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Journal of Medical Microbiology

Nopphasul Sirijant, Rasana W Sermswan, Surasakdi Wongratanacheewin
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, has been found to increase its resistance to antibiotics when growing as a biofilm. The resistances are related to several mechanisms. One of the possible mechanisms is the efflux pump. Using bioinformatics analysis, it was found that BPSL1661, BPSL1664 and BPSL1665 were orthologous genes of the efflux transporter encoding genes for biofilm related antibiotic resistance PA1874-PA1877 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1. Expressions of selected encoding genes for the efflux transporter system during biofilm formation were investigated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jingna An, Ling Guo, Lin Zhou, Yanning Ma, Yanping Luo, Chuanmin Tao, Jiyong Yang
NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae (NPE) shows prevalence in China. Little is known about the mechanisms related to the spread of NPE. Recently, a total of 51 non-duplicated NPE isolates were collected from a tertiary-care hospital in China and analyzed for genetic relatedness by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), for antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test, and for sequence type (ST) by multilocus sequence typing. S1-PFGE and Southern blot analysis or PCR amplification were used for plasmid profiling. Between 2014 and 2015, 22 Escherichia coli, 10 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 E...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Reza Ghotaslou, Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Alka Hasani, Mohammad Asgharzadeh
Very little is known about the occurrence and various types of ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase in Iran. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs, AmpCs, and carbapenemases genes among Enterobacteriaceae in Azerbaijan, and to characterize the genetic composition of the detected genes. A total of 307 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, recovered from five medical centers, were screened for beta-lactamase activities by the disk diffusion method and phenotypic confirmatory tests. The 162 selected strains (third-generation cephalosporins, cefoxitin or carbapenems-resistant strains with positive or negative phenotypic confirmatory tests) were selected for multiplex PCR screening for β-lactamase genes and detected genes were confirmed by sequencing...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ghada Garaween, Ali Somily, Adeola Raji, Sascha Braun, Wael Al-Kattan, Atef Shibl, Ralf Ehricht, Abiola Senok
The Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme is the internationally accepted gold standard for Salmonella nomenclature. In recent years, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) harboring extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) have emerged. There is no report from Saudi Arabia characterizing NTS isolates in accordance with the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme or describing carriage of ESBL genes. This study describes the molecular characterization of NTS in Saudi Arabia by serogenotyping and identification of ESBL genes. Forty-eight multidrug resistant NTS identified at a tertiary care facility in Saudi Arabia from 2007-2014 were studied...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Gili Kaufman, Drago Skrtic
Cariopathogen Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) exists in infected dental pulp of deciduous teeth and is frequently linked with heart diseases. Organotypic (3D) dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) cultures/microtissues, developed to mimic the physiological conditions in vivo, were utilized to assess the bacterial impact on their (i) 3D structural configuration, and (ii) recovery mechanisms. The cultures, developed in extracellular matrix (ECM) bio-scaffold (MatrigelTM), interacted with Wild type and GFP-tagged bacterial biofilms by permitting their infiltration through the ECM...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Tinashe Kenny Nyazika, Ferry Hagen, Tendai Machiridza, Melody Kutepa, Faith Masanganise, Marijke Hendrickx, Teun Boekhout, Tricia Magombei-Majinjiwa, Nonthokozo Siziba, Nyasha Chin'ombe, Kudzanai Mateveke, Jacques Meis, Valerie Jean Robertson
HIV and cryptococcal meningitis coinfection are a major public health problem in most developing countries. Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto is responsible for the majority of HIV-associated cryptococcosis cases in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the available information, little is known about cryptococcal population diversity and its association with clinical outcomes in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. In a prospective cohort we investigated the prevalence and clinical outcome of C...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Helen Auburn, Mark Zuckerman, Melvyn Smith
AbstractIn order to develop novel host/pathogen real- time PCR assays for routine diagnostic use, early gene expression patterns from both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Raji cells were examined after inducing the lytic life cycle using 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol ester (TPA) and sodium butyrate. Real-time PCR identified several highly induced (>90-fold) EBV lytic genes over a 48 hr time-course during the lytic induction phase. Latent genes were induced at low levels during this phase. The cellular response to lytic viral replication is poorly understood...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Neeraj Kumar Singh, Dale Kunde, Stephen Tristram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Takashi Adachi, Kazuya Ichikawa, Takayuki Inagaki, Makoto Moriyama, Taku Nakagawa, Kenji Ogawa, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Tetsuya Yagi
Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) causes disease in both humans and swine; however, the genetic variations in MAH isolates are unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the genetic variations in MAH isolates from humans and swine in Japan. We analyzed the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci, prevalence of ISMav6 and clarithromycin (CLA) resistance for MAH isolates from patients with pulmonary MAC (pMAC) disease (n = 69), HIV-seropositive and blood culture-positive (HIV-MAC) patients (n = 28), and swine (n = 23)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jill E Clarridge, Amanda Harrington
Clostridium difficile (CD) disease remains a costly and important hospital associated infection. Although nontoxigenic CD is detected by some CD testing methods, can interfere with some detection algorithms and has been suggested as a treatment for CD disease, little is known about the relative occurrence of toxigenic and nontoxigenic CD in a single institution. We used both chromogenic and selective agar medium to recover Clostridium difficile (CD) isolates and a molecular method to detect the toxin B gene from over 2400 fresh unformed stool specimens with isolates further tested for the toxin B gene...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sha Liu, Xue-Xian Zhang
Applying self-sanitising copper surfaces to commonly touched places within hospital facilities is an emerging strategy to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). This is owing to the fact that bacterial pathogens are rapidly killed on copper, a process termed contact killing. However, the mechanisms of contact killing are not fully understood, and the potential of bacterial pathogens to develop resistance has rarely been explored. Here, we hypothesize that bacteria are predominantly killed by a burst release of toxic copper ions, resulting from chemical reactions between bacterial cell surface components and metallic copper...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Shuguang Li, Yu Guo, Chunjiang Zhao, Hongbin Chen, Bijie Hu, Yunzhuo Chu, Zhijie Zhang, Yunjian Hu, Zhiyong Liu, Yan Du, Qiaodi Gui, Ping Ji, Ji Zeng, Bin Cao, Quan Fu, Rong Zhang, Zhongxin Wang, Chao Zhuo, Xianju Feng, Wei Jia, Yan Jin, Xuesong Xu, Kang Liao, Yuxing Ni, Yunsong Yu, Xiuli Xu, Zhidong Hu, Jin-E Lei, Qing Yang, Hui Wang
To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of tedizolid, linezolid and other comparators against clinically significant Gram-positive cocci isolates from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and bloodstream infection (BSI), 2140 non-duplicate isolates (23.7% isolated from HAP, 46.8% from SSTI and 29.5% from BSI) were consecutively collected in 26 hospitals in 17 cities across China during 2014. These pathogens included 632 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 867 methicillin-sensitive S...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jailton Azevedo, Eder Silva Dos Anjos, Soraia Machado Cordeiro, Milena Soares Dos Santos, Eliane Cunegundes Escobar, Paulo Rocha Lobo, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Joice Neves Reis, Leila Carvalho Campos
In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced to the Brazilian childhood vaccination program. Concerns have been raised that non-vaccine serotypes could increase in prevalence and reduce the benefits of vaccination; therefore, we examined the non-PCV10 isolates recovered from meningitis during pre (January, 2008-May, 2010) and post-vaccine (June, 2010-December, 2012) periods. Surveillance for pneumococcal meningitis was established at the Reference Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Salvador, Brazil...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Bernardo Augusto França Dias de Oliveira, Natália Carrillo Gaeta, Bruno Leonardo Mendonça Ribeiro, Mario Augusto Reyes Alemán, Lucas Miranda Marques, Jorge Timenetsky, Piscilla Anne Melville, Julia Avansi Marques, Valdecir Marvulle, Lilian Gregory
This study aimed the determination of the occurrence of M. haemolytica, P. multocida and Mycoplasma spp., in relation to clinical signs of respiratory disease. Tracheobronchial lavage samples were collected from 96 (healthy and unhealthy) cattle in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mycoplasma spp. (12.5%) and P. multocida (15.50%) were the most prevalent species. Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia were also isolated. Mollicutes (70...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Goutam Chowdhury, Rupak K Bhadra, Satyabrata Bag, Gururaja P Pazhani, Bhabatosh Das, Pallabi Basu, K Nagamani, Ranjan K Nandy, Asish K Mukhopadyay, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy
Vibrio cholerae causes cholera outbreaks in endemic regions where the water quality and sanitation facilities remain poor. Apart from biotype and serotype changes, V. cholerae undergoes phase variation, which results in the generation of two morphologically different variants termed smooth and rugose. In this study, twelve rugose (R-VC) and six smooth (S-VC) V. cholerae O1 Ogawa isolates were identified in a cholera outbreak that occurred in Hyderabad, India. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that all the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Prodipta Sarkar, Saurabh Acharyya, Anirban Banerjee, Amarendra Patra, Karthika Thankamani, Hemanta Koley, Prasanta K Bag
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading etiologic agent of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases worldwide. The public health concern regarding staphylococcal infections is inflated by the increasing occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains e.g. multi-drug and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MDR MRSA). This study was designed to evaluate the intracellular killing, membrane-damaging and biofilm-inhibitory activities of nimbolide isolated from Azadirachta indica against MDR MRSA. In vitro antibacterial activity of nimbolide was determined by performing MIC, MBC and time-kill kinetic studies...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ana Belen García, Francisco Javier Candel, Laura López, Flavia Chiarella, Jose Manuel Viñuela-Prieto
We studied in vitro ceftaroline combinations against 61 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, 18 of them also resistant to linezolid, using overlapping E-test method. Daptomycin-Ceftaroline combination obtained lower Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) values, in comparison with those including vancomycin or linezolid against MRSA (p<0.05). All methicillin and linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MLRSA) strains were resistant to ceftaroline, nevertheless, combinations with vancomycin or daptomycin showed higher synergy or addtion rates than those with linezolid...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ewa Grela, Anna Dzieak, Katarzyna Szydowska, Artur Mucha, Pawe Kafarski, Agnieszka Monika Grabowiecka
The study evaluated the in vitro impact of the series of aminophosphinic urease inhibitors upon Proteus mirabilis. The group of compounds comprised structurally diverse analogs of diamidophosphate built upon N-C-P scaffold. The influence of urease inhibition upon urea-splitting activity was assessed by the whole-cell pH-static kinetic measurements. The potential to prevent struvite formation was determined by monitoring changes in pH and ionic composition of artificial urine medium during P. mirabilis growth...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Raimunda S N Brilhante, José E Maia-Júnior, Jonathas S Oliveira, Glaucia M M Guedes, Aline L Silva, Francisco B P Moura, Jamille A Sales, Debora S C M Castelo-Branco, Jose J C Sidrim, Rossana A Cordeiro, Waldemiro A Pereira-Neto, Marcos F G Rocha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Nuananong Sinwat, Sunpetch Angkittitrakul, Kari F Coulson, Flor Marie Immanuelle R Pilapil, Dethaloun Meunsene, Rungtip Chuanchuen
This study aimed to examine occurrence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella from pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces. The samples were collected from pigs, carcasses and workers in slaughterhouses; retail pork and butchers in fresh markets and patients in hospitals in Thailand (n=729) and Laos (n=458). A total of 295 of 729 samples (34.6%) collected in Thailand and 253 of 458 (47.4%) samples collected in Laos were positive for Salmonella. Five-hundred and forty eight Salmonella isolates from Thailand (n=295) and Laos (n=253) were further analyzed...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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