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Journal of Applied Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893260/brain-drain-an-examination-of-stereotype-threat-effects-during-training-on-knowledge-acquisition-and-organizational-effectiveness
#1
James A Grand
Stereotype threat describes a situation in which individuals are faced with the risk of upholding a negative stereotype about their subgroup based on their actions. Empirical work in this area has primarily examined the impact of negative stereotypes on performance for threatened individuals. However, this body of research seldom acknowledges that performance is a function of learning-which may also be impaired by pervasive group stereotypes. This study presents evidence from a 3-day self-guided training program demonstrating that stereotype threat impairs acquisition of cognitive learning outcomes for females facing a negative group stereotype...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893259/adolescent-conscientiousness-predicts-lower-lifetime-unemployment
#2
Mark Egan, Michael Daly, Liam Delaney, Christopher J Boyce, Alex M Wood
Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893258/the-rich-get-richer-and-the-poor-get-poorer-country-and-state-level-income-inequality-moderates-the-job-insecurity-burnout-relationship
#3
Lixin Jiang, Tahira M Probst
Despite the prevalence of income inequality in today's society, research on the implications of income inequality for organizational research is scant. This study takes the first step to explore the contextual role of national- and state- level income inequality as a moderator in the relationship between individual-level job insecurity (JI) and burnout. Drawing from conservation of resource (COR) theory, we argue that income inequality at the country-level and state-level threatens one's obtainment of object (i...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893257/is-it-new-personal-and-contextual-influences-on-perceptions-of-novelty-and-creativity
#4
Jing Zhou, Xiaoye May Wang, Lynda Jiwen Song, Junfeng Wu
Novelty recognition is the crucial starting point for extracting value from the ideas generated by others. In this paper we develop an associative evaluation account for how personal and contextual factors motivate individuals to perceive novelty and creativity. We report 4 studies that systematically tested hypotheses developed from this perspective. Study 1 (a laboratory experiment) showed that perceivers' regulatory focus, as an experimentally induced state, affected novelty perception. Study 2 (a field study) found that perceivers' promotion focus and prevention focus, measured as chronic traits, each interacted with normative level of novelty and creativity: perceivers who scored higher on promotion focus perceived more novelty (or creativity) in novel (or creative) targets than those who scored lower, whereas perceivers who scored higher on prevention focus perceived less novelty (or creativity) in novel (or creative) targets than those who scored lower...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893256/sticks-and-stones-can-break-my-bones-but-words-can-also-hurt-me-the-relationship-between-customer-verbal-aggression-and-employee-incivility
#5
David D Walker, Danielle D van Jaarsveld, Daniel P Skarlicki
Customer service employees tend to react negatively to customer incivility by demonstrating incivility in return, thereby likely reducing customer service quality. Research, however, has yet to uncover precisely what customers do that results in employee incivility. Through transcript and computerized text analysis in a multilevel, multisource, mixed-method field study of customer service events (N = 434 events), we found that employee incivility can occur as a function of customer (a) aggressive words, (b) second-person pronoun use (e...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893255/the-relationship-between-sleep-and-work-a-meta-analysis
#6
Brett Litwiller, Lori Anderson Snyder, William D Taylor, Logan M Steele
Sleep has tremendous importance to organizations because of its relationship with employee performance, safety, health, and attitudes. Moreover, sleep is a malleable behavior that may be improved by individual and organizational changes. Despite the consequential and modifiable nature of sleep, little consensus exists regarding its conceptualization, and how the choice of conceptualization may impact relationships with organizational antecedents and outcomes. To offer a stronger foundation for future theory and research about employee sleep, this study calculated meta-analytic correlations of sleep quality and sleep quantity from 152 primary studies of sleep among workers in organizations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893254/dynamic-interplay-between-merger-process-justice-and-cognitive-trust-in-top-management-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Janne Kaltiainen, Jukka Lipponen, Brian C Holtz
This study examines two fundamental concerns in the context of organizational change: employees' perceptions of merger process justice and cognitive trust in the top management team. Our main purpose is to better understand the nature of reciprocal relations between these important constructs through a significant change event. Previous research, building mainly on social exchange theory, has framed trust as a consequence of justice perceptions. More recently, scholars have suggested that this view may be overly simplistic and that trust-related cognitions may also represent an important antecedent of justice perceptions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808525/boys-don-t-cry-gender-and-reactions-to-negative-performance-feedback
#8
Daphna Motro, Aleksander P J Ellis
Our experiment is aimed at understanding how employee reactions to negative feedback are received by the feedback provider and how employee gender may play a role in the process. We focus specifically on the act of crying and, based on role congruity theory, argue that a male employee crying in response to negative performance feedback will be seen as atypical behavior by the feedback provider, which will bias evaluations of the employee on a number of different outcome variables, including performance evaluations, assessments of leadership capability, and written recommendations...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786498/a-dual-stage-moderated-mediation-model-linking-authoritarian-leadership-to-follower-outcomes
#9
John M Schaubroeck, Yimo Shen, Sinhui Chong
Although authoritarian leadership is viewed pejoratively in the literature, in general it is not strongly related to important follower outcomes. We argue that relationships between authoritarian leadership and individual employee outcomes are mediated by perceived insider status, yet in different ways depending on work unit power distance climate and individual role breadth self-efficacy. Results from technology company employees in China largely supported our hypothesized model. We observed negative indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on job performance, affective organizational commitment, and intention to stay among employees in units with relatively low endorsement of power distance, whereas the indirect relationships were not significant among employees in relatively high power distance units...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786497/the-importance-of-being-me-the-relation-between-authentic-identity-expression-and-transgender-employees-work-related-attitudes-and-experiences
#10
Larry R Martinez, Katina B Sawyer, Christian N Thoroughgood, Enrica N Ruggs, Nicholas A Smith
The present research examined the relation between authentic identity expression and transgender employees' work-related attitudes and experiences. Drawing on Kernis' (2003) theoretical conceptualization of authenticity and expanding on current workplace identity management research, we predicted that employees who had taken steps to reduce the discrepancy between their inner gender identities and their outward manifestations of gender would report more positive job attitudes and workplace experiences, in part because the reduction of this discrepancy is related to greater feelings of authenticity...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736117/distal-and-proximal-predictors-of-snacking-at-work-a-daily-survey-study
#11
Sabine Sonnentag, Alexander Pundt, Laura Venz
This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732002/moving-beyond-assumptions-of-deviance-the-reconceptualization-and-measurement-of-workplace-gossip
#12
Daniel L Brady, Douglas J Brown, Lindie Hanyu Liang
Despite decades of research from other academic fields arguing that gossip is an important and potentially functional behavior, organizational research has largely assumed that gossip is malicious talk. This has resulted in the proliferation of gossip items in deviance scales, effectively subsuming workplace gossip research into deviance research. In this paper, the authors argue that organizational research has traditionally considered only a very narrow subset of workplace gossip, focusing almost exclusively on extreme negative cases which are not reflective of typical workplace gossip behavior...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690480/helping-employees-sleep-well-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia-on-work-outcomes
#13
Christopher M Barnes, Jared A Miller, Sophie Bostock
Drawing from recent research advances indicating the harmful effects of insomnia on negative affect, job satisfaction, self-control, organizational citizenship behavior, and interpersonal deviance, we hypothesized that treating insomnia with Internet based cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia would lead to improvements in these outcomes. In a field experiment with a randomized wait-list control group, we found that treatment had a beneficial direct effect on negative affect, job satisfaction, and self-control...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618411/help-or-hindrance-day-level-relationships-between-flextime-use-work-nonwork-boundaries-and-affective-well-being
#14
Ines Spieler, Susanne Scheibe, Christian Stamov-Ro├čnagel, Arvid Kappas
Flexible working time arrangements are becoming increasingly popular around the globe, but do they actually benefit employees? To address this question, we take a differentiated look at employees' day-specific use of flextime and its effect on the intersection of work and nonwork life. Specifically, we examined whether links between day-specific flextime use and affective well-being at work and at home can be explained by level of goal completion and the subjective boundaries around one's work and private life domains (i...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618410/increasing-pro-environmental-behaviors-by-increasing-self-concordance-testing-an-intervention
#15
Kerrie L Unsworth, Ilona M McNeill
Globally, there is a clear need to change our behavior to mitigate climate change. Many people, however, will not find the need for mitigation important enough to make their behavior more environmentally sustainable. Three studies supported the hypothesis that it is possible to overcome this issue by connecting these behaviors to goals that are important to people, even if such goals are unrelated to climate change or the environment in general. Study 1 (N = 305 working adults) showed that stronger self-concordance of behavior related to energy sustainability was related to a greater chance of signing a petition for increasing renewable energy sources...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618409/initiating-and-utilizing-shared-leadership-in-teams-the-role-of-leader-humility-team-proactive-personality-and-team-performance-capability
#16
Chia-Yen Chad Chiu, Bradley P Owens, Paul E Tesluk
The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618408/the-effects-of-predictor-method-factors-on-selection-outcomes-a-modular-approach-to-personnel-selection-procedures
#17
Filip Lievens, Paul R Sackett
Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this modular lens for reviewing the available evidence regarding each of these components in terms of affecting validity, subgroup differences, and applicant perceptions, as well as for identifying new research directions...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618407/better-together-examining-profiles-of-employee-recovery-experiences
#18
Andrew A Bennett, Allison S Gabriel, Charles Calderwood, Jason J Dahling, John P Trougakos
Employees are exposed to a wide variety of job demands that deplete personal resources and necessitate recovery. In light of this need, research on work recovery has focused on how distinct recovery experiences during postwork time relate to employee well-being. However, investigators have largely tested the effects of these experiences in isolation, neglecting the possibility that profiles of recovery experiences may exist and influence the recovery process. The current set of studies adopted a person-centered approach using latent profile analysis to understand whether unique constellations of recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, control, and problem-solving pondering-emerged for 2 samples of full-time employees...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618406/deviance-and-exit-the-organizational-costs-of-job-insecurity-and-moral-disengagement
#19
Guo-Hua Huang, Ned Wellman, Susan J Ashford, Cynthia Lee, Li Wang
This study examines why and when employees might respond to job insecurity by engaging in workplace deviance and developing intentions to leave-2 activities that are costly for organizations. Drawing on social exchange theory and the theory of moral disengagement, we propose that job insecurity increases workplace deviance and intentions to leave by encouraging employees to morally disengage. We further propose that the strength of the positive association between job insecurity, moral disengagement, and these outcomes is contingent upon 2 aspects of the situation-employees' perceived employment opportunities outside the organization and the quality of the exchange relationship they have developed with their supervisors (leader-member exchange, or LMX)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709992/leadership-emergence-over-time-in-short-lived-groups-integrating-expectations-states-theory-with-temporal-person-perception-and-self-serving-bias
#20
Yuval Kalish, Gil Luria
Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in short-lived groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89)...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
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