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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Gaurav Gupta, Suman Bala Sharma, Richa Gupta, Shipra Gupta, Usha Rani Singh
Aqueous leaf extract of Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. syn. Cassia auriculata (SLEx) is known to possess potential antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. Based on the known correlation between exocrine pancreatic function and endocrine secretary capacity, here, we studied the prophylactic effect of the SLEx on alcohol induced pancreatitis in rats. To induce chronic pancreatitis, the rats were fed with unsaturated fat i.e. corn oil (2.5 mL/kg) along with high dose of ethanol (10.2 g/kg) for 4 wk, and was increased 0...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Jai Gopal Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Deepak Saini, Nawang Lendup Targay, Bronson Kumar Khangembam, Rina Chakrabarti
Aquaculture, as a promising food industry, is expected to meet the demand for quality food from the increasing human population. As the diet is critical for feeding farm fish, such a faster growth in the industry is destined to create stress in the fishmeal market to supply diets to the tune. In this context, here, we studied the protein content of 20 plant ingredients, including aquatic weeds, cereals, pulses and oil-cakes using micro-Kjeldahl method and evaluated in vitro digestibility of these ingredients for rohu Labeo rohita and common carp Cyprinus carpio using pH-Stat method...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Anutosh Paria, Jie Dong, P P Suresh Babu, M Makesh, Aparna Chaudhari, A R Thirunavukkarasu, C S Purushothaman, K V Rajendran
Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), used to determine the gene expression profile, is an important tool in functional genomic research, including fishes. To obtain more robust and meaningful result, the best possible normalization of the data is of utmost significance. In the present study, we have evaluated the potential of five commonly used housekeeping genes i.e., elongation factor 1-α (EF1A), β-Actin (ACTB), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-2-Microglobulin (B2M) in normal physiological conditions, developmental stages and in response to bacterial infection in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), an important food fish cultured in the Asia-Pacific region...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
P A Malthankar, G T Gujar
Though the insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective against insect pests, evolution of resistance remains an issue of great concern. Here, we explored the ability of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a key pest of cotton, to evolve resistance to Cry2Ab and characterized it in terms of inheritance. Sixteen day bioassay of Bt Cry2Ab toxin against 5-day old pink bollworm larvae showed median lethal concentration (LC(50)) ranging 0...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
S Anuradha, K Shravan Kumar, S Bhama, V Kishan
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, continues to be a serious public health problem around the world, and it urges the need for development of new antitubercular drugs. An antibiotic producing strain, Streptomyces luridus (MTCC 4402) was earlier isolated from soil by our group. In this work, the phylogenic status was established by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain was found to be active against clinically resistant strains. The culture was grown in shake flasks in a medium containing cornsteep liquor, glucose, CaCO(3), soyabean meal and starch...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Susmita Ghosh, Partha Pratim Saha, Subir C Dasgupta, Antony Gomes
Pain and inflammation are intimately associated with rheumatoid arthritis, a growing bone-joint related problem of the modern society. Though several therapeutic managements are available for arthritis, their side effects not only limit their use, but also advocate the quest for natural therapies. In this study, we explored the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities of Bungarus fasciatus venom (BFV) in experimental animal models. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) in male Wistar albino rats...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
(no author information available yet)
Time dependent intervention plays a crucial role in preventing neurodegeneration after ischemic insult. The intensity of excitotoxicity is greater in the secondary reperfusion phase (2-4 h) compared to the primary occlusion phase (2 h), which could be attributed to secondary elevation of excitatory amino acids (EAA) in cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we tried to assess the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan and nimodipine (TM-NM) combination on the secondary reperfusion phase. The drug treatments were made immediately after reperfusion and their effects were compared with pre-treatment...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Katarzyna Śladowska, Jadwiga Handzlik, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Lidia Mazur
Hydantoin derivatives, including phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin), have recently gained attention as they possess a variety of important biochemical and pharmacological properties. Nevertheless, available information on anticancer activity of hydantoin derivatives is still scarce. Here, we evaluated possible antileukemic potential of four phenytoin analogs, namely: methyl 2-(2,4-dioxo-5,5-diphenylimidazolidin-3-yl)propanoate (1), methyl 2-(1-(3-bromopropyl)-2,4-dioxo-5,5-diphenylimidazolidin-3-yl)propanoate (2), 1-(3-bromopropyl)-3-methyl-5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (3) and 1-(3-bromobutyl)-3-methyl-5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (4)...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Aftab Aftab Hussain, I S Pavithra, Rohini Sreevathsa, K N Nataraja, Naveen Babu
Plants have developed several adaptive strategies to enhance the availability and uptake of phosphorus (P) from the soil under conditions of P deficiency. Exudation of organic acids like citrate is one of the important strategies. In this study, we developed transgenic pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) over-expressing Dacus carota citrate synthase (DcCs) gene to increase the synthesis and exudation of citrate. Transgenic plants were generated through agro bacterium mediated in-planta transformation technique. Integration and expression of the transgene was confirmed by genomic Southern and RT-PCR analysis...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Ankita J Shah, B C Lakkad, Mandava V Rao
Lead (Pb) which plays a significant role in modern industry is related to a broad range of physiological, biochemical, behavioural and genetical dysfunctions. Its exposure leads to an increased frequency of genetic aberrations in humans. Hence, this study was designed to assess the genotoxic effect of lead acetate at three dosage levels (10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) by employing: the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay and the Comet assay in Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Cultures. The results of this study revealed an increased level of DNA damage among treated groups...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Hira Muzzamal, Zakia Latif
Pectinases, produced by microorganisms, have wide range application in food industry, textile processing, paper making, coffee and tea fermentation, etc. It accounts for 10% of the global industrial enzymes produced. The most important and widely used commercial pectinase polygalacturonase is produced by alkalophilic strains of Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. Here, we explored 29 bacterial strains isolated from rotten mango samples for polygalacturonase production and selected 16 strains through preliminary screening by well-plate method for enzyme activity...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
M Saritha, Rameshwar Tiwari, Surender Singh, Pawan K S Nain, Sarika Rana, Anurup Adak, Anju Arora, Lata Nain
A successful lignocellulosic ethanol production process needs to address the technological impediments such as cost-competitiveness and sustainability of the process. Effective biomass utilization requires a repertoire of enzymes including various accessory enzymes. Developing an enzyme preparation with defined hydrolytic activities can circumvent the need for supplementing cellulases with accessory enzymes for enhanced hydrolysis. With this objective, mixture design approach was used in the present study to enhance glycoside hydrolase production of a fungal isolate, Aspergillus terreus CM20, by determining the proportion of different lignocellulosic components as enzyme inducers in the culture medium...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Annu Goel, Leela Wati
Ethanol production from alkali treated rice straw was investigated by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) using commercial cellulase and 3 different yeast strains viz., Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, Pachysolen tannophilus and Candida sp. individually as well as in combination at varied fermentation temperature and incubation time. Dilute alkali (2%) pretreatment of straw resulted in efficient delignification as observed by low residual lignin (12.52%) with 90.6% cellulose and 28.15% hemicellulose recovery...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Prashant Gupta, Alok Tripathi, Tripti Agrawal, Chandradeo Narayan, B M Singh, Mohan Kumar, Arvind Kumar
Rhizome of picrorhiza along with honey prevents hepatic damage and cure the acetaminophen (paracetamol) induced hepatotoxicity by modulating the activity of hepatic enzymes. Here, we studied the in vivo effects of Picrorhiza kurroa and honey on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity Balb/c mice model. Hepatic histopathological observations of acetaminophen fed (day-6) group showed more congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, distorted hepatic architecture and nuclear inclusion. Such damages were recompensed to normal by picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Gisel Padula, María Virginia Ponzinibbio, Analia I Seoane
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA damage through production of single and double-strand breaks and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Folic acid (FA) prevents radiation-induced DNA damage by modification of DNA synthesis and/or repair and as a radical scavenger. We hypothesized that in vitro supplementation with FA will decrease the sensitivity of cells to genetic damage induced by low dose of ionizing radiation. Annexin V, comet and micronucleus assays were performed in cultured CHO cells. After 7 days of pre-treatment with 0, 100, 200 or 300 nM FA, cultures were exposed to radiation (100 mSv)...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
B B Jana, Susmita Lahiri, D Sarkar, Sukanta Rana, J N Bhakta, Dipak Paul
Human urine is a potential source of various nutrients, minerals and trace elements. Its use as a fertilizer is growing popular among farmers. Here, we examined the pattern of changes in the counts of coliform, heterotrophic bacteria as well as physico-chemical characteristics of human urine during different days of storage under closed conditions at ambient temperature. We observed that after 253 days of storage under closed condition, the coliform counts were reduced significantly and remained within the safe limit to be used as fertilizer...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Madhulika Shukla, Rizwana Tabassum, Rajendra Singh, Dolly Wattal Dhar
Effects of the environmental variables such as light intensity (Vmol photons m⁻² S⁻¹), temperature (*C) and CO₂ concentration (ppm) on chlorophyll, total soluble proteins and lipids were studied in selected microalgal strains from Chlorophyceae (Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., Kirchneriella sp.) and cyanobacteria (Nostoc sp.1, Anabaena sp., Nostoc sp. 2, Cylindrospermum sp.). Cultures were grown under controlled conditions at the National Phytotron Facility, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
A Khan, M Jayanthi, Nagavara Prasad Gantasala, N Bhooshan, Uma Rao
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), commonly called candy leaf or sweet leaf, endemic to South America, is an important medicinal plant. As a source of low calorie natural sweetener 'stevoside', it is used in obesity, diabetes, treatment of heartburn and tooth decay, and also serves as a food supplement. Large scale commercial propagation of S. rebaudiana demands a suitable protocol. Here, we propose an improved protocol for in vitro multiplication of S. rebaudiana from nodal explants. In this protocol, the effect of laboratory grade urea on multiple shoot induction from nodal explants was studied...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Manisha Mangal, Farha Khan, Sangita Bansal, H S Oberoi
Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites that are produced by certain fungal species in the Aspergillus section Flavi, particularly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus which contaminate human food as well as animal feed. These are among the most carcinogenic substances known. Due to the toxic and carcinogenic properties of aflatoxins, there is a need to develop reliable methods to detect the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergilli in contaminated food and feed. Not all Aspergillus strains are able to produce aflatoxins...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Rajeswari Satapathy, Ram S Jadhav, Paramjyoti L Swamy
Plants are natural source of antioxidants which ameliorate a variety of diseases. In this study, we determined the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of methanolic, polyphenolic and sapogenin mixture leaf extracts of Wattakaka volubilis (Linn.f.) Stapf, an ayurvedic medicinal plant. The in vitro antioxidant activity was tested spectrophotometrically by measuring ferric reducing power, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Whereas the in vivo antioxidant activity was determined by estimation of enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and lipid peroxidation...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
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