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Journal of Medical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30422109/in-vivo-activity-of-co-trimoxazole-combined-with-colistin-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-producing-oxa-23-in-a-galleria-mellonella-model
#1
Mahmoud A F Khalil, Sawsan S Moawad, Enas M Hefzy
OBJECTIVES: Acinetobacter baumannii is a critical nosocomial pathogen. A. baumannii infections have become a grave challenge due to their ability to develop resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential synergism and bactericidal activity of a combination of colistin and cotrimoxazole against carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) in a Galleria mellonella model. METHODS: Four clinical A. baumannii isolates were biochemically and molecularly identified...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30422106/comparison-of-susceptibility-testing-methods-for-determining-the-activity-of-colistin-against-gram-negative-bacilli-of-clinical-origin
#2
Mehri Haeili, Mahsa Kafshdouz, Zeinab Pishnian, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi, Luis Martinez-Martinez
PURPOSE: Despite being in clinical use for decades, colistin susceptibility testing remains challenging because of its inherent cationic properties. We aimed to compare the performance characteristics of different methods for testing susceptibility to colistin in a series of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and nine clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=34), Escherichia coli (n=20), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=17) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=38) were studied for colistin susceptibility using broth microdilution (BMID), broth macrodilution (BMAD), agar dilution (AD) as well as disc-diffusion (DD) utilizing two different commercial disc sources...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418108/molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-argenteus-in-myanmar-identification-of-novel-genotypes-clusters-in-staphylocoagulase-protein-a-alpha-haemolysin-and-other-virulence-factors
#3
Meiji Soe Aung, Thida San, Nilar San, Win Mar Oo, Phyoe May Ko, Khin Thet Thet, Noriko Urushibara, Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Ayako Sumi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus argenteus is a novel emerging species of coagulase-positive staphylococcus that is genetically closely related to Staphylococcus aureus. To elucidate the molecular differences in the virulence factors (staphylocoagulase, protein A, alpha-haemolysin, enterotoxin-like toxin and staphylokinase) between these staphylococcal species, S. argenteus that had recently been isolated in Myanmar (five nasal isolates and four clinical isolates) were analysed. METHODOLOGY: The nucleotide sequences of the virulence factors were determined by PCR and direct sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis by mega6 and multiple alignment by clustalw using the published sequence data for S...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418107/evaluation-of-an-in-house-maldi-tof-ms-rapid-diagnostic-method-for-direct-identification-of-micro-organisms-from-blood-cultures
#4
Yong-Lu Huang, Qiao-Ling Sun, Jia-Ping Li, Yan-Yan Hu, Hong-Wei Zhou, Rong Zhang
PURPOSE: Bloodstream infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Early identification of micro-organisms from blood culture can facilitate earlier optimization of treatment. The objective of this study was to assess an in-house method based on a new matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) platform (Clin-TOF MS) for direct organism identification. METHODOLOGY: We studied the performance of the in-house method for direct identification and the conventional sub-culture method in parallel...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418106/emergence-of-staphylococcal-scalded-skin-syndrome-associated-with-a-new-toxinogenic-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-clone
#5
Anastassios Doudoulakakis, Iris Spiliopoulou, Garyfallia Syridou, Nikolaos Giormezis, Maria Militsopoulou, Evangelia Lebessi, Maria Tsolia
A sharp increase in staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) cases has been recorded in our settings since 2015, with 31 cases having been documented during the period 2014-2017. The molecular investigation of strains from the above period showed the emergence of a methicillin-susceptible, mupirocin- and fusidic acid-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus clone that belongs to the ST121 complex and carries both epidermolysin (eta/etb) genes. We concluded that the SSSS caused by the newly emerged, highly virulent community-associated-methicillin sensitive S...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403371/evaluation-of-fast-acting-bactericidal-activity-and-substantivity-of-an-antiseptic-agent-olanexidine-gluconate-using-an-ex-vivo-skin-model
#6
Hisae Nishioka, Akihiro Nagahama, Yasuhide Inoue, Akifumi Hagi
PURPOSE: We assessed the fast-acting bactericidal activity and substantivity of olanexidine gluconate (OLG) to investigate its remaining bactericidal activity on the skin after rinsing and drying by using an ex vivo Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin model. METHODOLOGY: The fast-acting bactericidal activity was evaluated in pigskin models inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Acinetobacter baumannii, Corynebacterium minutissimum and Cutibacterium acnes...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403370/evaluation-of-the-sofia-streptococcus-pneumoniae-fia-test-for-the-detection-of-s-pneumoniae-antigen-in-urine
#7
Sjoerd M Euser, Paul Badoux, Lianne Kracht-Kosten, Ed P F Yzerman
In this study, we evaluated the Sofia Streptococcus pneumoniae FIA test (Quidel Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA), a new immunofluorescence-based lateral flow test for the qualitative detection of S. pneumoniae antigen in urine or cerebrospinal fluid specimens. The analyses of 100 non-concentrated urine samples (including 50 samples from S. pneumoniae cases) showed a sensitivity and specificity (95 % CI) of, respectively, 66.0 % (52.2-77.6) and 100.0 % (92.9-100.0) for the Sofia test, and 62.0 % (48...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388066/low-sensitivity-of-the-mpt64-identification-test-to-detect-lineage-5-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#8
C N'Dira Sanoussi, Bouke C de Jong, Mathieu Odoun, Karamatou Arekpa, Moulikatou Ali Ligali, Ousman Bodi, Simon Harris, Boatema Ofori-Anyinam, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Isaac Darko Otchere, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Severin Anagonou, Sebastien Gagneux, Mireia Coscolla, Leen Rigouts, Dissou Affolabi
PURPOSE: Differentiation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is important for tuberculosis diagnosis and is a prerequisite for reliable phenotypic drug-resistance testing. We evaluated the performance of the rapid MPT64 antigen identification test for the detection of Mycobacterium africanum lineage 5 (MAF L5). METHODOLOGY: Smear-positive tuberculosis patients' sputa were included prospectively. Culture was performed on Löwenstein-Jensen medium and, when positive, the MPT64 test and the classical para-nitro benzoic acid susceptibility and heat-labile catalase (PNB/catalase) identification tests were performed...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376445/bone-and-joint-mycobacterial-infection-a-retrospective-review-of-cases-presenting-to-a-uk-district-hospital
#9
A Everden, J P Mamo, D Somasunderam, A McKee, S O Brij, D A Enoch
PURPOSE: Peterborough has one of the highest rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the east of England. We reviewed the epidemiology, management and outcome of all cases of bone and joint TB (BJTB) diagnosed since 2000. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective review of all adult cases of BJTB between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2015. Patients' notes were reviewed with regard to their presentation, investigation, management and outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 21 patients diagnosed with BJTB were reviewed...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372412/a-3-year-retrospective-analysis-on-the-prevalence-of-antileptospiral-antibodies-among-children-in-chennai-city-india
#10
S Mini Jacob, Sekkizhar Geethalakshmi, Sivasangeetha Karthikeyan, Anitha Durairaj, Pachiyappan Gopal, Vanitha Ramamoorthy, Ganesan Arumugam, Sathishkumar Elumalai
PURPOSE: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that has been reported from all over the world, including South India. Several studies have documented the prevalence of Leptospira in the general population. However, the data on leptospirosis in children were limited. We evaluated the prevalence of antileptospiral antibodies and the distribution of Leptospira serovars in children and adolescents. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, details for a total of 5407 children who presented with fever and whose test results for antileptospiral antibodies available were recorded...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372411/everybody-hands-on-to-avoid-eskape-effect-of-sustained-hand-hygiene-compliance-on-healthcare-associated-infections-and-multidrug-resistance-in-a-paediatric-hospital
#11
Daniela De la Rosa-Zamboni, Sara A Ochoa, Almudena Laris-González, Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova, Gerardo Escalona-Venegas, Georgina Pérez-Avendaño, Margarita Torres-García, Roselia Suaréz-Mora, Carmen Castellanos-Cruz, Yadhira V Sánchrez-Flores, Adalberto Vázquez-Flores, Rosalinda Águila-Torres, Israel Parra-Ortega, Miguel Klünder-Klünder, José Arellano-Galindo, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
PURPOSE: Hand hygiene is the most important strategy for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs); however, the impact of hand hygiene in middle-income countries has been poorly described. In this work, we describe the impact of the programme 'Let's Go for 100' on hand hygiene adherence, HCAIs rates and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including the molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. METHODOLOGY: A multimodal, hospital-wide hand hygiene programme was implemented from 2013...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372410/the-classical-bordetella-species-and-maldi-tof-technology-a-brief-experience
#12
Jonathan Zintgraff, Lucia Irazu, Claudia S Lara, Marcelo Rodriguez, Mauricio Santos
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to evaluate and optimize the identification of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica (usually known as the classical Bordetella species) using Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). METHODOLOGY: A set of 106 previously characterized clinical isolates was used. The results were interpreted according to the manufacturer's recommendations and, in addition, a new score value cutoff was used for species identification...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30355422/rapid-detection-of-mcr-1-by-recombinase-polymerase-amplification
#13
Jialiang Xu, Xiaoxun Wang, Liya Yang, Biao Kan, Xin Lu
PURPOSE: The plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene conferring colistin resistance has a strong ability to spread. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and sensitive recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method for plasmid-mediated polymyxin-resistant gene mcr-1 detection. METHODS: Using the reported sequence of the mcr-1 gene, we designed specific primers and probes for RPA. Twenty mcr-1-positive strains carrying IncI2/IncHI2/IncX4/IncP plasmids were screened by RPA in this study...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351268/staphylococcus-aureus-osteoarticular-infections-in-children-an-8-year-review-of-molecular-microbiology-antibiotic-resistance-and-clinical-characteristics
#14
Dimitrios Bouras, Anastassios Doudoulakakis, Maria Tsolia, Ilia Vaki, Nikolaos Giormezis, Niki Petropoulou, Evangelia Lebessi, Vasiliki Gennimata, Athanasios Tsakris, Iris Spiliopoulou, Athanasios Michos
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains causing osteoarticular infections in a large paediatric series. METHODOLOGY: Medical records of children who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of community-associated S. aureus (CA-SA) osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis in the two major tertiary paediatric hospitals of Athens during an 8-year period (2007-2015) were reviewed, and S. aureus isolates were analysed regarding antimicrobial resistance, detection of pathogenicity genes and genotyping using SCCmec, agr typing, PFGE and MLST...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351266/characterization-of-a-colistin-resistant-salmonella-enterica-4-5-12-i-harbouring-mcr-3-2-on-a-variant-inchi-2-plasmid-identified-in-canada
#15
Michael R Mulvey, Amrita Bharat, David A Boyd, Rebecca J Irwin, John Wylie
We have identified a Salmonella enterica serotype 4,[5],12:i:- containing a mcr-3.2 in a patient who travelled to Thailand 1 month prior to the identification of it in Canada. The isolate was multidrug resistant, but remained susceptible to the carbapenems, amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. The mcr-3.2 was carried on a 261 Kb variant of the IncHI2 pWJ1. This report provides further evidence of the emergence of a ST34 colistin-resistant clone.
October 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351265/a-mutation-in-anti-sigma-factor-mab_3542c-may-be-responsible-for-tigecycline-resistance-in-mycobacterium-abscessus
#16
Hien Fuh Ng, Joon Liang Tan, Thaw Zin, Sook Fan Yap, Yun Fong Ngeow
In this study, we characterized 7C, a spontaneous mutant selected from tigecycline-susceptible Mycobacterium abscessus ATCC 19977. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to identify possible resistance determinants in this mutant. Compared to the wild-type, 7C demonstrated resistance to tigecycline as well as cross-resistance to imipenem, and had a slightly retarded growth rate. WGS and subsequent biological verifications showed that these phenotypes were caused by a point mutation in MAB_3542c, which encodes an RshA-like protein...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351262/human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-adhere-to-and-inhibit-the-growth-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Chelsea Rheannon Wood, Douaa Al Dhahri, Ibtesam Al Delfi, Neil Anthony Pickles, Rachel L Sammons, Tony Worthington, Karina Theresa Wright, William Eustace Basil Johnson
We have cultured and phenotyped human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (AT MSCs) and inoculated these cultures with bacteria common to infected skin wounds, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whilst bacterial growth was measured by colony forming unit (c.f.u.) and biofilm assays. AT MSCs appeared to attach to the bacteria and to engulf S. aureus. Significantly fewer bacterial c.f.u. were present in AT MSC : bacterial co-cultures compared with bacteria cultured alone...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328808/binding-of-pneumocystis-carinii-to-the-lung-epithelial-cell-receptor-hspa5-grp78
#18
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Andrew H Limper
The importance of lung macrophages in Pneumocystis-host interaction is well known, but little is known about the initial binding/colonization of the airway epithelium. Our prior studies have documented cell-signalling events that occur following binding of the organisms to lung epithelial cells; however, the receptors that mediate Pneumocystis attachment to lung surfaces have not yet been fully defined. Using affinity chromatography, we identified heat shock protein 5 (HSPA5), also known as GRP78, as a potential host receptor that may have relevance in Pneumocystis lung colonization...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328807/editorial-conference-report-5th-international-one-health-congress-saskatoon-canada-22-25-june-2018
#19
Timothy J J Inglis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325301/efficacy-of-%C3%AE-phenylethylamine-as-a-novel-anti-microbial-and-application-as-a-liquid-catheter-flush
#20
Meredith Schroeder, Shelley M Horne, Birgit M Prüß
With this study, we introduce a liquid flush for catheters and other tubing-based applications that consists of a solution of β-phenylethylamine (PEA) in tryptic soy broth. The initial experiments in multiwell polystyrene plates were conducted with Escherichia coli K-12 to assess the effectiveness of PEA at reducing planktonic growth, as well as the biomass and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of biofilm; PEA reduced these growth parameters as a function of increasing concentration. This effect was also seen in mutants of PEA catabolism, which leads us to believe that the PEA effect is due to PEA itself and not one of its degradation products...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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