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Journal of Medical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742000/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-children-with-and-without-diarrhoea-and-their-susceptibility-to-the-antibacterial-activity-of-extracts-fractions-of-fruits-native-to-mexico
#1
Magdalena de Jesús Uribe-Beltrán, Yesmi Patricia Ahumada-Santos, Sylvia Páz Díaz-Camacho, Carlos Alberto Eslava-Campos, Jesús Ernesto Reyes-Valenzuela, María Elena Báez-Flores, Ignacio Osuna-Ramírez, Francisco Delgado-Vargas
PURPOSE: This paper aims to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Esherichia coli isolates from children under 5 years old, with and without diarrhoea, who were hospital outpatients in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. It also looks at the antimicrobial activity of fruit extracts against selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli strains. METHODOLOGY: A total of 205 E. coli isolates from stool samples were collected from 94 children under 5 years old who were outpatients from two hospitals in the city of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, during the autumn/winter of 2003/04; their resistance profiles to 19 commercial antimicrobials were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer method...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742004/evolutionary-changes-in-the-capsid-p2-region-of-australian-strains-of-the-norovirus-gii-pe_gii-4
#2
Leesa D Bruggink, Jean M Moselen, Jason A Roberts, John A Marshall
PURPOSE: The protruding (P) 2 region of the norovirus capsid is thought to include hypervariable sites involved in receptor binding. This study examines the changes that occurred in the P2 region of GII.Pe_GII.4 norovirus in the course of its evolution from a precursor phase (2008-2009), to an intermediate phase (2010) and finally to an epidemic phase (2012-2015). METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two P2 region amino acid (aa) sequences (166 aa long) from all phases of the evolution of the virus were compared and the changes analysed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741998/retention-of-virulence-following-colistin-adaptation-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-is-strain-dependent-rather-than-associated-with-specific-mutations
#3
Matthew E Wand, Lucy J Bock, J Mark Sutton
This study aimed to understand the impact on virulence and fitness of mutations in specific genes found after adaptation of Klebsiella pneumoniae to colistin. Isolates with an increase in their inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin of 32- to >128-fold were shown to have mutations in mgrB, phoPQ and pmrAB, all known regulators of pathways affecting membrane lipid content. When these strains were used in studies in Galleria mellonella there was no clear correlation between mutations in specific genes per se and loss of virulence...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721855/cell-surface-physiology-and-outer-cell-envelope-impermeability-for-hydrophobic-substances-in-burkholderia-multivorans
#4
Sallie A Ruskoski, Franklin R Champlin
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between cell surface physiology and outer cellular envelope permeability for hydrophobic substances in mucoid and non-mucoid B. multivorans strains, as well as in two capsule-deficient derivatives of a mucoid parental strain. METHODOLOGY: Cell surface hydrophobicity properties were determined using the hydrocarbon adherence method, while outer cell envelope accessibility and permeability for non-polar compounds were measured using hydrophobic antimicrobial agent susceptibility and fluorescent probe assays...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721851/development-and-evaluation-of-a-multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeats-analysis-assay-for-subtyping-salmonella-typhi-strains-from-sub-saharan-africa
#5
Nomsa P Tau, Anthony M Smith, John R Wain, Andrew Tarupiwa, Kalpy J Coulibaly, Karen H Keddy, Germs-Sa
PURPOSE: Molecular epidemiological investigations of the highly clonal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are important in outbreak detection and in tracking disease transmission. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for characterization of S. Typhi isolates from sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY: Twelve previously reported VNTR loci were evaluated and an MLVA assay consisting of five polymorphic loci was adopted...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721849/effective-protection-of-mice-against-shigella-flexneri-with-a-new-self-adjuvant-multicomponent-vaccine
#6
Yadira Pastor, Ana Camacho, Ana Gloria Gil, Rocío Ramos, Adela López de Ceráin, Iván Peñuelas, Juan M Irache, Carlos Gamazo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop an immunogenic protective product against Shigella flexneri by employing a simple and safe heat treatment-based strategy. METHODOLOGY: The physicochemical characteristics of naturally produced (OMV) and heat-induced (HT) outer-membrane vesicles from S. flexneri were examined, including a comparison of the protein content of the products. Toxicological and biodistribution studies, and a preliminary experiment to examine the protective effectiveness of HT in a murine model of S...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721848/evaluation-of-biofilm-specific-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-farabi-hospital
#7
Mahmood Saffari, Shabnam Karami, Farzaneh Firoozeh, Mojtaba Sehat
BACKGROUND: Biofilm produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the cause of infection induced by contact lenses, trauma and post-surgery infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation and the presence of the genes ndvB and tssC1 in ocular infection isolates of P. aeruginosa. METHODS: A total of 92 P. aeruginosa strains were collected from patients with ocular infection referred to Farabi Hospital between March 2014 and July 2015. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were evaluated by the agar disc-diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721845/combination-of-polymyxin-b-and-meropenem-eradicates-persister-cells-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-in-exponential-growth
#8
Stephanie W Gallo, Carlos Alexandre S Ferreira, Sílvia D de Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708053/rapid-diagnosis-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-with-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rifampicin-assay
#9
Yan Li, Yu Pang, Tianhua Zhang, Xiaoping Xian, Xidi Wang, Jian Yang, Rui Wang, Meiling Chen, Wei Chen
PURPOSE: XpertMycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (Xpert MTB/RIF) assay has been endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), while the sensitivity and specificity have not been fully evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the detection of different extrapulmonary specimens. METHODS: A total of 420 nonrespiratory specimens were detected with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, solid culture, conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) and Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708050/hyperinvasiveness-and-increased-intercellular-spread-of-listeria-monocytogenes-sequence-type-1-are-independent-of-listeriolysin-s-internalin-f-and-internalin-j1
#10
Sebastian Rupp, Michelle Bärtschi, Joachim Frey, Anna Oevermann
PURPOSE: Listeria monocytogenes is a genetically heterogeneous species, which is divided into evolutionary lineages and clonal complexes (CCs). Not all L. monocytogenes isolates are equally likely to cause disease, with CC1, and in particular sequence type (ST) 1, being the most prevalent complex in human and ruminant infections and more specifically in neurolisteriosis. While the major factors that determine neurotropism are unknown, the L. monocytogenes CC1 strains harbour listeriolysin S (lls) and particular alleles of internalin (inl) F and inlJ, which are not present in CCs commonly isolated from food and the environment...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708048/quantitative-and-structural-analyses-of-the-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-biofilm-forming-ability-of-dermatophytes
#11
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Edmilson Emanuel Monteiro Correia, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Vandbergue Santos Pereira, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Silviane Praciano Bandeira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Ana Raquel Colares de Andrade, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, Lúcio Jackson Queiroz Chaves, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira Neto, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and ex vivo biofilm-forming ability of dermatophytes on a nail fragment. METHODOLOGY: Initially, four isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, six of Trichophyton tonsurans, three of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, ten of Microsporum canis and three of Microsporum gypseum were tested for production biomass by crystal violet assay. Then, one strain per species presenting the best biofilm production was chosen for further studies by optical microscopy (Congo red staining), confocal laser scanning (LIVE/DEAD staining) and scanning electron (secondary electron) microscopy...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699881/chemical-composition-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracts-of-marjoram-and-rosemary-and-their-activity-against-sporothrix-brasiliensis
#12
Stefanie Bressan Waller, Isabel Martins Madrid, Jéssica Fernanda Hoffmann, Tony Picoli, Marlete Brum Cleff, Fábio Clasen Chaves, Renata Osório de Faria, Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles, João Roberto Braga de Mello
PURPOSE: Motivated by increasing reports of antifungal resistance in human and animal sporotrichosis, this study evaluated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of extracts of marjoram (Origanum majorana) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). METHODOLOGY: Ten (INF10) and 60 min (INF60) infusions, a decoction and a hydroalcoholic extract (HAE, 70 %) were prepared from both plants (10 % w/v). The extract composition was analysed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using a colorimetric assay in canine and feline kidney cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699872/in-vitro-synergistic-effects-of-a-short-cationic-peptide-and-clinically-used-antibiotics-against-drug-resistant-isolates-of-brucella-melitensis
#13
Zohreh Mohammadi Azad, Hoda Moravej, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Faramarz Masjedian, Raziyeh Nazari, Reza Mirnejad, Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam
PURPOSE: In the last few decades, increasing microbial resistance to common antibiotics has attracted researchers' attention to the development of new classes of antibiotics such as antimicrobial peptides. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to evaluate antimicrobial effects of the CM11 peptide alone and combined with common antibiotics against drug-resistant isolates of Brucella melitensis. METHODOLOGY: A total of 50 pathogenic samples of B. melitensis were isolated from patients and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was evaluated by E-test...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693685/effect-of-involved-aspergillus-species-on-galactomannan-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-of-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#14
Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mohammad T Hedayati, Vahid Moqarabzadeh, Saham Ansari, Saeed Mahdavi Omran, Hossein Zarrinfar, Sasan Saber, Paul E Verweij, David W Denning, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
PURPOSE: The detection of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is an important surrogate marker for the early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive aspergillosis (IA), regardless of the involved species of Aspergillus. Here, we utilized the Platelia Aspergillus GM enzyme immunoassay (Bio-Rad) to evaluate the GM index in BAL fluid samples from patients with proven, probable or putative IA due to Aspergillusflavus versus Aspergillusfumigatus. METHODOLOGY: In a prospective study between 2009 and 2015, 116 BAL samples were collected from suspected IA patients referred to two university hospitals in Tehran, Iran...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693667/distribution-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-genotypes-in-neonatal-conjunctivitis-in-hungary
#15
Eszter Balla, Fruzsina Petrovay, Tímea Erdősi, Andrea Balázs, Judit Henczkó, Edit Urbán, Gilbert G G Donders
The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and age distribution of different Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genotypes causing ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) in Hungary. Using CT specific PCR, we tested 76 conjunctival samples from symptomatic infants up to 3 months old in the National Centre for Epidemiology, Budapest between 2008 and 2016. CT tested positive in 30 of 76 conjunctival samples (39.5 %). The sequencing of the positive samples was successful in every case but one, and resulted in 48 % dominance for genotype E (14/29), followed by 24 % for genotype G (7/29), 10 % for J (3/29), 6...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693666/evaluation-of-recombinant-factor-c-assay-for-the-detection-of-divergent-lipopolysaccharide-structural-species-and-comparison-with-limulus-amebocyte-lysate-based-assays-and-a-human-monocyte-activity-assay
#16
Wondwossen Abate, Anas A Sattar, Jian Liu, Myra E Conway, Simon K Jackson
PURPOSE: The Limulus amebocytelysate (LAL) assay is widely used for the screening of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in parenteral pharmaceuticals. However, correlation of LPS in Gram-negative bacterial infections by LAL assay has been problematic, partly due to the variable reactivity of different LPS structures. Recombinant factor C (rFC) has allowed the development of a new simple, specific and sensitive LPS detection system (PyroGene). In this work, the potential of the new assay for detecting various LPS structures has been investigated and compared with two LAL-based assays and a human monocyte activity assay...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693665/characterization-of-high-level-ampicillin-and-aminoglycoside-resistant-enterococci-isolated-from-non-hospital-sources
#17
Emmanuel O Ngbede, Mashood A Raji, Clara N Kwanashie, Jacob K P Kwaga, Alex A Adikwu, Nanven A Maurice, Andrew M Adamu
PURPOSE: High level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci are being increasingly reported from non-hospital sources. This study was carried out to characterize these strains from non-hospital sources in Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A collection of Enterococcus faecium isolated from vegetables, soil, farm animals and manure and observed to be resistant to ampicillin (n=63) and gentamicin (n=37) discs, were screened for resistance to high levels of ampicillin and aminoglycoside using E-test strips...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693663/is-spxa2-involved-in-hydrogen-peroxide-production-and-competence-development-in-streptococcus-sanguinis
#18
Ting Li, Mengya Xu, Lanyan Zheng
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Streptococcus sanguinis SpxA2 plays a role in competence development and endogenous H2O2 generation, and whether the SpxA2 Cys10-XX-Cys13 (CXXC) motif is involved in competence development. METHODOLOGY: The competence development of wild-type S. sanguinis (SK36) and its derivatives was compared by transformation efficiency assay and real-time RT-PCR. The spx allele mutants, spxA2 (C10A) and spxA2 (C13A), were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686553/candidaemia-in-a-tertiary-care-academic-hospital-in-italy-the-impact-of-c-parapsilosis-complex-on-the-species-distribution-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#19
Maria Cristina Ghezzi, Grazia Brunetti, Valeria Visconti, Alessandra Giordano, Giammarco Raponi
PURPOSE: To analyse the species distribution and the susceptibility profiles to the major antifungal agents of Candida isolated from bloodstream infections (BSIs) in both intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICU wards in a tertiary care hospital in Italy from 2010 until 2015. METHODOLOGY: Episodes of Candida BSI were recorded in a retrospective observational cohort study. Yeasts were isolated from both blood and intravascuIar devices (IVDs) and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs was tested using the microdilution method...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671537/the-distribution-of-carbapenem-and-colistin-resistance-in-gram-negative-bacteria-from-the-tamil-nadu-region-in-india
#20
Prasanth Manohar, Thamaraiselvan Shanthini, Ramankannan Ayyanar, Bulent Bozdogan, Aruni Wilson, Ashok J Tamhankar, Ramesh Nachimuthu, Bruno S Lopes
PURPOSE: The occurrence of carbapenem- and colistin-resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of carbapenem- and colistin-resistance in two areas in Tamil Nadu, India. METHODOLOGY: The clinical isolates (n=89) used in this study were collected from two diagnostic centres in Tamil Nadu, India. The bacterial isolates were screened for meropenem- and colistin-resistance. Further, resistance genes blaNDM-1, blaOXA-48-like, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaKPC, mcr-1 and mcr-2 and integrons were studied...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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