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Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002563/making-stream-restoration-more-sustainable-a-geomorphically-ecologically-and-socioeconomically-principled-approach-to-bridge-the-practice-with-the-science
#1
Robert J Hawley
Despite large advances in the state of the science of stream ecology and river mechanics, the practitioner-driven field of stream restoration remains plagued by narrowly focused projects that sometimes even fail to improve aquatic habitat or geomorphic stability-two nearly universal project goals. The intent of this article is to provide an accessible framework that bridges that gap between the current state of practice and a more geomorphically robust and ecologically holistic foundation that also provides better accounting of socioeconomic factors in support of more sustainable stream restoration outcomes...
July 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867254/a-science-products-inventory-for-citizen-science-planning-and-evaluation
#2
Andrea Wiggins, Rick Bonney, Gretchen LeBuhn, Julia K Parrish, Jake F Weltzin
Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity...
June 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867253/a-science-products-inventory-for-citizen-science-planning-and-evaluation
#3
Andrea Wiggins, Rick Bonney, Gretchen LeBuhn, Julia K Parrish, Jake F Weltzin
Citizen science involves a range of practices involving public participation in scientific knowledge production, but outcomes evaluation is complicated by the diversity of the goals and forms of citizen science. Publications and citations are not adequate metrics to describe citizen-science productivity. We address this gap by contributing a science products inventory (SPI) tool, iteratively developed through an expert panel and case studies, intended to support general-purpose planning and evaluation of citizen-science projects with respect to science productivity...
June 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867252/from-bottleneck-to-breakthrough-urbanization-and-the-future-of-biodiversity-conservation
#4
Eric W Sanderson, Joseph Walston, John G Robinson
For the first time in the Anthropocene, the global demographic and economic trends that have resulted in unprecedented destruction of the environment are now creating the necessary conditions for a possible renaissance of nature. Drawing reasonable inferences from current patterns, we can predict that 100 years from now, the Earth could be inhabited by between 6 and 8 billion people, with very few remaining in extreme poverty, most living in towns and cities, and nearly all participating in a technologically driven, interconnected market economy...
June 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731514/addressing-criticisms-of-large-scale-marine-protected-areas
#5
Bethan C O'Leary, Natalie C Ban, Miriam Fernandez, Alan M Friedlander, Pablo García-Borboroglu, Yimnang Golbuu, Paolo Guidetti, Jean M Harris, Julie P Hawkins, Tim Langlois, Douglas J McCauley, Ellen K Pikitch, Robert H Richmond, Callum M Roberts
Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Although LSMPAs have received support among scientists and conservation bodies for wilderness protection, regional ecological connectivity, and improving resilience to climate change, there are also concerns. We identified 10 common criticisms of LSMPAs along three themes: (1) placement, governance, and management; (2) political expediency; and (3) social-ecological value and cost...
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731513/a-global-mitigation-hierarchy-for-nature-conservation
#6
William N S Arlidge, Joseph W Bull, Prue F E Addison, Michael J Burgass, Dimas Gianuca, Taylor M Gorham, Céline Jacob, Nicole Shumway, Samuel P Sinclair, James E M Watson, Chris Wilcox, E J Milner-Gulland
Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales...
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731512/educating-as-if-survival-matters
#7
Nancy M Trautmann, Michael P Gilmore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686433/population-abundance-and-ecosystem-service-provision-the-case-of-birds
#8
Kevin J Gaston, Daniel T C Cox, Sonia B Canavelli, Daniel García, Baz Hughes, Bea Maas, Daniel Martínez, Darcy Ogada, Richard Inger
Although there is a diversity of concerns about recent persistent declines in the abundances of many species, the implications for the associated delivery of ecosystem services to people are surprisingly poorly understood. In principle, there are a broad range of potential functional relationships between the abundance of a species or group of species and the magnitude of ecosystem-service provision. Here, we identify the forms these relationships are most likely to take. Focusing on the case of birds, we review the empirical evidence for these functional relationships, with examples of supporting, regulating, and cultural services...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664475/corrigendum-internet-blogs-polar-bears-and-climate-change-denial-by-proxy
#9
Jeffrey A Harvey, Daphne van den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J M Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C Amstrup, Michael E Mann
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/bix133.].
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662249/managing-for-multifunctionality-in-perennial-grain-crops
#10
Matthew R Ryan, Timothy E Crews, Steven W Culman, Lee R DeHaan, Richard C Hayes, Jacob M Jungers, Matthew G Bakker
Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662248/internet-blogs-polar-bears-and-climate-change-denial-by-proxy
#11
Jeffrey A Harvey, Daphne van den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J M Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C Amstrup, Michael E Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a "poster species" for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988312/evidence-based-causal-chains-for-linking-health-development-and-conservation-actions
#12
Jiangxiao Qiu, Edward T Game, Heather Tallis, Lydia P Olander, Louise Glew, James S Kagan, Elizabeth L Kalies, Drew Michanowicz, Jennifer Phelan, Stephen Polasky, James Reed, Erin O Sills, Dean Urban, Sarah Kate Weaver
Sustainability challenges for nature and people are complex and interconnected, such that effective solutions require approaches and a common theory of change that bridge disparate disciplines and sectors. Causal chains offer promising approaches to achieving an integrated understanding of how actions affect ecosystems, the goods and services they provide, and ultimately, human well-being. Although causal chains and their variants are common tools across disciplines, their use remains highly inconsistent, limiting their ability to support and create a shared evidence base for joint actions...
March 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662247/the-nitrogen-balancing-act-tracking-the-environmental-performance-of-food-production
#13
Eileen L McLellan, Kenneth G Cassman, Alison J Eagle, Peter B Woodbury, Shai Sela, Christina Tonitto, Rebecca D Marjerison, Harold M van Es
Farmers, food supply-chain entities, and policymakers need a simple but robust indicator to demonstrate progress toward reducing nitrogen pollution associated with food production. We show that nitrogen balance-the difference between nitrogen inputs and nitrogen outputs in an agricultural production system-is a robust measure of nitrogen losses that is simple to calculate, easily understood, and based on readily available farm data. Nitrogen balance provides farmers with a means of demonstrating to an increasingly concerned public that they are succeeding in reducing nitrogen losses while also improving the overall sustainability of their farming operation...
March 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599549/urban-mind-using-smartphone-technologies-to-investigate-the-impact-of-nature-on-mental-well-being-in-real-time
#14
Ioannis Bakolis, Ryan Hammoud, Michael Smythe, Johanna Gibbons, Neil Davidson, Stefania Tognin, Andrea Mechelli
Existing evidence on the beneficial effects of nature on mental health comes from studies using cross-sectional designs. We developed a smartphone-based tool (Urban Mind; www.urbanmind.info ) to examine how exposure to natural features within the built environment affects mental well-being in real time. The tool was used to monitor 108 individuals who completed 3013 assessments over a 1-week period. Significant immediate and lagged associations with mental well-being were found for several natural features...
February 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599548/worldwide-engagement-for-digitizing-biocollections-wedigbio-the-biocollections-community-s-citizen-science-space-on-the-calendar
#15
Elizabeth R Ellwood, Paul Kimberly, Robert Guralnick, Paul Flemons, Kevin Love, Shari Ellis, Julie M Allen, Jason H Best, Richard Carter, Simon Chagnoux, Robert Costello, Michael W Denslow, Betty A Dunckel, Meghan M Ferriter, Edward E Gilbert, Christine Goforth, Quentin Groom, Erica R Krimmel, Raphael LaFrance, Joann Lacey Martinec, Andrew N Miller, Jamie Minnaert-Grote, Thomas Nash, Peter Oboyski, Deborah L Paul, Katelin D Pearson, N Dean Pentcheff, Mari A Roberts, Carrie E Seltzer, Pamela S Soltis, Rhiannon Stephens, Patrick W Sweeney, Matt von Konrat, Adam Wall, Regina Wetzer, Charles Zimmerman, Austin R Mast
The digitization of biocollections is a critical task with direct implications for the global community who use the data for research and education. Recent innovations to involve citizen scientists in digitization increase awareness of the value of biodiversity specimens; advance science, technology, engineering, and math literacy; and build sustainability for digitization. In support of these activities, we launched the first global citizen-science event focused on the digitization of biodiversity specimens: Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio)...
February 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599547/the-future-of-landscape-conservation
#16
Robert F Baldwin, Stephen C Trombulak, Paul B Leonard, Reed F Noss, Jodi A Hilty, Hugh P Possingham, Lynn Scarlett, Mark G Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599546/global-biodiversity-threatened-by-science-budget-cuts-in-brazil
#17
Gerhard E Overbeck, Helena Godoy Bergallo, Carlos E V Grelle, Alberto Akama, Freddy Bravo, Guarino R Colli, William E Magnusson, Walfrido Moraes Tomas, G Wilson Fernandes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599539/freshwater-megafauna-flagships-for-freshwater-biodiversity-under-threat
#18
Savrina F Carrizo, Sonja C Jähnig, Vanessa Bremerich, Jörg Freyhof, Ian Harrison, Fengzhi He, Simone D Langhans, Klement Tockner, Christiane Zarfl, William Darwall
Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599538/from-agricultural-benefits-to-aviation-safety-realizing-the-potential-of-continent-wide-radar-networks
#19
Silke Bauer, Jason W Chapman, Don R Reynolds, José A Alves, Adriaan M Dokter, Myles M H Menz, Nir Sapir, Michał Ciach, Lars B Pettersson, Jeffrey F Kelly, Hidde Leijnse, Judy Shamoun-Baranes
Migratory animals provide a multitude of services and disservices-with benefits or costs in the order of billions of dollars annually. Monitoring, quantifying, and forecasting migrations across continents could assist diverse stakeholders in utilizing migrant services, reducing disservices, or mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. Radars are powerful tools for such monitoring as they can assess directional intensities, such as migration traffic rates, and biomass transported. Currently, however, most radar applications are local or small scale and therefore substantially limited in their ability to address large-scale phenomena...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599537/the-multitrophic-effects-of-climate-change-and-glacier-retreat-in-mountain-rivers
#20
Sarah C Fell, Jonathan L Carrivick, Lee E Brown
Climate change is driving the thinning and retreat of many glaciers globally. Reductions of ice-melt inputs to mountain rivers are changing their physicochemical characteristics and, in turn, aquatic communities. Glacier-fed rivers can serve as model systems for investigations of climate-change effects on ecosystems because of their strong atmospheric-cryospheric links, high biodiversity of multiple taxonomic groups, and significant conservation interest concerning endemic species. From a synthesis of existing knowledge, we develop a new conceptual understanding of how reducing glacier cover affects organisms spanning multiple trophic groups...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
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