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Journal of Applied Psychology

Lin Wang, Bradley P Owens, Junchao Jason Li, Lihua Shi
In this article, the authors further develop the theory of leader humility by exploring the affective impact, a vital boundary condition, and the antecedents of leader humility. Specifically, they (a) theorize how leader humility can enhance followers' performance by increasing their relational energy and decreasing their emotional exhaustion, (b) test perceived leader power in the organization as an important boundary condition of leader humility effectiveness, and (c) establish leader's incremental theory of the self (i...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Joseph A Schmidt, Dionne M Pohler
We develop competing hypotheses about the relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) with employee and customer satisfaction. Drawing on 8 years of employee and customer survey data from a financial services firm, we used a recently developed empirical technique-covariate balanced propensity score (CBPS) weighting-to examine if the proposed relationships between HPWS and satisfaction outcomes can be explained by reverse causality, selection effects, or commonly omitted variables such as leadership behavior...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Tahira M Probst, Robert R Sinclair, Lindsay E Sears, Nicholas J Gailey, Kristen Jennings Black, Janelle H Cheung
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of county-level population health determinants in predicting individual employee reactions to economic stress. Using multilevel modeling and a population health perspective, we tested a model linking nationally representative individual-level data (N = 100,968) on exposure to economic stressors and county-level population health determinants (N = 3,026) to responses on a composite measure of individual well-being that included the facets of purpose, community, physical, and social well-being, as well as life satisfaction...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Jeffrey A Dahlke, Jack W Kostal, Paul R Sackett, Nathan R Kuncel
We explore potential explanations for validity degradation using a unique predictive validation data set containing up to four consecutive years of high school students' cognitive test scores and four complete years of those students' college grades. This data set permits analyses that disentangle the effects of predictor-score age and timing of criterion measurements on validity degradation. We investigate the extent to which validity degradation is explained by criterion dynamism versus the limited shelf-life of ability scores...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Zhenyu Liao, Kai Chi Yam, Russell E Johnson, Wu Liu, Zhaoli Song
Research on abusive supervision has predominantly focused on the consequences for victims while overlooking how leaders respond to their own abusive behavior. Drawing from the literature on moral cleansing, we posit that supervisors who engage in abusive behavior may paradoxically engage in more constructive leadership behaviors subsequently as a result of feeling guilty and perceiving loss of moral credits. Results from two experience sampling studies show that, within leaders on a daily basis, perpetrating abusive supervisor behavior led to an increase in experienced guilt and perceived loss of moral credits, which in turn motivated leaders to engage in more constructive person-oriented (consideration) and task-oriented (initiating structure) leadership behaviors...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Kira Schabram, Sandra L Robinson, Kevin S Cruz
In this article, we examine member trust in deviant teams. We contend that a member's trust in his or her deviant team depends on the member's own deviant actions; although all members will judge the actions of their deviant teams as rational evidence that they should not be trusted, deviant members, but not honest members, can hold on to trust in their teams because of a sense of connection to the team. We tested our predictions in a field study of 562 members across 111 teams and 24 organizations as well as in an experiment of 178 participants in deviant and non-deviant teams...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Dorien T A M Kooij, Ruth Kanfer, Matt Betts, Cort W Rudolph
The ability to foresee, anticipate, and plan for future desired outcomes is crucial for well-being, motivation, and behavior. However, theories in organizational psychology do not incorporate time-related constructs such as Future Time Perspective (FTP), and research on FTP remains disjointed and scattered, with different domains focusing on different aspects of the construct, using different measures, and assessing different antecedents and consequences. In this review and meta-analysis, we aim to clarify the FTP construct, advance its theoretical development, and demonstrate its importance by (a) integrating theory and empirical findings across different domains of research to identify major outcomes and antecedents of FTP, and (b) empirically examining whether and how these variables are moderated by FTP measures and dimensions...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Phillip S Thompson, Mark C Bolino
For more than 30 years, researchers have investigated interpersonal helping in organizations, with much of this work focusing on understanding why employees help their colleagues. Although this is important, it is also critical that employees are willing to accept assistance that is offered by peers. Indeed, helping behavior should only enhance individual and organizational effectiveness if employees are actually willing to accept offers of assistance. Unfortunately, employees may sometimes have reservations about accepting help from their peers...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Natalie H Longmire, David A Harrison
Perspective taking and empathic concern (empathy) have each been proposed as constructive approaches to social relationships. However, their potential distinctions, limitations, and consequences in task contexts are not well understood. We meta-analytically examined 304 independent samples to uncover unique effects of perspective taking and empathic concern on important work-related outcomes. We develop and test a contingency model of those effects, based on three facets of psychological interdependence: outcome, hierarchical (or power asymmetry), and social category (or in-group/out-group distinctions)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Elad N Sherf, Ruchi Sinha, Subrahmaniam Tangirala, Nikhil Awasty
Voice, or the expression of work-related suggestions or opinions, can help teams access and utilize members' privately held knowledge and skills and improve collective outcomes. However, recent research has suggested that sometimes, rather than encourage positive outcomes for teams, voice from members can have detrimental consequences. Extending this research, we highlight why it is important to consider voice centralization within teams, or the extent to which voice is predominantly emanating from only a few members rather than equally spread across all members...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Philip S DeOrtentiis, Chad H Van Iddekinge, Robert E Ployhart, Tom D Heetderks
At some point, hiring managers in all organizations face the decision of whether to fill open positions with internal candidates (e.g., through promotions) or to hire external candidates (e.g., from competitors or new entrants into the labor market). Despite this ubiquitous choice, surprisingly little research has compared the effectiveness of internal and external selection or has identified situations in which 1 approach may be better than the other. The authors use theory on human capital resources to predict differences between internal and external hires on manager- and unit-level outcomes...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Blaine Landis, Martin Kilduff, Jochen I Menges, Gavin J Kilduff
Research suggests positions of brokerage in organizational networks provide many benefits, but studies tend to assume everyone is equally able to perceive and willing to act on brokerage opportunities. Here we challenge these assumptions in a direct investigation of whether people can perceive brokerage opportunities and are willing to broker. We propose that the psychological experience of power diminishes individuals' ability to perceive opportunities to broker between people who are not directly connected in their networks, yet enhances their willingness to broker...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Pauline Schilpzand, Lei Huang
In this article we build on relational Sociometer Theory (Leary, 2005; Leary & Baumeister, 2000) to posit the impact of the belongingness threat of experienced incivility in one's work team on employee feelings of ostracism and subsequent engagement in proactive performance. Integrating the social-relational framework of Self-Identity Orientation Theory (Brewer & Gardner, 1996; Cooper & Thatcher, 2010), we nuance our predictions by hypothesizing that chronic self-identification orientations influence both the effect that experiencing incivility in one's work team exerts on feeling ostracized, and the impact that feeling ostracized has on subsequent employee proactive performance...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Sooyeol Kim, YoungAh Park, Lucille Headrick
Despite the growing research on work recovery and its well-being outcomes, surprisingly little attention has been paid to at-work recovery and its job performance outcomes. The current study extends the work recovery literature by examining day-level relationships between prototypical microbreaks and job performance as mediated by state positive affect. Furthermore, general work engagement is tested as a cross-level moderator weakening the indirect effects of microbreaks on job performance via positive affect...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
R David Lebel, Shefali V Patil
Although considerable research demonstrates that employees are unlikely to be proactive when they view their supervisors as discouraging this type of behavior, we challenge the assumption that this is true for all employees. Drawing on motivated information processing theory, we argue that prosocial motivation can spark employees to be proactive even when supervisors are perceived as discouraging. Specifically, prosocial motivation may weaken the negative relationship between perceived discouraging supervisor behaviors and proactivity by driving employees to bring about change to impact coworkers or the organization...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Mark J Martinko, Jeremy D Mackey, Sherry E Moss, Paul Harvey, Charn P McAllister, Jeremy R Brees
Leadership research has been encumbered by a proliferation of constructs and measures, despite little evidence that each is sufficiently conceptually and operationally distinct from the others. We draw from research on subordinates' implicit theories of leader behavior, behaviorally anchored rating scales, and decision making to argue that leader affect (i.e., the degree to which subordinates have positive and negative feelings about their supervisors) underlies the common variance shared by many leadership measures...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Filip Lievens, Jonas W B Lang, Filip De Fruyt, Jan Corstjens, Myrjam Van de Vijver, Ronald Bledow
In the last decade, there has been increased recognition that traits refer not only to between-person differences but also to meaningful within-person variability across situations (i.e., whole trait theory). So far, this broader more contemporary trait conceptualization has made few inroads into assessment practices. Therefore, this study focuses on the assessment and predictive power of people's intraindividual variability across situations. In three studies (either in student or employee samples), both test-takers' mean trait scores and the variability of their responses across multiple written job-related situations of a situational judgment test (SJT) were assessed...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Barbara Nevicka, Annelies E M Van Vianen, Annebel H B De Hoogh, Bart C M Voorn
Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Min-Hsuan Tu, Joyce E Bono, Cass Shum, Liva LaMontagne
Building on identity theories and social learning theory, we test the notion that new leaders will model the abusive behaviors of their superiors only under certain conditions. Specifically, we hypothesize that new leaders will model abusive supervisory behaviors when (a) abusive superiors are perceived to be competent, based on the performance of their teams and (b) new leaders' ideal leadership self-concepts are high on tyranny or low on sensitivity. Results of an experiment in which we manipulated abusive supervisory behaviors using a professional actor, and created a role change where 93 individuals moved from team member to team leader role, generally support our hypotheses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Kan Ouyang, Erica Xu, Xu Huang, Wu Liu, Yipeng Tang
Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
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