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Physiological Reviews

William G Robichaux, Xiaodong Cheng
This review focuses on one family of the known cAMP receptors, the exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPACs), also known as the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMP-GEFs). Although EPAC proteins are fairly new additions to the growing list of cAMP effectors, and relatively "young" in the cAMP discovery timeline, the significance of an EPAC presence in different cell systems is extraordinary. The study of EPACs has considerably expanded the diversity and adaptive nature of cAMP signaling associated with numerous physiological and pathophysiological responses...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Amanda Phuong Tran, Philippa Mary Warren, Jerry Silver
Since no approved therapies to restore mobility and sensation following spinal cord injury (SCI) currently exist, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms following SCI that compromise regeneration or neuroplasticity is needed to develop new strategies to promote axonal regrowth and restore function. Physical trauma to the spinal cord results in vascular disruption that, in turn, causes blood-spinal cord barrier rupture leading to hemorrhage and ischemia, followed by rampant local cell death...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Michael Fricker, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Vilmante Borutaite, Michael Coleman, Guy C Brown
Neuronal cell death occurs extensively during development and pathology, where it is especially important because of the limited capacity of adult neurons to proliferate or be replaced. The concept of cell death used to be simple as there were just two or three types, so we just had to work out which type was involved in our particular pathology and then block it. However, we now know that there are at least a dozen ways for neurons to die, that blocking a particular mechanism of cell death may not prevent the cell from dying, and that non-neuronal cells also contribute to neuronal death...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
A P Hakansson, C J Orihuela, D Bogaert
It has long been thought that respiratory infections are the direct result of acquisition of pathogenic viruses or bacteria, followed by their overgrowth, dissemination, and in some instances tissue invasion. In the last decades, it has become apparent that in contrast to this classical view, the majority of microorganisms associated with respiratory infections and inflammation are actually common members of the respiratory ecosystem and only in rare circumstances do they cause disease. This suggests that a complex interplay between host, environment, and properties of colonizing microorganisms together determines disease development and its severity...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Maysa Sarhan, Walter G Land, Wulf Tonnus, Christian P Hugo, Andreas Linkermann
When cells undergo necrotic cell death in either physiological or pathophysiological settings in vivo, they release highly immunogenic intracellular molecules and organelles into the interstitium and thereby represent the strongest known trigger of the immune system. With our increasing understanding of necrosis as a regulated and genetically determined process (RN, regulated necrosis), necrosis and necroinflammation can be pharmacologically prevented. This review discusses our current knowledge about signaling pathways of necrotic cell death as the origin of necroinflammation...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Folami Y Ideraabdullah, Steven H Zeisel
Epigenetics is the study of heritable mechanisms that can modify gene activity and phenotype without modifying the genetic code. The basis for the concept of epigenetics originated more than 2,000 yr ago as a theory to explain organismal development. However, the definition of epigenetics continues to evolve as we identify more of the components that make up the epigenome and dissect the complex manner by which they regulate and are regulated by cellular functions. A substantial and growing body of research shows that nutrition plays a significant role in regulating the epigenome...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Ya-Xiong Tao, P Michael Conn
After synthesis, proteins are folded into their native conformations aided by molecular chaperones. Dysfunction in folding caused by genetic mutations in numerous genes causes protein conformational diseases. Membrane proteins are more prone to misfolding due to their more intricate folding than soluble proteins. Misfolded proteins are detected by the cellular quality control systems, especially in the endoplasmic reticulum, and proteins may be retained there for eventual degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system or through autophagy...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Natalia Prevarskaya, Roman Skryma, Yaroslav Shuba
Genomic instability is a primary cause and fundamental feature of human cancer. However, all cancer cell genotypes generally translate into several common pathophysiological features, often referred to as cancer hallmarks. Although nowadays the catalog of cancer hallmarks is quite broad, the most common and obvious of them are 1) uncontrolled proliferation, 2) resistance to programmed cell death (apoptosis), 3) tissue invasion and metastasis, and 4) sustained angiogenesis. Among the genes affected by cancer, those encoding ion channels are present...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
R William Caldwell, Paulo C Rodriguez, Haroldo A Toque, S Priya Narayanan, Ruth B Caldwell
The arginase enzyme developed in early life forms and was maintained during evolution. As the last step in the urea cycle, arginase cleaves l-arginine to form urea and l-ornithine. The urea cycle provides protection against excess ammonia, while l-ornithine is needed for cell proliferation, collagen formation, and other physiological functions. In mammals, increases in arginase activity have been linked to dysfunction and pathologies of the cardiovascular system, kidney, and central nervous system and also to dysfunction of the immune system and cancer...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Cecilia Garlanda, Barbara Bottazzi, Elena Magrini, Antonio Inforzato, Alberto Mantovani
Innate immunity includes a cellular and a humoral arm. PTX3 is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule conserved in evolution which acts as a key component of humoral innate immunity in infections of fungal, bacterial, and viral origin. PTX3 binds conserved microbial structures and self-components under conditions of inflammation and activates effector functions (complement, phagocytosis). Moreover, it has a complex regulatory role in inflammation, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury and cancer-related inflammation, as well as in extracellular matrix organization and remodeling, with profound implications in physiology and pathology...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Sadis Matalon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Bianca C Bernardo, Jenny Y Y Ooi, Kate L Weeks, Natalie L Patterson, Julie R McMullen
The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte growth and proliferation. We discuss in detail the effects of exercise on other cardiac cells, organelles, and systems that have received less or little attention and require further investigation...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Walkyria Oliveira Sampaio, Andreia C Alzamora, Daisy Motta-Santos, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key player in the control of the cardiovascular system and hydroelectrolyte balance, with an influence on organs and functions throughout the body. The classical view of this system saw it as a sequence of many enzymatic steps that culminate in the production of a single biologically active metabolite, the octapeptide angiotensin (ANG) II, by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The past two decades have revealed new functions for some of the intermediate products, beyond their roles as substrates along the classical route...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes are neural cells of ectodermal, neuroepithelial origin that provide for homeostasis and defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in morphological appearance; they express a multitude of receptors, channels, and membrane transporters. This complement underlies their remarkable adaptive plasticity that defines the functional maintenance of the CNS in development and aging. Astrocytes are tightly integrated into neural networks and act within the context of neural tissue; astrocytes control homeostasis of the CNS at all levels of organization from molecular to the whole organ...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Deniz Atasoy, Scott M Sternson
Chemogenetic technologies enable selective pharmacological control of specific cell populations. An increasing number of approaches have been developed that modulate different signaling pathways. Selective pharmacological control over G protein-coupled receptor signaling, ion channel conductances, protein association, protein stability, and small molecule targeting allows modulation of cellular processes in distinct cell types. Here, we review these chemogenetic technologies and instances of their applications in complex tissues in vivo and ex vivo...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Nicolas Molinie, Alexis Gautreau
The Arp2/3 complex is an evolutionary conserved molecular machine that generates branched actin networks. When activated, the Arp2/3 complex contributes the actin branched junction and thus cross-links the polymerizing actin filaments in a network that exerts a pushing force. The different activators initiate branched actin networks at the cytosolic surface of different cellular membranes to promote their protrusion, movement, or scission in cell migration and membrane traffic. Here we review the structure, function, and regulation of all the direct regulators of the Arp2/3 complex that induce or inhibit the initiation of a branched actin network and that controls the stability of its branched junctions...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Patrik Rorsman, Frances M Ashcroft
The pancreatic β-cell plays a key role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin, the only hormone capable of lowering the blood glucose concentration. Impaired insulin secretion results in the chronic hyperglycemia that characterizes type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which currently afflicts >450 million people worldwide. The healthy β-cell acts as a glucose sensor matching its output to the circulating glucose concentration. It does so via metabolically induced changes in electrical activity, which culminate in an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and initiation of Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Cheryl L Walker, Laura C D Pomatto, Durga Nand Tripathi, Kelvin J A Davies
Peroxisomes are highly dynamic intracellular organelles involved in a variety of metabolic functions essential for the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids, d-amino acids, and many polyamines. A byproduct of peroxisomal metabolism is the generation, and subsequent detoxification, of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Because of its relatively low reactivity (as a mild oxidant), H2 O2 has a comparatively long intracellular half-life and a high diffusion rate, all of which makes H2 O2 an efficient signaling molecule...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
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