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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322403/divorce-separation-and-housing-changes-a-multiprocess-analysis-of-longitudinal-data-from-england-and-wales
#1
Júlia Mikolai, Hill Kulu
This study investigates the effect of marital and nonmarital separation on individuals' residential and housing trajectories. Using rich data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and applying multilevel competing-risks event history models, we analyze the risk of a move of single, married, cohabiting, and separated men and women to different housing types. We distinguish moves due to separation from moves of separated people and account for unobserved codeterminants of moving and separation risks...
January 10, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313243/racial-and-ethnic-variation-in-the-relationship-between-student-loan-debt-and-the-transition-to-first-birth
#2
Stella Min, Miles G Taylor
The present study employs discrete-time hazard regression models to investigate the relationship between student loan debt and the probability of transitioning to either marital or nonmarital first childbirth using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Accounting for nonrandom selection into student loans using propensity scores, our study reveals that the effect of student loan debt on the transition to motherhood differs among white, black, and Hispanic women. Hispanic women holding student loans experience significant declines in the probability of transitioning to both marital and nonmarital motherhood, whereas black women with student loans are significantly more likely to transition to any first childbirth...
January 8, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282645/can-increased-educational-attainment-among-lower-educated-mothers-reduce-inequalities-in-children-s-skill-development
#3
Jennifer March Augustine, Daniela V Negraia
A rich tradition of stratification research has established a robust link between mothers' education and the skills in children that forecast children's own mobility. Yet, this research has failed to consider that many U.S. women are now completing their education after having children. Such a trend raises questions about whether increases in mothers' educational attainment can improve their children's skill development and whether these gains are enough to reduce inequalities in skills compared with children whose mothers completed the same degree before they were born...
December 27, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255975/family-trajectories-across-time-and-space-increasing-complexity-in-family-life-courses-in-europe
#4
Zachary Van Winkle
Family life courses are thought to have become more complex in Europe. This study uses SHARELIFE data from 14 European countries to analyze the family life courses of individuals born in 1924-1956 from ages 15 to 50. A new methodological approach, combining complexity metrics developed in sequence analysis with cross-classified multilevel modeling, is used to simultaneously quantify the proportions of variance attributable to birth cohort and country differences. This approach allows the direct comparison of changing levels of family trajectory differentiation across birth cohorts with cross-national variation, which provides a benchmark against which temporal change may be evaluated...
December 18, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255974/comparing-observed-and-unobserved-components-of-childhood-evidence-from-finnish-register-data-on-midlife-mortality-from-siblings-and-their-parents
#5
Hannes Kröger, Rasmus Hoffmann, Lasse Tarkiainen, Pekka Martikainen
In this study, we argue that the long arm of childhood that determines adult mortality should be thought of as comprising an observed part and its unobserved counterpart, reflecting the observed socioeconomic position of individuals and their parents and unobserved factors shared within a family. Our estimates of the observed and unobserved parts of the long arm of childhood are based on family-level variance in a survival analytic regression model, using siblings nested within families as the units of analysis...
December 18, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192387/differences-in-child-health-across-rural-urban-and-slum-areas-evidence-from-india
#6
Claus C Pörtner, Yu-Hsuan Su
The developing world is rapidly urbanizing, but an understanding of how child health differs across urban and rural areas is lacking. We examine the association between area of residence and child health in India, focusing on composition and selection effects. Simple height-for-age averages show that rural Indian children have the poorest health and urban children have the best, with slum children in between. With wealth or observed health environment held constant, the urban height-for-age advantage disappears, and slum children fare significantly worse than their rural counterparts...
November 30, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192386/sequential-neighborhood-effects-the-effect-of-long-term-exposure-to-concentrated-disadvantage-on-children-s-reading-and-math-test-scores
#7
Andrew L Hicks, Mark S Handcock, Narayan Sastry, Anne R Pebley
Prior research has suggested that children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood have lower achievement test scores, but these studies typically have not estimated causal effects that account for neighborhood choice. Recent studies used propensity score methods to account for the endogeneity of neighborhood exposures, comparing disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged neighborhoods. We develop an alternative propensity function approach in which cumulative neighborhood effects are modeled as a continuous treatment variable...
November 30, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164500/three-dimensions-of-change-in-school-segregation-a-grade-period-cohort-analysis
#8
Jeremy E Fiel, Yongjun Zhang
This study uses the first age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of segregation to examine changes in U.S. public school segregation from 1999-2000 to 2013-2014. APC analyses disentangle distinct sources of change in segregation, and they account for grade effects that could distort temporal trends if grade distributions change over time. Findings indicate that grade effects are substantial, drastically reducing segregation at the transition to middle school and further at the transition to high school. These grade effects do not substantially distort the analysis of recent trends, however, because grade distributions were sufficiently stable...
November 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164499/cognitive-disparities-the-impact-of-the-great-depression-and-cumulative-inequality-on-later-life-cognitive-function
#9
Jo Mhairi Hale
Population aging has driven a spate of recent research on later-life cognitive function. Greater longevity increases the lifetime risk of memory diseases that compromise the cognitive abilities vital to well-being. Alzheimer's disease, thought to be the most common underlying pathology for elders' cognitive dysfunction (Willis and Hakim 2013), is already the sixth leading cause of death in the United States (Alzheimer's Association 2016). Understanding social determinants of pathological cognitive decline is key to crafting interventions, but evidence is inconclusive for how social factors interact over the life course to affect cognitive function...
November 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164498/gender-and-the-stability-of-same-sex-and-different-sex-relationships-among-young-adults
#10
Kara Joyner, Wendy Manning, Ryan Bogle
Most research on the stability of adult relationships has focused on coresidential (cohabiting or married) unions and estimates rates of dissolution for the period of coresidence. Studies examining how the stability of coresidential unions differs by sex composition have typically found that same-sex female couples have higher rates of dissolution than same-sex male couples and different-sex couples. We argue that the more elevated rates of dissolution for same-sex female couples are a by-product of the focus on coresidential unions...
November 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127571/the-promise-and-perils-of-population-research-on-same-sex-families
#11
Corinne Reczek, Russell Spiker, Hui Liu, Robert Crosnoe
As a follow-up to our 2016 study, this article presents new findings examining the relationship between same-sex family structure and child health using the 2008-2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After discussing NIHS data problems, we examine the relationship between family structure and a broad range of child well-being outcomes, including school days lost, behavior, parent-rated health, emotional difficulties, and activity limitations. We find both similarities (school days lost, behavior, parent-rated health) and differences (emotional difficulties and activity limitations) across our two studies using different survey years, but our overall conclusions are robust...
November 10, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119537/second-generation-outcomes-of-the-great-migration
#12
J Trent Alexander, Christine Leibbrand, Catherine Massey, Stewart Tolnay
The mass migration of African Americans out of the South during the first two-thirds of the twentieth century represents one of the most significant internal migration flows in U.S. HISTORY: Those undertaking the Great Migration left the South in search of a better life, and their move transformed the cultural, social, and political dynamics of African American life specifically and U.S. society more generally. Recent research offers conflicting evidence regarding the migrants' success in translating their geographic mobility into economic mobility...
November 8, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110145/cohort-measures-of-internal-migration-understanding-long-term-trends
#13
Aude Bernard
Internal migration intensities fluctuate over time, but both migration levels and trends show great diversity. The dynamics underpinning these trends remain poorly understood because they are analyzed almost exclusively by applying period measures to cross-sectional data. This article proposes 10 cohort measures that can be applied to both prospective and retrospective data to systematically examine long-term trends. To demonstrate their benefits, the proposed measures are applied to retrospective survey data for England that provide residential histories from birth to age 50 for cohorts born between 1918 and 1957...
November 6, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101683/the-life-course-cohort-dynamics-and-international-differences-in-aging-trajectories
#14
Steven A Haas, Katsuya Oi, Zhangjun Zhou
In recent years, population health research has focused on understanding the determinants of later-life health. Two strands of that work have focused on (1) international comparisons of later-life health and (2) assessing the early-life origins of disease and disability and the importance of life course processes. However, the less frequently examined intersection of these approaches remains an important frontier. The present study contributes to the integration of these approaches. We use the Health and Retirement Study family of data sets and a cohort dynamic approach to compare functional health trajectories across 12 high-income countries and to examine the role of life course processes and cohort dynamics in contributing to variation in those trajectories...
November 3, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101682/interior-immigration-enforcement-and-political-participation-of-u-s-citizens-in-mixed-status-households
#15
Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes, Mary J Lopez
The 2000s have witnessed an expansion of interior immigration enforcement in the United States. At the same time, the country has experienced a major demographic transformation, with the number of U.S. citizens living in mixed-status households-that is, households where at least one family member is an unauthorized migrant-reaching 16 million. U.S. citizens living in mixed-status households are personally connected to the struggles experienced by their unauthorized family members. For them, immigration policy is likely to shape their current and future voting behavior...
November 3, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094262/the-methuselah-effect-the-pernicious-impact-of-unreported-deaths-on-old-age-mortality-estimates
#16
Dan A Black, Yu-Chieh Hsu, Seth G Sanders, Lynne Steuerle Schofield, Lowell J Taylor
We examine inferences about old-age mortality that arise when researchers use survey data matched to death records. We show that even small rates of failure to match respondents can lead to substantial bias in the measurement of mortality rates at older ages. This type of measurement error is consequential for three strands in the demographic literature: (1) the deceleration in mortality rates at old ages; (2) the black-white mortality crossover; and (3) the relatively low rate of old-age mortality among Hispanics, often called the "Hispanic paradox...
November 1, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086225/educational-pairings-motherhood-and-women-s-relative-earnings-in-europe
#17
Jan Van Bavel, Martin Klesment
As a consequence of the reversal of the gender gap in education, the female partner in a couple now typically has as much as or more education compared with the male partner in most Western countries. This study addresses the implications for the earnings of women relative to their male partners in 16 European countries. Using the 2007 and 2011 rounds of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (N = 58,292), we investigate the extent to which international differences in women's relative earnings can be explained by educational pairings and their interaction with the motherhood penalty on women's earnings, by international differences in male unemployment, or by cultural gender norms...
October 30, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039116/emigration-rates-from-sample-surveys-an-application-to-senegal
#18
Frans Willekens, Sabine Zinn, Matthias Leuchter
What is the emigration rate of a country, and how reliable is that figure? Answering these questions is not at all straightforward. Most data on international migration are census data on foreign-born population. These migrant stock data describe the immigrant population in destination countries but offer limited information on the rate at which people leave their country of origin. The emigration rate depends on the number leaving in a given period and the population at risk of leaving, weighted by the duration at risk...
October 16, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019084/a-flexible-bayesian-model-for-estimating-subnational-mortality
#19
Monica Alexander, Emilio Zagheni, Magali Barbieri
Reliable subnational mortality estimates are essential in the study of health inequalities within a country. One of the difficulties in producing such estimates is the presence of small populations among which the stochastic variation in death counts is relatively high, and thus the underlying mortality levels are unclear. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mortality at the subnational level. The model builds on characteristic age patterns in mortality curves, which are constructed using principal components from a set of reference mortality curves...
October 10, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019034/working-life-expectancy-at-age-50-in-the-united-states-and-the-impact-of-the-great-recession
#20
Christian Dudel, Mikko Myrskylä
A key concern about population aging is the decline in the size of the economically active population. Working longer is a potential remedy. However, little is known about the length of working life and how it relates to macroeconomic conditions. We use the U.S. Health and Retirement Study for 1992-2011 and multistate life tables to analyze working life expectancy at age 50 and study the impact of the Great Recession in 2007-2009. Despite declines of one to two years following the recession, in 2008-2011, American men aged 50 still spent 13 years, or two-fifths of their remaining life, working; American women of the same age spent 11 years, or one-third of their remaining life, in employment...
October 10, 2017: Demography
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