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Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608869/an-ecoregion-based-approach-to-protecting-half-the-terrestrial-realm
#1
COMMENT
Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, Anup Joshi, Carly Vynne, Neil D Burgess, Eric Wikramanayake, Nathan Hahn, Suzanne Palminteri, Prashant Hedao, Reed Noss, Matt Hansen, Harvey Locke, Erle C Ellis, Benjamin Jones, Charles Victor Barber, Randy Hayes, Cyril Kormos, Vance Martin, Eileen Crist, Wes Sechrest, Lori Price, Jonathan E M Baillie, Don Weeden, Kierán Suckling, Crystal Davis, Nigel Sizer, Rebecca Moore, David Thau, Tanya Birch, Peter Potapov, Svetlana Turubanova, Alexandra Tyukavina, Nadia de Souza, Lilian Pintea, José C Brito, Othman A Llewellyn, Anthony G Miller, Annette Patzelt, Shahina A Ghazanfar, Jonathan Timberlake, Heinz Klöser, Yara Shennan-Farpón, Roeland Kindt, Jens-Peter Barnekow Lillesø, Paulo van Breugel, Lars Graudal, Maianna Voge, Khalaf F Al-Shammari, Muhammad Saleem
We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a Global Deal for Nature-a companion to the Paris Climate Deal-to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands...
June 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584342/skills-and-knowledge-for-data-intensive-environmental-research
#2
Stephanie E Hampton, Matthew B Jones, Leah A Wasser, Mark P Schildhauer, Sarah R Supp, Julien Brun, Rebecca R Hernandez, Carl Boettiger, Scott L Collins, Louis J Gross, Denny S Fernández, Amber Budden, Ethan P White, Tracy K Teal, Stephanie G Labou, Juliann E Aukema
The scale and magnitude of complex and pressing environmental issues lend urgency to the need for integrative and reproducible analysis and synthesis, facilitated by data-intensive research approaches. However, the recent pace of technological change has been such that appropriate skills to accomplish data-intensive research are lacking among environmental scientists, who more than ever need greater access to training and mentorship in computational skills. Here, we provide a roadmap for raising data competencies of current and next-generation environmental researchers by describing the concepts and skills needed for effectively engaging with the heterogeneous, distributed, and rapidly growing volumes of available data...
June 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584341/mapping-conservation-strategies-under-a-changing-climate
#3
R Travis Belote, Matthew S Dietz, Peter S McKinley, Anne A Carlson, Carlos Carroll, Clinton N Jenkins, Dean L Urban, Timothy J Fullman, Jason C Leppi, Gregory H Aplet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584340/how-to-produce-translational-research-to-guide-arctic-policy
#4
Alyson H Fleming, Nicholas D Pyenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533565/ocean-research-priorities-similarities-and-differences-among-scientists-policymakers-and-fishermen-in-the-united-states
#5
Julia G Mason, Murray A Rudd, Larry B Crowder
Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking...
May 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596617/metaresearch-for-evaluating-reproducibility-in-ecology-and-evolution
#6
Fiona Fidler, Yung En Chee, Bonnie C Wintle, Mark A Burgman, Michael A McCarthy, Ascelin Gordon
Recent replication projects in other disciplines have uncovered disturbingly low levels of reproducibility, suggesting that those research literatures may contain unverifiable claims. The conditions contributing to irreproducibility in other disciplines are also present in ecology. These include a large discrepancy between the proportion of "positive" or "significant" results and the average statistical power of empirical research, incomplete reporting of sampling stopping rules and results, journal policies that discourage replication studies, and a prevailing publish-or-perish research culture that encourages questionable research practices...
March 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596616/using-social-network-measures-in-wildlife-disease-ecology-epidemiology-and-management
#7
Matthew J Silk, Darren P Croft, Richard J Delahay, David J Hodgson, Mike Boots, Nicola Weber, Robbie A McDonald
Contact networks, behavioral interactions, and shared use of space can all have important implications for the spread of disease in animals. Social networks enable the quantification of complex patterns of interactions; therefore, network analysis is becoming increasingly widespread in the study of infectious disease in animals, including wildlife. We present an introductory guide to using social-network-analytical approaches in wildlife disease ecology, epidemiology, and management. We focus on providing detailed practical guidance for the use of basic descriptive network measures by suggesting the research questions to which each technique is best suited and detailing the software available for each...
March 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596615/assessing-national-biodiversity-trends-for-rocky-and-coral-reefs-through-the-integration-of-citizen-science-and-scientific-monitoring-programs
#8
Rick D Stuart-Smith, Graham J Edgar, Neville S Barrett, Amanda E Bates, Susan C Baker, Nicholas J Bax, Mikel A Becerro, Just Berkhout, Julia L Blanchard, Daniel J Brock, Graeme F Clark, Antonia T Cooper, Tom R Davis, Paul B Day, J Emmett Duffy, Thomas H Holmes, Steffan A Howe, Alan Jordan, Stuart Kininmonth, Nathan A Knott, Jonathan S Lefcheck, Scott D Ling, Amanda Parr, Elisabeth Strain, Hugh Sweatman, Russell Thomson
Reporting progress against targets for international biodiversity agreements is hindered by a shortage of suitable biodiversity data. We describe a cost-effective system involving Reef Life Survey citizen scientists in the systematic collection of quantitative data covering multiple phyla that can underpin numerous marine biodiversity indicators at high spatial and temporal resolution. We then summarize the findings of a continental- and decadal-scale State of the Environment assessment for rocky and coral reefs based on indicators of ecosystem state relating to fishing, ocean warming, and invasive species and describing the distribution of threatened species...
February 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596614/the-arctic-in-the-twenty-first-century-changing-biogeochemical-linkages-across-a-paraglacial-landscape-of-greenland
#9
N John Anderson, Jasmine E Saros, Joanna E Bullard, Sean M P Cahoon, Suzanne McGowan, Elizabeth A Bagshaw, Christopher D Barry, Richard Bindler, Benjamin T Burpee, Jonathan L Carrivick, Rachel A Fowler, Anthony D Fox, Sherilyn C Fritz, Madeleine E Giles, Ladislav Hamerlik, Thomas Ingeman-Nielsen, Antonia C Law, Sebastian H Mernild, Robert M Northington, Christopher L Osburn, Sergi Pla-Rabès, Eric Post, Jon Telling, David A Stroud, Erika J Whiteford, Marian L Yallop, Jacob C Yde
The Kangerlussuaq area of southwest Greenland encompasses diverse ecological, geomorphic, and climate gradients that function over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Ecosystems range from the microbial communities on the ice sheet and moisture-stressed terrestrial vegetation (and their associated herbivores) to freshwater and oligosaline lakes. These ecosystems are linked by a dynamic glacio-fluvial-aeolian geomorphic system that transports water, geological material, organic carbon and nutrients from the glacier surface to adjacent terrestrial and aquatic systems...
February 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533562/accelerating-tropicalization-and-the-transformation-of-temperate-seagrass-meadows
#10
Glenn A Hyndes, Kenneth L Heck, Adriana Vergés, Euan S Harvey, Gary A Kendrick, Paul S Lavery, Kathryn McMahon, Robert J Orth, Alan Pearce, Mathew Vanderklift, Thomas Wernberg, Scott Whiting, Shaun Wilson
Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533561/national-ecosystem-assessments-in-europe-a-review
#11
Matthias Schröter, Christian Albert, Alexandra Marques, Wolke Tobon, Sandra Lavorel, Joachim Maes, Claire Brown, Stefan Klotz, Aletta Bonn
National ecosystem assessments form an essential knowledge base for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze eight European (sub-)national ecosystem assessments (Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, Norway, Flanders, Netherlands, Finland, and Germany) and compare their objectives, political context, methods, and operationalization. We observed remarkable differences in breadth of the assessment, methods employed, variety of services considered, policy mandates, and funding mechanisms. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are mainly assessed independently, with biodiversity conceptualized as underpinning services, as a source of conflict with services, or as a service in itself...
October 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533560/saving-the-world-s-terrestrial-megafauna
#12
William J Ripple, Guillaume Chapron, José Vicente López-Bao, Sarah M Durant, David W Macdonald, Peter A Lindsey, Elizabeth L Bennett, Robert L Beschta, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Richard T Corlett, Chris T Darimont, Amy J Dickman, Rodolfo Dirzo, Holly T Dublin, James A Estes, Kristoffer T Everatt, Mauro Galetti, Varun R Goswami, Matt W Hayward, Simon Hedges, Michael Hoffmann, Luke T B Hunter, Graham I H Kerley, Mike Letnic, Taal Levi, Fiona Maisels, John C Morrison, Michael Paul Nelson, Thomas M Newsome, Luke Painter, Robert M Pringle, Christopher J Sandom, John Terborgh, Adrian Treves, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, John A Vucetich, Aaron J Wirsing, Arian D Wallach, Christopher Wolf, Rosie Woodroffe, Hillary Young, Li Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533564/ecological-consequences-of-shoreline-hardening-a-meta-analysis
#13
Rachel K Gittman, Steven B Scyphers, Carter S Smith, Isabelle P Neylan, Jonathan H Grabowski
Protecting coastal communities has become increasingly important as their populations grow, resulting in increased demand for engineered shore protection and hardening of over 50% of many urban shorelines. Shoreline hardening is recognized to reduce ecosystem services that coastal populations rely on, but the amount of hardened coastline continues to grow in many ecologically important coastal regions. Therefore, to inform future management decisions, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the ecosystem services of biodiversity (richness or diversity) and habitat provisioning (organism abundance) along shorelines with versus without engineered-shore structures...
September 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533563/why-do-the-boreal-forest-ecosystems-of-northwestern-europe-differ-from-those-of-western-north-america
#14
Rudy Boonstra, Harry P Andreassen, Stan Boutin, Jan Hušek, Rolf A Ims, Charles J Krebs, Christina Skarpe, Petter Wabakken
The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes on Earth. Conifers normally dominate the tree layer across the biome, but other aspects of ecosystem structure and dynamics vary geographically. The cause of the conspicuous differences in the understory vegetation and the herbivore-predator cycles between northwestern Europe and western North America presents an enigma. Ericaceous dwarf shrubs and 3- to 4-year vole-mustelid cycles characterize the European boreal forests, whereas tall deciduous shrubs and 10-year snowshoe hare-lynx cycles characterize the North American ones...
September 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977115/upgrading-marine-ecosystem-restoration-using-ecological-social-concepts
#15
Avigdor Abelson, Benjamin S Halpern, Daniel C Reed, Robert J Orth, Gary A Kendrick, Michael W Beck, Jonathan Belmaker, Gesche Krause, Graham J Edgar, Laura Airoldi, Eran Brokovich, Robert France, Nadav Shashar, Arianne de Blaeij, Noga Stambler, Pierre Salameh, Mordechai Shechter, Peter A Nelson
Conservation and environmental management are principal countermeasures to the degradation of marine ecosystems and their services. However, in many cases, current practices are insufficient to reverse ecosystem declines. We suggest that restoration ecology, the science underlying the concepts and tools needed to restore ecosystems, must be recognized as an integral element for marine conservation and environmental management. Marine restoration ecology is a young scientific discipline, often with gaps between its application and the supporting science...
February 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955075/now-hiring-empirically-testing-a-three-step-intervention-to-increase-faculty-gender-diversity-in-stem
#16
Jessi L Smith, Ian M Handley, Alexander V Zale, Sara Rushing, Martha A Potvin
Workforce homogeneity limits creativity, discovery, and job satisfaction; nonetheless, the vast majority of university faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are men. We conducted a randomized and controlled three-step faculty search intervention based in self-determination theory aimed at increasing the number of women faculty in STEM at one US university where increasing diversity had historically proved elusive. Results show that the numbers of women candidates considered for and offered tenure-track positions were significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with those in controls...
November 1, 2015: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951616/lampreys-as-diverse-model-organisms-in-the-genomics-era
#17
David W McCauley, Margaret F Docker, Steve Whyard, Weiming Li
Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters...
November 1, 2015: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955074/ecological-networks-in-stored-grain-key-postharvest-nodes-for-emerging-pests-pathogens-and-mycotoxins
#18
John F Hernandez Nopsa, Gregory J Daglish, David W Hagstrum, John F Leslie, Thomas W Phillips, Caterina Scoglio, Sara Thomas-Sharma, Gimme H Walter, Karen A Garrett
Wheat is at peak quality soon after harvest. Subsequently, diverse biota use wheat as a resource in storage, including insects and mycotoxin-producing fungi. Transportation networks for stored grain are crucial to food security and provide a model system for an analysis of the population structure, evolution, and dispersal of biota in networks. We evaluated the structure of rail networks for grain transport in the United States and Eastern Australia to identify the shortest paths for the anthropogenic dispersal of pests and mycotoxins, as well as the major sources, sinks, and bridges for movement...
October 1, 2015: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955086/climate-warming-and-soil-carbon-in-tropical-forests-insights-from-an-elevation-gradient-in-the-peruvian-andes
#19
Andrew T Nottingham, Jeanette Whitaker, Benjamin L Turner, Norma Salinas, Michael Zimmermann, Yadvinder Malhi, Patrick Meir
The temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in tropical forests will influence future climate. Studies of a 3.5-kilometer elevation gradient in the Peruvian Andes, including short-term translocation experiments and the examination of the long-term adaptation of biota to local thermal and edaphic conditions, have revealed several factors that may regulate this sensitivity. Collectively this work suggests that, in the absence of a moisture constraint, the temperature sensitivity of decomposition is regulated by the chemical composition of plant debris (litter) and both the physical and chemical composition of preexisting SOM: higher temperature sensitivities are found in litter or SOM that is more chemically complex and in SOM that is less occluded within aggregates...
September 1, 2015: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955085/threshold-responses-to-soil-moisture-deficit-by-trees-and-soil-in-tropical-rain-forests-insights-from-field-experiments
#20
Patrick Meir, Tana E Wood, David R Galbraith, Paulo M Brando, Antonio C L Da Costa, Lucy Rowland, Leandro V Ferreira
Many tropical rain forest regions are at risk of increased future drought. The net effects of drought on forest ecosystem functioning will be substantial if important ecological thresholds are passed. However, understanding and predicting these effects is challenging using observational studies alone. Field-based rainfall exclusion (canopy throughfall exclusion; TFE) experiments can offer mechanistic insight into the response to extended or severe drought and can be used to help improve model-based simulations, which are currently inadequate...
September 1, 2015: Bioscience
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