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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936632/children-of-migrants-the-cumulative-impact-of-parental-migration-on-children-s-education-and-health-outcomes-in-china
#1
Xin Meng, Chikako Yamauchi
Since the end of 1990s, approximately 160 million Chinese rural workers migrated to cities for work. Because of restrictions on migrant access to local health and education systems, many rural children are left behind in home villages to grow up without parental care. This article examines how exposure to cumulative parental migration affects children's health and education outcomes. Using the Rural-Urban Migration Survey in China (RUMiC) data, we measure the share of children's lifetime during which parents were away from home...
September 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905326/circadian-rhythms-sleep-and-cognitive-skills-evidence-from-an-unsleeping-giant
#2
Osea Giuntella, Wei Han, Fabrizio Mazzonna
This study analyzes the effects of sleep duration on cognitive skills and depression symptoms of older workers in urban China. Cognitive skills and mental health have been associated with sleep duration and are known to be strongly related to economic behavior and performance. However, causal evidence is lacking, and little is known about sleep deprivation in developing countries. We exploit the relationship between circadian rhythms and bedtime to identify the effects of sleep using sunset time as an instrument...
September 13, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895078/the-growth-scope-and-spatial-distribution-of-people-with-felony-records-in-the-united-states-1948-2010
#3
Sarah K S Shannon, Christopher Uggen, Jason Schnittker, Melissa Thompson, Sara Wakefield, Michael Massoglia
The steep rise in U.S. criminal punishment in recent decades has spurred scholarship on the collateral consequences of imprisonment for individuals, families, and communities. Several excellent studies have estimated the number of people who have been incarcerated and the collateral consequences they face, but far less is known about the size and scope of the total U.S. population with felony convictions beyond prison walls, including those who serve their sentences on probation or in jail. This article develops state-level estimates based on demographic life tables and extends previous national estimates of the number of people with felony convictions to 2010...
September 11, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879534/children-and-careers-how-family-size-affects-parents-labor-market-outcomes-in-the-long-run
#4
Sara Cools, Simen Markussen, Marte Strøm
We estimate the effect of family size on various measures of labor market outcomes over the whole career until retirement, using instrumental variables estimation in data from Norwegian administrative registers. Parents' number of children is instrumented with the sex mix of their first two children. We find that having additional children causes sizable reductions in labor supply for women, which fade as children mature and even turn positive for women without a college degree. Among women with a college degree, there is evidence of persistent and even increasing career penalties of family size...
September 6, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875332/the-population-education-transition-curve-education-gradients-across-population-exposure-to-new-health-risks
#5
David P Baker, William C Smith, Ismael G Muñoz, Haram Jeon, Tian Fu, Juan Leon, Daniel Salinas, Renata Horvatek
The salutary effect of formal education on health-risk behaviors and mortality is extensively documented: ceteris paribus, greater educational attainment leads to healthier lives and longevity. Even though the epidemiological evidence has strongly indicated formal education as a leading "social vaccine," there is intermittent reporting of counter-education gradients for health-risk behavior and associated outcomes for certain populations during specific periods. How can education have both beneficial and harmful effects on health, and under which contexts do particular effects emerge? It is useful to conceptualize the influence of education as a process sensitive to the nature, timing of entry, and uniqueness of a new pleasurable and desirable lifestyle and/or product (such as smoking) with initially unclear health risks for populations...
September 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864966/race-remarital-status-and-infertility-in-1910-more-evidence-of-multiple-causes
#6
Andrew S London, Cheryl Elman
The dominant approach to studying historical race-related fertility differences has been to limit samples to first-married and younger women. We argue that studying historical race-related fertility differences in the context of remarriage is also important: remarriage and fertility patterns are both rooted in the biosocial conditions that produce racial disparities in health. We employ a multiple causes framework that attributes variation in fertility patterns to voluntary limitation and involuntary factors (infecundity/subfecundity)...
September 1, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836169/the-simultaneous-effects-of-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-child-health-on-children-s-cognitive-development
#7
Dohoon Lee, Margot Jackson
Family socioeconomic status (SES) and child health are so strongly related that scholars have speculated child health to be an important pathway through which a cycle of poverty is reproduced across generations. Despite increasing recognition that SES and health work reciprocally and dynamically over the life course to produce inequality, research has yet to address how these two pathways simultaneously shape children's development. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and marginal structural models, we ask three questions: (1) how does the reciprocal relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and child health affect estimates of each circumstance on children's cognitive development?; (2) how do their respective effects vary with age?; and (3) do family SES and child health have differential effects on cognitive development across population subgroups? The results show that the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health are insensitive to their reciprocal relationships over time...
August 23, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836118/racial-differences-in-neighborhood-attainment-the-contributions-of-interneighborhood-migration-and-in-situ-change
#8
Ying Huang, Scott J South, Amy Spring
Recent research shows that as they age, blacks experience less improvement than whites in the socioeconomic status of their residential neighborhoods. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and U.S. decennial censuses, we assess the relative contribution of residential mobility and in situ neighborhood change (i.e., change surrounding nonmobile neighborhood residents) to the black-white difference in changes in neighborhood socioeconomic status and racial composition. Results from decomposition analyses show that the racial difference in in situ neighborhood change explains virtually all the black-white difference in neighborhood socioeconomic status change...
August 23, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812295/just-like-in-their-home-country-a-multinational-perspective-on-living-arrangements-of-older-immigrants-in-the-united-states
#9
Zoya Gubernskaya, Zequn Tang
Older immigrants are more likely to share residence with their adult children and other family members than are U.S.-born older adults. Because socioeconomic factors only partially explain these differences and direct measures of cultural preferences are seldom available, the persistently high rates of intergenerational coresidence among the older foreign-born are often interpreted as driven by cultural preferences and/or a lack of assimilation. To challenge this interpretation, this study investigates the extent to which older immigrants' living arrangements deviate from those of older adults in their home countries...
August 15, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812238/women-s-progress-for-men-s-gain-gender-specific-changes-in-the-return-to-education-as-measured-by-family-standard-of-living-1990-to-2009-2011
#10
ChangHwan Kim, Arthur Sakamoto
This study investigates gender-specific changes in the total financial return to education among persons of prime working ages (35-44 years) using U.S. Census data from 1990 and 2000, and the 2009-2011 American Community Survey. We define the total financial return to education as the family standard of living as measured by family income adjusted for family size. Our results indicate that women experienced significant progress in educational attainment and labor market outcomes over this time period. Ironically, married women's progress in education and personal earnings has led to greater improvement in the family standard of living for married men than for women themselves...
August 15, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776169/risk-of-developing-dementia-at-older-ages-in-the-united-states
#11
Ezra Fishman
Dementia is increasingly recognized as a major source of disease burden in the United States, yet little research has evaluated the lifecycle implications of dementia. To address this research gap, this article uses the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) to provide the first nationally representative, longitudinal estimates of the probability that a dementia-free person will develop dementia later in life. For the 1920 birth cohort, the average dementia-free 70-year-old male had an estimated 26.9 % (SE = 3...
August 3, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776168/addendum-to-the-effects-of-college-on-weight-examining-the-freshman-15-myth-and-other-effects-of-college-over-the-life-cycle
#12
Charles L Baum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766113/increasing-inequality-in-parent-incomes-and-children-s-schooling
#13
Greg J Duncan, Ariel Kalil, Kathleen M Ziol-Guest
Income inequality and the achievement test score gap between high- and low-income children increased dramatically in the United States beginning in the 1970s. This article investigates the demographic (family income, mother's education, family size, two-parent family structure, and age of mother at birth) underpinnings of the growing income-based gap in schooling using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Across 31 cohorts, we find that increases in the income gap between high- and low-income children account for approximately three-quarters of the increasing gap in completed schooling, one-half of the gap in college attendance, and one-fifth of the gap in college graduation...
August 1, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755275/neighborhoods-schools-and-academic-achievement-a-formal-mediation-analysis-of-contextual-effects-on-reading-and-mathematics-abilities
#14
Geoffrey T Wodtke, Matthew Parbst
Although evidence indicates that neighborhoods affect educational outcomes, relatively little research has explored the mechanisms thought to mediate these effects. This study investigates whether school poverty mediates the effect of neighborhood context on academic achievement. Specifically, it uses longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, counterfactual methods, and a value-added modeling strategy to estimate the total, natural direct, and natural indirect effects of exposure to an advantaged rather than disadvantaged neighborhood on reading and mathematics abilities during childhood and adolescence...
July 28, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752486/ecological-instability-and-children-s-classroom-behavior-in-kindergarten
#15
Paula Fomby, Stefanie Mollborn
We engage the concept of ecological instability to assess whether children's exposure to frequent change in multiple contexts is associated with teacher reports of students' overall behavior, externalizing behavior, and approach to learning during kindergarten. We operationalize multiple dimensions of children's exposure to repeated change-including the frequency, concurrency, chronicity, timing, and types of changes children experience-in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S.-born children (Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, N ~ 4,750)...
July 27, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770502/forced-marriage-and-birth-outcomes
#16
Charles M Becker, Bakhrom Mirkasimov, Susan Steiner
We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation...
August 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762036/the-astonishing-population-averted-by-china-s-birth-restrictions-estimates-nightmares-and-reprogrammed-ambitions
#17
Daniel Goodkind
China launched an unprecedented program to control its population in 1971. Experts have dismissed the official estimate of 400 million births averted by this program as greatly exaggerated yet neglect to provide their own estimates. Counterfactual projections based on fertility declines in other countries suggest that China's program-averted population numbered 360-520 million as of 2015. The low end of this range is based on Vietnam-China's best national comparator, with a two-child program of its own-and the high end is based on a 16-country comparator selected, ironically, by critics of the official estimate...
August 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755276/decomposing-current-mortality-differences-into-initial-differences-and-differences-in-trends-the-contour-decomposition-method
#18
Dmitri A Jdanov, Vladimir M Shkolnikov, Alyson A van Raalte, Evgeny M Andreev
This study proposes a new decomposition method that permits a difference in an aggregate measure at a final time point to be split into additive components corresponding to the initial differences in the event rates of the measure and differences in trends in these underlying event rates. For instance, when studying divergence in life expectancy, this method allows researchers to more easily contrast age-specific mortality trends between populations by controlling for initial age-specific mortality differences...
August 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752487/the-demography-of-mental-health-among-mature-adults-in-a-low-income-high-hiv-prevalence-context
#19
Iliana V Kohler, Collin F Payne, Chiwoza Bandawe, Hans-Peter Kohler
Very few studies have investigated mental health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using data from Malawi, this article provides a first picture of the demography of depression and anxiety (DA) among mature adults (aged 45 or older) in a low-income country with high HIV prevalence. DA are more frequent among women than men, and individuals affected by one are often affected by the other. DA are associated with adverse outcomes, such as poorer nutrition intake and reduced work efforts. DA also increase substantially with age, and mature adults can expect to spend a substantial fraction of their remaining lifetime-for instance, 52 % for a 55-year-old woman-affected by DA...
August 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748507/intergenerational-neighborhood-attainment-and-the-legacy-of-racial-residential-segregation-a-causal-mediation-analysis
#20
Jeremy Pais
Advances in mediation analysis are used to examine the legacy effects of racial residential segregation in the United States on neighborhood attainments across two familial generations. The legacy effects of segregation are anticipated to operate through two primary pathways: a neighborhood effects pathway and an urban continuity pathway. The neighborhood effects pathway explains why parent's exposure to racial residential segregation during their family-rearing years can influence the residential outcomes of their children later in life...
August 2017: Demography
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