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Physiological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212790/the-arp2-3-regulatory-system-and-its-deregulation-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Nicolas Molinie, Alexis Gautreau
The Arp2/3 complex is an evolutionary conserved molecular machine that generates branched actin networks. When activated, the Arp2/3 complex contributes the actin branched junction and thus cross-links the polymerizing actin filaments in a network that exerts a pushing force. The different activators initiate branched actin networks at the cytosolic surface of different cellular membranes to promote their protrusion, movement, or scission in cell migration and membrane traffic. Here we review the structure, function, and regulation of all the direct regulators of the Arp2/3 complex that induce or inhibit the initiation of a branched actin network and that controls the stability of its branched junctions...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212789/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-electrical-activity-and-insulin-secretion-of-mice-and-men
#2
REVIEW
Patrik Rorsman, Frances M Ashcroft
The pancreatic β-cell plays a key role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin, the only hormone capable of lowering the blood glucose concentration. Impaired insulin secretion results in the chronic hyperglycemia that characterizes type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which currently afflicts >450 million people worldwide. The healthy β-cell acts as a glucose sensor matching its output to the circulating glucose concentration. It does so via metabolically induced changes in electrical activity, which culminate in an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and initiation of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167332/redox-regulation-of-homeostasis-and-proteostasis-in-peroxisomes
#3
REVIEW
Cheryl L Walker, Laura C D Pomatto, Durga Nand Tripathi, Kelvin J A Davies
Peroxisomes are highly dynamic intracellular organelles involved in a variety of metabolic functions essential for the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids, d-amino acids, and many polyamines. A byproduct of peroxisomal metabolism is the generation, and subsequent detoxification, of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Because of its relatively low reactivity (as a mild oxidant), H2O2 has a comparatively long intracellular half-life and a high diffusion rate, all of which makes H2O2 an efficient signaling molecule...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167331/spaceflight-induced-intracranial-hypertension-and-visual-impairment-pathophysiology-and-countermeasures
#4
REVIEW
Li-Fan Zhang, Alan R Hargens
Visual impairment intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is considered an unexplained major risk for future long-duration spaceflight. NASA recently redefined this syndrome as Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS). Evidence thus reviewed supports that chronic, mildly elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in space (as opposed to more variable ICP with posture and activity on Earth) is largely accounted for by loss of hydrostatic pressures and altered hemodynamics in the intracranial circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167330/endothelial-cell-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Guy Eelen, Pauline de Zeeuw, Lucas Treps, Ulrike Harjes, Brian W Wong, Peter Carmeliet
Endothelial cells (ECs) are more than inert blood vessel lining material. Instead, they are active players in the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) both in health and (life-threatening) diseases. Recently, a new concept arose by which EC metabolism drives angiogenesis in parallel to well-established angiogenic growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor). 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3-driven glycolysis generates energy to sustain competitive behavior of the ECs at the tip of a growing vessel sprout, whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a-controlled fatty acid oxidation regulates nucleotide synthesis and proliferation of ECs in the stalk of the sprout...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167329/estradiol-and-age-related-bone-loss-in-men
#6
LETTER
Ferran Jardí, Michaël R Laurent, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954853/hippocampal-gabaergic-inhibitory-interneurons
#7
REVIEW
Kenneth A Pelkey, Ramesh Chittajallu, Michael T Craig, Ludovic Tricoire, Jason C Wester, Chris J McBain
In the hippocampus GABAergic local circuit inhibitory interneurons represent only ~10-15% of the total neuronal population; however, their remarkable anatomical and physiological diversity allows them to regulate virtually all aspects of cellular and circuit function. Here we provide an overview of the current state of the field of interneuron research, focusing largely on the hippocampus. We discuss recent advances related to the various cell types, including their development and maturation, expression of subtype-specific voltage- and ligand-gated channels, and their roles in network oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954852/vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-arterial-stiffening-relevance-in-development-aging-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Patrick Lacolley, Véronique Regnault, Patrick Segers, Stéphane Laurent
The cushioning function of large arteries encompasses distension during systole and recoil during diastole which transforms pulsatile flow into a steady flow in the microcirculation. Arterial stiffness, the inverse of distensibility, has been implicated in various etiologies of chronic common and monogenic cardiovascular diseases and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The first components that contribute to arterial stiffening are extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that support the mechanical load, while the second important components are vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which not only regulate actomyosin interactions for contraction but mediate also mechanotransduction in cell-ECM homeostasis...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931565/junctional-adhesion-molecules-jams-cell-adhesion-receptors-with-pleiotropic-functions-in-cell-physiology-and-development
#9
REVIEW
Klaus Ebnet
Junctional adhesion molecules (JAM)-A, -B and -C are cell-cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily which are expressed by a variety of tissues, both during development and in the adult organism. Through their extracellular domains, they interact with other adhesion receptors on opposing cells. Through their cytoplasmic domains, they interact with PDZ domain-containing scaffolding and signaling proteins. In combination, these two properties regulate the assembly of signaling complexes at specific sites of cell-cell adhesion...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931564/towards-precision-medicine-for-hypertension-a-review-of-genomic-epigenomic-and-microbiomic-effects-on-blood-pressure-in-experimental-rat-models-and-humans
#10
REVIEW
Sandosh Padmanabhan, Bina Joe
Compelling evidence for the inherited nature of essential hypertension has led to extensive research in rats and humans. Rats have served as the primary model for research on the genetics of hypertension resulting in identification of genomic regions that are causally associated with hypertension. In more recent times, genome-wide studies in humans have also begun to improve our understanding of the inheritance of polygenic forms of hypertension. Based on the chronological progression of research into the genetics of hypertension as the "structural backbone," this review catalogs and discusses the rat and human genetic elements mapped and implicated in blood pressure regulation...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904001/kv3-channels-enablers-of-rapid-firing-neurotransmitter-release-and-neuronal-endurance
#11
REVIEW
Leonard K Kaczmarek, Yalan Zhang
The intrinsic electrical characteristics of different types of neurons are shaped by the K(+) channels they express. From among the more than 70 different K(+) channel genes expressed in neurons, Kv3 family voltage-dependent K(+) channels are uniquely associated with the ability of certain neurons to fire action potentials and to release neurotransmitter at high rates of up to 1,000 Hz. In general, the four Kv3 channels Kv3.1-Kv3.4 share the property of activating and deactivating rapidly at potentials more positive than other channels...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835509/quantal-fluctuations-in-central-mammalian-synapses-functional-role-of-vesicular-docking-sites
#12
REVIEW
Camila Pulido, Alain Marty
Quantal fluctuations are an integral part of synaptic signaling. At the frog neuromuscular junction, Bernard Katz proposed that quantal fluctuations originate at "reactive sites" where specific structures of the presynaptic membrane interact with synaptic vesicles. However, the physical nature of reactive sites has remained unclear, both at the frog neuromuscular junction and at central synapses. Many central synapses, called simple synapses, are small structures containing a single presynaptic active zone and a single postsynaptic density of receptors...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814613/osteoimmunology-the-conceptual-framework-unifying-the-immune-and-skeletal-systems
#14
REVIEW
Kazuo Okamoto, Tomoki Nakashima, Masahiro Shinohara, Takako Negishi-Koga, Noriko Komatsu, Asuka Terashima, Shinichiro Sawa, Takeshi Nitta, Hiroshi Takayanagi
The immune and skeletal systems share a variety of molecules, including cytokines, chemokines, hormones, receptors, and transcription factors. Bone cells interact with immune cells under physiological and pathological conditions. Osteoimmunology was created as a new interdisciplinary field in large part to highlight the shared molecules and reciprocal interactions between the two systems in both heath and disease. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays an essential role not only in the development of immune organs and bones, but also in autoimmune diseases affecting bone, thus effectively comprising the molecule that links the two systems...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794168/notch-signaling-in-development-tissue-homeostasis-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Chris Siebel, Urban Lendahl
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily highly conserved signaling mechanism, but in contrast to signaling pathways such as Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog, and BMP/TGF-β, Notch signaling occurs via cell-cell communication, where transmembrane ligands on one cell activate transmembrane receptors on a juxtaposed cell. Originally discovered through mutations in Drosophila more than 100 yr ago, and with the first Notch gene cloned more than 30 yr ago, we are still gaining new insights into the broad effects of Notch signaling in organisms across the metazoan spectrum and its requirement for normal development of most organs in the body...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794167/reply-to-thorneloe-et-al
#16
John P M White, Mario Cibelli, Laszlo Urban, Bernd Nilius, Graham McGeown, Istvan Nagy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794166/properties-of-the-trpv4-agonist-gsk1016790a-and-the-trpv4-antagonist-gsk2193874
#17
LETTER
Kevin S Thorneloe, Mui Cheung, Dennis A Holt, Robert N Willette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615464/corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615463/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-proteins-in-skeletal-development-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Tao Yang, Bart O Williams
The identification of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) provided a foundation for subsequent studies in lipoprotein metabolism, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and many other fundamental biological functions. The importance of the LDLR led to numerous studies that identified homologous molecules and ultimately resulted in the description of the LDL-receptor superfamily, a group of proteins that contain domains also found in the LDLR. Subsequent studies have revealed that members of the LDLR-related protein family play roles in regulating many aspects of signal transduction...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615462/posttranslational-modification-as-a-critical-determinant-of-cytoplasmic-innate-immune-recognition
#20
REVIEW
Paul J Baker, Dominic De Nardo, Fiona Moghaddas, Le Son Tran, Annabell Bachem, Tan Nguyen, Thomas Hayman, Hazel Tye, James E Vince, Sammy Bedoui, Richard L Ferrero, Seth L Masters
Cell surface innate immune receptors can directly detect a variety of extracellular pathogens to which cytoplasmic innate immune sensors are rarely exposed. Instead, within the cytoplasm, the environment is rife with cellular machinery and signaling pathways that are indirectly perturbed by pathogenic microbes to activate intracellular sensors, such as pyrin, NLRP1, NLRP3, or NLRC4. Therefore, subtle changes in key intracellular processes such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and other pathways leading to posttranslational protein modification are key determinants of innate immune recognition in the cytoplasm...
July 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
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