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Journal of Motor Behavior

Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Nelci Zanon, Manuela Galli, Felipe Fregni, Claudia Santos Oliveira
A review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions: Does motor cortex excitability correlate with motor function? Do motor cortex excitability and cortex activation change after a rehabilitation program that results in improvements in motor outcomes? Can the 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG) system be used to locate the primary motor cortex when employing transcranial direct current stimulation? Is there a bihemispheric imbalance in individuals with cerebral palsy similar to what is observed in stroke survivors? the authors found there is an adaptation in the geometry of motor areas and the cortical representation of movement is variable following a brain lesion...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Nienke W Willigenburg, Michael P McNally, Timothy E Hewett, Stephen J Page
The authors examined the efficacy of an 8-week regimen combining repetitive task-specific practice (RTP) with a myoelectric brace (RTP+Myomo) on paretic upper extremity (UE; use in valued activities, perceived recovery, and reaching kinematics) in 12 subjects (4 men; M age = 53.5 years; mean time poststroke = 61.7 months). Seven subjects were administered RTP+Myomo therapy, and 5 were administered RTP only. Both groups participated in individualized, 45-min therapy sessions occurring 3 days/week over an 8-week period...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ying Wei, Xinhai Shan
The authors' purpose was to test the effect of asymmetric hand lifting on muscular activation patterns of 3 bilateral extensors. Eighteen male university students without back pain were volunteered. Each performed flexion-extension randomly with conditions of right lifting, left lifting, and nonlifting. Surface electromyography from bilateral thoracic, lumbar erector spinae, and hamstring was recorded. The cross-correlation and relative intensity in paired muscles of bilateral extensors was calculated in flexion as well as extension period...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sutanu Dutta Chowdhury, Brian H Wrotniak, Tusharkanti Ghosh
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index and motor competence in Santal children 5-12 years old. A total of 816 Santal children were studied. Children's adiposity status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) for age z-score based on World Health Organization reference data. Motor competence was measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Competence (BOT-2). There was no significant difference in mean BMI z-score between Santal boys (0.13 ± 0.07) and girls (-0...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Roland van den Tillaar, Pål Fuglstad
The authors' purpose was to investigate if there is a speed accuracy trade-off in soccer kicking by using instructions prioritizing velocity, accuracy, or both upon soccer kicking performance and kicking direction in experienced soccer players. In addition, kinematics were measured to investigate the eventual differences in performance. Thirteen experienced male footballers performed penalty kicks with different instructions prioritizing velocity, accuracy or both. Three-dimensional kinematics, together with maximal ball velocity and hitting accuracy, were measured on all kicks...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kendra M Cherry-Allen, Jeff M Gidday, Jin-Moo Lee, Tamara Hershey, Catherine E Lang
The authors tested whether 2 doses of remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC), induced via blood pressure cuff inflation, enhanced motor and cognitive learning to an equal extent, and explored a panel of blood biomarkers of RLIC. Thirty-two young adults were randomized to 3 groups and underwent a 7-day protocol of RLIC/sham followed by motor and cognitive training, with follow-up. Both RLIC groups had greater motor learning and a trend toward greater cognitive learning compared with the sham group. RLIC at the lower inflation pressure was as effective as RLIC with the higher inflation pressure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Erika Zemková, Ol'ga Kyselovičová, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Gábor Ollé, Gabriela Štefániková, Tomáš Vilman, Miroslav Baláž, Timea Kurdiová, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová
The authors evaluated the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training (3 sessions/week) on body balance in a group of 25 overweight and obese individuals. Prior to and after the training, they performed static and task-oriented balance tests under various conditions. Mean center of pressure (CoP) velocity and mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis registered during a one-legged stance significantly decreased after the resistance training (19.1%, p = .024; 29.3%, p = .009). Mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis decreased significantly also during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open and closed (10...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Amit Sethi, Nick Stergiou, Tara S Patterson, Carolynn Patten, Lorie G Richards
Temporal structure reveals the potential adaptive strategies employed during upper extremity movements. The authors compared the temporal structure of upper extremity joints under 3 different reaching conditions: preferred speed, fast speed, and reaching with rhythmic auditory cues in 10 individuals poststroke. They also investigated the temporal structure of these 3 reaching conditions in 8 healthy controls to aid in the interpretation of the observed patterns in the poststroke cohort. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was used to measure the temporal structure of the upper extremity joints...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jess E Reynolds, Sophie Kerrigan, Catherine Elliott, Brendan S Lay, Melissa K Licari
It has been hypothesized that deficits in imitation, linked to abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), may contribute to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The authors aimed to examine imitation of complex novel postures and sequences of gestures in children with and without probable DCD (pDCD), using the postural praxis and sequencing praxis subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (Ayres, 1989 ). Participants were 29 boys with pDCD between 6...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sonja E Findlater, Sean P Dukelow
Proprioception is an important aspect of function that is often impaired in the upper extremity following stroke. Unfortunately, neurorehabilitation has few evidence based treatment options for those with proprioceptive deficits. The authors consider potential reasons for this disparity. In doing so, typical assessments and proprioceptive intervention studies are discussed. Relevant evidence from the field of neuroscience is examined. Such evidence may be used to guide the development of targeted interventions for upper extremity proprioceptive deficits after stroke...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Takehide Kimura, Fuminari Kaneko, Keita Nagahata, Eriko Shibata, Nobuhiro Aoki
The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Emily I McIntosh, John L Zettel, Lori Ann Vallis
The objective of this work was to investigate the influence perturbation direction has on postural responses during overground gait, and whether these responses are age related. Differences in stepping patterns following perturbations of the support surface were examined in the frontal and sagittal planes during forward walking. Eleven young and 10 older adults completed Mini BESTest, hip strength tests, and 45 perturbed walking trials, triggered on heel contact. Lateral perturbations were more challenging to postural stability for both groups...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Roberta Delasta Lazzari, Fabiano Politti, Stefany Ferreira Belina, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Cibele Almeida Santos, Arislander Jonathan Lopes Dumont, Jamile Benite Palma Lopes, Veronica Cimolin, Manuela Galli, Cláudia Santos Oliveira
The authors' aim was to investigate the effects of continuous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with virtual reality training on static and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty children with CP (6 girls and 14 boys; M age = 7 years 6 months ± 2 years) were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group received active tDCS and the control group received sham stimulation during the 10 sessions of virtual reality mobility training protocols. The children were evaluated on 3 occasions (preintervention, postintervention, and 1-month follow-up)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
J Stephens, C Salorio, M Denckla, S Mostofsky, S Suskauer
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a heterogeneous condition, varying in both severity and sequelae. The long-term motor deficits following severe TBI requiring inpatient rehabilitation are better established than those following milder forms of TBI. The authors examined motor performance 2 and 12 months postinjury in children without overt motor impairment using standard measures of upper limb function and the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS). The PANESS was sensitive to differences between children with TBI and uninjured children as well as to changes in children with TBI over time...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Alan H S Chan, Errol R Hoffmann
It has been demonstrated in previous work that the same neural structures are used for both imagined and real movements. To provide a strong test of the similarity of imagined and actual movement times, 4 simple movement tasks were used to determine the relationship between estimated task time and actual movement time. The tasks were single-component visually controlled movements, 2-component visually controlled, low index of difficulty (ID) moves and pin-to-hole transfer movements. For each task there was good correspondence between the mean estimated times and actual movement times...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Fabiana Rita Camara Machado, Priscilla Pereira Antunes, Jandara De Moura Souza, Antônio Cardoso Dos Santos, Daniela Centenaro Levandowski, Alcyr Alves De Oliveira
The authors aimed to investigate the effects of an intervention based on interactive game set with the movement sensor Kinect on children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight participants were recruited. Their age was between 3 and 12 years old, and rated as level I, II, or III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. They played two games from the Xbox 360 Kinect system and were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) after a period of 8 weeks. The intervention led to significant motor function improvement as increase of the global scores on the GMFM (p < ...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Errol R Hoffmann, Ilyas H Sheikh
Five experiments are reported related to control of arm movement in the sagittal and transverse planes when making paced and unpaced movements. A single group of 12 participants and the same equipment were used in the main experiments to allow comparisons across conditions. As well as the 2 different directions of movement, there were movements that were time-constrained (as in the W. D. A. Beggs & C. I. Howarth, 1971, 1972a,b paradigm) and movements that were constrained by the ending tolerance (as in Fitts' paradigm)...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ludger van Dijk, Corry van der Sluis, Raoul M Bongers
To allow different views on motor learning to inform rehabilitation research, the authors aimed to explicate a frequently missed yet fundamental difference in starting point of such views. By considering how rehabilitation in practice answers the question of what parts an activity consists of, reductive and emergent approaches to motor learning are identified and traced throughout rehabilitation practice. The authors show that when a task is cut up along reductive dimensions while also apparently relying on emergent components, this unequally favors the reductive approach and acts to limit the views on motor learning available...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Leah R Enders, Na Jin Seo
The effect of sensory deficits on power grip force from individual phalanges was examined. The authors found that stroke survivors with sensory deficits (determined by the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test) gripped with phalanx force directed more tangential to the object surface, than those without, although both groups had similar motor deficits (Chedoke-McMaster and Fugl-Meyer), grip strength, and skin friction. Altered grip force direction elevates risk of finger slippage against the object thus grip loss/object dropping, hindering activities of daily living...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Heather T Peters, Lorie Richards, Brittani A Basobas, Julie M Faieta, Stephen J Page
Stroke remains a leading cause of disability, with survivors experiencing long-term decrements in independence and quality of life. Occupational therapists (OTs) employ numerous neurorehabilitative treatment approaches to remediate impairments that are impeding performance. OTs also use physical agent modalities to facilitate increased participation and success in therapy. One such modality is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form a noninvasive brain stimulation that can be overlaid onto task practice and delivers a constant, low intensity current into the brain...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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