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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232778/cigarette-smoking-and-all-cause-and-cause-specific-adult-mortality-in-the-united-states
#1
Joseph T Lariscy, Robert A Hummer, Richard G Rogers
This study illuminates the association between cigarette smoking and adult mortality in the contemporary United States. Recent studies have estimated smoking-attributable mortality using indirect approaches or with sample data that are not nationally representative and that lack key confounders. We use the 1990-2011 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files to estimate relative risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for current and former smokers compared with never smokers. We examine causes of death established as attributable to smoking as well as additional causes that appear to be linked to smoking but have not yet been declared by the U...
September 19, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229534/intensive-parenting-fertility-and-breastfeeding-duration-in-the-united-states
#2
Vida Maralani, Samuel Stabler
Using 30 years of longitudinal data from a nationally representative cohort of women, we study the association between breastfeeding duration and completed fertility, fertility expectations, and birth spacing. We find that women who breastfeed their first child for five months or longer are a distinct group. They have more children overall and higher odds of having three or more children rather than two, compared with women who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all. Expected fertility is associated with initiating breastfeeding but not with how long mothers breastfeed...
September 19, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218275/destroyed-by-slavery-slavery-and-african-american-family-formation-following-emancipation
#3
Melinda C Miller
This study introduces a new sample that links people and families across 1860, 1880, and 1900 census data to explore the intergenerational impact of slavery on black families in the United States. Slaveholding-the number of slaves owned by a single farmer or planter-is used as a proxy for experiences during slavery. Slave family structures varied systematically with slaveholding sizes. Enslaved children on smaller holdings were more likely to be members of single-parent or divided families. On larger holdings, however, children tended to reside in nuclear families...
September 14, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218274/gender-based-occupational-segregation-and-sex-differences-in-sensory-motor-and-spatial-aptitudes
#4
Michael Baker, Kirsten Cornelson
Research on sex differences in humans documents gender differences in sensory, motor, and spatial aptitudes. These aptitudes, as captured by Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) codes, predict the occupational choices of men and women in the directions indicated by this research. We simulate that eliminating selection on these skills reduces the Duncan index of gender-based occupational segregation by 20 % to 23 % in 1970 and 2012, respectively. Eliminating selection on DOT variables capturing other accounts of this segregation has a smaller impact...
September 14, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209733/living-on-the-edge-neighborhood-boundaries-and-the-spatial-dynamics-of-violent-crime
#5
Joscha Legewie
Neighborhood boundaries are a defining aspect of highly segregated urban areas. Yet, few studies examine the particular challenges and spatial processes that occur at the bordering region between two neighborhoods. Extending the growing literature on spatial interdependence, this article argues that neighborhood boundaries-defined as sharp changes in the racial or socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods-are a salient feature of the spatial structure with implications for violent crime and other outcomes...
September 12, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191467/parental-investments-in-college-and-later-cash-transfers
#6
Steven J Haider, Kathleen McGarry
Parents often provide generous financial transfers to their adult children, perhaps assisting with college expenses, recognizing major life course events, or cushioning against negative financial shocks. Because resources are limited, a transfer made to one child likely affects transfers made to others in the family. Despite such possibilities, data limitations have led previous authors to focus almost exclusively on a single type of transfer made at a single point in time. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examine the relationships among parental transfers for college and later cash transfers to all children within a family...
September 6, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128940/gender-and-the-politics-of-death-female-representation-political-and-developmental-context-and-population-health-in-a-cross-national-panel
#7
Ross Macmillan, Naila Shofia, Wendy Sigle
There is considerable speculation that female political empowerment could improve population health. Yet, evidence to date is limited, and explanations for why political empowerment would matter and the conditions under which this might be enhanced or muted are not well understood. In this article, we draw on theoretical work on the politics of representation to frame an investigation of whether increases in the percentage of females in a country's parliament influence mortality rates. We further examine whether the relationship is conditioned by extent of democracy and economic and social development...
August 20, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105648/prenatal-exposure-to-an-acute-stressor-and-children-s-cognitive-outcomes
#8
Florencia Torche
Exposure to environmental stressors is highly prevalent and unequally distributed along socioeconomic lines and may have enduring negative consequences, even when experienced before birth. Yet, estimating the consequences of prenatal stress on children's outcomes is complicated by the issue of confounding (i.e., unobserved factors correlated with stress exposure and with children's outcomes). I combine a natural experiment-a strong earthquake in Chile-with a panel survey to capture the effect of prenatal exposure on acute stress and children's cognitive ability...
August 13, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084097/financially-overextended-college-attendance-as-a-contributor-to-foreclosures-during-the-great-recession
#9
Jacob W Faber, Peter M Rich
Although subprime mortgage lending and unemployment were largely responsible for the wave of foreclosures during the Great Recession, additional sources of financial risk may have exacerbated the crisis. We hypothesize that many parents sending children to college were financially overextended and vulnerable to foreclosure as the economy contracted. With commuting zone panel data from 2006 to 2011, we show that increasing rates of college attendance across the income distribution in one year predict a foreclosure rate increase in subsequent years, net of fixed characteristics and changes in employment, refinance debt, house prices, and 19-year-old population size...
August 6, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076587/how-has-the-lower-boundary-of-human-mortality-evolved-and-has-it-already-stopped-decreasing
#10
Marcus Ebeling
In contrast to the upper boundary of mortality, the lower boundary has so far largely been neglected. Based on the three key features-location, sex-specific difference, and level-I analyze past and present trends in the lower boundary of human mortality. The analysis is based on cohort mortality data for 38 countries, covering all the cohorts born between 1900 and 1993. Minimum mortality is analyzed using observed as well as smoothed estimates. The results show that the ages at which minimum mortality is reached have shifted to lower ages...
August 3, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076586/gender-bias-in-parental-attitude-an-experimental-approach
#11
Lutfunnahar Begum, Philip J Grossman, Asadul Islam
Parental bias toward children of a particular gender has been widely observed in many societies. Such bias could be due to pure gender preference or differences in earning opportunities and concern for old-age support. We conduct a high-stakes allocation task (subjects allocate the equivalent of one day's wages between male and female school-aged students) in rural Bangladesh to examine parental attitudes toward male and female children. Parents, either jointly or individually, allocated freely or restricted endowments for the benefit of anonymous girls or boys at a nearby school...
August 3, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978339/bayesian-estimation-of-age-specific-mortality-and-life-expectancy-for-small-areas-with-defective-vital-records
#12
Carl P Schmertmann, Marcos R Gonzaga
High sampling variability complicates estimation of demographic rates in small areas. In addition, many countries have imperfect vital registration systems, with coverage quality that varies significantly between regions. We develop a Bayesian regression model for small-area mortality schedules that simultaneously addresses the problems of small local samples and underreporting of deaths. We combine a relational model for mortality schedules with probabilistic prior information on death registration coverage derived from demographic estimation techniques, such as Death Distribution Methods, and from field audits by public health experts...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978338/father-absence-and-accelerated-reproductive-development-in-non-hispanic-white-women-in-the-united-states
#13
Lauren Gaydosh, Daniel W Belsky, Benjamin W Domingue, Jason D Boardman, Kathleen Mullan Harris
Girls who experience father absence in childhood also experience accelerated reproductive development in comparison with peers with present fathers. One hypothesis advanced to explain this empirical pattern is genetic confounding, wherein gene-environment correlation (rGE) causes a spurious relationship between father absence and reproductive timing. We test this hypothesis by constructing polygenic scores for age at menarche and first birth using recently available genome-wide association study results and molecular genetic data on a sample of non-Hispanic white females from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971701/places-of-persistence-slavery-and-the-geography-of-intergenerational-mobility-in-the-united-states
#14
Thor Berger
Intergenerational mobility has remained stable over recent decades in the United States but varies sharply across the country. In this article, I document that areas with more prevalent slavery by the outbreak of the Civil War exhibit substantially less upward mobility today. I find a negative link between prior slavery and contemporary mobility within states, when controlling for a wide range of historical and contemporary factors including income and inequality, focusing on the historical slave states, using a variety of mobility measures, and when exploiting geographical differences in the suitability for cultivating cotton as an instrument for the prevalence of slavery...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968059/sampling-weights-for-analyses-of-couple-data-example-of-the-demographic-and-health-surveys
#15
Stan Becker, Amanda Kalamar
In some surveys, women and men are interviewed separately in selected households, allowing matching of partner information and analyses of couples. Although individual sampling weights exist for men and women, sampling weights specific for couples are rarely derived. We present a method of estimating appropriate weights for couples that extends methods currently used in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for individual weights. To see how results vary, we analyze 1912 estimates (means; proportions; linear regression; and simple and multinomial logistic regression coefficients, and their standard errors) with couple data in each of 11 DHS surveys in which the couple weight could be derived...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968058/maybe-next-month-temperature-shocks-and-dynamic-adjustments-in-birth-rates
#16
Alan Barreca, Olivier Deschenes, Melanie Guldi
We estimate the effects of temperature shocks on birth rates in the United States between 1931 and 2010. We find that days with a mean temperature above 80°F cause a large decline in birth rates 8 to 10 months later. Unlike prior studies, we demonstrate that the initial decline is followed by a partial rebound in births over the next few months, implying that populations mitigate some of the fertility cost by shifting conception month. This shift helps explain the observed peak in late-summer births in the United States...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29968057/the-impact-of-the-affordable-care-act-young-adult-provision-on-childbearing-evidence-from-tax-data
#17
Bradley Heim, Ithai Lurie, Kosali Simon
We use panel U.S. tax data spanning 2008-2013 to study the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) young adult provision on an important demographic outcome: childbearing. The impact is theoretically ambiguous: gaining insurance may increase access to contraceptive services while also reducing the out-of-pocket costs of childbirth. Because employer-reported U.S. Wage and Tax Statements (W-2 forms) record access to employer-provided benefits, we can examine the impact of the coverage expansion by focusing on young adults whose parents have access to benefits...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949085/organized-violence-and-institutional-child-delivery-micro-level-evidence-from-sub-saharan-africa-1989-2014
#18
Gudrun Østby, Henrik Urdal, Andreas Forø Tollefsen, Andreas Kotsadam, Ragnhild Belbo, Christin Ormhaug
The conditions under which a mother gives birth greatly affect the health risk of both the mother and the child. This article addresses how local exposure to organized violence affects whether women give birth in a health facility. We combine geocoded data on violent events from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program with georeferenced survey data on the use of maternal health care services from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Our sample covers 569,201 births by 390,574 mothers in 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949084/same-sex-married-tax-filers-after-windsor-and-obergefell
#19
Robin Fisher, Geof Gee, Adam Looney
This article provides new estimates of the number and characteristics of same-sex married couples after U.S. Supreme Court rulings in 2013 and 2015 established rights to same-sex marriage. The U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service subsequently ruled that same-sex spouses would be treated as married for federal tax purposes. Because almost all married taxpayers file joint tax returns, administrative tax records provide new information on the demographic characteristics of married same-sex couples...
August 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943353/imputation-match-bias-in-immigrant-wage-convergence
#20
Joni Hersch, Jennifer Bennett Shinall
Although immigrants to the United States earn less at entry than their native-born counterparts, an extensive literature has found that immigrants have faster earnings growth that results in rapid convergence to native-born earnings. However, recent evidence based on U.S. Census data indicates a slowdown in the rate of earnings assimilation. We find that the pace of immigrant wage convergence based on recent data may be understated in the literature as a result of the method used by the census to impute missing information on earnings, which does not use immigration status as a match characteristic...
August 2018: Demography
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