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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432559/the-marriage-wealth-premium-revisited-gender-disparities-and-within-individual-changes-in-personal-wealth-in-germany
#1
Philipp M Lersch
This study examines the association between marriage and economic wealth of women and men. Going beyond previous research that focused on household wealth, I examine personal wealth, which allows identifying gender disparities in the association between marriage and wealth. Using unique data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2002, 2007, and 2012), I apply random-effects and fixed-effects regression models to test my expectations. I find that both women and men experience substantial marriage wealth premiums not only in household wealth but also in personal wealth...
April 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432558/resolved-parental-infertility-and-children-s-educational-achievement
#2
Amelia R Branigan, Jonas Helgertz
Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own...
April 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425032/parenting-in-on-off-relationships-the-link-between-relationship-churning-and-father-involvement
#3
Kristin Turney, Sarah Halpern-Meekin
Family systems theory points to the interconnected nature of dyadic relationships within the family unit, arguing for attention to how the parental relationship shapes their ties to and interactions with their children. Grounded in family systems theory, we consider how relationship churning-defined as being in an on-again/off-again relationship with the same partner-is associated with father involvement. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how father involvement among relationship churners compares with father involvement among those in three other relationship types (measured during the first five years of the focal child's life): stably together relationships, stably broken-up relationships, and repartnered relationships...
April 19, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401501/the-sibsize-revolution-and-social-disparities-in-children-s-family-contexts-in-the-united-states-1940-2012
#4
Tony Fahey
This article points to a sharp decline in children's sibling numbers (sibsize) that occurred in the United States since the 1970s and was large enough among children with lower socioeconomic status (SES) (particularly black children) to amount to a revolution in their family circumstances. It interprets sibsize decline as a source of social convergence in children's family contexts that ran counter to trends toward social divergence caused by the rise of lone parenthood. The article is based on new estimates of differences in children's sibsize and lone parenthood by race and maternal education generated from public-use samples from the Census of Population and Current Population Survey (CPS), focusing especially on the period 1940-2012...
April 11, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401500/back-to-school-racial-and-gender-differences-in-adults-participation-in-formal-schooling-1978-2013
#5
Patrick Denice
Trends and gaps in educational attainment by race and gender have received much attention in recent years, but reports of these trends have generally focused on traditional-age college students. Little is known about whether and how enrollment in formal schooling among older adults (between 29 and 61 years old) has changed over time. In this article, I draw on Current Population Survey data from 1978 to 2013 to provide the most comprehensive analysis of trends in adults' formal school enrollment by demographic group to date...
April 11, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397179/a-quiescent-phase-in-human-mortality-exploring-the-ages-of-least-vulnerability
#6
Michal Engelman, Christopher L Seplaki, Ravi Varadhan
Demographic studies of mortality often emphasize the two ends of the lifespan, focusing on the declining hazard after birth or the increasing risk of death at older ages. We call attention to the intervening phase, when humans are least vulnerable to the force of mortality, and consider its features in both evolutionary and historical perspectives. We define this quiescent phase (Q-phase) formally, estimate its bounds using life tables for Swedish cohorts born between 1800 and 1920, and describe changes in the morphology of the Q-phase...
April 10, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397178/trends-in-education-specific-life-expectancy-data-quality-and-shifting-education-distributions-a-note-on-recent-research
#7
Arun S Hendi
Several recent articles have reported conflicting conclusions about educational differences in life expectancy, and this is partly due to the use of unreliable data subject to a numerator-denominator bias previously reported as ranging from 20 % to 40 %. This article presents estimates of life expectancy and lifespan variation by education in the United States using more reliable data from the National Health Interview Survey. Contrary to prior conclusions in the literature, I find that life expectancy increased or stagnated since 1990 among all education-race-sex groups except for non-Hispanic white women with less than a high school education; there has been a robust increase in life expectancy among white high school graduates and a smaller increase among black female high school graduates; lifespan variation did not increase appreciably among high school graduates; and lifespan variation plays a very limited role in explaining educational gradients in mortality...
April 10, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337593/family-income-and-child-cognitive-development-a-response-to-marks
#8
Rasheda Khanam, Son Nghiem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332136/new-evidence-against-a-causal-marriage-wage-premium
#9
Alexandra Killewald, Ian Lundberg
Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives...
March 22, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324483/the-contribution-of-drug-overdose-to-educational-gradients-in-life-expectancy-in-the-united-states-1992-2011
#10
Jessica Y Ho
Since the mid-1990s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic rise in drug overdose mortality. Educational gradients in life expectancy widened over the same period, and drug overdose likely plays a role in this widening, particularly for non-Hispanic whites. The contemporary drug epidemic is distinctive in terms of its scope, the nature of the substances involved, and its geographic patterning, which influence how it impacts different education groups. I use vital statistics and National Health Interview Survey data to examine the contribution of drug overdose to educational gradients in life expectancy from 1992-2011...
March 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315158/childhood-family-structure-and-intergenerational-income-mobility-in-the-united-states
#11
Deirdre Bloome
The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped increase income inequality over recent decades. Does family structure also condition how economic (dis)advantages pass from parents to children? If so, shifts in the organization of family life may contribute to enduring inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to reveal how family structure moderates intergenerational income mobility in the United States...
March 17, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315157/economic-assimilation-and-skill-acquisition-evidence-from-the-occupational-sorting-of-childhood-immigrants
#12
Marigee Bacolod, Marcos A Rangel
We study the economic assimilation of childhood immigrants to the United States. The linguistic distance between English and the predominant language in one's country of birth interacted with age at arrival is shown to be closely connected to occupational sorting in adulthood. By applying big-data techniques to occupations' detailed skill requirements, we provide evidence that childhood immigrants from English-distant countries who arrived after the primary school years reveal comparative advantages in tasks distinct from those for which (close to) Anglophone immigrants are better suited...
March 17, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299560/family-structure-experiences-and-child-socioemotional-development-during-the-first-nine-years-of-life-examining-heterogeneity-by-family-structure-at-birth
#13
Sharon H Bzostek, Lawrence M Berger
A vast amount of literature has documented negative associations between family instability and child development, with the largest associations being in the socioemotional (behavioral) domain. Yet, prior work has paid limited attention to differentiating the role of the number, types, and sequencing of family transitions that children experience, as well as to understanding potential heterogeneity in these associations by family structure at birth. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and hierarchical linear models to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's socioemotional development during the first nine years of life...
March 15, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290123/the-gravity-of-high-skilled-migration-policies
#14
Mathias Czaika, Christopher R Parsons
Combining unique, annual, bilateral data on labor flows of highly skilled immigrants for 10 OECD destinations between 2000 and 2012, with new databases comprising both unilateral and bilateral policy instruments, we present the first judicious cross-country assessment of policies aimed to attract and select high-skilled workers. Points-based systems are much more effective in attracting and selecting high-skilled migrants than requiring a job offer, labor market tests, and shortage lists. Offers of permanent residency, while attracting the highly skilled, overall reduce the human capital content of labor flows because they prove more attractive to non-high-skilled workers...
March 13, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281274/malthus-in-the-bedroom-birth-spacing-as-birth-control-in-pre-transition-england
#15
Francesco Cinnirella, Marc Klemp, Jacob Weisdorf
We use duration models on a well-known historical data set of more than 15,000 families and 60,000 births in England for the period 1540-1850 to show that the sampled families adjusted the timing of their births in accordance with the economic conditions as well as their stock of dependent children. The effects were larger among the lower socioeconomic ranks. Our findings on the existence of parity-dependent as well as parity-independent birth spacing in England are consistent with the growing evidence that marital birth control was present in pre-transitional populations...
March 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265862/family-income-has-only-weak-effects-on-cognitive-scores-in-australia-a-comment-on-khanam-and-nghiem
#16
Gary N Marks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236137/job-changing-and-the-decline-in-long-distance-migration-in-the-united-states
#17
Raven Molloy, Christopher L Smith, Abigail Wozniak
Interstate migration in the United States has decreased steadily since the 1980s, but little is known about the causes of this decline. We show that declining migration is related to a concurrent secular decline in job changing. Neither trend is primarily due to observable demographic or socioeconomic factors. Rather, we argue that the decline in job changing has caused the decline in migration. After establishing a role for the labor market in declining migration, we turn to the question of why job changing has become less frequent over the past several decades...
February 24, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233234/infant-mortality-rate-as-a-measure-of-a-country-s-health-a-robust-method-to-improve-reliability-and-comparability
#18
Robert M Gonzalez, Donna Gilleskie
Researchers and policymakers often rely on the infant mortality rate as an indicator of a country's health. Despite arguments about its relevance, uniform measurement of infant mortality is necessary to guarantee its use as a valid measure of population health. Using important socioeconomic indicators, we develop a novel method to adjust country-specific reported infant mortality figures. We conclude that an augmented measure of mortality that includes both infant and late fetal deaths should be considered when assessing levels of social welfare in a country...
February 23, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211031/differential-peer-effects-student-achievement-and-student-absenteeism-evidence-from-a-large-scale-randomized-experiment
#19
Ozkan Eren
Using data from a well-executed randomized experiment, I examine the effects of gender composition and peer achievement on high school students' outcomes in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results show that having a higher proportion of female peers in the classroom improves girls' math test scores only in less-advanced courses. For male students, the estimated gender peer effects are positive but less precisely estimated. I also find no effect of average classroom achievement on female math test scores. Males, on the other hand, seem to benefit from a higher-achieving classroom...
February 16, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281275/an-assessment-and-extension-of-the-mechanism-based-approach-to-the-identification-of-age-period-cohort-models
#20
Maarten J Bijlsma, Rhian M Daniel, Fanny Janssen, Bianca L De Stavola
Many methods have been proposed to solve the age-period-cohort (APC) linear identification problem, but most are not theoretically informed and may lead to biased estimators of APC effects. One exception is the mechanism-based approach recently proposed and based on Pearl's front-door criterion; this approach ensures consistent APC effect estimators in the presence of a complete set of intermediate variables between one of age, period, cohort, and the outcome of interest, as long as the assumed parametric models for all the relevant causal pathways are correct...
April 2017: Demography
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