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Journal of Medical Microbiology

J W Betts, H F Abdul Momin, L M Phee, D W Wareham
PURPOSE: Glycopeptides are widely used for the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Although difficult to detect, isolates with reduced (GISA), hetero (hGISA) or complete (GRSA) resistance to glycopeptides are increasingly reported. Optimal therapy for such strains is unknown. We compared the in vitro and in vivo activity of tedizolid (TED), a recently licensed oxazolidonone, with vancomycin (VAN) and teicoplanin (TEIC) combined with fusidic acid (FD) or rifampicin (RIF) against S...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Neli Korsun, Svetla Angelova, Ivelina Trifonova, Iren Tzotcheva, Sirma Mileva, Silvia Voleva, Irina Georgieva, Penka Perenovska
PURPOSE: Influenza viruses are characterised by high variability, which makes them able to cause annual epidemics. The aim of this study is to determine the antigenic and genetic characteristics of influenza viruses circulating in Bulgaria during the 2016/2017 season. METHODOLOGY: The detection and typing/subtyping of influenza viruses were performed using real time RT-PCR. Results of antigenic characterisation, phylogenetic and amino acid sequence analyses of representative influenza strains are presented herein...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Alexander Molitor, Chloë E James, Séamus Fanning, Jean-Marie Pagès, Anne Davin-Regli
PURPOSE: Several genetic regulators belonging to AraC family are involved in the emergence of MDR isolates of E. aerogenes due to alterations in membrane permeability. Compared with the genetic regulator Mar, RamA may be more relevant towards the emergence of antibiotic resistance. METHODOLOGY: Focusing on the global regulators, Mar and Ram, we compared the amino acid sequences of the Ram repressor in 59 clinical isolates and laboratory strains of E. aerogenes. Sequence types were associated with their corresponding multi-drug resistance phenotypes and membrane protein expression profiles using MIC and immunoblot assays...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Xiangyan Li, Xin Qi, Geheng Yuan, Shang Ju, Zhengya Yu, Wei Deng, Yanjun Liu, Yufeng Li, Xiujun Bu, Mingchao Ding, Quan Li, Xiaohui Guo
PURPOSE: We aimed to define the microbiological characteristics of diabetic foot infection in patients in the Beijing area and to explore the demographic and clinical factors correlated with pathogen distribution. METHODOLOGY: As part of a retrospective multicentre surveillance program conducted in eight hospitals in Beijing 2010-2014, we recruited all inpatients for whom bacterial culture had been performed. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and surgery data were obtained from medical records...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yenney Hernandez Reyes, Chantale Provost, Carolina Kist Traesel, Mario Jacques, Carl A Gagnon
PURPOSE: Recently, the strong antiviral activity of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) culture supernatant against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was discovered. Following this finding, the objective of the present study was to understand how the App culture supernatant inhibits PRRSV replication in its natural targeted host cells, i.e. porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). METHODOLOGY: Several assays were conducted with App culture supernatant-treated PRRSV-infected cell lines, such as PAM, St-Jude porcine lung and MARC-145 cells...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Kjersti Wik Larssen, Anne Nor, Kåre Bergh
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus epidermidis colonies often display several morphologies and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns when cultured from device-related infections, and may represent one or multiple genotypes. Genotyping may be helpful in the clinical interpretation, but is time consuming and expensive. We wanted to establish a method for rapid discrimination of S. epidermidis genotypes for use in a routine microbiology laboratory. METHODOLOGY: A real-time PCR targeting eight discriminatory class I or II single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six of the seven housekeeping genes was constructed...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
F Dépret, A Aubry, A Fournier, A Charles-Nelson, S Katsahian, F Compain, J L Mainardi, M P Fernandez-Gerlinger
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess if use of the β LACTA test (BLT) for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) detection and/or early bacterial identification by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) improves therapeutic decision-making when combined with advice from the antimicrobial stewardship team (AMST) for the management of Gram-negative bacillary (GNB) bacteraemia. METHODS: Prospective observational theoretical study that included patients with GNB bacteraemia during a 6-month period...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jennifer K O' Leary, Liam Blake, Dan Corcoran, Roy D Sleator, Brigid Lucey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Lefko T Charalambous, Alykhan Premji, Caroline Tybout, Anastasia Hunt, Drew Cutshaw, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Siyun Yang, Jichun Xie, Charles Giamberardino, Promila Pagadala, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad
PURPOSE: Previous epidemiological and cost studies of fungal meningitis have largely focused on single pathogens, leading to a poor understanding of the disease in general. We studied the largest and most diverse group of fungal meningitis patients to date, over the longest follow-up period, to examine the broad impact on resource utilization within the United States. METHODOLOGY: The Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database was used to identify patients with a fungal meningitis diagnosis in the United States between 2000 and 2012...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sangeeta V Kulkarni, Manju Bala, Syeeda A Muqeeth, G Sasikala, Amit P Nirmalkar, R Thorat, H Kambli, Jyoti Sawant, Arun Risbud, Raman R Gangakhedkar, Sheela V Godbole
PURPOSE: Emergence of multidrug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an STI of public health significance is the biggest challenge to gonorrhoea control. Monitoring for antimicrobial resistance is essential for the early detection of emergent drug resistance patterns. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and twenty four N. gonorrhoeae strains were isolated between September 2013-August 2016 [82-New Delhi, 3-Pune, 3-Mumbai, 20-Secunderabad and 16-Hyderabad] to determine antimicrobial susceptibility and to compare the CLSI disc diffusion method with Etest for these strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Shiomi Yoshida, Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Takehiko Kobayashi, Motohisa Tomita, Yoshikazu Inoue, Seiji Hayashi, Katsuhiro Suzuki
PURPOSE: Macrolide susceptibility differs between subspecies in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, likely due to differences in erm(41) sequevars. Patients with M. abscessus complex infection generally show poor clinical outcomes in response to antibiotic treatment. Here, the association between genotype and treatment outcome was investigated. METHODOLOGY: We collected 69 isolates from 35 patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: 24 had M. abscessus complex lung disease and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, and 11 were colonized...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
John R Papp, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Norman P O'Connor, Jason Wholehan, Jafar H Razeq, Anita Glennen, Dapne Ware, Peter C Iwen, Lillian V Lee, Celia Hagan
PURPOSE: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen that continues to evolve to become resistant to known antibiotics. In preparing for potential emergence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that clinical laboratories maintain or develop protocols to assess antibiotic susceptibly for this organism. This study examines the intra-laboratory variability of using the Etest method to provide consistent MIC values for N. gonorrhoeae and also compared the results of the Etest to known agar dilution MIC values...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Carolina Sidrim P Cavalcante, Francisca Lidiane Linhares de Aguiar, Raquel O S Fontenelle, Ramon Roseo de P P B de Menezes, Alice Maria Costa Martins, Cláudio B Falcão, David Andreu, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
PURPOSE: Ctn[15-34], a carboxyl-terminal fragment of crotalicidin (a cathelicidin from the venom gland of a South American rattlesnake), has shown antifungal activity against clinical and standard strains of Candida species. The aim of the present work was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the candidicidal activity of Ctn[15-34]. METHODOLOGY: The time-kill profile and drug synergism were evaluated by means of a microdilution assay and multi-parametric flow cytometry...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Fulgence K Kassi, Virginie Bellet, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Frédéric Roger, Bedia-Tanoh A Valérie, Touré Aboubakar, Adama Doumbia, Gisèle A Kouakou, Eric Delaporte, Jacques Reynes, William Yavo, Hervé I E Menan, Sebastien Bertout
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the biotope of the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex from Ivory Coast, and clarify the possible epidemiological relationship between environmental and clinical strains. METHODOLOGY: Samples from Eucalyptus camaldulensis (n=136), Mangifera indica (n=13) and pigeon droppings (n=518) were collected from different sites close to the living environment of Ivorian HIV patients with cryptococcosis (n=10, 50 clinical strains)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jane F Turton, Zoë Payne, Amy Coward, Katie L Hopkins, Jack A Turton, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford
PURPOSE: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a concern because of its multidrug resistance and the ability of hypervirulent types, especially capsular type K1-clonal complex 23 (K1-CC23), to cause community-acquired, life-threatening infections. Hypervirulent types carry an array of virulence genes including rmpA/rmpA2, coding for capsule up-regulation. We sought to identify isolates carrying these elements among submissions to the UK national reference laboratory during 2016. METHODOLOGY: Virulence elements and carbapenemase genes were sought by PCR or from whole genome sequences...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Tatsuya Tada, Kohei Uechi, Isamu Nakasone, Zenji Miyazato, Takashi Shinzato, Kayo Shimada, Mitsuhiro Tsuchiya, Teruo Kirikae, Jiro Fujita
Small-colony variants (SCVs) were obtained from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolate in Okinawa, Japan. One variant showed auxotrophy for hemin with a deletion of 20 365 nucleotides, dosC-ydiK-mmuP-mmuM-tauA-tauB-tauC-tauD-hemB-yaiT-yaiV-ampH-yddQ-sbmA-yaiW-yaiY-yaiZ, including hemB, and was more resistant to aminoglycosides and carbapenems, but more susceptible to aztreonam, than the parent strain.
December 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Supurna Dhar, Hansi Kumari, Deepak Balasubramanian, Kalai Mathee
The bacterial cell-wall that forms a protective layer over the inner membrane is called the murein sacculus - a tightly cross-linked peptidoglycan mesh unique to bacteria. Cell-wall synthesis and recycling are critical cellular processes essential for cell growth, elongation and division. Both de novo synthesis and recycling involve an array of enzymes across all cellular compartments, namely the outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane and cytoplasm. Due to the exclusivity of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell-wall, these players are the target of choice for many antibacterial agents...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Vânia Araujo, Elsa Neves, Ana Carla Silva, António P L Martins, Luisa Castro Brito
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two types of stress, cold and nutritional, on the viability and the in vitro virulence of the foodborne pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. METHODOLOGY: Ten diverse isolates were kept in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at optimal (37 °C) or at refrigeration temperature (7 °C), for 1 and 7 days. The viability of the cells [log colony-forming units (c.f.u.)/ml] and their in vitro virulence, before and after storage in these conditions, were investigated...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yun-Bo Chen, Si-Lan Gu, Ping Shen, Tao Lv, Yun-Hui Fang, Ling-Ling Tang, Lan-Juan Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform molecular characterization for and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Clostridium difficile collected from hospitals during a 4-year period (2009-2013) in China. METHODS: Strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from patients with diarrhoea, and this was followed by typing using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and testing for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by using the E-test. The mechanisms of resistance to moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were investigated by PCR...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Caroline Bodi Winn, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Michael Y Esmail, Yan Feng, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Lauren Richey, Scott E Perkins, Eric K Nordberg, James G Fox
PURPOSE: Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. METHODOLOGY: We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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