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Journal of Motor Behavior

Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Peter Miklovič, Zdeněk Svoboda, Miroslav Janura
The authors investigate the ways in which varied postural responses to translating platform perturbations are associated with the variables of strength and power. Twenty-four physically active and 27 sedentary young adults were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (10 and 20 cm/s) and the respective accelerations (6.4 and 6.9 m/s(2)), constant distance (6 cm), and 4 directions of platform motion (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). They also performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and chair rising/chair jumping tests...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sushma Alphonsa, Boyi Dai, Tami Benham-Deal, Qin Zhu
Previously, we have shown that discrete and continuous rapid aiming tasks are governed by distinct visuomotor control mechanisms by assessing the combined visual illusion effects on the perceived and effective index of difficulty (ID). All participants were perceptually biased by the combined visual illusion before they performed the rapid aiming tasks. In the current study, the authors manipulated the order of performing perceptual and motor tasks to examine whether perceptual or motor experience with the illusory visual target would influence the subsequent perceived and effective ID in discrete and continuous tapping tasks...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Megan C Kirkland, Matthew B Downer, Brett J Holloway, Elizabeth M Wallack, Evan J Lockyer, Natasha C M Buckle, Courtney L Abbott, Michelle Ploughman
Measures of walking such as the timed 25-ft walk test (T25FWT) may not be able to detect subtle impairment in lower limb function among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined bipedal hopping to determine to what extent people with mild (Expanded Disease Severity Scale ≤ 3.5) MS (n = 13) would differ compared to age-, gender-, and education-matched controls (n = 9) and elderly participants (n = 13; ≥ 70 years old). We estimated lower limb power (e.g., hop length, velocity), consistency (e.g., variability of hop length, time), and symmetry (ratio of left to right foot)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Errol R Hoffmann
The 1-target advantage (OTA) has been found to occur in many circumstances and the current best explanation for this phenomenon is that of the movement integration hypothesis. The author's purpose is twofold: (a) to model the conditions under which there is integration of the movement components in a 2-component movement and (b) to study the factors that determine the magnitude of the OTA for both the first and second component of a 2-component movement. Results indicate that integration of movement components, where times for one component are affected by the geometry of the other component, occurs when 1 of the movement components is made ballistically...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Cédrick T Bonnet, Sébastien Szaffarczyk
In studies of postural control, a control task is often used to understand significant effects obtained with experimental manipulations. This task should be the easiest task and (therefore) engage the lowest behavioral variability and cognitive workload. Since 1983, the stationary-gaze task is considered as the most relevant control task. Instead, the authors expected that free looking at small targets (white paper or images; visual angle: 12°) could be an easier task. To verify this assumption, 16 young individuals performed stationary-gaze, white-panel, and free-viewing 12° tasks in steady and relaxed stances...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Claudia Casellato, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Giancarlo Ferrigno
Switching between contexts affects the mechanisms underlying motion planning, in particular it may entail reranking the variables to be controlled in defining the motor solutions. Three astronauts performed multiple sessions of whole-body pointing, in normogravity before launch, in prolonged weightlessness onboard the International Space Station, and after return. The effect of gravity context on kinematic and dynamic components was evaluated. Hand trajectory was gravity independent; center-of-mass excursion was highly variable within and between subjects...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Claire F Michaels, Thábata V B Gomes, Rodolfo N Benda
The theory of direct learning (D. M. Jacobs & C. F. Michaels, 2007 ) has proven useful in understanding improvement in perception and exploratory action. Here the authors assess its usefulness for understanding the learning of a motor skill, bimanual tapping at a difficult phase relation. Twenty participants attempted to learn to tap with 2 index fingers at 2 Hz with a phase lag of 90° (i.e., with a right-right period of 500 ms and a right-left period of 125 ms). There were 30 trials, each with 50 tapping cycles...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Erika Shirley Moreira da Silva, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Righetto Greco, Eloisa Tudella
The authors analyze the influence of different sitting positions (ring and flexion) on the reaching performance (spatiotemporal variables) of full-term infants 6 and 7 months old. In addition, they correlated level of trunk control, measured by the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control, with performance during reaching. The different sitting positions only influenced the reaching movements of 6-month-old infants, who showed the best performance in the ring position. However, this influence was observed only for the trunk displacement, deceleration time, movement units, straightness index and mean velocity...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Brodie J Ward, Ashleigh Thornton, Brendan Lay, Michael Rosenberg
Fundamental movement skill (FMS) assessment remains an important tool in classifying individuals' level of FMS proficiency. The collection of FMS performances for assessment and monitoring has remained unchanged over the last few decades, but new motion capture technologies offer opportunities to automate this process. To achieve this, a greater understanding of the human process of movement skill assessment is required. The authors present the rationale and protocols of a project in which they aim to investigate the visual search patterns and information extraction employed by human assessors during FMS assessment, as well as the implementation of the Kinect system for FMS capture...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Otmar Bock, Valentina Grigorova, Milena Ilieva-Staneva
The authors investigated whether the size of the attention focus can influence saccadic adaptation, and whether this influence changes in older age. Using the scrambled sentence task, young and older participants were either primed for a wide attention focus, or primed of a narrow attention focus, or were not primed for any specific attention focus. Subsequently, all participants underwent a double-step saccadic adaptation paradigm aimed at changing the direction of reflexive saccades. The authors found that compared to the nonprimed control group, priming for a wide attention focus enhanced saccadic adaptation in both age groups by a similar amount; the benefit persisted throughout the adaptation phase, but was absent during the deadaptation phase...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Bulmaro A Valdés, Stephanie M N Glegg, H F Machiel Van der Loos
The authors explored how trunk compensation and hand symmetry in stroke survivors and healthy controls were affected by the distance and height of virtual targets during a bimanual reaching task. Participants were asked to reach to 4 different virtual targets set at: 90% of their arm length at shoulder, xiphoid process, and knee height, and 50% of their arm length at xiphoid process height. For the stroke group, for all targets, the hands' movements were more asymmetrical than those of the healthy group, with more asymmetry observed in the direction of gravity, and trunk forward displacement values were larger and more variable...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Anja Staiger, Theresa Schölderle, Bettina Brendel, Kai Bötzel, Wolfram Ziegler
Measures of performance rates in speech-like or volitional nonspeech oral motor tasks are frequently used to draw inferences about articulation rate abnormalities in patients with neurologic movement disorders. The study objective was to investigate the structural relationship between rate measures of speech and of oral motor behaviors different from speech. A total of 130 patients with neurologic movement disorders and 130 healthy subjects participated in the study. Rate data was collected for oral reading (speech), rapid syllable repetition (speech-like), and rapid single articulator movements (nonspeech)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Gerd Schmitz, Valentina Grigorova
Eye and hand movements can adapt to a variety of sensorimotor discordances. Studies on adaptation of movement directions suggest that the oculomotor and the hand motor system access the same adaptive mechanism related to the polarity of a discordance, because concurrent adaptations to opposite directed discordances strongly interfere. The authors scrutinized whether participants adapt their hand and eye movements to opposite directions (clockwise/counterclockwise) when both motor systems are alternatingly exposed to opposite directed double steps, and whether such adaptation is influenced by the allocation of effector to adaptation direction...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Taisei Sugiyama, Sook-Lei Liew
Modifying sensory aspects of the learning environment can influence motor behavior. Although the effects of sensory manipulations on motor behavior have been widely studied, there still remains a great deal of variability across the field in terms of how sensory information has been manipulated or applied. Here, the authors briefly review and integrate the literature from each sensory modality to gain a better understanding of how sensory manipulations can best be used to enhance motor behavior. Then, they discuss 2 emerging themes from this literature that are important for translating sensory manipulation research into effective interventions...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Virginia Way Tong Chu
Proprioception is the subconscious and conscious awareness of the spatial and mechanical status of the musculoskeletal framework. When working with children with motor delays and sensory integrative dysfunction, occupational therapists routinely assess the client's proprioceptive system. However, currently available assessments for occupational therapists are primarily observer-based and concerns have been raised about the reliability of observer-based assessments of sensation. The author's purpose was to review measures of proprioception currently available to occupational therapists and explore direct measures of proprioception from neuroscience and rehabilitation that can be adapted for pediatric clinical use...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Hideaki Onishi
The authors aimed to calculate and compare cortical relay time (CRT) between intrinsic hand muscles and between homonymous muscles of dominant and nondominant hands. The participants comprised 22 healthy volunteers. The CRT for long-latency reflexes (LLRs) was calculated by subtracting the peak latency of somatosensory evoked potentials of component N20 and the onset latency of motor evoked potentials from the onset latency of LLRs. CRT was significantly shorter for the first dorsal interosseous muscle than for the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, regardless of hand dominance...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Rihab Borji, Haithem Rebai, Rym Baccouch, Rabeb Laatar, Sonia Sahli
This study aimed to explore the effect of local muscle fatigue on the unipedal stance in men with intellectual disability (ID). The Centre of pressure (CoP) excursions and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured before and after a fatiguing exercise. Higher baseline values of CoP excursions and lower MVC values were recorded in the ID group. After the fatiguing exercise, this group showed higher MVC decrease and higher percentage of increase of the mean CoP velocity. In conclusion, men with ID are more vulnerable to the disturbing effects of fatigue during the unipedal stance compared to men without ID...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
The author's aim was to analyze the cortical arousal response during a conventional strength training session as a method to assess central nervous system fatigue. Sixteen trained men were recruited to perform the maximum number of training series composed of 6 exercises of 10 repetition each, at the intensity of 70% of the 1 maximum repetition, with a rest period of 2 min between exercises and 5 min between series, until exhaustion. Cortical arousal was measured using the critical flicker fusion threshold before, after warm-up, after each exercises series, after the recovery phase between series, and 15 min and 30 min after finishing the training session...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kristin A Lowry, Katherine Sebastian, Subashan Perera, Jessie Van Swearingen, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
Simultaneous control of lower limb stepping movements and trunk motion is important for skilled walking; adapting gait to environmental constraints requires frequent alternations in stepping and trunk motion. These alterations provide a window into the locomotor strategies adopted by the walker. The authors examined gait strategies in young and healthy older adults when manipulating step width. Anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) smoothness (quantified by harmonic ratios) and stepping consistency (quantified by gait variability) were analyzed during narrow and wide walking while controlling cadence to preferred pace...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Guillaume Lamotte, Raj C Shah, Orly Lazarov, Daniel M Corcos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the prevalence will increase dramatically in the next decades. Although exercise has shown benefits for people with dementia due to AD as well as their caregivers, the impact of a dyadic exercise intervention including both groups as study participants remains to be determined. The authors review the current clinical evidence for dyadic exercise interventions, which are exercise regimens applied to both the person with dementia and the caregiver...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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