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Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238042/entotheonella-bacteria-as-source-of-sponge-derived-natural-products-opportunities-for-biotechnological-production
#1
REVIEW
Agneya Bhushan, Eike E Peters, Jörn Piel
Marine sponges belong to the oldest animals existing today. Apart from their role in recycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, they are also an important source of a wide variety of structurally diverse bioactive natural products. Over the past few decades, a multitude of compounds from sponges have been discovered exhibiting diverse, pharmacologically promising activities. However, in many cases the low substance quantities present in the sponge tissue would require the collection of large amounts of sponge material, thus impeding further drug development...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238041/electrospinning-of-bioactive-wound-healing-nets
#2
REVIEW
Heinz C Schröder, Emad Tolba, Bärbel Diehl-Seifert, Xiaohong Wang, Werner E G Müller
The availability of appropriate dressings for treatment of wounds, in particular chronic wounds, is a task that still awaits better solutions than provided by currently applied materials. The method of electrospinning enables the fabrication of novel materials for wound dressings due to the high surface area and porosity of the electrospun meshes and the possibility to include bioactive ingredients. Recent results show that the incorporation of biologically active inorganic polyphosphate microparticles and microspheres and synergistically acting retinoids into electrospun polymer fibers yields biocompatible and antibacterial mats for potential dressings with improved wound-healing properties...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238040/biocalcite-and-carbonic-acid-activators
#3
Xiaohong Wang, Meik Neufurth, Emad Tolba, Shunfeng Wang, Heinz C Schröder, Werner E G Müller
Based on evolution of biomineralizing systems and energetic considerations, there is now compelling evidence that enzymes play a driving role in the formation of the inorganic skeletons from the simplest animals, the sponges, up to humans. Focusing on skeletons based on calcium minerals, the principle enzymes involved are the carbonic anhydrase (formation of the calcium carbonate-based skeletons of many invertebrates like the calcareous sponges, as well as deposition of the calcium carbonate bioseeds during human bone formation) and the alkaline phosphatase (providing the phosphate for bone calcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite formation)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238039/new-target-sites-for-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#4
REVIEW
Werner E G Müller, Xiaohong Wang, Heinz C Schröder
In the last few years, much progress has been achieved in the discovery of new drug target sites for treatment of osteoporotic disorders, one of the main challenging diseases with a large burden for the public health systems. Among these new agents promoting bone formation, shifting the impaired equilibrium between bone anabolism and bone catabolism in the direction of bone synthesis are inorganic polymers, in particular inorganic polyphosphates that show strong stimulatory effects on the expression of bone anabolic marker proteins and hydroxyapatite formation...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238038/bluegenics-bioactive-natural-products-of-medicinal-relevance-and-approaches-to-their-diversification
#5
REVIEW
Joseph S Zarins-Tutt, Emily R Abraham, Christopher S Bailey, Rebecca J M Goss
Nature provides a valuable resource of medicinally relevant compounds, with many antimicrobial and antitumor agents entering clinical trials being derived from natural products. The generation of analogues of these bioactive natural products is important in order to gain a greater understanding of structure activity relationships; probing the mechanism of action, as well as to optimise the natural product's bioactivity and bioavailability. This chapter critically examines different approaches to generating natural products and their analogues, exploring the way in which synthetic and biosynthetic approaches may be blended together to enable expeditious access to new designer natural products...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238037/computer-aided-drug-discovery-from-marine-compounds-identification-of-the-three-dimensional-structural-features-responsible-for-antimalarial-activity
#6
Caterina Fattorusso, Marco Persico, Francesca Rondinelli, Nausicaa Orteca, Antonio Di Dato
An integrated computational approach, based on molecular dynamics/mechanics, semi-empirical, and DFT calculations as well as dynamic docking studies, has been employed to gain insight into the mechanism of action of new antimalarial agents characterized by the scaffold of the marine compounds plakortin and aplidinone. The results of this approach show that these molecules, after interaction with Fe(II), likely coming from the heme molecule, give rise to the formation of radical species, that should represent the toxic intermediates responsible for subsequent reactions leading to plasmodium death...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238036/discovery-and-development-of-novel-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Vesna Erakovic Haber, Radan Spaventi
Drug discovery and development process is nowadays conducted in relatively standardised sequence of phases, starting with Discovery and being followed by Preclinical, Clinical and Non-Clinical Development. Discovery phase is divided in Hit Finding, Lead generation, Lead Optimisation and Candidate Identification Phase. Main drivers of the whole process are regulatory requirements and the aim to eliminate the unnecessary spending by early elimination of unlikely drug candidates. Marine products, once purified, isolated and produced in required quantities, follow the same route as any other synthetic drug...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238035/major-antimicrobial-representatives-from-marine-sponges-and-or-their-associated-bacteria
#8
REVIEW
Fei He, Linh H Mai, Johan Gardères, Amjad Hussain, Vesna Erakovic Haber, Marie-Lise Bourguet-Kondracki
The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria during the last 20 years has stimulated research efforts in order to overcome this thorny problem. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria, which have been proven to be a source of bioactive natural products, have appeared as a promising opportunity to identify new antibiotic compounds. An overview of the major antibacterial compounds isolated from marine sponges and/or their associated bacteria is presented in this chapter, highlighting new potential antibiotics...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238034/35-years-of-marine-natural-product-research-in-sweden-cool-molecules-and-models-from-cold-waters
#9
REVIEW
Lars Bohlin, Paco Cárdenas, Anders Backlund, Ulf Göransson
Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420717/inorganic-polyphosphates-biologically-active-biopolymers-for-biomedical-applications
#10
Xiaohong Wang, Heinz C Schröder, Ute Schloßmacher, Werner E G Müller
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a widely occurring but only rarely investigated biopolymer which exists in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Only in the last few years, this polymer has been identified to cause morphogenetic activity on cells involved in human bone formation. The calcium complex of polyP was found to display a dual effect on bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Exposure of these cells to polyP (Ca(2+) complex) elicits the expression of cytokines that promote the mineralization process by osteoblasts and suppress the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells to the functionally active mature osteoclasts dissolving bone minerals...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420716/inorganic-polymers-morphogenic-inorganic-biopolymers-for-rapid-prototyping-chain
#11
Werner E G Müller, Heinz C Schröder, Zhijian Shen, Qingling Feng, Xiaohong Wang
In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved towards the development of customized scaffold materials, in particular for bone tissue engineering and repair, by the introduction of rapid prototyping or solid freeform fabrication techniques. These new fabrication techniques allow to overcome many problems associated with conventional bone implants, such as inadequate external morphology and internal architecture, porosity and interconnectivity, and low reproducibility. However, the applicability of these new techniques is still hampered by the fact that high processing temperature or a postsintering is often required to increase the mechanical stability of the generated scaffold, as well as a post-processing, i...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420715/biogenic-inorganic-polysilicates-biosilica-formation-and-biomedical-applications
#12
Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang, Ute Schloßmacher, Matthias Wiens, Werner E G Müller
The siliceous sponges, the demosponges and hexactinellid glass sponges, are unique in their ability to form biosilica structures with complex architectures through an enzyme-catalyzed mechanism. The biosilica skeleton of these sponges with its hierarchically structure and exceptional opto-mechanical properties has turned out to be an excellent model for the design of biomimetic nanomaterials with novel property combinations. In addition, biosilica shows morphogenetic activity that offers novel applications in the field of bone tissue engineering and repair...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420714/bioactive-poly-arsenic-compounds
#13
Ines Mancini, Andrea Defant
An overview of the biological activities of arsenic compounds containing more than one arsenic atom in their molecular structure is presented. This contribution covers the literature of the last 10-12 years concerning the in vitro and in vivo studies on arsenic species. They include inorganic oxides and sulfides, already employed for a long time in traditional Chinese medicine and currently investigated against hematological or solid malignancies, with arsenic trioxide clinically used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420713/cell-reactivity-to-different-silica
#14
Marco Giovine, Sonia Scarfì, Marina Pozzolini, Antonella Penna, Carlo Cerrano
The interaction between mineral structures and living beings is increasingly attracting the interest of research. The formation of skeletons, geomicrobiology, the study of the origin of life, soil biology, benthos biology, human and mammalian diseases generated by the inhalation of dust and biomaterials are some examples of scientific areas where the topic has a relevance. In this chapter we focus on cell reactivity to siliceous rocks and to the various forms of silicon dioxide, in particular. The examples here reported carefully review how such minerals may strongly affect different living beings, from simple ones to humans...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420712/modeling-biosilicification-at-subcellular-scales
#15
Narjes Javaheri, Carolina M Cronemberger, Jaap A Kaandorp
Biosilicification occurs in many organisms. Sponges and diatoms are major examples of them. In this chapter, we introduce a modeling approach that describes several biological mechanisms controlling silicification. Modeling biosilicification is a typical multiscale problem where processes at very different temporal and spatial scales need to be coupled: processes at the molecular level, physiological processes at the subcellular and cellular level, etc. In biosilicification morphology plays a fundamental role, and a spatiotemporal model is required...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420711/polyoxometalates-active-against-tumors-viruses-and-bacteria
#16
Toshihiro Yamase
Polyoxometalates (PMs) as discrete metal-oxide cluster anions with high solubility in water and photochemically and electrochemically active property have a wide variety of structures not only in molecular size from sub-nano to sub-micrometers with a various combination of metals but also in symmetry and highly negative charge. One of the reasons for such a structural variety originates from their conformation change (due to the condensed aggregation and the structural assembly) which strongly depends on environmental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, and coexistent foreign inorganic and/or organic substances...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420710/enzymes-of-inorganic-polyphosphate-metabolism
#17
Tatyana Kulakovskaya, Igor Kulaev
Inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) is a linear polymer containing a few to several hundred orthophosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. Investigation of PolyP-metabolizing enzymes is important for medicine, because PolyPs perform numerous functions in the cells. In human organism, PolyPs are involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) uptake in mitochondria, bone tissue development, and blood coagulation. The essentiality of polyphosphate kinases in the virulence of pathogenic bacteria is a basis for the discovery of new antibiotics...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420709/structural-characterization-of-inorganic-biomaterials
#18
Irene M Mavridis
Composite materials with unique architectures are ubiquitous in nature, e.g., marine shells, sponge spicules, bones, and dentine. These structured organic-inorganic systems are generated through self-assembly of organic matter (usually proteins or lipids) into scaffolds, onto which the inorganic component is deposited in organized hierarchical structures of sizes spanning several orders of magnitude. The development of bio-inspired materials is possible through the design of synthetic bottom-up self-assembly methods...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420708/chemical-biochemical-and-biological-behaviors-of-vanadate-and-its-oligomers
#19
Xiao-Gai Yang, Kui Wang
Vanadate is widely used as an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPase) and is routinely applied in cell lysis buffers or immunoprecipitations of phosphotyrosyl proteins. Additionally, vanadate has been extensively studied for its antidiabetic and anticancer effects. In most studies, orthovanadate or metavanadate was used as the starting compound, whereas these "vanadate" solutions may contain more or less oligomerized species. Whether and how different species of vanadium compounds formed in the biological media exert specific biological effect is still a mystery...
2013: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22222838/degradation-of-phthalate-esters-by-fusarium-sp-dmt-5-3-and-trichosporon-sp-dmi-5-1-isolated-from-mangrove-sediments
#20
Zhu-Hua Luo, Ka-Lai Pang, Yi-Rui Wu, Ji-Dong Gu, Raymond K K Chow, L L P Vrijmoed
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are important industrial compounds mainly used as plasticizers to increase flexibility and softness of plastic products. PAEs are of major concern because of their widespread use, ubiquity in the environment, and endocrine-disrupting toxicity. In this study, two fungal strains, Fusarium sp. DMT-5-3 and Trichosporon sp. DMI-5-1 which had the capability to degrade dimethyl phthalate esters (DMPEs), were isolated from mangrove sediments in the Futian Nature Reserve of Shenzhen, China, by enrichment culture technique...
2012: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
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