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Journal of Applied Psychology

Kan Ouyang, Erica Xu, Xu Huang, Wu Liu, Yipeng Tang
Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Aneeta Rattan, Carol S Dweck
Organizations are increasingly concerned with fostering successful diversity. Toward this end, diversity research has focused on trying to reduce prejudice and biased behavior. But what happens when prejudice in the workplace inevitably occurs? Research also needs to focus on whether recovery and repair of social relations after expressions of prejudice are possible. To begin investigating this question, we develop a new framework for understanding reactions to prejudice in the workplace. We hypothesized that when women and minorities choose to confront a prejudiced comment in a workplace interaction (vs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Lindred L Greer, Bart A de Jong, Maartje E Schouten, Jennifer E Dannals
Hierarchy has the potential to both benefit and harm team effectiveness. In this article, we meta-analytically investigate different explanations for why and when hierarchy helps or hurts team effectiveness, drawing on results from 54 prior studies (N = 13,914 teams). Our findings show that, on net, hierarchy negatively impacts team effectiveness (performance: ρ = -.08; viability: ρ = -.11), and that this effect is mediated by increased conflict-enabling states. Additionally, we show that the negative relationship between hierarchy and team performance is exacerbated by aspects of the team structure (i...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Philip L Roth, Huy Le, In-Sue Oh, Chad H Van Iddekinge, Philip Bobko
Meta-analysis has become a well-accepted method for synthesizing empirical research about a given phenomenon. Many meta-analyses focus on synthesizing correlations across primary studies, but some primary studies do not report correlations. Peterson and Brown (2005) suggested that researchers could use standardized regression weights (i.e., beta coefficients) to impute missing correlations. Indeed, their beta estimation procedures (BEPs) have been used in meta-analyses in a wide variety of fields. In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of BEPs in meta-analysis...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Dina V Krasikova, Huy Le, Eric Bachura
To address a long-standing concern regarding a gap between organizational science and practice, scholars called for more intuitive and meaningful ways of communicating research results to users of academic research. In this article, we develop a common language effect size index (CLβ) that can help translate research results to practice. We demonstrate how CLβ can be computed and used to interpret the effects of continuous and categorical predictors in multiple linear regression models. We also elaborate on how the proposed CLβ index is computed and used to interpret interactions and nonlinear effects in regression models...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jonathan E Booth, Tae-Youn Park, Luke Lei Zhu, T Alexandra Beauregard, Fan Gu, Cécile Emery
We investigate forgiveness as a human service employee coping response to client-instigated victimizations and further explore the role of workgroup conflict in (a) facilitating this response, and (b) influencing the relationship between victimization and workplace outcomes. Using the theoretical lens of Conservation of Resources (Hobfoll, 1989), we propose that employees forgive clients-especially in the context of low workgroup conflict. From low to moderate levels of client-instigated victimization, we suggest that victimization and forgiveness are positively related; however, this positive relationship does not prevail when individuals confront egregious levels of victimization (i...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Andrew Brodsky, Teresa M Amabile
Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for time that employees spend idle...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Bonnie Hayden Cheng, Julie M McCarthy
Researchers have uncovered inconsistent relations between anxiety and performance. Although the prominent view is a "dark side," where anxiety has a negative relation with performance, a "bright side" of anxiety has also been suggested. We reconcile past findings by presenting a comprehensive multilevel, multiprocess model of workplace anxiety called the theory of workplace anxiety (TWA). This model highlights the processes and conditions through which workplace anxiety may lead to debilitative and facilitative job performance and includes 19 theoretical propositions...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Laura M Little, Amanda S Hinojosa, Samantha Paustian-Underdahl, Kate P Zipay
Unfortunately, not all organizations are supportive of employees' family lives. Family unsupportive workplaces can be stressful for all employees and particularly for pregnant women, who carry a physical reminder of their family life. In the present study, we draw on conservation of resources (COR) theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 2001) to investigate how women manage family unsupportive organizational perceptions during pregnancy via social identity-based impression management behaviors as well as how these strategies relate to changes in stress and changes in conflict between work and family...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Erich C Dierdorff, Jaclyn M Jensen
Job crafting theory purports that the consequences of revising one's work role can be simultaneously beneficial and detrimental. Previous research, however, has almost exclusively emphasized the beneficial outcomes of job crafting. In the current study, we proposed dysfunctional consequences of crafting for performance-related outcomes in the form of a U-shaped relationship between job crafting and performance effectiveness (managerial ratings of job proficiency and peer ratings of citizenship behavior). We further predicted that elements of the task context (autonomy and ambiguity) and the social context (interdependence and social support) moderate these curvilinear relationships...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Hong Deng, Jacqueline Coyle-Shapiro, Qian Yang
Building on conservation of resources theory, we cast resource depletion as a novel explanatory mechanism to explain why employees' experience of psychological contract violation results in harm to third parties outside the employee-organization exchange dyad. This resource-based perspective extends and complements the dominant social exchange perspective which views employee reactions to psychological contract violation as targeting the source of the violation-the organization. The present article reports on 3 studies...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Mallory A McCord, Dana L Joseph, Lindsay Y Dhanani, Jeremy M Beus
Despite the growing number of meta-analyses published on the subject of workplace mistreatment and the expectation that women and racial minorities are mistreated more frequently than men and Whites, the degree of subgroup differences in perceived workplace mistreatment is unknown. To address this gap in the literature, we meta-analyzed the magnitude of sex and race differences in perceptions of workplace mistreatment (e.g., harassment, discrimination, bullying, incivility). Results indicate that women perceive more sex-based mistreatment (i...
February 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cheating Under Pressure: A Self-Protection Model of Workplace Cheating Behavior" by Marie S. Mitchell, Michael D. Baer, Maureen L. Ambrose, Robert Folger and Noel F. Palmer (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 14, 2017, np). In the article, the fit statistics in Study 3 were reported in error. The fit of the measurement model is: Χ²(362) = 563.66, p = .001; CFI = .94; SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .04. The fit of the SEM model is: Χ²(362) = 563.66, p = .001; CFI = ...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Tessa Haesevoets, David De Cremer, Alain Van Hiel, Frank Van Overwalle
Norm violations are ubiquitous in organizations and often result in tangible harm and a loss of trust. One possible response to enhance trust involves the provision of financial compensation. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes that underlie the effect of such a tangible response to increase trust. We employed techniques in cognitive neuroscience (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to examine these processes. Participants placed in the scanner played the role of recipient in a series of dictator games with different allocators who (unknown to them) were preprogrammed...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Susan Reh, Christian Tröster, Niels Van Quaquebeke
The extant social undermining literature suggests that employees envy and, consequently, undermine coworkers when they feel that these coworkers are better off and thus pose a threat to their own current status. With the present research, we draw on the sociofunctional approach to emotions to propose that an anticipated future status threat can similarly incline employees to feel envy toward, and subsequently undermine, their coworkers. We argue that employees pay special attention to coworkers' past development in relation to their own, because faster-rising coworkers may pose a future status threat even if they are still performing worse in absolute terms in the present...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jingqiu Chen, Peter A Bamberger, Yifan Song, Dana R Vashdi
While the impact of team reflexivity (a.k.a. after-event-reviews, team debriefs) on team performance has been widely examined, we know little about its implications on other team outcomes such as member well-being. Drawing from prior team reflexivity research, we propose that reflexivity-related team processes reduce demands, and enhance control and support. Given the centrality of these factors to work-based strain, we posit that team reflexivity, by affecting these factors, may have beneficial implications on 3 core dimensions of employee burnout, namely exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy (reduced personal accomplishment)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jungmin Jamie Seo, Jennifer D Nahrgang, Min Z Carter, Peter W Hom
Leaders often influence whether an employee stays or quits and yet research in collective turnover, or turnover at the work-unit level, has neglected leadership as a key antecedent. In the current study we examine how the quality of leader-member relationships within a group (i.e., leader-member exchange, LMX) influences building a shared mindset of collective organizational commitment and ultimately influences collective turnover. We build on a key tenet of LMX theory that leaders form differentiated relationships with followers and propose that not all LMX differentiation is the same and therefore, researchers must take into account the configuration, or mix of high and low LMX relationships, within a group...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Sejin Keem, Christina E Shalley, Eugene Kim, Inseong Jeong
Research has been inconsistent in its quest to discover whether dispositional creativity is associated with more or less unethical behavior. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we propose that moral disengagement and moral imagination are 2 parallel mechanisms that encourage or inhibit unethical behavior, and that which of these mediation processes occur depends on moral identity. Study 1, a 3-wave study of a food service organization, shows that employees high on both dispositional creativity and moral identity are less likely to be morally disengaged and behave less unethically...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Allison S Gabriel, Marcus M Butts, Zhenyu Yuan, Rebecca L Rosen, Michael T Sliter
Research conducted on workplace incivility-a low intensity form of deviant behavior-has generally shown that women report higher levels of incivility at work. However, to date, it is unclear as to whether women are primarily treated uncivilly by men (i.e., members of the socially dominant group/out-group) or other women (i.e., members of in-group) in organizations. In light of different theorizing surrounding gender and incivility, we examine whether women experience increased incivility from other women or men, and whether this effect is amplified for women who exhibit higher agency and less communion at work given that these traits and behaviors violate stereotypical gender norms...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
Zhenyu Yuan, Christopher M Barnes, Yongjuan Li
Drawing from recent research on counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and moral self-regulation literature, we examine the intraindividual consequences of engaging in CWB. We posit that CWB represents morally discrediting work behaviors that can lead to moral deficits, create distress for perpetrators and ultimately result in insomnia. Specifically, we hypothesized that on days in which employees engage in CWB, they will tend to experience moral deficits and heightened levels of rumination that undermine their sleep that night...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
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