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Journal of Medical Microbiology

Cinta Moraleda, Rachid Benmessaoud, Jessica Esteban, Yuly López, Hassan Alami, Amina Barkat, Tligui Houssain, Meryem Kabiri, Rachid Bezad, Saad Chaacho, Lola Madrid, Jordi Vila, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Jordi Bosch, Sara M Soto, Quique Bassat
PURPOSE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis worldwide. Data on the prevalence of maternal GBS colonization, risk factors for carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and circulating serotypes are necessary to tailor adequate locally relevant public health policies. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study including pregnant women and their newborns was conducted between March and July 2013 in Morocco. We collected clinical data and vagino-rectal and urine samples from the recruited pregnant women, together with the clinical characteristics of, and body surface samples from, their newborns...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Maroun M Sfeir
Brucellosis is a challenging zoonosis to diagnose and treat. The recent outbreaks of Brucella abortus RB51 in several states in the United States, including New Jersey and Texas, due to raw milk consumption has raised the concern of drug-resistant Brucella spp. This commentary highlights the importance of being on the lookout for this emerging infection.
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Natalia Blanco, Seth Walk, Anurag N Malani, Alexander Rickard, Michele Benn, Marisa Eisenberg, Min Zhang, Betsy Foxman
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the correlation between Clostridium difficile spore and toxin levels within the human host. In addition, we assessed whether overgrowth of Candida albicans modified this association. METHODOLOGY: We measured toxin, spore and Candida albicans levels among 200 successively collected stool samples that tested positive for C. difficile, and PCR ribotyped these C. difficile isolates. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test the association between spore and toxin levels...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Nicole M Bzdyl, Nadezda Urosevic, Ben Payne, Ray Brockenshire, Michael McIntyre, Michael J Leung, Graham Weaire-Buchanan, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Timothy J J Inglis
PURPOSE: In this field trial of rapid blood culture identification (BCID), we aimed to determine whether the improved speed and accuracy of specific BCID predicted in our earlier pilot study could be obtained in regional hospitals by deploying a multiplex PCR FilmArray (Biomerieux, France) capability in their laboratories. METHODS: We trained local hospital laboratory staff to operate the FilmArray equipment and act on the results. To do this, we integrated the multiplex PCR into the standard laboratory blood culture workflow and reporting procedure...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Debi Prasad Mohapatra, Santosh Kumar Singh, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, Mitali Mishra, Nagen Kumar Debata, Harapriya Mohapatra
PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance patterns often exhibit geographical variations. Periodic analyses of resistance spectra and phylogenetic trends are important guides for facilitating judicious use of therapeutic interventions. The present study retrospectively analysed the infection trends, resistance patterns, and clonal relationships between isolates of Klebsiella spp. from a tertiary care hospital. METHODOLOGY: Bacterial isolates were collected from January 2013 to June 2014 and their resistance profiles were identified using an automated bacterial identification system...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Dávid Kókai, Tímea Mosolygó, Dezső P Virók, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
PURPOSE: Within the community, 10 % of acquired pneumonia is caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is one of the most commonly used mucolytics in respiratory diseases, but its effect on C. pneumoniae infection has not yet been investigated. In this study, our aim was to investigate whether NAC influences the replication of C. pneumoniae. After determining that NAC does have an effect on C. pneumoniae replication, the effect of an alternative drug called Ambroxol (Ax) was investigated...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bruna Fuga Araújo, Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Paola Amaral de Campos, Sabrina Royer, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Deivid William da Fonseca Batistão, Miriam Rodriguez Fernandes, Louise Teixeira Cerdeira, Cristiane Silveira de Brito, Nilton Lincopan, Paulo Pinto Gontijo-Filho, Rosineide Marques Ribas
In this study, we describe the frequency of virulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP), including hypervirulent (hv) and hypermucoviscous (hm) strains by whole-genome sequencing. We also evaluate the capacity for biofilm formation by using phenotypic techniques. The occurrence of several virulence genes (fimABCDEFGHIK, mrkABCDFHJ, ecpA, wabG, entB, ugE, irp1, irp2, traT, iutA and ureADE) and a high frequency of hvhmKPC-KP isolates was found. Most hospital-associated lineages of KPC-KP belong to the international clonal group 258 (CG258)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Landry Kabego, Serge Balol'Ebwami, Joe Bwija Kasengi, Serge Miyanga, Yvette Lufungulo Bahati, Richard Kambale, Corena de Beer
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under the age of 5 years at the Provincial General Hospital of Bukavu (PGHB), and to analyse factors associated with the risk of ARI being diagnosed as lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODOLOGY: A total of 146 children under 5 years visiting the PGHB for ARI between August and December 2016 were recruited, and socio-demographic information, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Seyit Ali Büyüktuna, Halef Okan Doğan, Mehmet Bakir, Nazif Elaldi, Mustafa Gökhan Gözel, Aynur Engin
INTRODUCTION: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease. Reactive oxygen species that are mainly generated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) enzyme family have a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. The serum levels of NOX isoforms in patients with CCHF have yet to be assessed. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Cumhuriyet University, Turkey. Only patients with CCHF confirmed by the National Reference Virology Laboratory were enrolled in the study...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Kornchanok Wayakanon, Kanjana Rueangyotchanthana, Praween Wayakanon, Chatrudee Suwannachart
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficiency of natural astaxanthin that has been extracted from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous in inhibiting the proliferation and viability of colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2; colon cancer cells). METHODOLOGY: Caco-2 cells and normal human oralkeratinocytes(NOKs) were treated with different concentrations of extracted astaxanthin, ranging from 0.075 to 10 mg ml-1 , for 24, 48 and 72 h. The number of cells was determined via MTS assay and the proliferating cells were investigated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
K Dafopoulou, A Tsakris, S Pournaras
In recent years, hospitals in southeastern Europe have faced dramatically high rates of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. We analysed the evolution of resistance among clinical isolates of A. baumannii group obtained from nine tertiary hospitals throughout Greece over 6 years (2010-2015). Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using Vitek 2 or Microscan walkaway automated systems. Between 2010 and 2015, resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam increased from 46.2 to 88...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Huan Trinh, Youngchul Yoo, Kyung-Hwa Won, Hien T T Ngo, Jung-Eun Yang, Jin-Gyeong Cho, Sang-Won Lee, Ki-Young Kim, Tae-Hoo Yi
PURPOSE: In traditional Korean medicine, Artemisia apiacea H. (ART) and Scutellaria baicalensis G. (SCU) are combined for the treatment of malaria and other malaria-like diseases. Because SCU is well-known as an antibacterial agent, the antimicrobial effect of a mixture of ART and SCU was investigated. METHODOLOGY: Plant samples were purchased from Kyungdong mart and extracted with 70 % ethanol. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of ART and SCU against pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated using a broth microdilution assay, modified-disc diffusion and agar dilution methods with further CH2Cl2-fractionated ART, SCU and a mixture of ART/SCU (at a ratio of 3 : 5) (THAN-1)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Vineet K Singh, Sirisha Sirobhushanam, Robert P Ring, Saumya Singh, Craig Gatto, Brian J Wilkinson
PURPOSE: Membrane fluidity to a large extent is governed by the presence of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) is the key enzyme in BCFA synthesis. A Staphylococcus aureus BKD-deficient strain still produced substantial levels of BCFAs. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) with structural similarity to BKD has been speculated to contribute to BCFAs in S. aureus. METHODOLOGY: This study was carried out using BKD-, PDH- and BKD : PDH-deficient derivatives of methicillin-resistant S...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Duaa W Al-Sadeq, Amin F Majdalawieh, Areej G Mesleh, Omnya M Abdalla, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus that is an important cause of both acute and chronic hepatitis worldwide. To date, there are eight HEV genotypes that can infect mammals. HEV-1 and HEV-2 infect exclusively humans, while HEV-3 and HEV-4 infect humans and various animals, mainly pigs and deer. Additionally, two new genotypes (HEV-5 and HEV-6) infect mainly wild boar. Recently, newly discovered genotypes HEV-7 and HEV-8 were found to infect camels and possibly humans. Nevertheless, the epidemiological distribution of HEV-7 is not well established...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ilka Engelmann, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Mouna Lazrek, Jean-Marie Pouillaude, Judith Ogiez, François Rose, Alain Duhamel, Anny Dewilde, Didier Hober
PURPOSE: There are few data on the performance of automated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR assays. This study compared EBV quantification for the kPCR PLX EBV DNA (kPCR; Siemens, France) and the EBV R-gene (R-gene; Argene, Biomerieux, France) assays and their correlation with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. METHODOLOGY: WHO International Standard for EBV (WHO standard) dilution panels in different matrices were submitted to nucleic acid extraction with Versant kPCR Molecular Systems SP followed by the kPCR assay, or to nucleic acid extraction with the MagNA Pure LC System or NucliSENS easyMag followed by the R-gene assay...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Karin Aistleitner, Rimma Jeske, Roman Wölfel, Alexandra Wießner, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter, Kilian Stoecker
PURPOSE: Infective endocarditis is a severe and potentially fatal disease. Nearly a third of all cases remain culture-negative, making a targeted and effective antibiotic therapy of patients challenging. In the past years, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has proven its value for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, particularly when it is caused by fastidious bacteria. To increase the number of infective endocarditis causing agents, which can be identified by FISH, we designed and optimized a FISH-probe for the specific detection of Coxiella burnetii in heart valve tissue...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Monika Janeczko, Konrad Kubiński, Aleksandra Martyna, Angelika Muzyczka, Anna Boguszewska-Czubara, Sławomir Czernik, Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Marta Chwedczuk, Oleg M Demchuk, Hieronim Golczyk, Maciej Masłyk
PURPOSE: In this study, we applied various assays to find new activities of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives for potential anti-Candida albicans applications. METHODOLOGY: These assays determined (a) the antimicrobial effect on growth/cell multiplication in fungal cultures, (b) the effect on formation of hyphae and biofilm, (c) the influence on cell membrane integrity, (d) the effect on cell morphology using atomic force microscopy, and (e) toxicity against zebrafish embryos...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Patricia Fernanda Herkert, Jacques F Meis, Gabriel Lucca de Oliveira Salvador, Renata Rodrigues Gomes, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Rosangela Lameira Pinheiro, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Alexandre Vargas Schwarzbold, Carla Sakuma de Oliveira, Marcelo Simão Ferreira, Flávio Queiroz-Telles, Ferry Hagen
PURPOSE: Cryptococcosis is acquired from the environment by the inhalation of Cryptococcus cells and may establish from an asymptomatic latent infection into pneumonia or meningoencephalitis. The genetic diversity of a Cryptococcus neoformans species complex has been investigated by several molecular tools, such as multi-locus sequence typing, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), restriction fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite analysis. This study aimed to investigate the genotype distributions and antifungal susceptibility profiles of C...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Siamak Sabour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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