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Journal of Motor Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813231/time-frequency-cross-mutual-information-analysis-of-the-brain-functional-networks-underlying-multiclass-motor-imagery
#1
Anmin Gong, Jianping Liu, Si Chen, Yunfa Fu
To study the physiologic mechanism of the brain during different motor imagery (MI) tasks, the authors employed a method of brain-network modeling based on time-frequency cross mutual information obtained from 4-class (left hand, right hand, feet, and tongue) MI tasks recorded as brain-computer interface (BCI) electroencephalography data. The authors explored the brain network revealed by these MI tasks using statistical analysis and the analysis of topologic characteristics, and observed significant differences in the reaction level, reaction time, and activated target during 4-class MI tasks...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813229/cortical-networks-for-correcting-errors-in-sensorimotor-synchronization-depend-on-the-direction-of-asynchrony
#2
K J Jantzen, Benjamin R Ratcliff, McNeel G Jantzen
Recent work provides clues that different cortical mechanisms may be employed when correcting for errors in sensorimotor synchronization that increase tap-tone asynchrony compared with those that decrease it. The authors tested this hypothesis by recording 64-channel electroencephalography while participants synchronized with an auditory metronome. We systematically introduced positive and negative phase-shift perturbations that were either liminal (10%) and subliminal (3%). We used a distributed source modeling approach to evaluate oscillatory activity and connectivity of discrete cortical sources...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644923/examining-transfer-effects-of-dual-task-training-protocols-for-a-complex-locomotor-task
#3
Timothy A Worden, Lori Ann Vallis
Training protocols designed to improve dual-task performance of an obstacle crossing and auditory Stroop task (OBS+Stroop) were tested. In Experiment  1 , following baseline collection of OBS+Stroop trials, proximally related walking training was performed, and participants were then retested on the OBS+Stroop test. After training, participants adopted a more cautious obstacle crossing strategy, indicating a potentially safer navigation strategy. Transfer effects from distally related training were then examined (Experiment  2 ); a computer game training paradigm was examined using the same testing protocol as Experiment  1 ...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644922/hands-support-and-postural-oscillation-during-sit-to-stand-movement-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-typical-children
#4
Silvia Leticia Pavão, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
The authors aimed to compare the weight bearing on hands during sit-to-stand (STS) movement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typical children (TC), verify its effect on postural oscillation, and analyze the relationship between weight bearing on hands and postural oscillation. Twenty children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) and 35 TC performed STS with and without anterior hands support. Mann-Whitney test compared weight bearing between groups. Wilcoxon test investigated differences in postural oscillation between the conditions with and without anterior hand support for both groups...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644921/targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep-but-not-wake-enhances-sensorimotor-skill-performance-a-pilot-study
#5
Brian P Johnson, Steven M Scharf, Kelly P Westlake
The benefits of sleep on memory consolidation have been enhanced for declarative and motor sequence learning through replaying classically conditioned auditory stimuli during sleep, known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). However, it is unknown if TMR can influence performance of a sensorimotor skill, in the absence of the cognitive requirements of sequence learning. Here, young adults performed a nondominant arm throwing task separated by a full night of sleep or a full day of wake, with half of all participants receiving TMR between sessions...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644768/error-feedback-frequency-affects-automaticity-but-not-accuracy-and-consistency-after-extensive-motor-skill-practice
#6
Daniel Krause, Manfred Agethen, Christina Zobe
Earlier studies addressed the effects of feedback frequency on movement accuracy and consistency. The authors additionally addressed the effects on motor automatization. High error feedback frequencies may induce attentional control processes and impede motor automatization. In a pre-post design, 42 participants were assigned to 2 groups with different feedback frequencies and practiced an arm movement sequence with 760 trials in 5 sessions. The 100% group practiced with feedback on 3 movement reversals of the sequence after each trial...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644766/independent-development-of-imagination-and-perception-of-fitts-law-in-late-childhood-and-adolescence
#7
Emma Yoxon, Timothy N Welsh
Recent neurophysiological and behavioral research suggests perception-action systems are tightly coupled. Accordingly, Fitts' law has been observed when individuals execute, perceive, and imagine actions. Developmental research has found that (a) children demonstrate Fitts' law in imagined actions and (b) imagined movement time (MT) becomes closer to actual MT as age increases. However, action execution, imagination, and perception have yet to be assessed together in children. The authors investigated how imagined and perceived MTs related to actual MTs in children and adolescents...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644719/shaping-of-reach-to-grasp-kinematics-by-intentions-a-meta-analysis
#8
Ida Egmose, Simo Køppe
When we reach to grasp something, we need to take into account both the properties of the object we are grasping and the intention we have in mind. Previous research has found these constraints to be visible in the reach-to-grasp kinematics, but there is no consensus on which kinematic parameters are the most sensitive. To examine this, a systematic literature search and meta-analyses were performed. The search identified studies assessing how changes in either an object property or a prior intention affect reach-to-grasp kinematics in healthy participants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935438/assessing-proprioception-in-children-a-review
#9
Virginia Way Tong Chu
Proprioception is the subconscious and conscious awareness of the spatial and mechanical status of the musculoskeletal framework. When working with children with motor delays and sensory integrative dysfunction, occupational therapists routinely assess the client's proprioceptive system. However, currently available assessments for occupational therapists are primarily observer-based and concerns have been raised about the reliability of observer-based assessments of sensation. The author's purpose was to review measures of proprioception currently available to occupational therapists and explore direct measures of proprioception from neuroscience and rehabilitation that can be adapted for pediatric clinical use...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935436/difference-in-cortical-relay-time-between-intrinsic-muscles-of-dominant-and-nondominant-hands
#10
Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Hideaki Onishi
The authors aimed to calculate and compare cortical relay time (CRT) between intrinsic hand muscles and between homonymous muscles of dominant and nondominant hands. The participants comprised 22 healthy volunteers. The CRT for long-latency reflexes (LLRs) was calculated by subtracting the peak latency of somatosensory evoked potentials of component N20 and the onset latency of motor evoked potentials from the onset latency of LLRs. CRT was significantly shorter for the first dorsal interosseous muscle than for the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, regardless of hand dominance...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935434/unilateral-fatigue-affects-the-unipedal-postural-balance-in-individuals-with-intellectual-disability
#11
Rihab Borji, Haithem Rebai, Rym Baccouch, Rabeb Laatar, Sonia Sahli
This study aimed to explore the effect of local muscle fatigue on the unipedal stance in men with intellectual disability (ID). The Centre of pressure (CoP) excursions and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured before and after a fatiguing exercise. Higher baseline values of CoP excursions and lower MVC values were recorded in the ID group. After the fatiguing exercise, this group showed higher MVC decrease and higher percentage of increase of the mean CoP velocity. In conclusion, men with ID are more vulnerable to the disturbing effects of fatigue during the unipedal stance compared to men without ID...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754798/motor-cortex-plasticity-in-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#12
Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Luanda André Collange Grecco, Nelci Zanon, Manuela Galli, Felipe Fregni, Claudia Santos Oliveira
A review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions: Does motor cortex excitability correlate with motor function? Do motor cortex excitability and cortex activation change after a rehabilitation program that results in improvements in motor outcomes? Can the 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG) system be used to locate the primary motor cortex when employing transcranial direct current stimulation? Is there a bihemispheric imbalance in individuals with cerebral palsy similar to what is observed in stroke survivors? the authors found there is an adaptation in the geometry of motor areas and the cortical representation of movement is variable following a brain lesion...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740907/muscular-activation-pattern-of-bilateral-extensors-response-to-asymmetric-hand-lifting-during-trunk-flexion-extension-performance
#13
Ying Wei, Xinhai Shan
The authors' purpose was to test the effect of asymmetric hand lifting on muscular activation patterns of 3 bilateral extensors. Eighteen male university students without back pain were volunteered. Each performed flexion-extension randomly with conditions of right lifting, left lifting, and nonlifting. Surface electromyography from bilateral thoracic, lumbar erector spinae, and hamstring was recorded. The cross-correlation and relative intensity in paired muscles of bilateral extensors was calculated in flexion as well as extension period...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740895/effect-of-instructions-prioritizing-speed-or-accuracy-on-kinematics-and-kicking-performance-in-football-players
#14
Roland van den Tillaar, Pål Fuglstad
The authors' purpose was to investigate if there is a speed accuracy trade-off in soccer kicking by using instructions prioritizing velocity, accuracy, or both upon soccer kicking performance and kicking direction in experienced soccer players. In addition, kinematics were measured to investigate the eventual differences in performance. Thirteen experienced male footballers performed penalty kicks with different instructions prioritizing velocity, accuracy or both. Three-dimensional kinematics, together with maximal ball velocity and hitting accuracy, were measured on all kicks...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726693/unilateral-stability-and-visual-feedback-body-control-improves-after-three-month-resistance-training-in-overweight-individuals
#15
Erika Zemková, Ol'ga Kyselovičová, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Gábor Ollé, Gabriela Štefániková, Tomáš Vilman, Miroslav Baláž, Timea Kurdiová, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová
The authors evaluated the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training (3 sessions/week) on body balance in a group of 25 overweight and obese individuals. Prior to and after the training, they performed static and task-oriented balance tests under various conditions. Mean center of pressure (CoP) velocity and mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis registered during a one-legged stance significantly decreased after the resistance training (19.1%, p = .024; 29.3%, p = .009). Mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis decreased significantly also during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open and closed (10...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726691/poor-imitative-performance-of-unlearned-gestures-in-children-with-probable-developmental-coordination-disorder
#16
Jess E Reynolds, Sophie Kerrigan, Catherine Elliott, Brendan S Lay, Melissa K Licari
It has been hypothesized that deficits in imitation, linked to abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), may contribute to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The authors aimed to examine imitation of complex novel postures and sequences of gestures in children with and without probable DCD (pDCD), using the postural praxis and sequencing praxis subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (Ayres, 1989 ). Participants were 29 boys with pDCD between 6...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726513/working-memory-training-improves-dual-task-performance-on-motor-tasks
#17
Takehide Kimura, Fuminari Kaneko, Keita Nagahata, Eriko Shibata, Nobuhiro Aoki
The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG...
July 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524811/impact-of-tactile-sensation-on-dexterity-a-cross-sectional-study-of-patients-with-impaired-hand-function-after-stroke
#18
Elena L Pavlova, Jörgen Borg
The authors sought to explore the impact of tactile sensation on manual dexterity and the validity of the strength-dexterity test in subjects with chronic impairments after stroke in a cross-sectional study of 24 patients with impaired hand function after stroke. Dexterity was assessed by the strength-dexterity test, Box and Blocks, and Nine-Hole Peg Test, and the ABILHAND questionnaire. Sensation was measured by pinprick, cotton-wool, graphesthesia, and 2-point discrimination tests. Sensation in the paretic hand had strong association with paretic hand performance in the strength-dexterity test and Nine-Hole Peg Test and explained 13% of the variance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521636/ipsilesional-arm-aiming-movements-after-stroke-influence-of-the-degree-of-contralesional-impairment
#19
Flavia Priscila de Paiva Silva, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira Freitas, Renata Morales Banjai, Sandra Regina Alouche
The authors examined the effects of the degree of impairment of the contralesional upper limb and the side of the hemispheric damage on ipsilesional upper limb performance in chronic stroke individuals. Right- and left-side stroke resulting in mild-to-severe impairment and healthy participants took part in simple and choice reaction time tasks involving aiming movements. The stroke individuals performed the aiming movements with the ipsilesional upper limb using a digitizing tablet to ipsi- or contralateral targets presented in a monitor...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521606/can-video-self-modeling-improve-affected-limb-reach-and-grasp-ability-in-stroke-patients
#20
Kylie Ann Steel, Kurt Mudie, Remi Sandoval, David Anderson, Sera Dogramaci, Mohammad Rehmanjan, Ingvars Birznieks
The authors examined whether feedforward video self-modeling (FF VSM) would improve control over the affected limb, movement self-confidence, movement self-consciousness, and well-being in 18 stroke survivors. Participants completed a cup transport task and 2 questionnaires related to psychological processes pre- and postintervention. Pretest video footage of the unaffected limb performing the task was edited to create a best-of or mirror-reversed training DVD, creating the illusion that patients were performing proficiently with the affected limb...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
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