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Journal of Motor Behavior

Brenda E Groen, Viola C Altmann, Ruud W Verhagen, Yves C Vanlandewijck, Noël L W Keijsers
Trunk coordination is essential for many activities of daily living in wheelchair users. This study investigated whether Fitts' law is applicable to trunk movements in a sitting position. Fourteen healthy adults performed two series of 24 tasks of trunk flexion-extension movements in a sitting position. The results showed significant linear relationships between average group movement time (MT) and index of difficulty (ID) over all tasks (r2 = 0.92) and within target distances (0.94 < r2 < 1.00). Target distance affected intercept and slope (P < 0...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Xin Li, Susanne M Morton
Motor sequences are learned explicitly or implicitly based on conscious awareness of the sequence. Interference happens when two sequences are learned successively. Here, we aimed to determine whether implicit and explicit sequence learning are affected differently by retrograde interference. Young healthy volunteers participated in either a control or interference group and either an explicit or implicit learning condition. We used a modified serial reaction time task to induce sequence learning and control awareness...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Rachael D Seidler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Junya Masumoto, Nobuyuki Inui
The present study tested the hypothesis that a load perturbation facilitates interpersonal compensation for force error. Ten groups performed both control and perturbation conditions. In the control condition, a target discrete peak force was the sum of 10% of the maximum voluntary contraction produced by two participants. In the perturbation condition, two cooperative participants a and b produced the same target force as the control condition, and the force produced by a non-cooperative participant c increased or decreased the total forces produced by participants a and b...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yu-Ting Tseng, Chia-Liang Tsai, Fu-Chen Chen, Jürgen Konczak
It is unclear, whether proprioceptive dysfunction in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is localized affecting only specific joints or whether it is generalized affecting proximal and distal joints. Thus, this study assessed position sense acuity at the elbow and wrist in twenty children with DCD (age: 9-11 yrs.) using a joint position matching paradigm. Position sense bias (systematic error) at either joint was not significantly higher in DCD children when compared to typically developing children (TD)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Maha Almarwani, Jessie M Van Swearingen, Subashan Perera, Patrick J Sparto, Jennifer S Brach
Walk ratio, defined as step length divided by cadence, indicates the coordination of gait. During free walking, deviation from the preferential walk ratio may reveal abnormalities of walking patterns. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of rhythmic auditory cueing (metronome) on the neuromotor control of gait at different walking speeds. Forty adults (mean age 26.6 ± 6.0 years) participated in the study. Gait characteristics were collected using a computerized walkway. In the preferred walking speed, there was no significant difference in walk ratio between uncued (walk ratio = ...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Junya Masumoto, Nobuyuki Inui
The authors examined the force-sharing patterns in a joint action performed by a group of two, three, or four people compared with a solo action. In the joint actions, 28 participants produced periodic isometric forces such that the sum of forces they produced cycled between 5% and 10% maximum voluntary contraction with the right hand at 1 Hz. In both the three- and four-person tasks, the correlation between forces produced by two of the three or four participants was negative, and the remaining one or two participants produced intermediate forces...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yoonjin Choi, Yushin Kim, Minhee Kim, BumChul Yoon
Muscle synergy describes reduced set of functional muscle co-activation patterns. We aimed to identify muscle synergies of turning compared with straight walking. Twelve healthy adults (men: 7, women: 5) performed straight walking (SW), left turning (LT), and right turning (RT) at self-selected speeds. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), we extracted muscle synergies from sixteen electromyography (EMG) signals on the right side and assigned similar muscle synergies among SW, LT, and RT into the same cluster by combining k-means clustering and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
M Jongbloed-Pereboom, A Overvelde, M W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, B Steenbergen
A handwriting task was used to test the assumption that explicit learning is dependent on age and working memory, while implicit learning is not. The effect of age was examined by testing both, typically developing children (5-12 years old, n = 81) and adults (n = 27) in a counterbalanced within-subjects design. Participants were asked to repeatedly write letter-like patterns on a digitizer with a non-inking pen. Reproduction of the pattern was better after explicit learning compared to implicit learning. Age had positive effects on both explicit and implicit learning; working memory did not affect learning in either conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sean Müller, Ann-Maree Vallence, Carolee Winstein
A framework is presented of how theoretical predictions can be tested across the expert athlete to disabled patient skill continuum. Common-coding theory is used as the exemplar to discuss sensory and motor system contributions to perceptual-motor behavior. Behavioral and neural studies investigating expert athletes and patients recovering from cerebral stroke are reviewed. They provide evidence of bi-directional contributions of visual and motor systems to perceptual-motor behavior. Majority of this research is focused on perceptual-motor performance or learning, with less on transfer...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Hiroshi Matsui, Marika Ryu, Hideaki Kawabata
The role of visual feedback during movement is attributed to its accuracy, but findings regarding the utilization of this information are inconsistent. We developed a novel dot-placing task to investigate the role of vision in arm movements. Participants conducted pointing-like movements between two target stimuli at even spaces. In Experiment 1, visual feedback of targets and response positions was manipulated. Although visual loss of target stimuli hindered accuracy of movements, the absence of the position of previously placed dots had little effect...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Matthew Heath, Jillian Chan, Shirin Davarpanah Jazi
Tactile-based pantomime-grasping requires that a performer use their right hand to 'grasp' a target previously held in the palm of their opposite hand - a task examining how mechanoreceptive (i.e., tactile) feedback informs the motor system about an object property (i.e., size). Here, we contrasted pantomime-grasps performed with (H+) and without (H-) haptic feedback (i.e., thumb and forefinger position information derived from the grasping hand touching the object) with a condition providing visual KR (VKR) related to absolute target object size...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Tomotaka Suzuki, Kakuya Ogahara, Toshio Higashi, Kenichi Sugawara
We investigated the effects of cane use, lateral walking stability, and cane use practice on attentional demands during walking. Attentional demands were assessed using dual-task methodology with a reaction time (RT) task. Sixteen healthy young subjects performed the RT task during walking, before and after cane use practice under four conditions: with/without cane use while wearing normal/unstable shoes. Among normal shoe conditions, cane use resulted in longer RTs. In contrast, RTs were similar regardless of cane use in the unstable shoe conditions...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Aykut Eken, Didem Gökçay, Cemre Yılmaz, Bora Baskak, Ayşegül Baltacı, Murat Kara
Recent studies showed that fine motor control dysfunction was observed in fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome as well as allodynia. However, brain signatures of this association still remain unclear. In this study, finger tapping task (FTT) and median nerve stimulation (MNS) were applied to both hands of 15 FM patients and healthy controls (HC) to understand this relationship. Hemodynamic activity was measured simultaneously using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Experiments were analyzed separately by using 2x2 repeated measures ANOVA...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Y Crespo, M F Soriano, S Iglesias-Parro, J I Aznarte, A J Ibáñez-Molina
We explore the idea that cognitive demands of the handwriting would influence the degree of automaticity of the handwriting process, which in turn would affect the geometric parameters of texts. We compared the heterogeneity of handwritten texts in tasks with different cognitive demands; the heterogeneity of texts was analyzed with lacunarity, a measure of geometrical invariance. In Experiment 1, we asked participants to perform two tasks that varied in cognitive demands: transcription and exposition about an autobiographical episode...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yoshihiro Itaguchi, Kazuyoshi Fukuzawa
This study investigated the influences of task constraint on motor learning for a trajectory-based movement considering the speed-accuracy relationship. In the experiment, participants practiced trajectory-based movements for five consecutive days. The participants were engaged in training with time-minimization or time-matching constraints. The results demonstrated that the speed-accuracy tradeoff was not apparent or was weak in the training situation. When the participants practiced the movement with a time-minimization constraint, movement errors did not vary, whereas the movement time decreased...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Inchon Park, John J Buchanan
This study examined physical training and observational training influences on motor learning and the development of visual discrimination processes. Participants were trained on a bimanual task (relative phase of +90°) defined by a visual training stimulus. There were 2 observational contexts: 1) model-only, watch a learning model, and 2) stimulus-only, watch the visual training stimulus. After 2 d of training, the learning models performed the +90° pattern with reduced error in 2 retention tests. Each observer group showed improvement in performance of the +90° pattern, with the stimulus-only group characterized by a more significant improvement...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Shih-Chiao Tseng, Richard K Shields
We investigated the effects of vertical vibration and compressive load on soleus H-reflex amplitude and postactivation depression. We hypothesized that, in the presence of a compressive load, limb vibration induces a longer suppression of soleus H-reflex. Eleven healthy adults received vibratory stimulation at a fixed frequency (30 Hz) over two loading conditions (0% and 50% of individual's body weight). H-reflex amplitude was depressed ∼88% in both conditions during vibration. Cyclic application of compression after cessation of the vibration caused a persistent reduction in H-reflex excitability and postactivation depression for > 2...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Nicole T Ong, Nicola J Hodges
We report two experiments evaluating the impact of success-related feedback on learning of a balance task. In Exp. 1, we studied the influence of lax and conservative outcome feedback, as well as large vs. small improvements in outcome feedback on balance learning. Despite impacts on competency, there were no between-group differences in actual performance or learning. Because no comparative information was provided in Exp. 1, we tested four further groups that either did or did not receive positive or negative comparative feedback (Exp...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Samuel J Wilson, Charles C Williams, Jacob R Gdovin, John D Eason, Lauren A Luginsland, Christopher M Hill, Harish Chander, Chip Wade, John C Garner
The use of vibrating platforms has become increasingly available, and popular at sports and rehabilitation institutes. Given the discrepancies in the literature regarding whole body vibration (WBV) and human reflexive responses, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of WBV on postural response latencies, as well as associated electromyography measures of the lower extremities during balance perturbations. Reflexive responses during backward and forward balance perturbations were examined before, after, and 10 min after a bout of WBV...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
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