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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337593/family-income-and-child-cognitive-development-a-response-to-marks
#1
Rasheda Khanam, Son Nghiem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332136/new-evidence-against-a-causal-marriage-wage-premium
#2
Alexandra Killewald, Ian Lundberg
Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives...
March 22, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324483/the-contribution-of-drug-overdose-to-educational-gradients-in-life-expectancy-in-the-united-states-1992-2011
#3
Jessica Y Ho
Since the mid-1990s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic rise in drug overdose mortality. Educational gradients in life expectancy widened over the same period, and drug overdose likely plays a role in this widening, particularly for non-Hispanic whites. The contemporary drug epidemic is distinctive in terms of its scope, the nature of the substances involved, and its geographic patterning, which influence how it impacts different education groups. I use vital statistics and National Health Interview Survey data to examine the contribution of drug overdose to educational gradients in life expectancy from 1992-2011...
March 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315158/childhood-family-structure-and-intergenerational-income-mobility-in-the-united-states
#4
Deirdre Bloome
The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped increase income inequality over recent decades. Does family structure also condition how economic (dis)advantages pass from parents to children? If so, shifts in the organization of family life may contribute to enduring inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to reveal how family structure moderates intergenerational income mobility in the United States...
March 17, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315157/economic-assimilation-and-skill-acquisition-evidence-from-the-occupational-sorting-of-childhood-immigrants
#5
Marigee Bacolod, Marcos A Rangel
We study the economic assimilation of childhood immigrants to the United States. The linguistic distance between English and the predominant language in one's country of birth interacted with age at arrival is shown to be closely connected to occupational sorting in adulthood. By applying big-data techniques to occupations' detailed skill requirements, we provide evidence that childhood immigrants from English-distant countries who arrived after the primary school years reveal comparative advantages in tasks distinct from those for which (close to) Anglophone immigrants are better suited...
March 17, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299560/family-structure-experiences-and-child-socioemotional-development-during-the-first-nine-years-of-life-examining-heterogeneity-by-family-structure-at-birth
#6
Sharon H Bzostek, Lawrence M Berger
A vast amount of literature has documented negative associations between family instability and child development, with the largest associations being in the socioemotional (behavioral) domain. Yet, prior work has paid limited attention to differentiating the role of the number, types, and sequencing of family transitions that children experience, as well as to understanding potential heterogeneity in these associations by family structure at birth. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and hierarchical linear models to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's socioemotional development during the first nine years of life...
March 15, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290123/the-gravity-of-high-skilled-migration-policies
#7
Mathias Czaika, Christopher R Parsons
Combining unique, annual, bilateral data on labor flows of highly skilled immigrants for 10 OECD destinations between 2000 and 2012, with new databases comprising both unilateral and bilateral policy instruments, we present the first judicious cross-country assessment of policies aimed to attract and select high-skilled workers. Points-based systems are much more effective in attracting and selecting high-skilled migrants than requiring a job offer, labor market tests, and shortage lists. Offers of permanent residency, while attracting the highly skilled, overall reduce the human capital content of labor flows because they prove more attractive to non-high-skilled workers...
March 13, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281275/an-assessment-and-extension-of-the-mechanism-based-approach-to-the-identification-of-age-period-cohort-models
#8
Maarten J Bijlsma, Rhian M Daniel, Fanny Janssen, Bianca L De Stavola
Many methods have been proposed to solve the age-period-cohort (APC) linear identification problem, but most are not theoretically informed and may lead to biased estimators of APC effects. One exception is the mechanism-based approach recently proposed and based on Pearl's front-door criterion; this approach ensures consistent APC effect estimators in the presence of a complete set of intermediate variables between one of age, period, cohort, and the outcome of interest, as long as the assumed parametric models for all the relevant causal pathways are correct...
March 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281274/malthus-in-the-bedroom-birth-spacing-as-birth-control-in-pre-transition-england
#9
Francesco Cinnirella, Marc Klemp, Jacob Weisdorf
We use duration models on a well-known historical data set of more than 15,000 families and 60,000 births in England for the period 1540-1850 to show that the sampled families adjusted the timing of their births in accordance with the economic conditions as well as their stock of dependent children. The effects were larger among the lower socioeconomic ranks. Our findings on the existence of parity-dependent as well as parity-independent birth spacing in England are consistent with the growing evidence that marital birth control was present in pre-transitional populations...
March 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281273/eliciting-survival-expectations-of-the-elderly-in-low-income-countries-evidence-from-india
#10
Adeline Delavande, Jinkook Lee, Seetha Menon
We examine several methodological considerations when eliciting probabilistic expectations in a developing country context using the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI). We conclude that although, on average, individuals are able to understand the concept of probability, responses are sensitive to framing effects and to own versus hypothetical-person effects. We find that overall, people are pessimistic about their survival probabilities compared with state-specific life tables and that socioeconomic status does influence beliefs about own survival expectations as found in previous literature in other countries...
March 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265862/family-income-has-only-weak-effects-on-cognitive-scores-in-australia-a-comment-on-khanam-and-nghiem
#11
Gary N Marks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236137/job-changing-and-the-decline-in-long-distance-migration-in-the-united-states
#12
Raven Molloy, Christopher L Smith, Abigail Wozniak
Interstate migration in the United States has decreased steadily since the 1980s, but little is known about the causes of this decline. We show that declining migration is related to a concurrent secular decline in job changing. Neither trend is primarily due to observable demographic or socioeconomic factors. Rather, we argue that the decline in job changing has caused the decline in migration. After establishing a role for the labor market in declining migration, we turn to the question of why job changing has become less frequent over the past several decades...
February 24, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233235/children-s-development-and-parental-input-evidence-from-the-uk-millennium-cohort-study
#13
Mónica Hernández-Alava, Gurleen Popli
In this study, we use the UK Millennium Cohort Study to estimate a dynamic factor model of child development. Our model follows the children from birth until 7 years of age and allows for both cognitive and noncognitive abilities in children. We find a significant self-productivity effect in both cognitive and noncognitive development, as well as some evidence of dynamic dependence across different abilities. The activities that parents carry out with children at home (parental investment) have a significant effect on children's development; we find substantial evidence of two distinct latent parental investment variables with differential effects across the two abilities...
February 23, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233234/infant-mortality-rate-as-a-measure-of-a-country-s-health-a-robust-method-to-improve-reliability-and-comparability
#14
Robert M Gonzalez, Donna Gilleskie
Researchers and policymakers often rely on the infant mortality rate as an indicator of a country's health. Despite arguments about its relevance, uniform measurement of infant mortality is necessary to guarantee its use as a valid measure of population health. Using important socioeconomic indicators, we develop a novel method to adjust country-specific reported infant mortality figures. We conclude that an augmented measure of mortality that includes both infant and late fetal deaths should be considered when assessing levels of social welfare in a country...
February 23, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224468/daytime-locations-in-spatial-mismatch-job-accessibility-and-employment-at-reentry-from-prison
#15
Naomi F Sugie, Michael C Lens
Individuals recently released from prison confront many barriers to employment. One potential obstacle is spatial mismatch-the concentration of low-skilled, nonwhite job-seekers within central cities and the prevalence of relevant job opportunities in outlying areas. Prior research has found mixed results about the importance of residential place for reentry outcomes. In this article, we propose that residential location matters for finding work, but this largely static measure does not capture the range of geographic contexts that individuals inhabit throughout the day...
February 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211031/differential-peer-effects-student-achievement-and-student-absenteeism-evidence-from-a-large-scale-randomized-experiment
#16
Ozkan Eren
Using data from a well-executed randomized experiment, I examine the effects of gender composition and peer achievement on high school students' outcomes in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results show that having a higher proportion of female peers in the classroom improves girls' math test scores only in less-advanced courses. For male students, the estimated gender peer effects are positive but less precisely estimated. I also find no effect of average classroom achievement on female math test scores. Males, on the other hand, seem to benefit from a higher-achieving classroom...
February 16, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194605/the-long-term-cognitive-and-socioeconomic-consequences-of-birth-intervals-a-within-family-sibling-comparison-using-swedish-register-data
#17
Kieron J Barclay, Martin Kolk
We examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of mid- and long-term cognitive and socioeconomic outcomes, including high school GPA, cognitive ability, educational attainment, earnings, unemployment status, and receiving government welfare support. Using contemporary Swedish population register data and a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that neither the birth interval preceding the index person nor the birth interval following the index person are associated with any substantively meaningful changes in mid- or long-term outcomes...
February 13, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188448/discrete-barker-frailty-and-warped-mortality-dynamics-at-older-ages
#18
Alberto Palloni, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez
We develop a discrete variant of a general model for adult mortality influenced by the delayed impact of early conditions on adult health and mortality. The discrete variant of the model builds on an intuitively appealing interpretation of conditions that induce delayed effects and is an extension of the discrete form of the standard frailty model with distinct implications. We show that introducing delayed effects is equivalent to perturbing adult mortality patterns with a particular class of time-/age-varying frailty...
February 10, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181103/emotional-variation-and-fertility-behavior
#19
William G Axinn, Dirgha J Ghimire, Emily Smith-Greenaway
Emotional influences on fertility behaviors are an understudied topic that may offer a clear explanation of why many couples choose to have children even when childbearing is not economically rational. With setting-specific measures of the husband-wife emotional bond appropriate for large-scale population research matched with data from a long-term panel study, we have the empirical tools to provide a test of the influence of emotional factors on contraceptive use to limit fertility. This article presents those tests...
February 8, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092073/erratum-to-quantifying-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-contributions-to-human-longevity-application-of-a-two-process-vitality-model-to-the-human-mortality-database
#20
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