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Physiological Reviews

Markus M Rinschen, Kavee Limbutara, Mark A Knepper, D Michael Payne, Trairak Pisitkun
Classical physiological studies using electrophysiological, biophysical, biochemical, and molecular techniques have created a detailed picture of molecular transport, bioenergetics, contractility and movement, and growth, as well as the regulation of these processes by external stimuli in cells and organisms. Newer systems biology approaches are beginning to provide deeper and broader understanding of these complex biological processes and their dynamic responses to a variety of environmental cues. In the past decade, advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have provided invaluable tools to further elucidate these complex cellular processes, thereby confirming, complementing, and advancing common views of physiology...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Thomas Moore-Morris, Patrick Piet van Vliet, Gregor Andelfinger, Michel Puceat
The heart is the first organ to be functional in the fetus. Heart formation is a complex morphogenetic process regulated by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most prominent congenital diseases. Genetics is not sufficient to explain these diseases or the impact of them on patients. Epigenetics is more and more emerging as a basis for cardiac malformations. This review brings the essential knowledge on cardiac biology of development. It further provides a broad background on epigenetics with a focus on three-dimensional conformation of chromatin...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Vanessa Frodermann, Matthias Nahrendorf
Research during the last decade has generated numerous insights on the presence, phenotype, and function of myeloid cells in cardiovascular organs. Newer tools with improved detection sensitivities revealed sizable populations of tissue-resident macrophages in all major healthy tissues. The heart and blood vessels contain robust numbers of these cells; for instance, 8% of noncardiomyocytes in the heart are macrophages. This number and the cell's phenotype change dramatically in disease conditions. While steady-state macrophages are mostly monocyte independent, macrophages residing in the inflamed vascular wall and the diseased heart derive from hematopoietic organs...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Jing Wang, Jean-Luc Puel
Sensorineural hearing impairment is the most common sensory disorder and a major health and socio-economic issue in industrialized countries. It is primarily due to the degeneration of mechanosensory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea via complex pathophysiological mechanisms. These occur following acute and/or chronic exposure to harmful extrinsic (e.g., ototoxic drugs, noise...) and intrinsic (e.g., aging, genetic) causative factors. No clinical therapies currently exist to rescue the dying sensorineural cells or regenerate these cells once lost...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Jonathan W Lowery, Vicki Rosen
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute the largest subdivision of the transforming growth factor-β family of ligands. BMPs exhibit widespread utility and pleiotropic, context-dependent effects, and the strength and duration of BMP pathway signaling is tightly regulated at numerous levels via mechanisms operating both inside and outside the cell. Defects in the BMP pathway or its regulation underlie multiple human diseases of different organ systems. Yet much remains to be discovered about the BMP pathway in its original context, i...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Erika Harno, Thanuja Gali Ramamoorthy, Anthony P Coll, Anne White
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is the archetypal polypeptide precursor of hormones and neuropeptides. In this review, we examine the variability in the individual peptides produced in different tissues and the impact of the simultaneous presence of their precursors or fragments. We also discuss the problems inherent in accurately measuring which of the precursors and their derived peptides are present in biological samples. We address how not being able to measure all the combinations of precursors and fragments quantitatively has affected our understanding of the pathophysiology associated with POMC processing...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Colin Reardon, Kaitlin Murray, Alan E Lomax
The immune and nervous systems are tightly integrated, with each system capable of influencing the other to respond to infectious or inflammatory perturbations of homeostasis. Recent studies demonstrating the ability of neural stimulation to significantly reduce the severity of immunopathology and consequently reduce mortality have led to a resurgence in the field of neuroimmunology. Highlighting the tight integration of the nervous and immune systems, afferent neurons can be activated by a diverse range of substances from bacterial-derived products to cytokines released by host cells...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Toshimi Michigami, Masanobu Kawai, Miwa Yamazaki, Keiichi Ozono
In mammals, phosphate balance is maintained by influx and efflux via the intestines, kidneys, bone, and soft tissue, which involves multiple sodium/phosphate (Na+ /Pi ) cotransporters, as well as regulation by several hormones. Alterations in the levels of extracellular phosphate exert effects on both skeletal and extra-skeletal tissues, and accumulating evidence has suggested that phosphate itself evokes signal transduction to regulate gene expression and cell behavior. Several in vitro studies have demonstrated that an elevation in extracellular Pi activates fibroblast growth factor receptor, Raf/MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway and Akt pathway, which might involve the type III Na+ /Pi cotransporter PiT-1...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Jennifer W Hill, Carol F Elias
A minimum amount of energy is required for basic physiological processes, such as protein biosynthesis, thermoregulation, locomotion, cardiovascular function, and digestion. However, for reproductive function and survival of the species, extra energy stores are necessary. Production of sex hormones and gametes, pubertal development, pregnancy, lactation, and parental care all require energy reserves. Thus the physiological systems that control energy homeostasis and reproductive function coevolved in mammals to support both individual health and species subsistence...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Jan M Deussing, Alon Chen
The physiological stress response is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis in the presence of real or perceived challenges. In this function, the brain activates adaptive responses that involve numerous neural circuits and effector molecules to adapt to the current and future demands. A maladaptive stress response has been linked to the etiology of a variety of disorders, such as anxiety and mood disorders, eating disorders, and the metabolic syndrome. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its relatives, the urocortins 1-3, in concert with their receptors (CRFR1, CRFR2), have emerged as central components of the physiological stress response...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Yasushi Okamura, Akira Kawanabe, Takafumi Kawai
Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) similar to that in voltage-gated ion channels, and a phosphoinositide phosphatase region similar to phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). The VSP gene is conserved from unicellular organisms to higher vertebrates. Membrane depolarization induces electrical driven conformational rearrangement in the VSD, which is translated into catalytic enzyme activity. Biophysical and structural characterization has revealed details of the mechanisms underlying the molecular functions of VSP...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Ann Hammarstedt, Silvia Gogg, Shahram Hedjazifar, Annika Nerstedt, Ulf Smith
The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is the largest and best storage site for excess lipids. However, it has a limited ability to expand by recruiting and/or differentiating available precursor cells. When inadequate, this leads to a hypertrophic expansion of the cells with increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and a dysfunctional prolipolytic tissue. Epi-/genetic factors regulate SAT adipogenesis and genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes is associated with markers of an impaired SAT adipogenesis and development of hypertrophic obesity also in nonobese individuals...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Peter Hegyi, Joszef Maléth, Julian R Walters, Alan F Hofmann, Stephen J Keely
Epithelial cells line the entire surface of the gastrointestinal tract and its accessory organs where they primarily function in transporting digestive enzymes, nutrients, electrolytes, and fluid to and from the luminal contents. At the same time, epithelial cells are responsible for forming a physical and biochemical barrier that prevents the entry into the body of harmful agents, such as bacteria and their toxins. Dysregulation of epithelial transport and barrier function is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of conditions throughout the intestine, such as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic diarrhea, pancreatitis, reflux esophagitis, and cancer...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Ariel A Di Nardo, Julia Fuchs, Rajiv L Joshi, Kenneth L Moya, Alain Prochiantz
The homeoprotein family comprises ~300 transcription factors and was long seen as primarily involved in developmental programs through cell autonomous regulation. However, recent evidence reveals that many of these factors are also expressed in the adult where they exert physiological functions not yet fully deciphered. Furthermore, the DNA-binding domain of most homeoproteins contains two signal sequences allowing their secretion and internalization, thus intercellular transfer. This review focuses on this new-found signaling in cell migration, axon guidance, and cerebral cortex physiological homeostasis and speculates on how it may play important roles in early arealization of the neuroepithelium...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Rolake O Alabi, Gregory Farber, Carl P Blobel
The vasculature is a remarkably interesting, complex, and interconnected organ. It provides a conduit for oxygen and nutrients, filtration of waste products, and rapid communication between organs. Much remains to be learned about the specialized vascular beds that fulfill these diverse, yet vital functions. This review was prompted by the discovery that Notch signaling in mouse endothelial cells is crucial for the development of specialized vascular beds found in the heart, kidneys, liver, intestines, and bone...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Tina Pangrsic, Joshua H Singer, Alexandra Koschak
Calcium influx through voltage-gated Ca (CaV ) channels is the first step in synaptic transmission. This review concerns CaV channels at ribbon synapses in primary sense organs and their specialization for efficient coding of stimuli in the physical environment. Specifically, we describe molecular, biochemical, and biophysical properties of the CaV channels in sensory receptor cells of the retina, cochlea, and vestibular apparatus, and we consider how such properties might change over the course of development and contribute to synaptic plasticity...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Max C Petersen, Gerald I Shulman
The 1921 discovery of insulin was a Big Bang from which a vast and expanding universe of research into insulin action and resistance has issued. In the intervening century, some discoveries have matured, coalescing into solid and fertile ground for clinical application; others remain incompletely investigated and scientifically controversial. Here, we attempt to synthesize this work to guide further mechanistic investigation and to inform the development of novel therapies for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The rational development of such therapies necessitates detailed knowledge of one of the key pathophysiological processes involved in T2D: insulin resistance...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Alexandre Caron, David M Briscoe, Denis Richard, Mathieu Laplante
DEP domain-containing mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is an important modulator of mTOR, a kinase at the center of two important protein complexes named mTORC1 and mTORC2. These highly studied complexes play essential roles in regulating growth, metabolism, and immunity in response to mitogens, nutrients, and cytokines. Defects in mTOR signaling have been associated with the development of many diseases, including cancer and diabetes, and approaches aiming at modulating mTOR activity are envisioned as an attractive strategy to improve human health...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Benjamin Jurek, Inga D Neumann
The many facets of the oxytocin (OXT) system of the brain and periphery elicited nearly 25,000 publications since 1930 (see FIGURE 1 , as listed in PubMed), which revealed central roles for OXT and its receptor (OXTR) in reproduction, and social and emotional behaviors in animal and human studies focusing on mental and physical health and disease. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of OXT expression and release, expression and binding of the OXTR in brain and periphery, OXTR-coupled signaling cascades, and their involvement in behavioral outcomes to assemble a comprehensive picture of the central and peripheral OXT system...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Désirée Maßberg, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are not exclusively expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons; they are also observed outside of the olfactory system in all other human tissues tested to date, including the testis, lung, intestine, skin, heart, and blood. Within these tissues, certain ORs have been determined to be exclusively expressed in only one tissue, whereas other ORs are more widely distributed in many different tissues throughout the human body. For most of the ectopically expressed ORs, limited data are available for their functional roles...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
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