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Journal of Motor Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161227/motor-skill-learning-and-the-development-of-visual-perception-processes-supporting-action-identification
#1
Inchon Park, John J Buchanan
This study examined physical training and observational training influences on motor learning and the development of visual discrimination processes. Participants were trained on a bimanual task (relative phase of +90°) defined by a visual training stimulus. There were 2 observational contexts: 1) model-only, watch a learning model, and 2) stimulus-only, watch the visual training stimulus. After 2 d of training, the learning models performed the +90° pattern with reduced error in 2 retention tests. Each observer group showed improvement in performance of the +90° pattern, with the stimulus-only group characterized by a more significant improvement...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140761/limb-segment-load-inhibits-the-recovery-of-soleus-h-reflex-after-segmental-vibration-in-humans
#2
Shih-Chiao Tseng, Richard K Shields
We investigated the effects of vertical vibration and compressive load on soleus H-reflex amplitude and postactivation depression. We hypothesized that, in the presence of a compressive load, limb vibration induces a longer suppression of soleus H-reflex. Eleven healthy adults received vibratory stimulation at a fixed frequency (30 Hz) over two loading conditions (0% and 50% of individual's body weight). H-reflex amplitude was depressed ∼88% in both conditions during vibration. Cyclic application of compression after cessation of the vibration caused a persistent reduction in H-reflex excitability and postactivation depression for > 2...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077547/balancing-our-perceptions-of-the-efficacy-of-success-based-feedback-manipulations-on-motor-learning
#3
Nicole T Ong, Nicola J Hodges
We report two experiments evaluating the impact of success-related feedback on learning of a balance task. In Exp. 1, we studied the influence of lax and conservative outcome feedback, as well as large vs. small improvements in outcome feedback on balance learning. Despite impacts on competency, there were no between-group differences in actual performance or learning. Because no comparative information was provided in Exp. 1, we tested four further groups that either did or did not receive positive or negative comparative feedback (Exp...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058537/the-influence-of-an-acute-bout-of-whole-body-vibration-on-human-postural-control-responses
#4
Samuel J Wilson, Charles C Williams, Jacob R Gdovin, John D Eason, Lauren A Luginsland, Christopher M Hill, Harish Chander, Chip Wade, John C Garner
The use of vibrating platforms has become increasingly available, and popular at sports and rehabilitation institutes. Given the discrepancies in the literature regarding whole body vibration (WBV) and human reflexive responses, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of WBV on postural response latencies, as well as associated electromyography measures of the lower extremities during balance perturbations. Reflexive responses during backward and forward balance perturbations were examined before, after, and 10 min after a bout of WBV...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048235/role-of-constant-random-and-blocked-practice-in-an-electromyography-based-oral-motor-learning-task
#5
Ramesh Kaipa, Roha Mariam Kaipa
PURPOSE: The role of principles of motor learning (PMLs) in speech has received much attention in the past decade. Oral motor learning, however, has not received similar consideration. This study evaluated the role of three practice conditions in an oral motor tracking task. METHOD: Forty-five healthy adult participants were randomly and equally assigned to one of three practice conditions (constant, blocked, and random) and participated in an electromyography-based task...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028425/movement-variability-increases-with-shoulder-pain-when-compensatory-strategies-of-the-upper-body-are-constrained
#6
Juan López-Pascual, Álvaro Page, Pilar Serra-Añó
This cross-sectional study analyzed the influence of chronic shoulder pain (CSP) on movement variability/kinematics during humeral elevation, with the trunk and elbow motions constrained to avoid compensatory strategies. For this purpose, 37 volunteers with CSP as the injured group (IG) and 58 participants with asymptomatic shoulders as the control group (CG) participated in the study. Maximum humeral elevation (Emax), maximum angular velocity (Velmax), variability of the maximum angle (CVEmax), functional variability (Func_var), and approximate entropy (ApEn) were calculated from the kinematic data...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016257/intentional-switching-between-bimanual-coordination-patterns
#7
Chaoyi Wang, Deanna M Kennedy, Stefan Panzer, Charles H Shea
Previous theoretical and empirical work indicates that intentional changes in a bimanual coordination pattern depends on the stability of the bimanual coordination pattern (Kelso, Schotz, & Schöner, 1988; Scholz & Kelso, 1990). The present experiments retest this notion when online Lissajous displays are provided. Switching to and from in-phase and antiphase and to and from 90° and 270° were tested in Experiment 1. Participants were able to very effectively produce the 180°, 90°, and 270° coordination patterns although performance of the in-phase coordination task was even more stable...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985157/dyad-practice-impacts-self-directed-practice-behaviors-and-motor-learning-outcomes-in-a-contextual-interference-paradigm
#8
April Karlinsky, Nicola J Hodges
We studied dyad practice to determine whether and how alternating practice blocks with a partner impacts self-directed practice scheduling, learning, and perceptions of practice. Participants were assigned to be Partner 1 (P1) or 2 (P2). P1s had a blocked, random, or self-directed schedule, while all P2s self-directed practice of 3, differently-timed keystroke-sequences. P2s showed both own error-dependent practice (switching sequences following better performance) and partner-dependent practice, with the partner's schedule impacting sequence selection and switching frequency...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985154/rate-of-torque-development-and-feedforward-control-of-the-hip-and-knee-extensors-gender-differences
#9
Kristen M Stearns-Reider, Christopher M Powers
The purpose of this study was to determine whether women demonstrate decreased rate of torque development (RTD) of the hip and knee extensors and altered onset timing of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus during a drop-jump task when compared with men. On average, women demonstrated significantly lower normalized RTD of the hip extensors (women: 11.6 ± 1.3 MVT.s(-1), men: 13.1 ± 0.9 MVT.s(-1); p ≤ .01); however, there was no significant difference in knee extensor RTD. Women also demonstrated significantly earlier activation of their vastus lateralis (women: 206...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985153/profiling-movement-and-gait-quality-characteristics-in-pre-school-children
#10
Cain C T Clark, Claire M Barnes, Nils J Swindell, Mark D Holton, Daniel D Bingham, Paul J Collings, Sally E Barber, Huw D Summers, Kelly A Mackintosh, Gareth Stratton
There is a dearth of suitable metrics capable of objectively quantifying motor competence. Further, objective movement quality characteristics during free play have not been investigated in pre-school children. The aims of this study were to characterize children's free play physical activity and investigate how gait quality characteristics cluster with free play in pre-school children (3-5 years old). Sixty-one children (39 boys; 4.3 ± 0.7 years, 1.04 ± 0.05 m, 17.8 ± 3.2 kg) completed the movement assessment battery for children and took part in free play while wearing an ankle- and hip-mounted accelerometer...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976286/effects-of-visual-manipulation-in-sit-to-stand-movement-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#11
Sílvia Leticia Pavão, Joice Luiza B Arnoni, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
The authors sought to verify the effects of vision on sit-to-stand (STS) movement performance by means of postural sway in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typical children (TC). Participants were 42 TC and 21 children with CP. STS movement was assessed with eyes open and with eyes closed. Area and velocity of center of pressure sway were analyzed in each of the 3 STS phases. We observed greater postural sway during STS movement with eyes closed. Children with CP presented greater postural sway than TC did...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949826/i-spy-with-my-dominant-eye
#12
Damian Manzone, Tristan Loria, Luc Tremblay
The authors investigated how visual information from the nondominant and dominant eyes are utilized to control ongoing dominant hand movements. Across 2 experiments, participants performed upper-limb pointing movements to a stationary target or an imperceptibly shifted target under monocular-dominant, monocular-nondominant, and binocular viewing conditions. Under monocular-dominant viewing conditions, participants exhibited better endpoint precision and accuracy. On target jump trials, participants spent more time after peak limb velocity and significantly altered their trajectories toward the new target location only when visual information from the dominant eye was available...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937951/effect-of-stress-level-on-different-forms-of-self-touch-in-pre-and-postadolescent-girls
#13
Kyra Densing, Hippokrates Konstantinidis, Melanie Seiler
Self-touch serves for regulation of both hyper- and hypoarousal. It remains unclear if different forms of self-touch occur in different contexts, and if the regulatory mechanisms are learned or innate. The authors describe forms and context of self-touch, and explore age differences in stress processing. They analyzed hand movements of 10 pre- and 10 postadolescent girls in low-stress and high-stress settings and found 3 forms of self-touch. In postadolescent participants, self-touch 2 (irregular structure, rhythmical, medium intensity) and 3 (phasic structure, single accent, medium intensity) were used for self-regulation, whereas self-touch 1 (irregular structure, single accent, low intensity) had conversational reasons...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937868/multi-day-adaptation-and-savings-in-manual-and-locomotor-tasks
#14
M F L Ruitenberg, Y E De Dios, N E Gadd, S J Wood, P A Reuter-Lorenz, I Kofman, J J Bloomberg, A P Mulavara, R D Seidler
Using an individual differences approach, we evaluated whether manual and locomotor adaptation are associated in terms of adaptation and savings across days, and whether they rely on shared underlying mechanisms involving visuospatial working memory or visual field dependence. Participants performed a manual and a locomotor adaptation task during 4 separate test sessions over a 3-month period. Reliable adaptation and savings were observed for both tasks. It was further found that higher visuospatial working memory performance and lower visual field dependence scores were associated with faster learning in the manual and locomotor tasks, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934067/transient-effects-of-gaze-stability-exercises-on-postural-stability-in-patients-with-posterior-circulation-stroke
#15
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Etsuo Horikawa
The authors sought to investigate if short-term gaze stability exercises have an effect on postural stability of dynamic standing during neck movement in patients with posterior circulation stroke (PCS). Patients in both PCS and non-PCS groups were assigned to either an intervention or control group. The intervention group performed the gaze stability exercises for 10 min while the control group was merely resting. The center of pressure velocity was calculated to evaluate the postural stability. After intervention, PCS and non-PCS showed a significant reduction in center of pressure velocity during dynamic standing with eyes closed condition, and the PCS group showed a significant improvement in eye-opened condition...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926320/event-related-desynchronization-of-mu-rhythms-during-concentric-and-eccentric-contractions
#16
Joo-Hee Park, Heon-Seock Cynn, Kwang Su Cha, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hye-Seon Jeon
The purpose of this study was to compare the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns and reaction times (RTs) of muscle activation between concentric and eccentric biceps brachii contractions under the RT paradigm and to evaluate how the EEG patterns and RTs changed with practice. Sixteen subjects performed 3 sets of 30 repetitions of submaximal voluntary concentric and eccentric biceps contractions. RT, event-related desynchronization (ERD) patterns of mu rhythm onset, and ERD amplitudes were selectively analyzed...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925825/conscious-control-is-associated-with-freezing-of-mechanical-degrees-of-freedom-during-motor-learning
#17
Wouter F van Ginneken, Jamie M Poolton, Catherine M Capio, John van der Kamp, Cynthia S Y Choi, Richard S W Masters
This study investigated whether conscious control is associated with freezing of mechanical degrees of freedom during motor learning. Participants practiced a throwing task using either error-strewn or error-reduced practice protocols, which encourage high or low levels of conscious control, respectively. After 24 hr, participants engaged in a series of delayed retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, propensity for conscious control was assessed using participants' ratings and freezing was gauged through movement variability of the throwing arm...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925816/investigating-the-constrained-action-hypothesis-a-movement-coordination-and-coordination-variability-approach
#18
Anthony Vidal, Will Wu, Mimi Nakajima, James Becker
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of focus of attention cues on movement coordination and coordination variability in the lower extremity. Twenty participants performed the standing long jump under both internal and external focus of attention conditions. A modified vector coding technique was used to evaluate the influence of attentional focus cues on lower extremity coordination patterns and coordination variability during the jumps. Participants jumped significantly further under an external focus of attention condition compared with an internal focus of attention condition (p = ...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925815/examining-the-spatiotemporal-disruption-to-gaze-when-using-a-myoelectric-prosthetic-hand
#19
J V V Parr, S J Vine, N R Harrison, G Wood
The aim of this study was to provide a detailed account of the spatial and temporal disruptions to eye-hand coordination when using a prosthetic hand during a sequential fine motor skill. Twenty-one able-bodied participants performed 15 trials of the picking up coins task derived from the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure with their anatomic hand and with a prosthesis simulator while wearing eye-tracking equipment. Gaze behavior results revealed that when using the prosthesis, performance detriments were accompanied by significantly greater hand-focused gaze and a significantly longer time to disengage gaze from manipulations to plan upcoming movements...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925812/watch-where-you-re-going-interferer-velocity-and-visual-behavior-predicts-avoidance-strategy-during-pedestrian-encounters
#20
James L Croft, Derek Panchuk
Pedestrians can avoid collisions with other pedestrians by modifying some combination of their velocity and their path. The authors investigated how path constraints (constrained or unconstrained), interferer velocity (slow or fast), and vision (looking or not looking; time spent looking at the interferer) influenced collision avoidance to an oblivious interferer walking on a perpendicular path. Ten participants walked 6 m to either a point or line target on either a constrained or unconstrained path while wearing an eye-tracking device and avoiding an oblivious interferer that walked at 2 speeds...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
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