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Journal of Medical Microbiology

Helen Campbell, Saurabh Gupta, Gayle P Dolan, Smita J Kapadia, Awnish Kumar Singh, Nick Andrews, Gayatri Amirthalingam
Maternal pertussis vaccination has been introduced in several countries to protect infants from birth until routine infant vaccination takes place. This review assesses existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of immunization in pregnancy. The search was finalized in April 2017 and was based on searches using several databases. The selection criteria included any experimental or observational study reporting on the immunogenicity, effectiveness or safety of vaccination with a pertussis-containing vaccine in pregnant women and their infants...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Victoria Stadler Tasca Ribeiro, Felipe Francisco Tuon, Letícia Kraft, Paula Hansen Suss, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, João Gabriel Roderjan, Diego Armando Brito, Fabiana Alexandrino, Juliane Soldi Malgarin, Luis Gustavo Morello, Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa, Marcelo Pillonetto
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using 16S rDNA is an alternative to conventional culture-based tests. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional culture method with qPCR using 16S rDNA in a model of cardiac tissue contamination. Samples of cardiac tissue for artificial contamination with Escherichia coli and control samples were submitted for DNA extraction, which was conducted by selective and alkaline lysis and purification steps. A standard curve for 16S rDNA was constructed to determine the efficiency and analytical sensitivity of the assay in concentrations from 106 to 102  c...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Thomas Rosteius, Oliver Jansen, Tobias Fehmer, Hinnerk Baecker, Mustafa Citak, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Jan Geßmann
PURPOSE: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication that leads to enormous economic and health care complaints from affected patients. The aim of this study is to identify the causative pathogens responsible for PJI, evaluate temporal trends concerning the pathogen pattern and identify potential risk factors for PJI. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study analysing a total of 937 patients suffering PJI of the hip or knee joint between 2003 and 2011...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yolanda I I Ho, Ann H Wong, Raymond W M Lai
This study compared the performance of the commercially available Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV assay to an in-house FluAB/RSV triplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of influenza A/B viruses and respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) from both nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and nasopharyngeal flocked swab (NPS). A total of 20 external quality assurance (EQA) samples and 172 clinical respiratory samples were tested prospectively using both the Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV assay and the in-house FluAB/RSV triplex assay. For the EQA samples, concordance rate was 100 % when tested with both assays...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Neda Shirmohammadlou, Habib Zeighami, Fakhri Haghi, Mehdi Kashefieh
PURPOSE: Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have emerged as a serious problem in healthcare settings worldwide. METHODOLOGY: A total of 100 A. baumannii clinical isolates from immunocompromised patients hospitalized in ICUs in Iran were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of carbapenemase and antiseptic resistance genes. RESULTS: All isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, with the most frequent resistance found against ciprofloxacin and imipenem (100 %) and piperacillin (99 %)...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Anna Rita Centonze, Anna Bertoncelli, Chiara Savio, Pierantonio Orza, Branka Bedenić, Annarita Mazzariol
Clinical microbiology laboratories in hospital settings need to be able to identify patients who carry carbapenemase-producing bacterial strains quickly in order to contain their spread and initiate proper pharmacological therapy. The aim of this study was to confirm the correlation between KPC production and a characteristic mass spectrometry (MS) peak (11 109 Da±8) to validate the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS as a rapid screening tool. With this aim, 176 selected clinical samples that were KPC-producing and 260 control samples that were carbapenem-susceptible or carbapenem-resistant through other resistance mechanisms, or were producing hydrolytic enzymes other than KPC, were analysed...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Lea Vacca Michel, Ravinder Kaur, Mark Zavorin, Karin Pryharski, M Nadeem Khan, Ciara LaClair, Meghan O'Neil, Qingfu Xu, Michael E Pichichero
PURPOSE: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a commensal in the human nasopharynx and the cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute otitis media (AOM). AOM is the most common ailment for which antibiotics are prescribed in the United States. With the emergence of new strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, finding an effective and broad coverage vaccine to protect against AOM-causing pathogens has become a priority...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Anke Herrmann, Lisa Sandmann, Ortwin Adams, Dominik Herrmann, Miriam Dirks, Marek Widera, Sandra Westhaus, Rolf Kaiser, Veronica di Cristanziano, Michael P Manns, Johannes Korth, Nico Richter, Olympia Anastasiou, Jörg Timm, Thomas von Hahn, Sandra Ciesek
PURPOSE: Renal impairment is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). While BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been linked to renal failure in kidney transplant recipients, Torque teno virus (TTV) is a surrogate marker for immunosuppression that does not have a clear association with any human disease. The impact of BKV and TTV on renal impairment after LT is unknown. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, urine and serum samples from 136 liver transplant recipients were screened for BKV and TTV by quantitative PCR...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ian Gassiep, Chaw Aye, Mark Armstrong, Theophilus I Emeto, Christopher S Heather, Robert E Norton
The aim of this paper was to determine the correlation between serum cryptococcal antigen and a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in the immunocompetent cohort. A retrospective multicentre analysis of immunocompetent patients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal meningitis between January 2000 and December 2017 was performed. Sixty-seven of the 143 cases of cryptococcosis occurred in immunocompetent patients. The serum cryptococcal antigen titre was significantly higher in the meningitis group [1 : 256 (IQR: 64-1024)] compared with that for non-meningitis patients [1 : 64 (IQR: 8-256)], P=0...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Caixia Pan, Jing Zhou, Jiangfeng Lyu, Xuyi Ren
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA is a more specific marker for cervical lesion screening than HPV DNA. Here, we aimed to develop a new one-step multiplex reverse transcript real-time PCR (MRT-PCR) to detect E6/E7 mRNA from 14 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) genotypes. METHODOLOGY: The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the MRT-PCR system were validated. Its clinical performance was evaluated by comparing the results with bDNA signal amplification assay and histopathological results...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Le Thi Quynh Nhi, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Pham Duc Trung, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Pham Thanh Duy, Chung The Hao, Nguyen Thi Thanh Nhan, Lu Lan Vi, Hoang Thi Diem Tuyet, Tran Thi Thuy Tien, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Phung Khanh Lam, Guy Thwaites, Stephen Baker
PURPOSE: Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a well-established global health issue. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with the carriage of ciprofloxacin- and ceftriaxone-resistant Escherichia coli and associated resistance genes in a cohort of 498 healthy children residing in urban Vietnam. METHODOLOGY: We cultured rectal swabs onto MacConkey agar supplemented with resistant concentrations of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Thorbjorg Einarsdottir, Eggert Gunnarsson, Sigridur Hjartardottir
PURPOSE: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is a pathogen that causes atypical pneumoniae in sheep and goats. While infection of lambs can induce strong immune responses, typically measured as serum antibodies, experimental vaccines appear to induce lower antibody titres. The purpose of this study was to better understand the bacterium and its interaction with the host, in order to improve the vaccination strategy. METHODOLOGY: We designed primers to compare seven M. ovipneumoniae gene sequences, in addition to the 16S sequence typically used, to estimate the variability between isolates...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yue Wang, Ye Zhang, Qi Zhang, Huan Chen, Ye Feng
PURPOSE: The aims of this work were: (i) to profile and compare pelvic and cervical microbiota from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); (ii) to test the ascending infection hypothesis that the microbes in the vagina or cervix spread to the upper genital tract and cause PID. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-eight PID patients and 19 control patients were enrolled in this study and received salpingectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy. Both pelvic and cervical samples were collected during surgery, which were subject to culture diagnosis and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based 16S rRNA profiling...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Lindsay A Hamilton, Joseph O Falkinham
PURPOSE: To measure the aerosolization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis and Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies abscessus from ultrasonic humidifiers. METHODOLOGY: An ultrasonic humidifier was filled with sterile tap water and inoculated with water-acclimated cells of either the M. avium or M. abscessus strains to achieve a range of densities similar to those of mycobacteria found in drinking waters. During operation of the humidifier, aerosols were collected using an Andersen 6-Stage Cascade Sampler...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Rahul Mittal, James M Parrish, Manasi Soni, Jeenu Mittal, Kalai Mathee
Otitis media (OM) is a common disease affecting humans, especially paediatric populations. OM refers to inflammation of the middle ear and can be broadly classified into two types, acute and chronic. Bacterial infection is one of the most common causes of OM. Despite the introduction of vaccines, the incidence of OM remains significantly high worldwide. In this mini-review article, we discuss the recent treatment modalities for OM, such as suspension gel, transcutaneous immunization, and intranasal and transtympanic drug delivery, including therapies that are currently undergoing clinical trials...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Lakmini Inoka Wijesooriya, Tuckweng Kok, Jennifer Perera, Y Tilakarathne, N P Sunil-Chandra
PURPOSE: Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is the ninth leading cause of mortality in Sri Lanka. Atypical pathogens cause about one-fifth of community-acquired pneumonia, while Mycoplasma pneumoniae accounts for about 50 %. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections in Sri Lanka while attempting to understand the relationships between the serology and PCR. METHODOLOGY: Paired sera from 418 adult patients (pneumonia, n=97; bronchitis, n=183; pharyngitis, n=138) and 87 healthy controls were studied...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mariel Domínguez-Zepahua, Socorro Hernández-Arteaga, Rubén López-Revilla
PURPOSE: To develop a fast and inexpensive genotyping assay to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) species most prevalent in human tuberculosis (TB), based on the thermal denaturation profiles of PCR products from mycobacterial 16S rDNA and three MTC genomic regions of difference (RD). METHODOLOGY: Genotypes were determined by the presence and thermal denaturation profiles of the amplicons generated in the 'preliminary' PCR mixture (16S rDNA), followed by those of the simultaneous D1 (RD9+, RD1-) and D2 (RD4+, RD4-) PCR mixtures...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Rosa Bellmann-Weiler, Viola Maass, Roland Arnitz, Günter Weiss, Matthias Maass, Markus Nagl
PURPOSE: The antimicrobial activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an endogenous long-lived oxidant applied topically, was tested against Chlamydiae in vitro. METHODOLOGY: Elementary bodies of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain CV-6 and Chlamydia trachomatis serovars A and D were incubated in 0.01, 0.1 and 1 % (w/v) NCT solution at pH 7.1 and 37 °C. After different incubation times, aliquots were removed and grown in cell culture. The number of inclusion forming units was quantified by immunofluorescence and real-time qPCR...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ciamak Ghazaei, Marie Line El Helou
Nearly all bacterial species express two or more chaperonin genes. Recent data indicate that type I chaperonins may be key players in bacterial infections. This is partly due to the well-known contribution of chaperonins in cellular proteostasis, the latter being compromised during bacterial host infection. In addition to their protein-folding activity, it has been revealed that certain chaperonins also exhibit moonlighting functions that can contribute in different ways to bacterial pathogenicity. Examples range from inducing adhesion molecules in Chlamydophila pneumoniae to supporting intracellular survival in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania donovani, to inducing cytokines in Helicobacter pylori to promoting antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli, amongst others...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Dan Takeuchi, Yukihiro Akeda, Hisao Yoshida, Hideharu Hagiya, Norihisa Yamamoto, Isao Nishi, Nori Yoshioka, Yo Sugawara, Noriko Sakamoto, Rathina Kumar Shanmugakani, Matsuo Deguchi, Kazunori Tomono, Shigeyuki Hamada
An NDM-5-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 strain was isolated from a Japanese patient who had not travelled abroad in at least 5 years. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a genomic rearrangement in an FII plasmid harbouring blaNDM-5 due to the replicative transposition of IS26. A hypothetical structure was proposed for its ancestral plasmid, and comparative genomic analysis of the plasmid suggested the dissemination of structurally similar plasmids harbouring blaNDM-5 in Asian and Middle Eastern countries...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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