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Journal of Medical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604333/performance-of-the-quantamatrix-multiplexed-assay-platform-system-for-the-differentiation-and-identification-of-mycobacterium-species
#1
Hye-Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Hyeyoung Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a new diagnostic multiplexed bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform; QMAP) system with shape-encoded silica microparticles for the rapid and accurate detection and identification of 23 mycobacterial species/groups, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). METHODOLOGY: A total of 295 mycobacterial clinical isolates cultured from respiratory specimens were used for identification of MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using the QMAP system and the results were confirmed with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the rpoB gene, rpoB sequence analysis and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604331/evidence-of-persistence-of-prevotella-spp-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung
#2
D F Gilpin, K A Nixon, M Bull, S J McGrath, L Sherrard, J M Rolain, E Mahenthiralingam, J S Elborn, M M Tunney
PURPOSE: Prevotella spp. represent a diverse genus of bacteria, frequently identified by both culture and molecular methods in the lungs of patients with chronic respiratory infection. However, their role in the pathogenesis of chronic lung infection is unclear; therefore, a more complete understanding of their molecular epidemiology is required. METHODOLOGY: Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays were developed and used to determine the degree of similarity between sequential isolates (n=42) from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients during periods of clinical stability and exacerbation...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598316/how-do-the-epidemiology-of-paediatric-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-differ
#3
Julia Abernethy, Mike Sharland, Alan P Johnson, Russell Hope
PURPOSE: To examine whether the epidemiology of bacteraemia caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) differed in children aged <1 year and in comparison to older age groups. METHODOLOGY: English mandatory MRSA and MSSA surveillance data from 2006 and 2011, respectively, were collected. Epidemiological information was descriptively analysed in relation to methicillin susceptibility and patient age...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598315/prevalence-of-faecal-carriage-of-colistin-resistant-gram-negative-rods-in-a-university-hospital-in-western-france-2016
#4
Marion Saly, Aurelie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Francis Megraud, Patrice Nordmann, Veronique Dubois
Plasmid-mediated and chromosomally-encoded colistin resistance is increasingly being reported worldwide. We aimed to determine the prevalence of faecal carriage of colistin-resistant Gram-negative rod isolates in a university hospital in western France. From February to May 2016, rectal swabs from 653 patients hospitalized in various clinical settings were recovered and subsequently screened for colistin resistance using the SuperPolymyxin medium. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined according to EUCAST guidelines...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598311/in-vitro-activity-of-sitafloxacin-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-with-gyra-b-mutations-isolated-in-japan
#5
Lina Yi, Akio Aono, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, Yuriko Igarashi, Hiroyuki Yamada, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
PURPOSE: Sitafloxacin (SFX) is a new fluoroquinolone (FQ) that has shown a strong bactericidal effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in vitro. However, data on SFX efficacy against Mtb with gyrA/B mutations and its epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) value remain limited. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the in vitro activity of SFX against gyrA/B-mutant Mtb to that of moxifloxacin (MFX), levofloxacin (LFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX), and determined the ECOFF for SFX. METHODOLOGY: A total of 109 clinical Mtb isolates, including 73 multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis in oleic-albumin-dextrose-catalase (OADC)-supplemented Middlebrook 7H9 medium...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598310/in-vitro-activities-of-vancomycin-and-linezolid-against-biofilm-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-species-isolated-from-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-from-an-egyptian-tertiary-hospital
#6
Asmaa A Hashem, Noha M Abd El Fadeal, Atef S Shehata
PURPOSE: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections. We aimed to survey methicillin resistance, biofilm production and susceptibility to vancomycin, linezolid and other antibiotics for staphylococci isolated from CRBSIs. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-eight isolates [20 S. aureus and 38 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 20 Staphylococcusepidermidis, nine Staphylococcushaemolyticus, three Staphylococcusschleiferi, two Staphylococcuswarneri and four Staphylococcuslugdunensis)] were tested for methicillin resistance by cefoxitin disk diffusion and detection of the mecA gene by PCR; biofilm-forming ability using Congo red agar and tissue culture plate methods; susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin and tetracycline; and MIC determination for vancomycin...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598307/exposure-to-sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-gentamicin-ciprofloxacin-and-cefotaxime-induces-multidrug-resistance-and-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-meticillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Gargi Bhattacharya, Diganta Dey, Satadal Das, Abhijit Banerjee
PURPOSE: The role of antibiotics below their MIC in the development of bacterial drug resistance is becoming increasingly important. We investigated the effect of sub-MICs of bactericidal antibiotics on the susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and evaluated the role of free radicals. METHODOLOGY: A total of 12 S. aureus strains were recovered from pus samples and their antibiograms determined. The test isolates were treated with sub-MIC levels of tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598306/determinants-of-the-regulation-of-helicobacter-pylori-adhesins-include-repeat-sequences-in-both-promoter-and-coding-regions-as-well-as-the-two-component-system-arsrs
#8
Catherine R Acio-Pizzarello, Abigail A Acio, Edward J Choi, Kimberly Bond, June Kim, Anna C Kenan, Jiajia Chen, Mark H Forsyth
PURPOSE: We investigated the transcription of adhesin-encoding genes sabA, hopZ and labA in Helicobacter pylori strain J99. Each possesses a repeating homopolymeric nucleotide tract within their promoter regions, and sabA and hopZ possess repeats within their 5' coding regions. METHODOLOGY: We altered the repeat lengths associated with the adhesin genes and quantified mRNA levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Using adherence to AGS cells and IL-8 assays, we examined the effects of altered transcript levels...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598305/comparison-of-the-in-vitro-activity-of-ampicillin-and-moxifloxacin-against-listeria-monocytogenes-at-achievable-concentrations-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Inmaculada Pupo, Jose A Lepe, Younes Smani, Javier Aznar
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro activity of ampicillin and moxifloxacin against six isolates selected from 154 invasive clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes and evaluate their intra- and extracellular activities with achievable central nervous system concentrations obtained using Monte Carlo simulations with conventional and unconventional dosages. METHODOLOGY: The MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ampicillin and moxifloxacin were determined by using the broth microdilution method...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598304/antibacterial-activity-of-diacetylcurcumin-against-staphylococcus-aureus-results-in-decreased-biofilm-and-cellular-adhesion
#10
Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Carlos Roberto Polaquini, Irlan Almeida Freires, Livia Câmara de Carvalho Galvão, Josy Goldoni Lazarini, Guilherme Silva Torrezan, Luis Octávio Regasini, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus infections have contributed to the global healthcare burden, particularly with regard to hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. METHODOLOGY: This study describes the antibacterial activity of diacetylcurcumin (DAC) against meticillin-susceptible S. aureus/MRSA biofilm formation, survival, metabolic activity and structure; its ability to prevent bacterial adhesion to human cells; and toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598302/multi-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-of-bordetella-pertussis-isolates-circulating-in-poland-in-the-period-1959-2013
#11
Ewa Mosiej, Katarzyna Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Maciej Polak, Marta Prygiel, Anna Lutyńska
PURPOSE: Despite the long history of pertussis vaccination and high vaccination coverage in Poland and many other developed countries, pertussis incidence rates have increased substantially, making whooping cough one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases. Among the factors potentially involved in pertussis resurgence, the adaptation of the Bordetella pertussis population to country-specific vaccine-induced immunity through selection of non-vaccine-type strains still needs detailed studies...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590243/detection-of-actinomyces-spp-in-cervical-exudates-from-women-with-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-or-cervical-cancer
#12
Alejandra García-García, Jaime Coronel-Martínez, David Cantú-de Leon, María Del Socorro Romero-Figueroa, Yolanda Elizabeth Caballero-Pantoja, Gauddy Lizeth Manzanares-Leal, Miguel Rodriguez-Morales, Horacio Sandoval-Trujillo, Ninfa Ramírez-Durán
PURPOSE: Under certain circumstances, Actinomyces behaves as an opportunistic microorganism and can cause actinomycosis, a chronic and inflammatory granulomatous infection. The purpose of this project was to detect the presence of Actinomyces in cervical exudates from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and women with cervical cancer. METHODOLOGY: Cervical samples from 92 women were divided into three groups: CIN, cervical cancer and healthy women...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590238/what-were-the-risk-factors-and-trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-for-enteric-fever-in-london-2005-2012
#13
Jayshree Dave, Fiona Warburton, Joanne Freedman, Elizabeth de Pinna, Kathie Grant, Armine Sefton, Emma Crawley-Boevey, Gauri Godbole, Richard Holliman, Sooria Balasegaram
PURPOSE: A study was undertaken to determine the risk factors and trends in antimicrobial resistance for enteric fever. METHODOLOGY: Demographic, antimicrobial susceptibility, typing and epidemiological data were examined for 2005-2012 in patients with enteric fever in London. Single and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: 453 cases with Salmonella enterica subsp...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590237/evaluation-of-self-collected-rectal-swabs-for-the-detection-of-bacteria-responsible-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-1-infected-patients
#14
Sophie Edouard, Catherine Tamalet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Philippe Colson, Amélie Ménard, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Christelle Tomei, Andreas Stein, Didier Raoult
PURPOSE: The standard approach to screening sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has often been restricted to urogenital specimens. Most current guidelines, however, also recommend testing extra-genital sites, including rectal locations, because asymptomatic rectal carriage of pathogens has often been reported. The aim of our study was to evaluate self-collected rectal swabs to screen bacterial STIs in HIV-infected patients in Marseille, France. METHODOLOGY: Between January 2014 and December 2015, 118 HIV-infected patients (93 males and 25 females) agreed to self-sample anal swabs for detection of bacterial STI...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590235/chlorhexidine-whole-body-washing-of-patients-reduces-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-has-a-direct-effect-on-the-distribution-of-the-st5-mrsa-ii-new-york-japan-clone
#15
Maria Elena Velázquez-Meza, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Vanessa Valero-Moreno, Elvira Garza-González
PURPOSE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizes the skin of hospitalized patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To prevent colonization and infection by S. aureus, better disinfection practices are required. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine whole-body washing on hospital-acquired S. aureus infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a tertiary hospital in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted over 18 months to evaluate the effect of 2 % chlorhexidine gluconate (CXG) whole-body washing of ICU adult patients on chlorhexidine and antibiotic resistance, biofilm production and clonal distribution of S...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590240/epidemiology-of-culture-confirmed-infections-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-2012-2015-and-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-children-and-households-in-taiwan-2014-2015
#16
Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Lin-Hui Su, Hsin-Hang Chen, Hsin-Ju Chang, Tian-Chi Tsai, Po-Yen Chen, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
PURPOSE: An observational study was performed to investigate the carriage rate and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) era in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY: From March 2014 to March 2015 a total of 500 healthy children and their households (631 adults) were enrolled from two large medical centres for nasopharyngeal carriage survey. Clinical isolates were prospectively collected from June 2012 to May 2015 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425876/characterization-of-the-translation-elongation-factor-1-%C3%AE-gene-in-a-wide-range-of-pathogenic-aspergillus-species
#17
Sadegh Nouripour-Sisakht, Bahram Ahmadi, Koichi Makimura, Sybren de Hoog, Yoshiko Umeda, Mohamed Mahdi Alshahni, Hossein Mirhendi
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the resolving power of the translation elongation factor (TEF)-1α gene for phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species. METHODOLOGY: Sequences of 526 bp representing the coding region of the TEF-1α gene were used for the assessment of levels of intra- and inter-specific nucleotide polymorphism in 33 species of Aspergillus, including 57 reference, clinical and environmental strains. RESULTS: Analysis of TEF-1α sequences indicated a mean similarity of 92...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621642/spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-between-2004-and-2015-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-hungary
#18
András Magyar, Béla Köves, Károly Nagy, András Dobák, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Péter Bálint, Florian Wagenlehner, Péter Tenke
PURPOSE: Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621641/colistin-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-that-is-not-linked-to-arnb
#19
Eun Seon Chung, Ji-Young Lee, Ji-Young Rhee, Kwan Soo Ko
PURPOSE: It is known that the arnB (or pmrH) gene encoding uridine 5'-(beta-1-threo-pentapyranosyl-4-ulose diphosphate) aminotransferase plays a critical role in colistin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through the addition of 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N) to lipid A. In this study, we attempted to obtain a colistin-resistant mutant from an arnB-deleted mutant through exposure to colistin. METHODOLOGY: We constructed an arnB deletion mutant (P5ΔarnB :: nptIII) from a colistin-susceptible strain (P5) by allelic replacement mutagenesis, and colistin-resistant mutants were selected in vitro using P5 and P5ΔarnB :: nptIII...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604330/infection-and-tissue-repair-of-experimental-cutaneous-candidiasis-in-diabetic-mice
#20
Andréia Carla Eugenio Pupim, Tacito Graminha Campois, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidizinski, Ionice Felipe
PURPOSE: Diabetic patients seem to be predisposed to cutaneous candidiasis. In this study, we evaluated the interference of diabetic conditions in alloxan-induced diabetic mice in relation to the development of C. albicans infection, density of M1 and M2 macrophages, distribution of collagen type I and III and anti-inflamamatory cytokines involved in tissue repair. METHODOLOGY: The mice were treated with intravenous alloxan, and all animals with blood glucose levels >250  mg dl-1 were inoculate with C...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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