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Journal of Motor Behavior

Yuzuko C Nakamura, Carol A O'Sullivan, Nancy S Pollard
The use of both hands simultaneously when manipulating objects is fairly commonplace, but it is not known what factors encourage people to use two hands as opposed to one during simple tasks such as transport. In particular, we are interested in three possible transport strategies: unimanual transport, handing off between hands, and symmetric bimanual transport. In this study, we investigate the effect of object size, weight, and starting and ending position (configuration) as well as the need to balance the object on the use of these three strategies in a bowl-moving task...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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May 2, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Danielle E Levac, Amy S Lu
Augmented feedback has motivational and informational functions in motor learning, and is a key feature of practice in a virtual environment (VE). This study evaluated the impact of narrative (story-based) feedback as compared to standard feedback during practice of a novel task in a VE on typically developing children's motor learning, motivation and engagement. Thirty-eight children practiced navigating through a virtual path, receiving narrative or non-narrative feedback following each trial. All participants improved their performance on retention but not transfer, with no significant differences between groups...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
D Adam Quirk, Cheryl L Hubley-Kozey
Theoretical models suggest trunk muscle activation compensates for spinal systems impairments. The purpose of this study was to determine if two populations (older adults and those recovered from a lower back injury (rLBI)) with spinal system impairments have similar muscle activation patterns to each other, but differ from controls. Trunk electromyograms collected from 12 older adults, 16 rLBI, and 19 controls during two dynamic tasks showed that older adults and rLBI had higher activation amplitudes, sustained temporal and more synergistic activation relative to controls...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Mariana Callil Voos, Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Janini Chen, Debora Cristina Valente Francato, Matija Milosevic, Milos Popovic, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Hsin Fen Chien, Egberto Reis Barbosa
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between posturography, clinical balance, and executive function tests in Parkinson´s disease (PD). Seventy-one people participated in the study. Static posturography evaluated the center of pressure fluctuations in quiet standing and dynamic posturography assessed sit-to-stand, tandem walk, and step over an obstacle. Functional balance was evaluated by Berg Balance Scale, MiniBESTest, and Timed Up and Go test. Executive function was assessed by Trail Making Test (TMT) and semantic verbal fluency test...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Alexis Sánchez-Tormo, José A García-Pérez, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Luis M González, Xavier García-Massó
The purpose was to find better augmented visual feedback frequency (100% or 67%) for learning a balance task in adolescents. Thirty subjects were divided randomly into a control group, and 100% and 67% feedback groups. The three groups performed pretest (3 trials), practice (12 trials), posttest (3 trials) and retention (3 trials, 24 hours later). The reduced feedback group showed lower RMS in the posttest than in the pretest (p = 0.04). The control and reduced feedback groups showed significant lower median frequency in the posttest than in the pretest (p < 0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Germán Gálvez-García, Javiera Peña, Javier Albayay, Henri Cohen
We investigated the extent to which a complex finger sequence impacts on hand switching costs in a sequential action. Response component latencies (premotor, motor, and movement) were compared in no-switch (same finger performed the action of pressing and reaching) and switch conditions (pressing with one finger and completing the reaching action with the homologous finger from the other hand). Results showed that the switch condition presented longer latency for premotor and movement components. For the motor component, however, switch condition was faster...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Silvia Leticia Pavão, Ana Carolina de Campos, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
OBJECTIVE: To assess age-related changes in postural sway during sit-to-stand (STS) in typical children (TC) and children with mild cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Thirty-five TC and 23 children with mild CP were allocated in four different age groups: 5-6, 7-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years; they all performed STS movements over a force plate. Anterior-posterior and medial-lateral amplitude of center of pressure (CoP) displacement, area and velocity of CoP sway were analyzed and compared between the age groups for TC and children with CP...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Mark van de Ruit, Michael J Grey
Motor learning has been linked with increases in corticospinal excitability (CSE). However, the robustness of this link is unclear. In this study, changes in CSE associated with learning a visuomotor tracking task were mapped using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS maps were obtained before and after training with the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of the dominant and nondominant hand, and for a distal (FDI) and proximal (biceps brachii) muscle. Tracking performance improved following 20 min of visuomotor training, while map area was unaffected...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Steven Morrison, Karl M Newell
This study was designed to examine the effect of increasing age and type 2 diabetes on the average responses and inter- and intraindividual variability of falls risk, reaction time, strength, and walking speed for healthy older adults and older persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Seventy-five older individuals (controls) and 75 persons with T2DM aged between 50 and 79 years participated in the study. Assessments of falls risk, reaction time (RT), knee extension strength, and walking speed were conducted. The results revealed that advancing age for both control and T2DM groups was reflected by a progressive increase in falls risk, decreased leg strength and a decline (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Kaitlin Oswald, Jin Bo
Bimanual coordination is an essential human function requiring efficient interhemispheric communication to produce coordinated movements. Previous research suggests a "bimanual advantage" phenomenon, where completing synchronized bimanual tasks results in less variability than unimanual tasks. Additionally, of hand dominance has been shown to influence coordinated performance. The present study examined the bimanual advantage in individuals with consistent and inconsistent handedness. It was predicted that participants with consistent handedness would not display a bimanual advantage unlike those with inconsistent handedness...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
L Vainio, T Mustonen, M Vainio
The study investigated whether number magnitude can influence vocal responses. Participants produced either short or long version of the vowel [ɑ] (Experiment 1), or high or low-pitched version of that vowel (Experiment 2), according to the parity of a visually presented number. In addition to measuring reaction times (RT) of vocal responses, we measured the intensity, the fundamental frequency (f0 ) and the first and second formants of the vocalization. The RTs showed that the long and high-pitched vocal responses were associated with large numbers, while short and low-pitched vocal responses were associated with small numbers...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Masahiro Shinya, Kazutoshi Kudo
This study aimed to investigate whether the isotropy bias (estimating one's own motor variance as an approximately circular distribution rather than a vertically elongated distribution) arises in tennis players for the estimation of the two-dimensional variance for forehand strokes in tennis (Experiment 1), as well as the process underlying the isotropy bias (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 31 tennis players were asked to estimate prospectively their distribution of ball landing positions. They were then instructed to hit 50 forehand strokes...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ya-Yun Lee, Beth E Fisher
It is well established that random practice compared to blocked practice enhances motor learning. Additionally, while information in the environment may be incidental, learning is also enhanced when an individual performs a task within the same environmental context in which the task was originally practiced. This study aimed to disentangle the effects of practice schedule and incidental/environmental context on motor learning. Participants practiced three finger sequences under either a random or blocked practice schedule...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Terry B J Kuo, Jia-Yi Li, Chung-Yu Chen, Yu-Cheng Lin, Mei-Wun Tsai, Shun-Ping Lin, Cheryl C H Yang
Studies using a triaxial accelerometer and heart rate (HR) simultaneously for estimating energy expenditure (EE) during uphill exercise are rare. Exploring the optimal location for placing the accelerometer for predicting EE during uphill exercise is essential. Sixteen healthy male participants (M ± SEM; age 25.00 ± 0.61 years; body weight 74.13 ± 2.51 kg; body height 1.74 ± 0.01 m; body mass index 24.30 ± 0.63 kg/m2 ) exercised on a treadmill under 12 conditions (4 speeds and 3 gradients) on 3 days. Triaxial accelerometers, an HR recorder, and a metabolic measurement system were simultaneously used...
March 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Sangsoo Park, Waneen Spirduso, Tim Eakin, Lawrence Abraham
The authors investigated how varying the required low-level forces and the direction of force change affect accuracy and variability of force production in a cyclic isometric pinch force tracking task. Eighteen healthy right-handed adult volunteers performed the tracking task over 3 different force ranges. Root mean square error and coefficient of variation were higher at lower force levels and during minimum reversals compared with maximum reversals. Overall, the thumb showed greater root mean square error and coefficient of variation scores than did the index finger during maximum reversals, but not during minimum reversals...
March 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
David Phillips, Andrew Karduna
In practice, a single test is used to quantify an individual's proprioception. Previous studies have not found a correlation between joint position sense (JPS) and force sense (FS), which are submodalities of proprioception. The purpose of the present study is to determine if root mean square (RMS) error in JPS and FS are related at the shoulder, controlling for external load and elevation angle. Active shoulder angle and force reproduction protocols were performed. No correlation was found between JPS and FS (r = -...
March 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Elżbieta Szczygieł, Jędrzej Blaut, Katarzyna Zielonka-Pycka, Krzysztof Tomaszewski, Joanna Golec, Dorota Czechowska, Agata Masłoń, Edward Golec
Postural control and breathing are mechanically and neuromuscularly interdependent. Both systems- of spinal stability and respiration- involve the diaphragm, transversus abdominis, intercostal muscles, internal oblique muscles and pelvic floor muscles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of exercises activating deep stabilizer muscles on postural control and quality of breathing movements. Eighteen volunteers (25,7 ± 3,5) were recruited from the general population. All the subjects implemented an exercise program activating deep muscles...
March 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Timothy A Worden, Lori Ann Vallis
Training protocols designed to improve dual-task performance of an obstacle crossing and auditory Stroop task (OBS+Stroop) were tested. In Experiment  1 , following baseline collection of OBS+Stroop trials, proximally related walking training was performed, and participants were then retested on the OBS+Stroop test. After training, participants adopted a more cautious obstacle crossing strategy, indicating a potentially safer navigation strategy. Transfer effects from distally related training were then examined (Experiment  2 ); a computer game training paradigm was examined using the same testing protocol as Experiment  1 ...
March 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Silvia Leticia Pavão, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
The authors aimed to compare the weight bearing on hands during sit-to-stand (STS) movement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typical children (TC), verify its effect on postural oscillation, and analyze the relationship between weight bearing on hands and postural oscillation. Twenty children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) and 35 TC performed STS with and without anterior hands support. Mann-Whitney test compared weight bearing between groups. Wilcoxon test investigated differences in postural oscillation between the conditions with and without anterior hand support for both groups...
March 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
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