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Physiological Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298428/autoantibodies-to-synaptic-receptors-and-neuronal-cell-surface-proteins-in-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau, Christian Geis, Francesc Graus
Investigations in the last 10 years have revealed a new category of neurological diseases mediated by antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins. There are currently 16 such diseases all characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal proteins involved in synaptic signaling and plasticity. In clinical practice these findings have changed the diagnostic and treatment approach to potentially lethal, but now treatable, neurological and psychiatric syndromes previously considered idiopathic or not even suspected to be immune-mediated...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275048/brain-machine-interfaces-from-basic-science-to-neuroprostheses-and-neurorehabilitation
#2
REVIEW
Mikhail A Lebedev, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) combine methods, approaches, and concepts derived from neurophysiology, computer science, and engineering in an effort to establish real-time bidirectional links between living brains and artificial actuators. Although theoretical propositions and some proof of concept experiments on directly linking the brains with machines date back to the early 1960s, BMI research only took off in earnest at the end of the 1990s, when this approach became intimately linked to new neurophysiological methods for sampling large-scale brain activity...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275047/the-new-biology-and-pharmacology-of-glucagon
#3
REVIEW
T D Müller, B Finan, C Clemmensen, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes management. These and related developments have fostered the discovery of novel insights into endocrine control of systemic metabolism, and in particular a deeper understanding of the importance of communication across vital organs, and specifically the gut-brain-pancreas-liver network...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202600/neoteny-prolongation-of-youth-from-naked-mole-rats-to-naked-apes-humans
#4
REVIEW
Vladimir P Skulachev, Susanne Holtze, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Lora E Bakeeva, Maxim V Skulachev, Alexander V Markov, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Viktor A Sadovnichii
It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202599/bone-cell-bioenergetics-and-skeletal-energy-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Ryan C Riddle, Thomas L Clemens
The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination of the intermediary metabolism of skeletal cells has been sparked by a series of unanticipated observations in genetically modified mice that suggest the existence of novel endocrine pathways through which bone cells communicate their energy status to other centers of metabolic control...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179395/molecular-physiology-of-freeze-tolerance-in-vertebrates
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth B Storey, Janet M Storey
Freeze tolerance is an amazing winter survival strategy used by various amphibians and reptiles living in seasonally cold environments. These animals may spend weeks or months with up to ∼65% of their total body water frozen as extracellular ice and no physiological vital signs, and yet after thawing they return to normal life within a few hours. Two main principles of animal freeze tolerance have received much attention: the production of high concentrations of organic osmolytes (glucose, glycerol, urea among amphibians) that protect the intracellular environment, and the control of ice within the body (the first putative ice-binding protein in a frog was recently identified), but many other strategies of biochemical adaptation also contribute to freezing survival...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179394/pathophysiology-of-migraine-a-disorder-of-sensory-processing
#7
REVIEW
Peter J Goadsby, Philip R Holland, Margarida Martins-Oliveira, Jan Hoffmann, Christoph Schankin, Simon Akerman
Plaguing humans for more than two millennia, manifest on every continent studied, and with more than one billion patients having an attack in any year, migraine stands as the sixth most common cause of disability on the planet. The pathophysiology of migraine has emerged from a historical consideration of the "humors" through mid-20th century distraction of the now defunct Vascular Theory to a clear place as a neurological disorder. It could be said there are three questions: why, how, and when? Why: migraine is largely accepted to be an inherited tendency for the brain to lose control of its inputs...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151425/the-contribution-of-small-airway-obstruction-to-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
REVIEW
James C Hogg, Peter D Paré, Tillie-Louise Hackett
The hypothesis that the small conducting airways were the major site of obstruction to airflow in normal lungs was introduced by Rohrer in 1915 and prevailed until Weibel introduced a quantitative method of studying lung anatomy in 1963. Green repeated Rohrer's calculations using Weibels new data in 1965 and found that the smaller conducting airways offered very little resistance to airflow. This conflict was resolved by seminal experiments conducted by Macklem and Mead in 1967, which confirmed that a small proportion of the total lower airways resistance is attributable to small airways <2 mm in diameter...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151424/vascular-adaptation-to-exercise-in-humans-role-of-hemodynamic-stimuli
#9
REVIEW
Daniel J Green, Maria T E Hopman, Jaume Padilla, M Harold Laughlin, Dick H J Thijssen
On the 400th anniversary of Harvey's Lumleian lectures, this review focuses on "hemodynamic" forces associated with the movement of blood through arteries in humans and the functional and structural adaptations that result from repeated episodic exposure to such stimuli. The late 20th century discovery that endothelial cells modify arterial tone via paracrine transduction provoked studies exploring the direct mechanical effects of blood flow and pressure on vascular function and adaptation in vivo. In this review, we address the impact of distinct hemodynamic signals that occur in response to exercise, the interrelationships between these signals, the nature of the adaptive responses that manifest under different physiological conditions, and the implications for human health...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151423/ammonia-transporters-and-their-role-in-acid-base-balance
#10
REVIEW
I David Weiner, Jill W Verlander
Acid-base homeostasis is critical to maintenance of normal health. Renal ammonia excretion is the quantitatively predominant component of renal net acid excretion, both under basal conditions and in response to acid-base disturbances. Although titratable acid excretion also contributes to renal net acid excretion, the quantitative contribution of titratable acid excretion is less than that of ammonia under basal conditions and is only a minor component of the adaptive response to acid-base disturbances. In contrast to other urinary solutes, ammonia is produced in the kidney and then is selectively transported either into the urine or the renal vein...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003328/ghrelin-cck-glp-1-and-pyy-3-36-secretory-controls-and-physiological-roles-in-eating-and-glycemia-in-health-obesity-and-after-rygb
#11
REVIEW
Robert E Steinert, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Lori Asarian, Michael Horowitz, Christoph Beglinger, Nori Geary
The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974512/murine-electrophysiological-models-of-cardiac-arrhythmogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Christopher L-H Huang
Cardiac arrhythmias can follow disruption of the normal cellular electrophysiological processes underlying excitable activity and their tissue propagation as coherent wavefronts from the primary sinoatrial node pacemaker, through the atria, conducting structures and ventricular myocardium. These physiological events are driven by interacting, voltage-dependent, processes of activation, inactivation, and recovery in the ion channels present in cardiomyocyte membranes. Generation and conduction of these events are further modulated by intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, and metabolic and structural change...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932395/ubiquitination-and-the-regulation-of-membrane-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Natalie Foot, Tanya Henshall, Sharad Kumar
Newly synthesized transmembrane proteins undergo a series of steps to ensure that only the required amount of correctly folded protein is localized to the membrane. The regulation of protein quality and its abundance at the membrane are often controlled by ubiquitination, a multistep enzymatic process that results in the attachment of ubiquitin, or chains of ubiquitin to the target protein. Protein ubiquitination acts as a signal for sorting, trafficking, and the removal of membrane proteins via endocytosis, a process through which multiple ubiquitin ligases are known to specifically regulate the functions of a number of ion channels, transporters, and signaling receptors...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881552/cardiac-t-tubule-microanatomy-and-function
#14
REVIEW
TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Unique to striated muscle cells, transverse tubules (t-tubules) are membrane organelles that consist of sarcolemma penetrating into the myocyte interior, forming a highly branched and interconnected network. Mature t-tubule networks are found in mammalian ventricular cardiomyocytes, with the transverse components of t-tubules occurring near sarcomeric z-discs. Cardiac t-tubules contain membrane microdomains enriched with ion channels and signaling molecules. The microdomains serve as key signaling hubs in regulation of cardiomyocyte function...
2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807202/estrogens-and-androgens-in-skeletal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#15
REVIEW
Maria Almeida, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Frank Claessens, Charles A O'Brien, Roger Bouillon, Dirk Vanderschueren, Stavros C Manolagas
Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton and are responsible for its sexual dimorphism. Estrogen deficiency at menopause or loss of both estrogens and androgens in elderly men contribute to the development of osteoporosis, one of the most common and impactful metabolic diseases of old age. In the last 20 years, basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies have changed considerably the landscape of our understanding of bone biology as well as the relationship between sex steroids and the physiology and pathophysiology of bone metabolism...
2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807201/molecular-pathophysiology-of-congenital-long-qt-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
M S Bohnen, G Peng, S H Robey, C Terrenoire, V Iyer, K J Sampson, R S Kass
Ion channels represent the molecular entities that give rise to the cardiac action potential, the fundamental cellular electrical event in the heart. The concerted function of these channels leads to normal cyclical excitation and resultant contraction of cardiac muscle. Research into cardiac ion channel regulation and mutations that underlie disease pathogenesis has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the causes and clinical management of cardiac arrhythmia. Here we review the molecular determinants, pathogenesis, and pharmacology of congenital Long QT Syndrome...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807200/molecular-determinants-of-bk-channel-functional-diversity-and-functioning
#17
REVIEW
Ramon Latorre, Karen Castillo, Willy Carrasquel-Ursulaez, Romina V Sepulveda, Fernando Gonzalez-Nilo, Carlos Gonzalez, Osvaldo Alvarez
Large-conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels play many physiological roles ranging from the maintenance of smooth muscle tone to hearing and neurosecretion. BK channels are tetramers in which the pore-forming α subunit is coded by a single gene (Slowpoke, KCNMA1). In this review, we first highlight the physiological importance of this ubiquitous channel, emphasizing the role that BK channels play in different channelopathies. We next discuss the modular nature of BK channel-forming protein, in which the different modules (the voltage sensor and the Ca(2+) binding sites) communicate with the pore gates allosterically...
2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807199/mechanistic-pathways-of-sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Georgios Kararigas
Major differences between men and women exist in epidemiology, manifestation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as coronary artery disease, pressure overload, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Corresponding sex differences have been studied in a number of animal models, and mechanistic investigations have been undertaken to analyze the observed sex differences. We summarize the biological mechanisms of sex differences in CVD focusing on three main areas, i...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630178/corrigendum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630177/reply-to-ore%C3%A5-kovi%C3%A4-et-al
#20
Helle H Damkier, Peter D Brown, Jeppe Praetorius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
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