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Journal of Applied Psychology

Sarv Devaraj, Kaifeng Jiang
Work teams have become an essential part of organizations, but how implementation of work teams influences performance outcomes over time still remains unclear. This study aims to explore this issue by examining implementation of high-performance work teams (HPWTs) in a manufacturing context. We draw upon team development and adaptation literature and organizational change literature to propose a 2-phase adaptation model whereby the growth rates of performance outcomes initially decline after implementation of HPWTs and later increase and become higher than the rates before implementation...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Uta K Bindl, Kerrie L Unsworth, Cristina B Gibson, Christopher B Stride
Employees often self-initiate changes to their jobs, a process referred to as job crafting, yet we know little about why and how they initiate such changes. In this paper, we introduce and test an extended framework for job crafting, incorporating individuals' needs and regulatory focus. Our theoretical model posits that individual needs provide employees with the motivation to engage in distinct job-crafting strategies-task, relationship, skill, and cognitive crafting-and that work-related regulatory focus will be associated with promotion- or prevention-oriented forms of these strategies...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Chak Fu Lam, Cynthia Lee, Yang Sui
To gain endorsement from their managers, should employees be direct with explicit change suggestions, or should they be indirect with questions and hints? We draw on psychological threat and communication clarity theories to offer competing hypotheses with respect to the association between voice directness and managerial endorsement. We then further draw from social judgment research to theorize whether the relationship between voice directness and managerial endorsement might be modified by voicer politeness and voicer credibility...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Brandon W Smit, Tamara Montag-Smit
Although calls for pay transparency in the workplace are growing, it remains unclear which factors determine when and why employees exchange pay information. We use a social comparison theory lens to identify the pay transparency dilemma, wherein pay information exchange can create benefits by reducing uncertainty and verifying equitable pay, but simultaneously risks straining interpersonal relationships and damaging reputations. To examine individual differences in employee sensitivity to the risks and benefits presented in this dilemma, our research develops a measure of pay information exchange preferences with two facets: information sharing preferences and information seeking preferences...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Katja Schlegel, Marcello Mortillaro
Emotional intelligence (EI) has been frequently studied as a predictor of work criteria, but disparate approaches to defining and measuring EI have produced rather inconsistent findings. The conceptualization of EI as an ability to be measured with performance-based tests is by many considered the most appropriate approach, but only few tests developed in this tradition exist, and none of them is designed to specifically assess EI in the workplace. The present research introduces the Geneva Emotional Competence test (GECo)-a new ability EI test measuring emotion recognition (assessed using video clips of actors), emotion understanding, emotion regulation in oneself, and emotion management in others (all assessed with situational judgment items of work-related scenarios)...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Caitlin M Porter, Sang Eun Woo, David G Allen, Melissa G Keith
Although social network methods have proven valuable for predicting employee turnover, an informed use of network methods for turnover management requires an integration and extension of extant networks-turnover research. To that end, this article addresses two relatively neglected issues in the networks-turnover literature: the lack of integration of turnover process models into networks-turnover research and the differential influence of "network content" (i.e., instrumental vs. expressive network resources) on turnover processes...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Morela Hernandez, Derek R Avery, Sabrina D Volpone, Cheryl R Kaiser
The influence of race in negotiations has remained relatively underexplored. Across three studies, we theorize and find that Black job seekers are expected to negotiate less than their White counterparts and are penalized in negotiations with lower salary outcomes when this expectation is violated; especially when they negotiate with an evaluator who is more racially biased (i.e., higher in social dominance orientation). Specifically, on the basis of the prescriptive stereotype held by those higher in racial bias-that Black (as compared to White) negotiators deserve lower salaries-we predicted that Black negotiators who behave in counterstereotypical ways encounter greater resistance and more unfavorable outcomes from more biased evaluators...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Karen Landay, P D Harms, Marcus Credé
Both scholars and the popular press have expressed concern regarding the potential prevalence of individuals with psychopathic tendencies in corporate leadership positions and the negative effects they may have on both individual workers and their organizations as a whole. However, research to date has been inconclusive as to whether such individuals are more likely to emerge as leaders or whether they are (in)effective leaders. To clarify the state of the literature, we conducted a meta-analysis on the association between psychopathic personality characteristics and leadership emergence, leadership effectiveness, and transformational leadership...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Yu-Shan Sandy Huang, Rebecca L Greenbaum, Julena M Bonner, Cynthia S Wang
We utilize the social intuitionist approach to moral judgment and moral disengagement theory to understand why and when employees sabotage customers. We contend that when customers mistreat employees (i.e., customer mistreatment), employees experience intuitive emotional reactions in the form of hostility, which automatically activates devaluation of targets, a specific facet of moral disengagement. In turn, employees become unencumbered by moral self-regulation and sabotage customers who mistreat them (i.e...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Shannon G Taylor, Matthew D Griffith, Abhijeet K Vadera, Robert Folger, Chaim R Letwin
Studies show that abusive leader behaviors "trickle down" to lower organizational levels, but this research ignores that many abused supervisors do not perpetuate abuse by harming their own subordinates. Drawing on social-cognitive theory and related research, we suggest abused supervisors might defy rather than emulate their managers' abusive behavior. Specifically, we predicted that some abused supervisors-namely, those with strong moral identities-might in effect "change course" by engaging in less abuse or demonstrating ethical leadership with their subordinates to the extent they disidentify with their abusive managers...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Michael T Braun, Patrick D Converse, Frederick L Oswald
Dominance analysis (DA) has been established as a useful tool for practitioners and researchers to identify the relative importance of predictors in a linear regression. This article examines the joint impact of two common and pervasive artifacts-sampling error variance and measurement unreliability-on the accuracy of DA. We present Monte Carlo simulations that detail the decrease in the accuracy of DA in the presence of these artifacts, highlighting the practical extent of the inferential mistakes that can be made...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Klodiana Lanaj, Trevor A Foulk, Amir Erez
The leader role is demanding and depleting, explaining why many leaders struggle to remain engaged while doing their job. In this study, we present theory and an intervention focused on improving leader energy. Integrating cognitive energetics theory (Kruglanski et al., 2012) with leader identity theory and expressive writing research, we develop and test a positive leader self-reflection intervention, which asks leaders to reflect on aspects of their selves that make them good leaders. We expected that this intervention would improve leaders' access to and application of their energy in ways that would make them more influential at work...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Bradley P Owens, Kai Chi Yam, Jeffrey S Bednar, Jianghua Mao, David W Hart
This study utilizes social-cognitive theory, humble leadership theory, and the behavioral ethics literature to theoretically develop the concept of leader moral humility and its effects on followers. Specifically, we propose a theoretical model wherein leader moral humility and follower implicit theories about morality interact to predict follower moral efficacy, which in turn increases follower prosocial behavior and decreases follower unethical behavior. We furthermore suggest that these effects are strongest when followers hold an incremental implicit theory of morality (i...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Dustin Wood, Graham H Lowman, P D Harms, Brent W Roberts
Profile approaches to operationalizing person-organization (P-O) fit as the within-person correlation between an individual's ideal organization characteristics and their actual organization characteristics regularly find strong associations between P-O fit and an individual's work attitudes. However, profile correlation indices and other overall indices of P-O fit regularly confound normative and distinctive components of fit-that is: the extent to which the person's organization culture fits the culture that would be preferred by the average person , and the extent to which their organization fits an individual's idiosyncratic preferences...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Gang Wang, Chad H Van Iddekinge, Liwen Zhang, John Bishoff
Leader-centric views of leadership tend to regard followers as passive recipients of leaders' influences. As such, researchers often control for follower characteristics (e.g., age, gender, organizational tenure) when examining relations between leadership behaviors and other variables. However, reversing-the-lens theory suggests that followers' characteristics represent substantive factors that may affect how they perceive their leaders or how leaders behave toward different followers. We conducted two studies to investigate this possibility...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Leslie B Hammer, Wylie H Wan, Krista J Brockwood, Todd Bodner, Cynthia D Mohr
This randomized controlled trial involved the development and evaluation of a supervisor support training intervention in the civilian workforce called VSST: Veteran-Supportive Supervisor Training. A theoretically based intervention in the workplace is critical to ensuring a smooth transition for service members and their families to civilian life, leading to improved psychological and physical health and improved work outcomes among service members. Thirty-five organizations were recruited and randomized to the VSST training program or a waitlist control group...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Traci Sitzmann, Robert E Ployhart, Youngsang Kim
This study proposes a mediated process model that seeks to explain how occupational strength influences personality heterogeneity, ultimately affecting attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, it proposes that strong occupations restrict personality heterogeneity (defined as the extent to which there is variability in incumbents' personalities), which mediates the effect of occupational strength on work-related outcomes. Using a sample of 178,087 individuals employed in 315 occupations, the results indicate that strong occupations (operationalized as having high task significance) had advantageous effects on occupational satisfaction, tenure, and turnover intentions, and these effects were partially mediated by personality heterogeneity...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Seval Gündemir, Andrew M Carton, Astrid C Homan
Despite remarkably high levels of education and income, Asian Americans remain underrepresented at the top of the organizational hierarchy. Existing work suggests that a mismatch between the prototypical characteristics of business leaders (e.g., dominance) and stereotypes associated with Asian Americans (e.g., submissiveness) lowers the likelihood that Asian Americans will emerge as leaders. We predict that this reluctance to appoint Asian Americans will be attenuated when organizations experience performance decline because decision makers believe Asian Americans are inclined to sacrifice their self-interest to improve the welfare of others...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Christopher C Rosen, Lauren S Simon, Ravi S Gajendran, Russell E Johnson, Hun Whee Lee, Szu-Han Joanna Lin
Over the past 30 years, the nature of communication at work has changed. Leaders in particular rely increasingly on e-mail to communicate with their superiors and subordinates. However, researchers and practitioners alike suggest that people frequently report feeling overloaded by the e-mail demands they experience at work. In the current study, we develop a self-regulatory framework that articulates how leaders' day-to-day e-mail demands relate to a perceived lack of goal progress, which has a negative impact on their subsequent enactment of routine (i...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Celia Moore, David M Mayer, Flora F T Chiang, Craig Crossley, Matthew J Karlesky, Thomas A Birtch
There has long been interest in how leaders influence the unethical behavior of those who they lead. However, research in this area has tended to focus on leaders' direct influence over subordinate behavior, such as through role modeling or eliciting positive social exchange. We extend this research by examining how ethical leaders affect how employees construe morally problematic decisions, ultimately influencing their behavior. Across four studies, diverse in methods (lab and field) and national context (the United States and China), we find that ethical leadership decreases employees' propensity to morally disengage, with ultimate effects on employees' unethical decisions and deviant behavior...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
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