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Journal of Motor Behavior

Steven Morrison, Karl M Newell
This study was designed to examine the effect of increasing age and type 2 diabetes on the average responses and inter- and intraindividual variability of falls risk, reaction time, strength, and walking speed for healthy older adults and older persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Seventy-five older individuals (controls) and 75 persons with T2DM aged between 50 and 79 years participated in the study. Assessments of falls risk, reaction time (RT), knee extension strength, and walking speed were conducted. The results revealed that advancing age for both control and T2DM groups was reflected by a progressive increase in falls risk, decreased leg strength and a decline (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kaitlin Oswald, Jin Bo
Bimanual coordination is an essential human function requiring efficient interhemispheric communication to produce coordinated movements. Previous research suggests a "bimanual advantage" phenomenon, where completing synchronized bimanual tasks results in less variability than unimanual tasks. Additionally, of hand dominance has been shown to influence coordinated performance. The present study examined the bimanual advantage in individuals with consistent and inconsistent handedness. It was predicted that participants with consistent handedness would not display a bimanual advantage unlike those with inconsistent handedness...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
L Vainio, T Mustonen, M Vainio
The study investigated whether number magnitude can influence vocal responses. Participants produced either short or long version of the vowel [ɑ] (Experiment 1), or high or low-pitched version of that vowel (Experiment 2), according to the parity of a visually presented number. In addition to measuring reaction times (RT) of vocal responses, we measured the intensity, the fundamental frequency (f0 ) and the first and second formants of the vocalization. The RTs showed that the long and high-pitched vocal responses were associated with large numbers, while short and low-pitched vocal responses were associated with small numbers...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Masahiro Shinya, Kazutoshi Kudo
This study aimed to investigate whether the isotropy bias (estimating one's own motor variance as an approximately circular distribution rather than a vertically elongated distribution) arises in tennis players for the estimation of the two-dimensional variance for forehand strokes in tennis (Experiment 1), as well as the process underlying the isotropy bias (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 31 tennis players were asked to estimate prospectively their distribution of ball landing positions. They were then instructed to hit 50 forehand strokes...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ya-Yun Lee, Beth E Fisher
It is well established that random practice compared to blocked practice enhances motor learning. Additionally, while information in the environment may be incidental, learning is also enhanced when an individual performs a task within the same environmental context in which the task was originally practiced. This study aimed to disentangle the effects of practice schedule and incidental/environmental context on motor learning. Participants practiced three finger sequences under either a random or blocked practice schedule...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Megan A Pope, Breanna E Studenka
Although, event and emergent timings are thought of as mutually exclusive, significant correlations between tapping and circle drawing (Baer, Thibodeau, Gralnick, Li, & Penhune, 2013 ; Studenka, Zelaznik, & Balasubramaniam, 2012 ; Zelaznik & Rosenbaum, 2010 ) suggest that emergent timing may not be as robust as once thought. We aimed to test this hypothesis in both a younger (18-25) and older (55-100) population. Participants performed one block of circle drawing as a baseline, then six blocks of tapping, followed by circle drawing...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jinsook Roh, Sang Wook Lee, Kevin D Wilger
Muscle coordination of isometric force production can be explained by a smaller number of modules. Variability in force output, however, is higher during exploratory/transient force development phases than force maintenance phase, and it is not clear whether the same modular structure underlies both phases. In this study, eight neurologically-intact adults isometrically performed target force matches in 54 directions at hands, and electromyographic (EMG) data from eight muscles were parsed into four sequential phases...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Matheus M Pacheco, Tsung-Yu Hsieh, Karl M Newell
Movement speed-accuracy trade-off is a function of the space-time constraints of the task. We investigated the space-time account of Hancock and Newell (1985) and the hypothesis of complementarity between the four moments of the error distribution in space and time. Twelve participants performed 15 conditions in a line drawing task composed of different spatial (10, 20, and 30 cm) and temporal (250 to 2,500 ms) criteria. The results showed that all moments of distributions changed systematically between conditions but there were some departures from the Hancock and Newell predictions...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Megan A Bryanton, Martin Bilodeau
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the removal of vision and/or surface compliance on postural stability in strength athletes who habitually use free-weights and compound movements in their training (i.e., powerlifters, Olympic weightlifters), and untrained individuals. Static and dynamic balance testing was performed with eyes open or closed on stable and memory foam surfaces. Both groups had similar increases in postural sway area and velocity during quiet standing testing; whereas group main effects and interactions for dynamic testing revealed that untrained participants experienced greater relative declines in postural performance when voluntary limits of stability are stressed, especially when both vision and surface compliance were deterred...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Brenda E Groen, Viola C Altmann, Ruud W Verhagen, Yves C Vanlandewijck, Noël L W Keijsers
Trunk coordination is essential for many activities of daily living in wheelchair users. This study investigated whether Fitts' law is applicable to trunk movements in a sitting position. Fourteen healthy adults performed two series of 24 tasks of trunk flexion-extension movements in a sitting position. The results showed significant linear relationships between average group movement time (MT) and index of difficulty (ID) over all tasks (r2 = 0.92) and within target distances (0.94 < r2 < 1.00). Target distance affected intercept and slope (P < 0...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Xin Li, Susanne M Morton
Motor sequences are learned explicitly or implicitly based on conscious awareness of the sequence. Interference happens when two sequences are learned successively. Here, we aimed to determine whether implicit and explicit sequence learning are affected differently by retrograde interference. Young healthy volunteers participated in either a control or interference group and either an explicit or implicit learning condition. We used a modified serial reaction time task to induce sequence learning and control awareness...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Rachael D Seidler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Junya Masumoto, Nobuyuki Inui
The present study tested the hypothesis that a load perturbation facilitates interpersonal compensation for force error. Ten groups performed both control and perturbation conditions. In the control condition, a target discrete peak force was the sum of 10% of the maximum voluntary contraction produced by two participants. In the perturbation condition, two cooperative participants a and b produced the same target force as the control condition, and the force produced by a non-cooperative participant c increased or decreased the total forces produced by participants a and b...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yu-Ting Tseng, Chia-Liang Tsai, Fu-Chen Chen, Jürgen Konczak
It is unclear, whether proprioceptive dysfunction in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is localized affecting only specific joints or whether it is generalized affecting proximal and distal joints. Thus, this study assessed position sense acuity at the elbow and wrist in twenty children with DCD (age: 9-11 yrs.) using a joint position matching paradigm. Position sense bias (systematic error) at either joint was not significantly higher in DCD children when compared to typically developing children (TD)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Maha Almarwani, Jessie M Van Swearingen, Subashan Perera, Patrick J Sparto, Jennifer S Brach
Walk ratio, defined as step length divided by cadence, indicates the coordination of gait. During free walking, deviation from the preferential walk ratio may reveal abnormalities of walking patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of rhythmic auditory cueing (metronome) on the neuromotor control of gait at different walking speeds. Forty adults (mean age 26.6 ± 6.0 years) participated in the study. Gait characteristics were collected using a computerized walkway. In the preferred walking speed, there was no significant difference in walk ratio between uncued (walk ratio = ...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Junya Masumoto, Nobuyuki Inui
The authors examined the force-sharing patterns in a joint action performed by a group of two, three, or four people compared with a solo action. In the joint actions, 28 participants produced periodic isometric forces such that the sum of forces they produced cycled between 5% and 10% maximum voluntary contraction with the right hand at 1 Hz. In both the three- and four-person tasks, the correlation between forces produced by two of the three or four participants was negative, and the remaining one or two participants produced intermediate forces...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yoonjin Choi, Yushin Kim, Minhee Kim, BumChul Yoon
Muscle synergy describes reduced set of functional muscle co-activation patterns. We aimed to identify muscle synergies of turning compared with straight walking. Twelve healthy adults (men: 7, women: 5) performed straight walking (SW), left turning (LT), and right turning (RT) at self-selected speeds. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), we extracted muscle synergies from sixteen electromyography (EMG) signals on the right side and assigned similar muscle synergies among SW, LT, and RT into the same cluster by combining k-means clustering and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
M Jongbloed-Pereboom, A Overvelde, M W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, B Steenbergen
A handwriting task was used to test the assumption that explicit learning is dependent on age and working memory, while implicit learning is not. The effect of age was examined by testing both, typically developing children (5-12 years old, n = 81) and adults (n = 27) in a counterbalanced within-subjects design. Participants were asked to repeatedly write letter-like patterns on a digitizer with a non-inking pen. Reproduction of the pattern was better after explicit learning compared to implicit learning. Age had positive effects on both explicit and implicit learning; working memory did not affect learning in either conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sean Müller, Ann-Maree Vallence, Carolee Winstein
A framework is presented of how theoretical predictions can be tested across the expert athlete to disabled patient skill continuum. Common-coding theory is used as the exemplar to discuss sensory and motor system contributions to perceptual-motor behavior. Behavioral and neural studies investigating expert athletes and patients recovering from cerebral stroke are reviewed. They provide evidence of bi-directional contributions of visual and motor systems to perceptual-motor behavior. Majority of this research is focused on perceptual-motor performance or learning, with less on transfer...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
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