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Physiological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881552/cardiac-t-tubule-microanatomy-and-function
#1
REVIEW
TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Unique to striated muscle cells, transverse tubules (t-tubules) are membrane organelles that consist of sarcolemma penetrating into the myocyte interior, forming a highly branched and interconnected network. Mature t-tubule networks are found in mammalian ventricular cardiomyocytes, with the transverse components of t-tubules occurring near sarcomeric z-discs. Cardiac t-tubules contain membrane microdomains enriched with ion channels and signaling molecules. The microdomains serve as key signaling hubs in regulation of cardiomyocyte function...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807202/estrogens-and-androgens-in-skeletal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#2
REVIEW
Maria Almeida, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Frank Claessens, Charles A O'Brien, Roger Bouillon, Dirk Vanderschueren, Stavros C Manolagas
Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton and are responsible for its sexual dimorphism. Estrogen deficiency at menopause or loss of both estrogens and androgens in elderly men contribute to the development of osteoporosis, one of the most common and impactful metabolic diseases of old age. In the last 20 years, basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies have changed considerably the landscape of our understanding of bone biology as well as the relationship between sex steroids and the physiology and pathophysiology of bone metabolism...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807201/molecular-pathophysiology-of-congenital-long-qt-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
M S Bohnen, G Peng, S H Robey, C Terrenoire, V Iyer, K J Sampson, R S Kass
Ion channels represent the molecular entities that give rise to the cardiac action potential, the fundamental cellular electrical event in the heart. The concerted function of these channels leads to normal cyclical excitation and resultant contraction of cardiac muscle. Research into cardiac ion channel regulation and mutations that underlie disease pathogenesis has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the causes and clinical management of cardiac arrhythmia. Here we review the molecular determinants, pathogenesis, and pharmacology of congenital Long QT Syndrome...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807200/molecular-determinants-of-bk-channel-functional-diversity-and-functioning
#4
REVIEW
Ramon Latorre, Karen Castillo, Willy Carrasquel-Ursulaez, Romina V Sepulveda, Fernando Gonzalez-Nilo, Carlos Gonzalez, Osvaldo Alvarez
Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels play many physiological roles ranging from the maintenance of smooth muscle tone to hearing and neurosecretion. BK channels are tetramers in which the pore-forming α subunit is coded by a single gene (Slowpoke, KCNMA1). In this review, we first highlight the physiological importance of this ubiquitous channel, emphasizing the role that BK channels play in different channelopathies. We next discuss the modular nature of BK channel-forming protein, in which the different modules (the voltage sensor and the Ca(2+) binding sites) communicate with the pore gates allosterically...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807199/mechanistic-pathways-of-sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Georgios Kararigas
Major differences between men and women exist in epidemiology, manifestation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as coronary artery disease, pressure overload, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Corresponding sex differences have been studied in a number of animal models, and mechanistic investigations have been undertaken to analyze the observed sex differences. We summarize the biological mechanisms of sex differences in CVD focusing on three main areas, i...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630178/corrigendum
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630177/reply-to-ore%C3%A5-kovi%C3%A4-et-al
#7
Helle H Damkier, Peter D Brown, Jeppe Praetorius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630176/cerebrospinal-fluid-secretion-by-the-choroid-plexus
#8
LETTER
Darko Orešković, Milan Radoš, Marijan Klarica
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630175/from-phytocannabinoids-to-cannabinoid-receptors-and-endocannabinoids-pleiotropic-physiological-and-pathological-roles-through-complex-pharmacology
#9
REVIEW
Alessia Ligresti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Apart from having been used and misused for at least four millennia for, among others, recreational and medicinal purposes, the cannabis plant and its most peculiar chemical components, the plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), have the merit to have led humanity to discover one of the most intriguing and pleiotropic endogenous signaling systems, the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This review article aims to describe and critically discuss, in the most comprehensive possible manner, the multifaceted aspects of 1) the pharmacology and potential impact on mammalian physiology of all major phytocannabinoids, and not only of the most famous one Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 2) the adaptive pro-homeostatic physiological, or maladaptive pathological, roles of the ECS in mammalian cells, tissues, and organs...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630174/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-genetic-disease-that-involves-mucociliary-dysfunction-of-the-peripheral-airways
#10
REVIEW
Christopher M Evans, Tasha E Fingerlin, Marvin I Schwarz, David Lynch, Jonathan Kurche, Laura Warg, Ivana V Yang, David A Schwartz
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable complex genetic disorder that is associated with sequence changes in 7 genes (MUC5B, TERT, TERC, RTEL1, PARN, SFTPC, and SFTPA2) and with variants in at least 11 novel loci. We have previously found that 1) a common gain-of-function promoter variant in MUC5B rs35705950 is the strongest risk factor (genetic and otherwise), accounting for 30-35% of the risk of developing IPF, a disease that was previously considered idiopathic; 2) the MUC5B promoter variant can potentially be used to identify individuals with preclinical pulmonary fibrosis and is predictive of radiologic progression of preclinical pulmonary fibrosis; and 3) MUC5B may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis with MUC5B message and protein expressed in bronchiolo-alveolar epithelia of IPF and the characteristic IPF honeycomb cysts...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604528/placental-origins-of-chronic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Abigail L Fowden, Kent L Thornburg
Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604527/heme-oxygenases-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Anita Ayer, Abolfazl Zarjou, Anupam Agarwal, Roland Stocker
Heme oxygenases are composed of two isozymes, Hmox1 and Hmox2, that catalyze the degradation of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous iron, and biliverdin, the latter of which is subsequently converted to bilirubin. While initially considered to be waste products, CO and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown over the last 20 years to modulate key cellular processes, such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as antioxidant defense. This shift in paradigm has led to the importance of heme oxygenases and their products in cell physiology now being well accepted...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582250/the-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-a-bioenergetic-perspective
#13
REVIEW
David G Nicholls
The pancreatic β-cell secretes insulin in response to elevated plasma glucose. This review applies an external bioenergetic critique to the central processes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, including glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, the cytosolic adenine nucleotide pool, and its interaction with plasma membrane ion channels. The control mechanisms responsible for the unique responsiveness of the cell to glucose availability are discussed from bioenergetic and metabolic control standpoints...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535640/primary-aldosteronism-changing-definitions-and-new-concepts-of-physiology-and-pathophysiology-both-inside-and-outside-the-kidney
#14
REVIEW
Michael Stowasser, Richard D Gordon
In the 60 years that have passed since the discovery of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone, much has been learned about its synthesis (both adrenal and extra-adrenal), regulation (by renin-angiotensin II, potassium, adrenocorticotrophin, and other factors), and effects (on both epithelial and nonepithelial tissues). Once thought to be rare, primary aldosteronism (PA, in which aldosterone secretion by the adrenal is excessive and autonomous of its principal regulator, angiotensin II) is now known to be the most common specifically treatable and potentially curable form of hypertension, with most patients lacking the clinical feature of hypokalemia, the presence of which was previously considered to be necessary to warrant further efforts towards confirming a diagnosis of PA...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535639/non-coding-rnas-in-development-and-disease-background-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Julia Beermann, Maria-Teresa Piccoli, Janika Viereck, Thomas Thum
Advances in RNA-sequencing techniques have led to the discovery of thousands of non-coding transcripts with unknown function. There are several types of non-coding linear RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNA) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), as well as circular RNAs (circRNA) consisting of a closed continuous loop. This review guides the reader through important aspects of non-coding RNA biology. This includes their biogenesis, mode of actions, physiological function, as well as their role in the disease context (such as in cancer or the cardiovascular system)...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512009/the-inositol-trisphosphate-calcium-signaling-pathway-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Michael J Berridge
Many cellular functions are regulated by calcium (Ca(2+)) signals that are generated by different signaling pathways. One of these is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/calcium (InsP3/Ca(2+)) signaling pathway that operates through either primary or modulatory mechanisms. In its primary role, it generates the Ca(2+) that acts directly to control processes such as metabolism, secretion, fertilization, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Its modulatory role occurs in excitable cells where it modulates the primary Ca(2+) signal generated by the entry of Ca(2+) through voltage-operated channels that releases Ca(2+) from ryanodine receptors (RYRs) on the internal stores...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489307/platelets-in-pulmonary-immune-responses-and-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Middleton, Andrew S Weyrich, Guy A Zimmerman
Platelets are essential for physiological hemostasis and are central in pathological thrombosis. These are their traditional and best known activities in health and disease. In addition, however, platelets have specializations that broaden their functional repertoire considerably. These functional capabilities, some of which are recently discovered, include the ability to sense and respond to infectious and immune signals and to act as inflammatory effector cells. Human platelets and platelets from mice and other experimental animals can link the innate and adaptive limbs of the immune system and act across the immune continuum, often also linking immune and hemostatic functions...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489306/brain-insulin-resistance-at-the-crossroads-of-metabolic-and-cognitive-disorders-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
Stephanie Kullmann, Martin Heni, Manfred Hallschmid, Andreas Fritsche, Hubert Preissl, Hans-Ulrich Häring
Ever since the brain was identified as an insulin-sensitive organ, evidence has rapidly accumulated that insulin action in the brain produces multiple behavioral and metabolic effects, influencing eating behavior, peripheral metabolism, and cognition. Disturbances in brain insulin action can be observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as in aging and dementia. Decreases in insulin sensitivity of central nervous pathways, i.e., brain insulin resistance, may therefore constitute a joint pathological feature of metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335447/rebuilding-the-damaged-heart-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cell-based-therapy-and-engineered-heart-tissue
#19
REVIEW
Samuel Golpanian, Ariel Wolf, Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Joshua M Hare
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are broadly distributed cells that retain postnatal capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. MSCs evade immune detection, secrete an array of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic mediators, and very importantly activate resident precursors. These properties form the basis for the strategy of clinical application of cell-based therapeutics for inflammatory and fibrotic conditions. In cardiovascular medicine, administration of autologous or allogeneic MSCs in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy holds significant promise...
July 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335446/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-platform-for-personalized-and-precision-cardiovascular-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Elena Matsa, John H Ahrens, Joseph C Wu
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have revolutionized the field of human disease modeling, with an enormous potential to serve as paradigm shifting platforms for preclinical trials, personalized clinical diagnosis, and drug treatment. In this review, we describe how hiPSCs could transition cardiac healthcare away from simple disease diagnosis to prediction and prevention, bridging the gap between basic and clinical research to bring the best science to every patient.
July 2016: Physiological Reviews
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