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Journal of Motor Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350286/head-and-trunk-control-while-walking-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-effects-of-balance-confidence
#1
Patricia Hewston, Nandini Deshpande
Investigations of gait in older adults with diabetes mellitus (DM) have been primarily focused on lower limb biomechanical parameters. Yet, the upper body accounts for two thirds of the body's mass, and head and trunk control are critical for balance. The authors examined head and trunk control during self-selected comfortable, fast, and dual-task walking and the relationship between balance confidence and potential head-trunk stiffening strategies in older adults with DM without diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350243/fitts-theorem-and-movement-time-dissociation-for-amplitude-and-width-manipulations-replying-to-hoffmann
#2
Matthew Heath, Luc Tremblay, Digby Elliott
The commentary by Errol Hoffmann asserts that previous work by our group provides the spurious conclusion that amplitude and width manipulations to a movement environment elicit dissociable relations between movement time (MT) and P. M. Fitts' (1954) index of difficulty (ID). Hoffmann concludes that any such dissociation is the result of actions evoked entirely as ballistic. In this reply, we demonstrate that Hoffmann's commentary is a clear misrepresentation of the study goals and conclusions stated by our group...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350240/the-effects-of-task-type-on-time-to-task-failure-during-fatigue-a-modified-s%C3%A3-rensen-test
#3
David W Russ, Andrew J Ross, Brian C Clark, James S Thomas
Understanding mechanisms of fatigue of the trunk extensors is important because fatigue is a major factor in predicting incidence of low back pain, but few studies have examined trunk extensor fatigue muscles using differing load types and measured the amplitude and frequency domain of the electromyographic signal to explain these differences. Sixteen healthy participants performed position- and force-matching fatigue tasks in a modified Sørensen test position. Time to task failure was significantly longer during the position-matching task compared to force-matching task (58...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350234/inclined-weight-loaded-walking-at-different-speeds-pelvis-shoulder-coordination-trunk-movements-and-cost-of-transport
#4
Rodrigo Gomes da Rosa, Natalia Andrea Gomeñuka, Henrique Bianchi de Oliveira, Leonardo Alexandre Peyré-Tartaruga
Although studied at level surface, the trunk kinematics and pelvis-shoulder coordination of incline walking are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the speed effects on pelvis-shoulder coordination and trunk movement and the cost of transport (C) during unloaded and loaded (25% of body mass) 15% incline walking. We collected 3-dimensional kinematic and oxygen consumption data from 10 physically active young men. The movements were analyzed in the sagittal plane (inclination and range of trunk motion) and the transverse plane (range of shoulder and pelvic girdle motion and phase difference)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350231/object-tool-actor-interaction-object-information-drives-intended-action
#5
Dave A Gonzalez, Sara M Scharoun, M E Cinelli, P J Bryden, J L Lyons, Eric A Roy
Tool use is typically explored via actor-tool interactions. However, the target-object (that which is being acted on) may influence perceived action possibilities and thereby guide action. Three different tool-target-object pairings were tested (Experiment 1). The hammering action demonstrated the greatest sensitivity and therefore subsequently used to further investigate target-object pairings. The hammer was removed as an option and instructions were provided using pictorial (Experiment 2), written (Experiment 3), and both pictorial and written formats (Experiment 4)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350227/the-impact-of-segmental-trunk-support-on-posture-and-reaching-while-sitting-in-healthy-adults
#6
Victor Santamaria, Jaya Rachwani, Wayne Manselle, Sandra L Saavedra, Marjorie Woollacott
The authors investigated postural and arm control in seated reaches while providing trunk support at midribs and pelvic levels in adults. Kinematics and electromyography of the arm and ipsiliateral and contralateral paraspinal muscles were examined before and during reaching. Kinematics remained constant across conditions, but changes were observed in neuromuscular control. With midribs support, the ipsilateral cervical muscle showed either increased anticipatory activity or earlier compensatory muscle responses, suggesting its major role in head stabilization...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328304/influence-of-additional-ankle-weights-on-kinematic-variables-of-late-preterm-infants-aged-3-4-months
#7
Jadiane Dionisio, Gabriela Lopes Dos Santos, Eloisa Tudella
The authors analyzed and compared the effect of additional weight on the spatiotemporal parameters of the kicking movement of late preterm and full-term infants. The experiment was divided into 4 conditions: training, baseline, weight, and postweight. In the W condition, a weight of one third the lower limb mass was added to the infant's ankle. During the baseline and postweight conditions, the ankle weight was removed. Late preterm infants do not differ from full-term infants in relation to spatiotemporal variables at 3 and 4 months...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287933/analysis-of-pelvis-thorax-coordination-patterns-of-professional-and-amateur-golfers-during-golf-swing
#8
Taeyong Sim, Hakje Yoo, Ahnryul Choi, Ki Young Lee, Mun-Taek Choi, Soeun Lee, Joung Hwan Mun
The aim of this research was to quantify the coordination pattern between thorax and pelvis during a golf swing. The coordination patterns were calculated using vector coding technique, which had been applied to quantify the coordination changes in coupling angle (γ) between two different segments. For this, fifteen professional and fifteen amateur golfers who had no significant history of musculoskeletal injuries. There was no significant difference in coordination patterns between the two groups for rotation motion during backswing (p = 0...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287928/-eppur-si-move-the-association-between-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-signatures-of-perceived-movement-illusions
#9
Michela Balconi, Davide Crivelli, Marco Bove
Vibration applied to muscle tendons induces an illusory perception of movement by activating spindle receptors and Ia afferent fibers. While neural structures supporting such illusions are quite defined, functional and psychophysical correlates of their perception have not been deeply investigated. The authors aimed at exploring subjective perception of illusory movements thanks to a repeated-stimulation multimodal approach. The integrated analysis of electroencephalography, source data (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography-sLORETA), and psychophysical evaluation pointed at the activation of a frontoparietal sensorimotor network, with prefrontal-medial regions mainly involved in supporting the awareness for illusory movements...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140781/standard-and-short-rom-isokinetic-testing-comparative-analysis-in-identifying-submaximal-shoulder-external-rotator-effort
#10
Eduard Pujol, Joaquim Chaler, Laura Sucarrats, Inés López, Blanca Zeballos, Roser Garreta, Zeevi Dvir
An isokinetic-related parameter termed the difference between eccentric-concentric strength ratios at two distinct test velocities (DEC) based on 60° (standard) range of motion (RoM) has been proven to be highly efficient detecting feigned muscular efforts. This study aimed to verify whether a DEC derived from a much shorter test RoM (20°) was equally useful than a long RoM-derived one. Eighteen healthy men (32.4 ± 6.4 years old) took part in a study focusing on shoulder external rotation isokinetic strength...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139169/validation-of-a-behavioral-approach-for-measuring-saccades-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Travis H Turner, Jenna B Renfroe, Amy Duppstadt-Delambo, Vanessa K Hinson
Speed and control of saccades are related to disease progression and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD). Traditional eye-tracking complexities encumber application for individual evaluations and clinical trials. The authors examined psychometric properties of standalone tasks for reflexive prosaccade latency, volitional saccade initiation, and saccade inhibition (antisaccade) in a heterogeneous sample of 65 PD patients. Demographics had minimal impact on task performance. Thirty-day test-retest reliability estimates for behavioral tasks were acceptable and similar to traditional eye tracking...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139168/amplitude-and-width-manipulations-in-fitts-paradigm-comment-on-heath-et%C3%A2-al-2011-and-heath-et%C3%A2-al-2016
#12
Errol R Hoffmann
Heath, Weiler, Marriott, Elliott, and Binstead ( 2011 ) and Heath, Samani, Tremblay, and Elliott ( 2016 ) have claimed that there are dissociable movement times for amplitude and width manipulations in the Fitts' paradigm. This may to some extent be true, but the Heath et al. ( 2011 ) and Heath et al. ( 2016 ) data do not support that contention, as shown in this comment. It is shown that data from the research of Heath et al. is not in the range of index of difficulty where ongoing visual control would be used and hence their fits of data to Fitts' law are spurious...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136140/whole-body-coordination-and-knee-movement-control-during-five-rehabilitation-exercises
#13
Robert W M van Deursen, Kate Button, Paulien E Roos
Knee rehabilitation exercises to improve motor control, target movement fluency, and displacement variability. Although knee movement in the frontal plane during exercise is routinely assessed in clinical practice, optimal knee control remains poorly understood. In this study, 29 healthy participants (height: 1.73 ± 0.11 m, mass: 73.5 ± 16.4 kg, age: 28.0 ± 6.9 years) performed 4 repetitions of 5 rehabilitation exercises while motion data were collected using the VICON PlugInGait full-body marker set. Fluency and displacement variability were calculated for multiple landmarks, including center of mass (CoM) and knee joint centers...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327058/extending-energy-optimization-in-goal-directed-aiming-from-movement-kinematics-to-joint-angles
#14
James J Burkitt, Raoul M Bongers, Digby Elliott, Steve Hansen, James L Lyons
Energy optimization in goal-directed aiming has been demonstrated as an undershoot bias in primary movement endpoint locations, especially in conditions where corrections to target overshoots must be made against gravity. Two-component models of upper limb movement have not yet considered how joint angles are organized to deal with the energy constraints associated with moving the upper limb in goal-directed aiming tasks. To address this limitation, participants performed aiming movements to targets in the up and down directions with the index finger and two types of rod extensions attached to the index finger...
March 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277966/movement-based-priming-clinical-applications-and-neural-mechanisms
#15
Mary Ellen Stoykov, Daniel Montie Corcos, Sangeetha Madhavan
Priming can be described as behavior change generated by preceding stimuli. Although various types of priming have been long studied in the field of psychology, priming that targets motor cortex is a relatively new topic of research in the fields of motor control and rehabilitation. In reference to a rehabilitation intervention, priming is categorized as a restorative approach. There are a myriad of possible priming approaches including noninvasive brain stimulation, motor imagery, and sensory-based priming, to name a few...
January 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277965/effects-of-an-occupational-therapy-hand-dominance-transfer-intervention-for-soldiers-with-crossed-hand-eye-dominance
#16
Michelle Luken, Kathleen E Yancosek
Crossed dominance (CD) is defined as an individual's dominant hand and dominant eye being on opposite sides of the body. CD negatively impacts an individual's ability to accurately aim and fire long-barreled guns. The authors developed and evaluated a hand dominance transfer (HDT) intervention to improve the M16 rifle shooting accuracy, efficiency, and skill transfer. Twenty-four U.S. Army soldiers with CD were taught how to handle and fire an M16 rifle using the nondominant hand. Training was conducted at a military, indoor laser-equipped weapons simulator...
January 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166485/neuroimaging-and-occupational-therapy-bridging-the-gap-to-advance-rehabilitation-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#17
Meisan Brown-Lum, Jill G Zwicker
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor motor skills that interfere with a child's ability to perform everyday activities. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that implicate DCD, making it difficult to understand why children with DCD struggle to learn motor skills and selecting the best intervention to optimize function. Neuroimaging studies that utilize magnetic resonance imaging techniques have the capacity to play a critical role in helping to guide clinicians to optimize functional outcomes of children with DCD using evidence-based rehabilitation interventions...
January 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166475/influence-of-motor-cortex-stimulation-during-motor-training-on-neuroplasticity-as-a-potential-therapeutic-intervention
#18
Crystal L Massie, Caylen White, Katie Pruit, Aubrey Freel, Kaylin Staley, Morgan Backes
Rehabilitation options to promote neuroplasticity may be enhanced when patients are engaged in motor practice during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve participants completed 3 separate sessions: motor practice, motor practice with rTMS, and rTMS only: motor practice consisted of 30 isometric contractions and subthreshold rTMS was 30, 3-s trains at 10 Hz. Assessments included the Box and Block Test (BBT), force steadiness (10% of the maximum voluntary contraction), and TMS (cortical excitability, intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation)...
January 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166469/promoting-translational-research-among-movement-science-occupational-science-and-occupational-therapy
#19
Robert L Sainburg, Sook-Lei Liew, Scott H Frey, Florence Clark
Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors...
January 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935445/the-effects-of-sensory-manipulations-on-motor-behavior-from-basic-science-to-clinical-rehabilitation
#20
Taisei Sugiyama, Sook-Lei Liew
Modifying sensory aspects of the learning environment can influence motor behavior. Although the effects of sensory manipulations on motor behavior have been widely studied, there still remains a great deal of variability across the field in terms of how sensory information has been manipulated or applied. Here, the authors briefly review and integrate the literature from each sensory modality to gain a better understanding of how sensory manipulations can best be used to enhance motor behavior. Then, they discuss 2 emerging themes from this literature that are important for translating sensory manipulation research into effective interventions...
January 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
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