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Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664475/corrigendum-internet-blogs-polar-bears-and-climate-change-denial-by-proxy
#1
Jeffrey A Harvey, Daphne van den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J M Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C Amstrup, Michael E Mann
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/bix133.].
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662249/managing-for-multifunctionality-in-perennial-grain-crops
#2
Matthew R Ryan, Timothy E Crews, Steven W Culman, Lee R DeHaan, Richard C Hayes, Jacob M Jungers, Matthew G Bakker
Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662248/internet-blogs-polar-bears-and-climate-change-denial-by-proxy
#3
Jeffrey A Harvey, Daphne van den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J M Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C Amstrup, Michael E Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a "poster species" for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662247/the-nitrogen-balancing-act-tracking-the-environmental-performance-of-food-production
#4
Eileen L McLellan, Kenneth G Cassman, Alison J Eagle, Peter B Woodbury, Shai Sela, Christina Tonitto, Rebecca D Marjerison, Harold M van Es
Farmers, food supply-chain entities, and policymakers need a simple but robust indicator to demonstrate progress toward reducing nitrogen pollution associated with food production. We show that nitrogen balance-the difference between nitrogen inputs and nitrogen outputs in an agricultural production system-is a robust measure of nitrogen losses that is simple to calculate, easily understood, and based on readily available farm data. Nitrogen balance provides farmers with a means of demonstrating to an increasingly concerned public that they are succeeding in reducing nitrogen losses while also improving the overall sustainability of their farming operation...
March 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599549/urban-mind-using-smartphone-technologies-to-investigate-the-impact-of-nature-on-mental-well-being-in-real-time
#5
Ioannis Bakolis, Ryan Hammoud, Michael Smythe, Johanna Gibbons, Neil Davidson, Stefania Tognin, Andrea Mechelli
Existing evidence on the beneficial effects of nature on mental health comes from studies using cross-sectional designs. We developed a smartphone-based tool (Urban Mind; www.urbanmind.info ) to examine how exposure to natural features within the built environment affects mental well-being in real time. The tool was used to monitor 108 individuals who completed 3013 assessments over a 1-week period. Significant immediate and lagged associations with mental well-being were found for several natural features...
February 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599548/worldwide-engagement-for-digitizing-biocollections-wedigbio-the-biocollections-community-s-citizen-science-space-on-the-calendar
#6
Elizabeth R Ellwood, Paul Kimberly, Robert Guralnick, Paul Flemons, Kevin Love, Shari Ellis, Julie M Allen, Jason H Best, Richard Carter, Simon Chagnoux, Robert Costello, Michael W Denslow, Betty A Dunckel, Meghan M Ferriter, Edward E Gilbert, Christine Goforth, Quentin Groom, Erica R Krimmel, Raphael LaFrance, Joann Lacey Martinec, Andrew N Miller, Jamie Minnaert-Grote, Thomas Nash, Peter Oboyski, Deborah L Paul, Katelin D Pearson, N Dean Pentcheff, Mari A Roberts, Carrie E Seltzer, Pamela S Soltis, Rhiannon Stephens, Patrick W Sweeney, Matt von Konrat, Adam Wall, Regina Wetzer, Charles Zimmerman, Austin R Mast
The digitization of biocollections is a critical task with direct implications for the global community who use the data for research and education. Recent innovations to involve citizen scientists in digitization increase awareness of the value of biodiversity specimens; advance science, technology, engineering, and math literacy; and build sustainability for digitization. In support of these activities, we launched the first global citizen-science event focused on the digitization of biodiversity specimens: Worldwide Engagement for Digitizing Biocollections (WeDigBio)...
February 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599547/the-future-of-landscape-conservation
#7
Robert F Baldwin, Stephen C Trombulak, Paul B Leonard, Reed F Noss, Jodi A Hilty, Hugh P Possingham, Lynn Scarlett, Mark G Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599546/global-biodiversity-threatened-by-science-budget-cuts-in-brazil
#8
Gerhard E Overbeck, Helena Godoy Bergallo, Carlos E V Grelle, Alberto Akama, Freddy Bravo, Guarino R Colli, William E Magnusson, Walfrido Moraes Tomas, G Wilson Fernandes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599539/freshwater-megafauna-flagships-for-freshwater-biodiversity-under-threat
#9
Savrina F Carrizo, Sonja C Jähnig, Vanessa Bremerich, Jörg Freyhof, Ian Harrison, Fengzhi He, Simone D Langhans, Klement Tockner, Christiane Zarfl, William Darwall
Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599538/from-agricultural-benefits-to-aviation-safety-realizing-the-potential-of-continent-wide-radar-networks
#10
Silke Bauer, Jason W Chapman, Don R Reynolds, José A Alves, Adriaan M Dokter, Myles M H Menz, Nir Sapir, Michał Ciach, Lars B Pettersson, Jeffrey F Kelly, Hidde Leijnse, Judy Shamoun-Baranes
Migratory animals provide a multitude of services and disservices-with benefits or costs in the order of billions of dollars annually. Monitoring, quantifying, and forecasting migrations across continents could assist diverse stakeholders in utilizing migrant services, reducing disservices, or mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. Radars are powerful tools for such monitoring as they can assess directional intensities, such as migration traffic rates, and biomass transported. Currently, however, most radar applications are local or small scale and therefore substantially limited in their ability to address large-scale phenomena...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599537/the-multitrophic-effects-of-climate-change-and-glacier-retreat-in-mountain-rivers
#11
Sarah C Fell, Jonathan L Carrivick, Lee E Brown
Climate change is driving the thinning and retreat of many glaciers globally. Reductions of ice-melt inputs to mountain rivers are changing their physicochemical characteristics and, in turn, aquatic communities. Glacier-fed rivers can serve as model systems for investigations of climate-change effects on ecosystems because of their strong atmospheric-cryospheric links, high biodiversity of multiple taxonomic groups, and significant conservation interest concerning endemic species. From a synthesis of existing knowledge, we develop a new conceptual understanding of how reducing glacier cover affects organisms spanning multiple trophic groups...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599545/shipbuilding-docks-as-experimental-systems-for-realistic-assessments-of-anthropogenic-stressors-on-marine-organisms
#12
Rick Bruintjes, Harry R Harding, Tom Bunce, Fiona Birch, Jessica Lister, Ilaria Spiga, Tom Benson, Kate Rossington, Diane Jones, Charles R Tyler, Andrew N Radford, Stephen D Simpson
Empirical investigations of the impacts of anthropogenic stressors on marine organisms are typically performed under controlled laboratory conditions, onshore mesocosms, or via offshore experiments with realistic (but uncontrolled) environmental variation. These approaches have merits, but onshore setups are generally small sized and fail to recreate natural stressor fields, whereas offshore studies are often compromised by confounding factors. We suggest the use of flooded shipbuilding docks to allow studying realistic exposure to stressors and their impacts on the intra- and interspecific responses of animals...
September 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599544/international-wildlife-law-understanding-and-enhancing-its-role-in-conservation
#13
Arie Trouwborst, Andrew Blackmore, Luigi Boitani, Michael Bowman, Richard Caddell, Guillaume Chapron, An Cliquet, Ed Couzens, Yaffa Epstein, Eladio Fernández-Galiano, Floor M Fleurke, Royal Gardner, Luke Hunter, Kim Jacobsen, Miha Krofel, Melissa Lewis, José Vicente López-Bao, David Macdonald, Stephen Redpath, Geoffrey Wandesforde-Smith, John D C Linnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599543/corrigendum-assessing-national-biodiversity-trends-for-rocky-and-coral-reefs-through-the-integration-of-citizen-science-and-scientific-monitoring-programs
#14
Rick D Stuart-Smith, Graham J Edgar, Neville S Barrett, Amanda E Bates, Susan C Baker, Nicholas J Bax, Mikel A Becerro, Just Berkhout, Julia L Blanchard, Daniel J Brock, Graeme F Clark, Antonia T Cooper, Tom R Davis, Paul B Day, J Emmett Duffy, Thomas H Holmes, Steffan A Howe, Alan Jordan, Stuart Kininmonth, Nathan A Knott, Jonathan S Lefcheck, Scott D Ling, Amanda Parr, Elisabeth Strain, Hugh Sweatman, Russell Thomson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biw180.].
August 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599542/google-haul-out-earth-observation-imagery-and-digital-aerial-surveys-in-coastal-wildlife-management-and-abundance-estimation
#15
Jerry H Moxley, Andrea Bogomolni, Mike O Hammill, Kathleen M T Moore, Michael J Polito, Lisa Sette, W Brian Sharp, Gordon T Waring, James R Gilbert, Patrick N Halpin, David W Johnston
As the sampling frequency and resolution of Earth observation imagery increase, there are growing opportunities for novel applications in population monitoring. New methods are required to apply established analytical approaches to data collected from new observation platforms (e.g., satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles). Here, we present a method that estimates regional seasonal abundances for an understudied and growing population of gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in southeastern Massachusetts, using opportunistic observations in Google Earth imagery...
August 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599541/grant-writing-bootcamp-an-intervention-to-enhance-the-research-capacity-of-academic-women-in-stem
#16
Jessi L Smith, Chatanika Stoop, Micaela Young, Rebecca Belou, Suzanne Held
Broadening the participation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) fields is more than a social-justice issue; diversity is paramount to a thriving national research agenda. However, women face several obstacles to fully actualizing their research potential. Enhancing the research capacity and opportunity of women faculty requires purposeful changes in university practice. Therefore, we designed an intervention, a grant-writing bootcamp informed by self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan 2012), to support the participants' feelings of relatedness, autonomy, and competence...
July 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599540/society-is-ready-for-a-new-kind-of-science-is-academia
#17
Bonnie L Keeler, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Anne D Guerry, Prue F E Addison, Charles Bettigole, Ingrid C Burke, Brad Gentry, Lauren Chambliss, Carrie Young, Alexander J Travis, Chris T Darimont, Doria R Gordon, Jessica Hellmann, Peter Kareiva, Steve Monfort, Lydia Olander, Tim Profeta, Hugh P Possingham, Carissa Slotterback, Eleanor Sterling, Tamara Ticktin, Bhaskar Vira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608869/an-ecoregion-based-approach-to-protecting-half-the-terrestrial-realm
#18
COMMENT
Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, Anup Joshi, Carly Vynne, Neil D Burgess, Eric Wikramanayake, Nathan Hahn, Suzanne Palminteri, Prashant Hedao, Reed Noss, Matt Hansen, Harvey Locke, Erle C Ellis, Benjamin Jones, Charles Victor Barber, Randy Hayes, Cyril Kormos, Vance Martin, Eileen Crist, Wes Sechrest, Lori Price, Jonathan E M Baillie, Don Weeden, Kierán Suckling, Crystal Davis, Nigel Sizer, Rebecca Moore, David Thau, Tanya Birch, Peter Potapov, Svetlana Turubanova, Alexandra Tyukavina, Nadia de Souza, Lilian Pintea, José C Brito, Othman A Llewellyn, Anthony G Miller, Annette Patzelt, Shahina A Ghazanfar, Jonathan Timberlake, Heinz Klöser, Yara Shennan-Farpón, Roeland Kindt, Jens-Peter Barnekow Lillesø, Paulo van Breugel, Lars Graudal, Maianna Voge, Khalaf F Al-Shammari, Muhammad Saleem
We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a Global Deal for Nature-a companion to the Paris Climate Deal-to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands...
June 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584342/skills-and-knowledge-for-data-intensive-environmental-research
#19
Stephanie E Hampton, Matthew B Jones, Leah A Wasser, Mark P Schildhauer, Sarah R Supp, Julien Brun, Rebecca R Hernandez, Carl Boettiger, Scott L Collins, Louis J Gross, Denny S Fernández, Amber Budden, Ethan P White, Tracy K Teal, Stephanie G Labou, Juliann E Aukema
The scale and magnitude of complex and pressing environmental issues lend urgency to the need for integrative and reproducible analysis and synthesis, facilitated by data-intensive research approaches. However, the recent pace of technological change has been such that appropriate skills to accomplish data-intensive research are lacking among environmental scientists, who more than ever need greater access to training and mentorship in computational skills. Here, we provide a roadmap for raising data competencies of current and next-generation environmental researchers by describing the concepts and skills needed for effectively engaging with the heterogeneous, distributed, and rapidly growing volumes of available data...
June 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584341/mapping-conservation-strategies-under-a-changing-climate
#20
R Travis Belote, Matthew S Dietz, Peter S McKinley, Anne A Carlson, Carlos Carroll, Clinton N Jenkins, Dean L Urban, Timothy J Fullman, Jason C Leppi, Gregory H Aplet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Bioscience
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