journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Physiological Reviews

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615464/corrigendum
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615463/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-proteins-in-skeletal-development-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Bart O Williams
The identification of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) provided a foundation for subsequent studies in lipoprotein metabolism, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and many other fundamental biological functions. The importance of the LDLR led to numerous studies that identified homologous molecules and ultimately resulted in the description of the LDL-receptor superfamily, a group of proteins that contain domains also found in the LDLR. Subsequent studies have revealed that members of the LDLR-related protein family play roles in regulating many aspects of signal transduction...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615462/posttranslational-modification-as-a-critical-determinant-of-cytoplasmic-innate-immune-recognition
#3
REVIEW
Paul J Baker, Dominic De Nardo, Fiona Moghaddas, Le Son Tran, Annabell Bachem, Tan Nguyen, Thomas Hayman, Hazel Tye, James E Vince, Sammy Bedoui, Richard L Ferrero, Seth L Masters
Cell surface innate immune receptors can directly detect a variety of extracellular pathogens to which cytoplasmic innate immune sensors are rarely exposed. Instead, within the cytoplasm, the environment is rife with cellular machinery and signaling pathways that are indirectly perturbed by pathogenic microbes to activate intracellular sensors, such as pyrin, NLRP1, NLRP3, or NLRC4. Therefore, subtle changes in key intracellular processes such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and other pathways leading to posttranslational protein modification are key determinants of innate immune recognition in the cytoplasm...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566539/role-of-the-immune-system-in-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Hector Pons, Richard J Johnson
High blood pressure is present in more than one billion adults worldwide and is the most important modifiable risk factor of death resulting from cardiovascular disease. While many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, a role of the immune system has been firmly established by a large number of investigations from many laboratories around the world. Immunosuppressive drugs and inhibition of individual cytokines prevent or ameliorate experimental hypertension, and studies in genetically-modified mouse strains have demonstrated that lymphocytes are necessary participants in the development of hypertension and in hypertensive organ injury...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566538/the-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpases-and-their-role-as-major-new-players-in-human-disease
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas Stafford, Claire Wilson, Delvac Oceandy, Ludwig Neyses, Elizabeth J Cartwright
The Ca(2+) extrusion function of the four mammalian isoforms of the plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) is well established. There is also ever-increasing detail known of their roles in global and local Ca(2+) homeostasis and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in a wide variety of cell types and tissues. It is becoming clear that the spatiotemporal patterns of expression of the PMCAs and the fact that their abundances and relative expression levels vary from cell type to cell type both reflect and impact on their specific functions in these cells...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539435/membrane-and-nuclear-estrogen-receptor-alpha-actions-from-tissue-specificity-to-medical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Francois Arnal, Françoise Lenfant, Raphaël Metivier, Gilles Flouriot, Daniel Henrion, Marine Adlanmerini, Coralie Fontaine, Pierre Gourdy, Pierre Chambon, Benita Katzenellenbogen, John Katzenellenbogen
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been recognized now for several decades as playing a key role in reproduction and exerting functions in numerous nonreproductive tissues. In this review, we attempt to summarize the in vitro studies that are the basis of our current understanding of the mechanisms of action of ERα as a nuclear receptor and the key roles played by its two activation functions (AFs) in its transcriptional activities. We then depict the consequences of the selective inactivation of these AFs in mouse models, focusing on the prominent roles played by ERα in the reproductive tract and in the vascular system...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539434/estrogens-in-male-physiology
#7
REVIEW
Paul S Cooke, Manjunatha K Nanjappa, CheMyong Ko, Gail S Prins, Rex A Hess
Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches concentrations normally found only in females and in some species nanomolar concentrations of estrone sulfate are found in semen...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468833/dental-enamel-formation-and-implications-for-oral-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Lacruz, Stefan Habelitz, J Timothy Wright, Michael L Paine
Dental enamel is the hardest and most mineralized tissue in extinct and extant vertebrate species and provides maximum durability that allows teeth to function as weapons and/or tools as well as for food processing. Enamel development and mineralization is an intricate process tightly regulated by cells of the enamel organ called ameloblasts. These heavily polarized cells form a monolayer around the developing enamel tissue and move as a single forming front in specified directions as they lay down a proteinaceous matrix that serves as a template for crystal growth...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468832/little-fish-big-data-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-disease
#9
REVIEW
Philipp Gut, Sven Reischauer, Didier Y R Stainier, Rima Arnaout
The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases worldwide is staggering. The emergence of systems approaches in biology promises new therapies, faster and cheaper diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, a profound understanding of pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels remains a fundamental requirement for discovery and therapeutics. Animal models of human disease are cornerstones of drug discovery as they allow identification of novel pharmacological targets by linking gene function with pathogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298428/autoantibodies-to-synaptic-receptors-and-neuronal-cell-surface-proteins-in-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau, Christian Geis, Francesc Graus
Investigations in the last 10 years have revealed a new category of neurological diseases mediated by antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins. There are currently 16 such diseases all characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal proteins involved in synaptic signaling and plasticity. In clinical practice these findings have changed the diagnostic and treatment approach to potentially lethal, but now treatable, neurological and psychiatric syndromes previously considered idiopathic or not even suspected to be immune-mediated...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275048/brain-machine-interfaces-from-basic-science-to-neuroprostheses-and-neurorehabilitation
#11
REVIEW
Mikhail A Lebedev, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) combine methods, approaches, and concepts derived from neurophysiology, computer science, and engineering in an effort to establish real-time bidirectional links between living brains and artificial actuators. Although theoretical propositions and some proof of concept experiments on directly linking the brains with machines date back to the early 1960s, BMI research only took off in earnest at the end of the 1990s, when this approach became intimately linked to new neurophysiological methods for sampling large-scale brain activity...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275047/the-new-biology-and-pharmacology-of-glucagon
#12
REVIEW
T D Müller, B Finan, C Clemmensen, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes management. These and related developments have fostered the discovery of novel insights into endocrine control of systemic metabolism, and in particular a deeper understanding of the importance of communication across vital organs, and specifically the gut-brain-pancreas-liver network...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202600/neoteny-prolongation-of-youth-from-naked-mole-rats-to-naked-apes-humans
#13
REVIEW
Vladimir P Skulachev, Susanne Holtze, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Lora E Bakeeva, Maxim V Skulachev, Alexander V Markov, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Viktor A Sadovnichii
It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202599/bone-cell-bioenergetics-and-skeletal-energy-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Ryan C Riddle, Thomas L Clemens
The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination of the intermediary metabolism of skeletal cells has been sparked by a series of unanticipated observations in genetically modified mice that suggest the existence of novel endocrine pathways through which bone cells communicate their energy status to other centers of metabolic control...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179395/molecular-physiology-of-freeze-tolerance-in-vertebrates
#15
REVIEW
Kenneth B Storey, Janet M Storey
Freeze tolerance is an amazing winter survival strategy used by various amphibians and reptiles living in seasonally cold environments. These animals may spend weeks or months with up to ∼65% of their total body water frozen as extracellular ice and no physiological vital signs, and yet after thawing they return to normal life within a few hours. Two main principles of animal freeze tolerance have received much attention: the production of high concentrations of organic osmolytes (glucose, glycerol, urea among amphibians) that protect the intracellular environment, and the control of ice within the body (the first putative ice-binding protein in a frog was recently identified), but many other strategies of biochemical adaptation also contribute to freezing survival...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179394/pathophysiology-of-migraine-a-disorder-of-sensory-processing
#16
REVIEW
Peter J Goadsby, Philip R Holland, Margarida Martins-Oliveira, Jan Hoffmann, Christoph Schankin, Simon Akerman
Plaguing humans for more than two millennia, manifest on every continent studied, and with more than one billion patients having an attack in any year, migraine stands as the sixth most common cause of disability on the planet. The pathophysiology of migraine has emerged from a historical consideration of the "humors" through mid-20th century distraction of the now defunct Vascular Theory to a clear place as a neurological disorder. It could be said there are three questions: why, how, and when? Why: migraine is largely accepted to be an inherited tendency for the brain to lose control of its inputs...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151425/the-contribution-of-small-airway-obstruction-to-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
REVIEW
James C Hogg, Peter D Paré, Tillie-Louise Hackett
The hypothesis that the small conducting airways were the major site of obstruction to airflow in normal lungs was introduced by Rohrer in 1915 and prevailed until Weibel introduced a quantitative method of studying lung anatomy in 1963. Green repeated Rohrer's calculations using Weibels new data in 1965 and found that the smaller conducting airways offered very little resistance to airflow. This conflict was resolved by seminal experiments conducted by Macklem and Mead in 1967, which confirmed that a small proportion of the total lower airways resistance is attributable to small airways <2 mm in diameter...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151424/vascular-adaptation-to-exercise-in-humans-role-of-hemodynamic-stimuli
#18
REVIEW
Daniel J Green, Maria T E Hopman, Jaume Padilla, M Harold Laughlin, Dick H J Thijssen
On the 400th anniversary of Harvey's Lumleian lectures, this review focuses on "hemodynamic" forces associated with the movement of blood through arteries in humans and the functional and structural adaptations that result from repeated episodic exposure to such stimuli. The late 20th century discovery that endothelial cells modify arterial tone via paracrine transduction provoked studies exploring the direct mechanical effects of blood flow and pressure on vascular function and adaptation in vivo. In this review, we address the impact of distinct hemodynamic signals that occur in response to exercise, the interrelationships between these signals, the nature of the adaptive responses that manifest under different physiological conditions, and the implications for human health...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151423/ammonia-transporters-and-their-role-in-acid-base-balance
#19
REVIEW
I David Weiner, Jill W Verlander
Acid-base homeostasis is critical to maintenance of normal health. Renal ammonia excretion is the quantitatively predominant component of renal net acid excretion, both under basal conditions and in response to acid-base disturbances. Although titratable acid excretion also contributes to renal net acid excretion, the quantitative contribution of titratable acid excretion is less than that of ammonia under basal conditions and is only a minor component of the adaptive response to acid-base disturbances. In contrast to other urinary solutes, ammonia is produced in the kidney and then is selectively transported either into the urine or the renal vein...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003328/ghrelin-cck-glp-1-and-pyy-3-36-secretory-controls-and-physiological-roles-in-eating-and-glycemia-in-health-obesity-and-after-rygb
#20
REVIEW
Robert E Steinert, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Lori Asarian, Michael Horowitz, Christoph Beglinger, Nori Geary
The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
journal
journal
22343
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"