: 206...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Damian Manzone, Tristan Loria, Luc Tremblay
The authors investigated how visual information from the nondominant and dominant eyes are utilized to control ongoing dominant hand movements. Across 2 experiments, participants performed upper-limb pointing movements to a stationary target or an imperceptibly shifted target under monocular-dominant, monocular-nondominant, and binocular viewing conditions. Under monocular-dominant viewing conditions, participants exhibited better endpoint precision and accuracy. On target jump trials, participants spent more time after peak limb velocity and significantly altered their trajectories toward the new target location only when visual information from the dominant eye was available...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Gui-Ping Jiang, Xi-Bian Jiao, Sheng-Kou Wu, Zhong-Qiu Ji, Wei-Tong Liu, Xi Chen, Hui-Hui Wang
The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Mahdi Nabavinik, Ali Abaszadeh, Mehrab Mehranmanesh, David A Rosenbaum
Especial skills are skills that are distinctive by virtue of massive practice within the narrow contexts in which they are expressed. In the first demonstration of especial skills, Keetch, Schmidt, Lee, and Young (2005) showed that experienced basketball players are better at shooting baskets from the foul line, where they had massive amounts of practice, than would expected from their success at other locations closer to or farther from the basket. Similar results were obtained for baseball throwing. The authors asked whether especial skills hold in archery, a sport requiring less movement...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kuei-Pin Chien, Sufen Chen
The authors investigated the role of errors in motor skills teaching, specifically the influence of errors on skills self-efficacy and achievement. The participants were 75 undergraduate students enrolled in pétanque courses. The experimental group (guided error-based learning, n = 37) received a 6-week period of instruction based on the students' errors, whereas the control group (correct motion instruction, n = 38) received a 6-week period of instruction emphasizing correct motor skills. The experimental group had significantly higher scores in motor skills self-efficacy and outcomes than did the control group...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Luciana Oliveira Dos Santos, Daniela Cristina Carvalho de Abreu, Renato Moraes
Typically, falls in older adults occur when 2 tasks are performed simultaneously, due to the increased motor demand required to maintain stability and attention to perform the other task. The authors' purpose was to investigate walking while grasping, transporting, and placing a dowel on a predetermined target while manipulating difficulty levels of the manual task. Faller and nonfaller older adults performed a walking block (manual tasks combined with gait) and a stationary block (upright stance combined with manual tasks)...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Gabriele Wulf, Takehiro Iwatsuki, Brittney Machin, Jessica Kellogg, Clint Copeland, Rebecca Lewthwaite
The authors examined several issues related to the motor learning benefits resulting from giving learners choices. In 2 experiments, participants practiced a novel task, throwing a lasso. In Experiment 1, giving learners a choice ostensibly irrelevant to performance (color of mat under target) resulted in enhanced learning relative to a control group. The choice group also reported more positive affect. Experiment 2 compared the effectiveness of task-irrelevant (mat color) versus task-relevant (video demonstrations of the skill) choices...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Giovanni F Misceo, Maurice D Jones
The sensory precision hypothesis holds that different seen and felt cues about the size of an object resolve themselves in favor of the more reliable modality. To examine this precision hypothesis, 60 college students were asked to look at one size while manually exploring another unseen size either with their bare fingers or, to lessen the reliability of touch, with their fingers sleeved in rigid tubes. Afterwards, the participants estimated either the seen size or the felt size by finding a match from a visual display of various sizes...
May 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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