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Journal of Medical Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923133/genetic-evidence-for-a-novel-variant-of-the-pilus-island-1-backbone-protein-in-group-b-streptococcus
#1
Sarah Teatero, Alefiya Neemuchwala, Kunlin Yang, Janice Gomes, Taryn B T Athey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Allison McGeer, Nahuel Fittipaldi
PURPOSE: Pili contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of infection of group B Streptococcus (GBS) by facilitating adhesion and invasion of host cells. GBS pilin subunits (the backbone pilin protein, BP, and the ancillary pilin proteins, AP) as well as the specific enzymes required for pilus assembly are encoded by genes located in two separate genomic regions, known as pilus island 1 (PI-1) and PI-2. Our aim was to characterize the pilus profile of a collection of GBS isolates from metropolitan Toronto, Canada...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923132/characterization-of-environmental-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-using-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme
#2
Júlia Radó, Edit Kaszab, Tünde Petrovics, Judit Pászti, Balázs Kriszt, Sándor Szoboszlay
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to examine environmental (hydrocarbon degrading) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and to determine their relevant features, such as serotype, virulence genes, biofilm forming ability and hydrocarbon degrading capacity. METHODOLOGY: The diversity of environmental isolates was assessed with an MLST scheme. Investigation of virulence determinants included serotyping, hemolytic activity test and the detection of virulence genes exoS, exoY, exoT, exoU, exoA...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923131/innate-and-adaptive-immune-response-to-chronic-pulmonary-infection-of-hyphae-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-new-murine-model
#3
Fengyuan Wang, Caiyun Zhang, Yuan Jiang, Caixia Kou, Qingtao Kong, Nanbiao Long, Ling Lu, Hong Sang
PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has seldom been studied due partly to a lack of animal models. Since hypha is the main morphology colonizing the airway in CPA, it's critical to study the immune reaction to chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus, which also has seldom been studied in vivo before. METHODOLOGY: We established a novel murine model of chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae by challenging immunocompetent mice with tightly-structured hyphae balls intratracheally, and described the ensuing immunoreaction to hyphae and conidia, and the pathogenesis of CPA...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920854/in-vitro-activity-of-tedizolid-and-comparator-agents-against-gram-positive-pathogens-responsible-for-bone-and-joint-infections
#4
Pauline Ract, Caroline Piau-Couapel, Fabrice Compain, Michel Auzou, Jocelyn Michon, Vincent Cattoir
Tedizolid, a second-generation oxazolidinone that displays a potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens, could be an interesting option for the treatment of bone and joint infections (BJIs). The aim of the study was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tedizolid against a collection of 359 clinical isolates involved in clinically-documented BJIs and to compare them to those of comparator agents used in Gram-positive infections. Of the 104 Staphylococcus aureus and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates, 99 and 92 % were categorized as susceptible to tedizolid, respectively (MIC25=0...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920846/detection-of-the-incx3-plasmid-carrying-blakpc-3-in-a-serratia-marcescens-strain-isolated-from-a-kidney-liver-transplanted-patient
#5
Floriana Gona, Carla Caio, Gioacchino Iannolo, Francesco Monaco, Giuseppina Di Mento, Nicola Cuscino, Ignazio Fontana, Giovanna Panarello, Gaetano Maugeri, Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Stefania Stefani, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Dissemination of resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae through plasmids is an increasingly important concern in health care worldwide. Here we report the first description of an IncX3 plasmid carrying the blaKPC-3 gene in a strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a kidney-liver transplanted patient at the transplantation centre ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione, Palermo, Italy). To localize the transposable element containing the resistance-associated gene Next-Generation Sequencing of the bacterial DNA was performed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920845/modified-use-of-real-time-pcr-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnancy
#6
Ali A Rabaan, Justin V Saunar, Ali M Bazzi, Joan L Soriano
The CDC recommends antenatal screening of vaginal/rectal samples for Streptococcus agalactiae at 35-37 weeks' gestation, with intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis for positive cases. We tested a modified use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS real-time PCR kit on enrichment cultures from 554 vaginal/rectal swabs compared to the current subculturing gold standard method. Swabs were inoculated on polymyxin nalidixic acid agar plates, and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth cultures were examined daily for growth. Todd-Hewitt broth culture was also used for Xpert GBS...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905701/outcomes-of-patients-with-severe-influenza-infection-admitted-to-intensive-care-units-a-retrospective-study-in-a-medical-centre
#7
Chien-Ming Chao, Chih-Cheng Lai, Khee-Siang Chan, Kuo-Chen Cheng, Willy Chou, Kuo-Shu Yuan, Chin-Ming Chen
PURPOSE: This study assessed clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of critically ill patients with severe influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Taiwan's recent outbreak. METHODOLOGY: Patients admitted to ICU for severe influenza between January 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were identified and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The primary endpoints were outcomes and predictors of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: There were 125 patients with an average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of 20...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901909/usefulness-of-%C3%A3-la-carte-antigens-for-bird-fancier-s-lung-serodiagnosis-total-dropping-extract-and-or-dropping-s-microflora-antigens
#8
Adeline Rouzet, Gabriel Reboux, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Paul De Vuyst, Audrey Laboissière, Benoit Valot, Laurence Millon, Sandrine Roussel
Bird fancier's lung (BFL) is a pulmonary disease caused by inhalation of avian proteins. The involvement of the microorganisms of droppings has been assumed in the past and this idea still persists today. Our study aimed to compare by immunoprecipitation assay the detection of antibodies against both droppings and microorganisms in the sera of patients (n=15) and asymptomatic exposed controls (n=18). We found that 14/15 BFL patients had negative serological results for isolated microorganisms of the droppings, only one positive against Enterobacter sakasakii...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901908/performance-of-point-of-care-xpert-hiv-1-plasma-viral-load-assay-at-a-tertiary-hiv-care-centre-in-southern-india
#9
Chinnambedu Ravichandran Swathirajan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Shanmugam Saravanan, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Sustainable suppression of HIV replication forms the basis of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medication. Thus, reliable quantification of HIV viral load has become an essential factor to monitor the effectiveness of the ART. Longer turnaround-time (TAT), batch testing and technical skills are major drawbacks of standard real-time PCR assays. METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901907/isolates-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-l-reuteri-display-greater-antiproliferative-and-antipathogenic-activity-than-other-lactobacillus-isolates
#10
Meysam Hasannejad Bibalan, Morteza Eshaghi, Mahdi Rohani, Maryam Esghaei, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad R Pourshafie, Malihe Talebi
PURPOSE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been associated with many beneficial effects in human digestive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate such effect, including attachment, antiproliferation and anti-pathogenic/antibacterial/antimicrobial properties of LAB isolated from healthy humans. METHODOLOGY: Thirteen isolates, obtained from fecal samples of healthy individuals, were identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 and the cell proliferation kit II (XTT) assay were used for examination of the Lactobacillus adherence and antiproliferative activity, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901900/persistence-of-rsv-promotes-proliferation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells-through-nodal-signaling
#11
Zhao Xiang, Zhang Liang, Huang Yanfeng, Kang Leitao
PURPOSE: Nodal may play an important role in the development of cancers. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Nodal induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the occurrence and development of lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms. METHODOLOGY: After verification of RSV infection by observation of cytopathic effect and indirect immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, Western blot and methylation assays were used to verify the influence of RSV on Nodal expression...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893370/inhibitory-efficacy-of-geraniol-on-biofilm-formation-and-development-of-adaptive-resistance-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis-rp62a
#12
Arunachalam Kannappan, Murugesan Sivaranjani, Ramanathan Srinivasan, Janarthanam Rathna, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
PURPOSE: The current study has been designed to delineate the efficacy of geraniol (GE) on biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of GE on the development of adaptive resistance. METHODOLOGY: Biofilm biomass quantification assay was performed to evaluate the antibiofilm activity of GE against S. epidermidis. Microscopic observation of biofilms and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), slime and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) production were also studied to support the antibiofilm potential of GE...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893366/fidaxomicin-reduces-early-toxin-a-and-b-production-and-sporulation-in-clostridium-difficilein-vitro
#13
Michael J Aldape, Aaron E Packham, Dustin D Heeney, Savannah N Rice, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893363/high-levels-of-macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-queensland-australia
#14
Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Cheryl Bletchly, Graeme R Nimmo, David M Whiley
The macrolide azithromycin is recommended for treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection; however, M. genitalium strains possessing macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) are increasingly being reported. Here, we used the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit, which provides simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and MRMMs, to assess MRMM carriage among M. genitalium infections in Queensland, Australia. Performance characteristics of the ResistancePlus MG kit for M. genitalium detection were compared to in-house PCR...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893360/borderline-oxacillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-borsa-a-more-common-problem-than-expected
#15
Maria M Hryniewicz, Katarzyna Garbacz
Borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a quite poorly understood and inadequately defined phenotype of methicillin resistance. BORSA strains show low, borderline resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs), with oxacillin MICs typically equal to 1-8 µg ml-1, and in contrast to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), do not have an altered penicillin-binding protein, PBP2a, encoded by the mecA or mecC gene. Their resistance is typically associated with hyperproduction of beta-lactamases or, in some cases, point mutations in PBP genes...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893358/discrepant-susceptibility-to-gentamicin-despite-amikacin-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-by-vitek-2-represents-false-susceptibility-associated-with-the-arma-16s-rrna-methylase-gene
#16
Jae-Hoon Ko, Jin Yang Baek, Kyong Ran Peck, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, So Hyun Kim, Hee Jae Huh, Nam Yong Lee, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song
Because we experienced gentamicin failure in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia that was susceptible to gentamicin despite amikacin resistance, as determined by VITEK 2, we evaluated the true susceptibility and mechanism of resistance. We screened 2818 K. pneumoniae isolates during a 1-year period at a university hospital and reviewed anti-microbial susceptibility reports using the VITEK 2 system. The minimum inhibitory concentration was substantiated by broth microdilution (BMD), and the presence of 16S rRNA methylase genes and aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes was also investigated...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893357/fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-japanese-tertiary-hospital-silent-shifting-to-ctx-m-15-producing-k-pneumoniae
#17
Masashi Higashino, Mika Murata, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Kazuaki Takeda, Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara
PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolone resistance (FQ-r) in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers is an urgent health concern in countries where ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-Kpn) is prevalent. We investigated FQ-r in Japan where ESBL-Kpn is less prevalent. METHODOLOGY: Clinical ESBL-Kpn isolates from 2011 to 2013 were collected in Nagasaki University Hospital. The ESBL genotypes included CTX-M-15, and the mechanisms of FQ-r through plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were examined...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893354/similar-virulence-properties-of-infection-and-colonization-associated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Aditi, Malini Shariff, Sunil K Chhabra, Mujeeb-Ur Rahman
PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the agents that are commonly implicated in nosocomial infections. However, it is also present as a commensal in various body sites of healthy persons, making the diagnosis of infection by culture difficult. A number of virulence factors expressed by the organism have been implicated in its pathogenicity. We undertook this study to identify the host and organism factors associated with infection. METHODOLOGY: Pathogenic, colonizing and environmental isolates were tested for apr, lasB, the T3SS effector exoenzymes (exoS, exoT, exoU and exoY) and toxA genes, biofilm production and antimicrobial susceptibility...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884671/detection-of-fungal-pathogens-by-a-new-broad-range-real-time-pcr-assay-targeting-the-fungal-its2-region
#19
Iris Zeller, Claudia Schabereiter-Gurtner, Verena Mihalits, Brigitte Selitsch, Wolfgang Barousch, Alexander M Hirschl, Athanasios Makristathis, Birgit Willinger
PURPOSE: The rise in the incidence of fungal infections and the expanding spectrum of fungal pathogens make early and broad detection of fungal pathogens essential. In the present study, a panfungal real-time PCR assay for the broad-range detection of fungal DNA (Fungi assay) in a wide variety of clinical specimens was developed. METHODOLOGY: Our in-house, HybProbe real-time PCR assay targets the ITS2 region of fungal DNA. The applicability was evaluated by testing 105 clinical samples from 98 patients with suspected fungal infection...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875910/the-spa-typing-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-by-high-resolution-melting-hrm-analysis
#20
Yasser Fasihi, Saba Fooladi, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Emaneini, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
Molecular typing is an important tool for control and prevention of infection. A suitable molecular typing method for epidemiological investigation must be easy to perform, highly reproducible, inexpensive, rapid and easy to interpret. In this study, two molecular typing methods including the conventional PCR-sequencing method and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis were used for staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing of 30 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered from clinical samples...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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