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Journal of Motor Behavior

Rafaela B S C Garbus, Sandra R Alouche, Janina M Prado-Rico, Camila M Aquino, Sandra M S F Freitas
The postural control is improved by implicit somatosensory information from lightly touching a rigid bar or explicit visual information about the postural sway. Whether these two additional sources provided at the same time further reduce the postural sway is still unknown. Participants stood on a force plate as quiet as possible lightly touching the bar while received or not visual feedback of the center of pressure position on a monitor screen. Postural sway reduced similarly with the light touch regardless of the additional visual feedback...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jonathan S Barnhoorn, Stefan Panzer, Ben Godde, Willem B Verwey
Participants practiced a fixed 3- and a fixed 6-key press sequence for 144 times each. In the speed group, they were instructed to execute their sequences fast without bothering much about errors while the accurate group was instructed to be careful and prevent errors. In the test phase, participants executed series of 3 and 6 responses (a) when all element-specific stimuli were displayed in the familiar order, (b) in response to just the familiar first stimulus, and (c) by responding to random stimuli. The speed instruction yielded stronger sequencing skill while the accuracy instruction developed stronger reaction skill...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Katie P Wadden, Nicola J Hodges, Kristopher L De Asis, Jason L Neva, Lara A Boyd
We conducted two studies to investigate if and how: (1) the rate of skill acquisition was related to motor performance at retention of a serial RT task (Study 1); and (2) whether rate of skill acquisition and baseline performance could be used to design schedules of practice related to contextual interference (CI) to enhance motor learning (Study 2). In Study 1, a slower rate of skill acquisition of repeating sequences in practice was related to faster response times at retention. Based on performance in Study 1, three levels of individualized CI were created for Study 2...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Irene A Kuling, Willem J de Bruijne, Kimberley Burgering, Eli Brenner, Jeroen B J Smeets
People make systematic errors when matching the location of an unseen index finger with that of a visual target. These errors are consistent over time, but idiosyncratic and surprisingly task-specific. The errors that are made when moving the unseen index finger to a visual target are not consistent with the errors when moving a visual target to the unseen index finger. To test whether such inconsistencies arise because a large part of the matching errors originate during movement execution, we compared errors in moving the unseen finger to a target with biases in deciding which of two visual targets was closer to the index finger before the movement...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Liwei Zhang, Qianxiang Zhou, Zhongqi Liu, Shichuan Tang
Experts require long-term and intense practice to acquire extraordinary motor skills that be known as the brain function regulator. However, the brain function network mechanism of rifle shooters is still unclear. The generalized orthogonalized partial directed coherence (gOPDC) algorithm and local efficiency significance analysis method (LESA) was applied to quantify the difference in directed functional networks between expert and novice rifle shooters during the pre-shot period. The more directed functional connections were observed in alpha and low-beta frequency bands as compared to other bands...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Roozbeh Behroozmand, Karim Johari
Models of motor control have highlighted the role of temporal predictive mechanisms in sensorimotor processing of speech and limb movement timing. We investigated how these mechanisms are affected in Parkinson's disease (PD) while patients performed speech and hand motor reaction time tasks in response to sensory stimuli with predictable and unpredictable temporal dynamics. Results showed slower motor reaction times in PD vs. control in response to temporally predictable, but not unpredictable stimuli. This effect was driven by faster motor responses to predictable stimuli in control subjects; however, no such effect was observed in the PD group...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Serge Brand
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Quiet Mind Training (QMT) on Alpha power suppression and fine motor skill acquisition among novice dart players. 30 novice dart players were randomly assigned either to a QMT or a control condition. Playing skills and Alpha power suppression were assessed at four time-points: at baseline, retention test 1, under pressure conditions, at retention test 2. Over time, Alpha power suppression increased and radial errors decreased but more so in the QMT condition than in the control condition...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Eli Brenner, Jeroen B J Smeets
Comparing many ways of measuring and analyzing reaction times reveals that the chosen method influences both the judged reaction time and, more importantly, conclusions about how the reaction time depends on the circumstances under study. The task was to lift one's finger in response to a tone. The response amplitude was either constrained or not. Constraining the amplitude made the response less vigorous. When the response was less vigorous it took longer to move far enough to release a switch or exceed the elasticity of the finger pulp...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Amy K Hegarty, Max J Kurz, Wayne Stuberg, Anne K Silverman
Strength training is often prescribed for children with cerebral palsy (CP); however, links between strength gains and mobility are unclear. Nine children (age 14 ± 3 years; GMFCS I-III) with spastic CP completed a 6-week strength-training program. Musculoskeletal gait simulations were generated for four children to assess training effects on muscle forces and function. There were increases in isometric joint strength, but no statistical changes in fast-as-possible walking speed or endurance after training...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Michael J MacLellan, Shannon Ellis
Weighting the arms during locomotion results in decreased swing motion and increased shoulder muscle activity. To determine the functional relevance of this activity, participants walked on a treadmill with the arms unweighted, or weighted unilaterally or bilaterally. Similar to past work, the weighted arms decreased in swing amplitude and increased their shoulder muscle activity. A close examination of shoulder muscle activities in specific regions of the arm swing cycle suggested these muscles primarily acted eccentrically for all weighting conditions...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yan Jin, Jaehyuk Lee, Sejun Oh, Maria Celeste Flores Gimenez, BumChul Yoon
Well-coordinated bimanual force control is common in daily life. We investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex on bimanual force control. Under a cross-over study, young adults (n = 19; female = 6, male = 13) completed three bimanual force control tasks at 5%, 25%, and 50% of bimanual maximum voluntary force (BMVF) before and after real or sham tDCS. Real tDCS enhanced accuracy at all BMVF, reduced variability at 5% BMVF, and increased coordination at 5% BMVF...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Asa Bartonek, Cecilia Lidbeck, Kerstin Hellgren, Elena Gutierrez-Farewik
Thirty children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 22 typical developing (TD) were tested with 3D-gait analysis. At turning, trunk rotation was larger in CP2 (GMFCS II) than in TD and CP1 (GMFCS I), and head flexion was larger in CP3 (GMFCS III) than TD. Maximum head and trunk flexion values during the entire trial were larger in CP3 than in the other groups, and trunk flexion was larger in CP2 than in TD. Trial time increased with GMFCS-level. Less trunk rotation than TD and CP1 reflects spatial insecurity in CP2, which in CP3 is compensated by the walker...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Helen O'shea, Aidan Moran
Motor imagery (MI; mental simulation of actions) shares certain mental representations and processes with executed movement (ME). This neurocognitive overlap between MI and ME may explain why the systematic use of MI improves skilled performance in numerous domains. Unfortunately, the attentional mechanisms underlying MI remain unresolved. Therefore, the present studies investigated the role of attentional effort (as measured by pupil dilation) in MI. We evaluated the effects of movement complexity and speed on expert pianists' pupil dilation as they physically executed and used MI to perform easy/complex and slow/fast music phrases...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jagna Sobierajewicz, Wojciech Jaśkowski, Rob H J Van der Lubbe
Learning a fine sequential hand motor skill, like playing the piano or learning to type, improves not only due to physical practice, but also due to motor imagery. Previous studies revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and motor imagery independently affect motor learning. In the present study, we investigated whether tDCS combined with motor imagery above the primary motor cortex influences sequence-specific learning. Four groups of participants were involved: an anodal, cathodal, sham stimulation, and a control group (without stimulation)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Victoria Nieborowska, Sin-Tung Lau, Jennifer Campos, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Alison Novak, Karen Z H Li
This study examined the effects of age on single- and dual-task listening and walking during virtual street crossing. Seventeen younger and 12 older adults participated. In each listening trial, three sentences were presented simultaneously from separate locations. Participants were instructed to report the target sentence. Predictability of the target sentence location was varied. Treadmill walking was measured using motion analysis. Measures included word recognition accuracy, head and trunk angles, and spatiotemporal gait parameters...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Scott W Ducharme, Richard E A van Emmerik
The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of multifractality in unperturbed and constrained locomotion, and to determine if multifractality predicted gait adaptability. Young, healthy participants (n = 15) walked at preferred and slow speeds, as well as asymmetrically (one leg at half speed) on a split-belt treadmill. Stride time multifractality was assessed via local detrended fluctuation analysis, which evaluates the evolution of fluctuations both spatially and temporally. Unperturbed walking exhibited monofractal behavior...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Maria Rönnefarth, Rouven Bathe-Peters, Andreas Jooss, Linus Haberbosch, Michael Scholz, Sein Schmidt, Stephan A Brandt
To evaluate task induced motor fatigue in a well-established finger tapping task, we analyzed tapping parameters and included the time course of measures of force. We hypothesized that a decline in tapping force would reflect task induced motor fatigue, defined by a lengthening of inter-tap intervals (ITI). A secondary aim was to investigate the reliability of tapping data acquisition with the force sensor. Results show that, as expected, tapping speed decreased linearly over time, due to both an increase of ITI and tap duration...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Shih-Chiao Tseng, Richard K Shields
We investigated the effects of vertical vibration and compressive load on soleus H-reflex amplitude and postactivation depression. We hypothesized that, in the presence of a compressive load, limb vibration induces a longer suppression of soleus H-reflex. Eleven healthy adults received vibratory stimulation at a fixed frequency (30 Hz) over two loading conditions (0% and 50% of individual's body weight). H-reflex amplitude was depressed ∼88% in both conditions during vibration. Cyclic application of compression after cessation of the vibration caused a persistent reduction in H-reflex excitability and postactivation depression for > 2...
November 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Inchon Park, John J Buchanan
This study examined physical training and observational training influences on motor learning and the development of visual discrimination processes. Participants were trained on a bimanual task (relative phase of +90°) defined by a visual training stimulus. There were 2 observational contexts: 1) model-only, watch a learning model, and 2) stimulus-only, watch the visual training stimulus. After 2 d of training, the learning models performed the +90° pattern with reduced error in 2 retention tests. Each observer group showed improvement in performance of the +90° pattern, with the stimulus-only group characterized by a more significant improvement...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Samuel J Wilson, Charles C Williams, Jacob R Gdovin, John D Eason, Lauren A Luginsland, Christopher M Hill, Harish Chander, Chip Wade, John C Garner
The use of vibrating platforms has become increasingly available, and popular at sports and rehabilitation institutes. Given the discrepancies in the literature regarding whole body vibration (WBV) and human reflexive responses, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of WBV on postural response latencies, as well as associated electromyography measures of the lower extremities during balance perturbations. Reflexive responses during backward and forward balance perturbations were examined before, after, and 10 min after a bout of WBV...
September 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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