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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748507/intergenerational-neighborhood-attainment-and-the-legacy-of-racial-residential-segregation-a-causal-mediation-analysis
#1
Jeremy Pais
Advances in mediation analysis are used to examine the legacy effects of racial residential segregation in the United States on neighborhood attainments across two familial generations. The legacy effects of segregation are anticipated to operate through two primary pathways: a neighborhood effects pathway and an urban continuity pathway. The neighborhood effects pathway explains why parent's exposure to racial residential segregation during their family-rearing years can influence the residential outcomes of their children later in life...
July 26, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741073/the-network-survival-method-for-estimating-adult-mortality-evidence-from-a-survey-experiment-in-rwanda
#2
Dennis M Feehan, Mary Mahy, Matthew J Salganik
Adult death rates are a critical indicator of population health and well-being. Wealthy countries have high-quality vital registration systems, but poor countries lack this infrastructure and must rely on estimates that are often problematic. In this article, we introduce the network survival method, a new approach for estimating adult death rates. We derive the precise conditions under which it produces consistent and unbiased estimates. Further, we develop an analytical framework for sensitivity analysis...
July 24, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702934/paternal-incarceration-and-adolescent-social-network-disadvantage
#3
Brielle Bryan
Previous research has suggested that adolescent peers influence behavior and provide social support during a critical developmental period, but few studies have addressed the antecedents of adolescent social networks. Research on the collateral consequences of incarceration has explored the implications of parental incarceration for children's behavioral problems, academic achievement, health, and housing stability, but not their social networks. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that adolescents with recently incarcerated fathers are in socially marginal positions in their schools and befriend more-marginal peers than other adolescents: their friends are less advantaged, less academically successful, and more delinquent than other adolescents' friends...
July 12, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699099/fertility-intentions-and-residential-relocations
#4
Sergi Vidal, Johannes Huinink, Michael Feldhaus
This research addresses the question of whether fertility intentions (before conception) are associated with residential relocations and the distance of the relocation. We empirically tested this using data from two birth cohorts (aged 24-28 and 34-38 in the first survey wave) of the German Family Panel (pairfam) and event history analysis. Bivariate analyses showed that coupled individuals relocated at a higher rate if they intended to have a(nother) child. We found substantial heterogeneity according to individuals' age and parental status, particularly for outside-town relocations...
July 11, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695423/fertility-and-life-satisfaction-in-rural-ethiopia
#5
Pierluigi Conzo, Giulia Fuochi, Letizia Mencarini
Despite recent strong interest in the link between fertility and subjective well-being, the focus has centered on developed countries. For poorer countries, in contrast, the relationship remains rather elusive. Using a well-established panel survey-the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS)-we investigate the empirical relationship between fertility and life satisfaction in rural Ethiopia, the largest landlocked country in Africa. Consistent with the fertility theories for developing countries and with the sociodemographic characteristics of rural Ethiopia, we hypothesize that this relationship varies by gender and across life stages, being more positive for men and for parents in old age...
July 10, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695422/does-black-socioeconomic-mobility-explain-recent-progress-toward-black-white-residential-integration
#6
Robert L Wagmiller, Elizabeth Gage-Bouchard, Amelia Karraker
Studies of racial residential segregation have found that black-white segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas has declined slowly but steadily since the early 1970s. As of this writing, black-white residential segregation in the United States is approximately 25 % lower than it was in 1970. To identify the sources of this decline, we used individual-level, geocoded data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to compare the residential attainment of different cohorts of blacks. We analyzed these data using Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition techniques that partition the decline in residential segregation among cohorts into the decline resulting from (1) changes in the social and economic characteristics of blacks and (2) changes in the association between blacks' social and economic characteristics and the level of residential segregation they experience...
July 10, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681169/influence-of-proximity-to-kin-on-residential-mobility-and-destination-choice-examining-local-movers-in-metropolitan-areas
#7
Amy Spring, Elizabeth Ackert, Kyle Crowder, Scott J South
A growing body of research has examined how family dynamics shape residential mobility, highlighting the social-as opposed to economic-drivers of mobility. However, few studies have examined kin ties as both push and pull factors in mobility processes or revealed how the influence of kin ties on mobility varies across sociodemographic groups. Using data on local residential moves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from 1980 to 2013, we find that location of noncoresident kin influences the likelihood of moving out of the current neighborhood and the selection of a new destination neighborhood...
July 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681168/postmarital-living-arrangements-in-historically-patrilocal-settings-integrating-household-fission-and-migration-perspectives
#8
Jessica Pearlman, Lisa D Pearce, Dirgha J Ghimire, Prem Bhandari, Taylor Hargrove
This study integrates theory and research on household fission (or partition) and migration to better understand living arrangements following marriage, especially in historically patrilocal and primarily agricultural settings. Using panel data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study to analyze the sequential decision-making process that influences men's living arrangements subsequent to first marriage, we demonstrate the importance of distinguishing among extended family living, temporary migration, and the establishment of an independent household...
July 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681167/education-gains-attributable-to-fertility-decline-patterns-by-gender-period-and-country-in-latin-america-and-asia
#9
Jing Li, William H Dow, Luis Rosero-Bixby
We investigate the heterogeneity across countries and time in the relationship between mother's fertility and children's educational attainment-the quantity-quality (Q-Q) trade-off-by using census data from 17 countries in Asia and Latin America, with data from each country spanning multiple census years. For each country-year, we estimate micro-level instrumental variables models predicting secondary school attainment using number of siblings of the child, instrumented by the sex composition of the first two births in the family...
July 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681166/does-it-matter-what-she-wants-the-role-of-individual-preferences-against-unmarried-motherhood-in-young-women-s-likelihood-of-a-nonmarital-first-birth
#10
Rachel M Shattuck
Most young people in the United States express the desire to marry. Norms at all socioeconomic levels posit marriage as the optimal context for childbearing. At the same time, nonmarital fertility accounts for approximately 40 % of U.S. births, experienced disproportionately by women with educational attainment less than a bachelor's degree. Research has shown that women's intentions for the number and timing of children and couples' intent to marry are strong predictors of realized fertility and marriage...
July 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681165/lifespan-disparity-as-an-additional-indicator-for-evaluating-mortality-forecasts
#11
Christina Bohk-Ewald, Marcus Ebeling, Roland Rau
Evaluating the predictive ability of mortality forecasts is important yet difficult. Death rates and mean lifespan are basic life table functions typically used to analyze to what extent the forecasts deviate from their realized values. Although these parameters are useful for specifying precisely how mortality has been forecasted, they cannot be used to assess whether the underlying mortality developments are plausible. We therefore propose that in addition to looking at average lifespan, we should examine whether the forecasted variability of the age at death is a plausible continuation of past trends...
July 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523453/optimizing-the-lee-carter-approach-in-the-presence-of-structural-changes-in-time-and-age-patterns-of-mortality-improvements
#12
Hong Li, Johnny Siu-Hang Li
Researchers using the Lee-Carter approach have often assumed that the time-varying index evolves linearly and that the parameters describing the age pattern of mortality decline are time-invariant. However, as several empirical studies suggest, the two assumptions do not seem to hold when the calibration window begins too early. This problem gives rise to the question of identifying the longest calibration window for which the two assumptions hold true. To address this question, we contribute a likelihood ratio-based sequential test to jointly test whether the two assumptions are satisfied...
May 18, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484997/women-left-behind-poverty-and-headship-in-africa
#13
Annamaria Milazzo, Dominique van de Walle
Two stylized facts about poverty in Africa motivate this article: female-headed households tend to be poorer, and poverty has been falling in the aggregate since the 1990s. These facts raise two questions. First, how have female-headed households fared? Second, what role have they played in Africa's impressive recent aggregate growth and poverty reduction? Using data covering the entire region, we reexamine the current prevalence and characteristics of female-headed households and ask whether their prevalence has been rising, what factors have been associated with such changes since the mid-1990s, and whether poverty has fallen equiproportionately for male- and female-headed households...
May 8, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466434/non-heterosexuality-relationships-and-young-women-s-contraceptive-behavior
#14
Elizabeth J Ela, Jamie Budnick
Non-heterosexual young women have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than their heterosexual peers, but their fertility behaviors are understudied. We use longitudinal data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study to investigate mechanisms contributing to non-heterosexual women's higher pregnancy risk. These data include weekly reports of relationships, sex, and contraceptive use over 30 months. We compare the relationships and fertility behaviors of three groups: exclusively heterosexual (consistent heterosexual behavior, identity, and attraction); mostly heterosexual (heterosexual identity with same-sex behavior and/or same-sex attraction); and LGBTQ (any non-heterosexual identity)...
May 2, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585024/job-displacement-and-first-birth-over-the-business-cycle
#15
Barbara Hofmann, Michaela Kreyenfeld, Arne Uhlendorff
In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women's first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control for the observed differences between women who were and were not displaced...
June 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493101/the-german-east-west-mortality-difference-two-crossovers-driven-by-smoking
#16
Tobias Vogt, Alyson van Raalte, Pavel Grigoriev, Mikko Myrskylä
Before the fall of the Berlin Wall, mortality was considerably higher in the former East Germany than in West Germany. The gap narrowed rapidly after German reunification. The convergence was particularly strong for women, to the point that Eastern women aged 50-69 now have lower mortality despite lower incomes and worse overall living conditions. Prior research has shown that lower smoking rates among East German female cohorts born in the 1940s and 1950s were a major contributor to this crossover. However, after 1990, smoking behavior changed dramatically, with higher smoking intensity observed among women in the eastern part of Germany...
June 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484996/preference-for-boys-family-size-and-educational-attainment-in-india
#17
Adriana D Kugler, Santosh Kumar
Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to be enrolled in school, with larger effects for rural, poorer, and low-caste families as well as for families with illiterate mothers...
June 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466435/tenancy-marriage-and-the-boll-weevil-infestation-1892-1930
#18
Deirdre Bloome, James Feigenbaum, Christopher Muller
In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900-1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889-1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans...
June 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397179/a-quiescent-phase-in-human-mortality-exploring-the-ages-of-least-vulnerability
#19
Michal Engelman, Christopher L Seplaki, Ravi Varadhan
Demographic studies of mortality often emphasize the two ends of the lifespan, focusing on the declining hazard after birth or the increasing risk of death at older ages. We call attention to the intervening phase, when humans are least vulnerable to the force of mortality, and consider its features in both evolutionary and historical perspectives. We define this quiescent phase (Q-phase) formally, estimate its bounds using life tables for Swedish cohorts born between 1800 and 1920, and describe changes in the morphology of the Q-phase...
June 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397178/trends-in-education-specific-life-expectancy-data-quality-and-shifting-education-distributions-a-note-on-recent-research
#20
Arun S Hendi
Several recent articles have reported conflicting conclusions about educational differences in life expectancy, and this is partly due to the use of unreliable data subject to a numerator-denominator bias previously reported as ranging from 20 % to 40 %. This article presents estimates of life expectancy and lifespan variation by education in the United States using more reliable data from the National Health Interview Survey. Contrary to prior conclusions in the literature, I find that life expectancy increased or stagnated since 1990 among all education-race-sex groups except for non-Hispanic white women with less than a high school education; there has been a robust increase in life expectancy among white high school graduates and a smaller increase among black female high school graduates; lifespan variation did not increase appreciably among high school graduates; and lifespan variation plays a very limited role in explaining educational gradients in mortality...
June 2017: Demography
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