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Journal of Applied Psychology

Sabine Sonnentag, Alexander Pundt, Laura Venz
This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Daniel L Brady, Douglas J Brown, Lindie Hanyu Liang
Despite decades of research from other academic fields arguing that gossip is an important and potentially functional behavior, organizational research has largely assumed that gossip is malicious talk. This has resulted in the proliferation of gossip items in deviance scales, effectively subsuming workplace gossip research into deviance research. In this paper, the authors argue that organizational research has traditionally considered only a very narrow subset of workplace gossip, focusing almost exclusively on extreme negative cases which are not reflective of typical workplace gossip behavior...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Christopher M Barnes, Jared A Miller, Sophie Bostock
Drawing from recent research advances indicating the harmful effects of insomnia on negative affect, job satisfaction, self-control, organizational citizenship behavior, and interpersonal deviance, we hypothesized that treating insomnia with Internet based cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia would lead to improvements in these outcomes. In a field experiment with a randomized wait-list control group, we found that treatment had a beneficial direct effect on negative affect, job satisfaction, and self-control...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Ines Spieler, Susanne Scheibe, Christian Stamov-Ro├čnagel, Arvid Kappas
Flexible working time arrangements are becoming increasingly popular around the globe, but do they actually benefit employees? To address this question, we take a differentiated look at employees' day-specific use of flextime and its effect on the intersection of work and nonwork life. Specifically, we examined whether links between day-specific flextime use and affective well-being at work and at home can be explained by level of goal completion and the subjective boundaries around one's work and private life domains (i...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Kerrie L Unsworth, Ilona M McNeill
Globally, there is a clear need to change our behavior to mitigate climate change. Many people, however, will not find the need for mitigation important enough to make their behavior more environmentally sustainable. Three studies supported the hypothesis that it is possible to overcome this issue by connecting these behaviors to goals that are important to people, even if such goals are unrelated to climate change or the environment in general. Study 1 (N = 305 working adults) showed that stronger self-concordance of behavior related to energy sustainability was related to a greater chance of signing a petition for increasing renewable energy sources...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Chia-Yen Chad Chiu, Bradley P Owens, Paul E Tesluk
The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Filip Lievens, Paul R Sackett
Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this modular lens for reviewing the available evidence regarding each of these components in terms of affecting validity, subgroup differences, and applicant perceptions, as well as for identifying new research directions...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Andrew A Bennett, Allison S Gabriel, Charles Calderwood, Jason J Dahling, John P Trougakos
Employees are exposed to a wide variety of job demands that deplete personal resources and necessitate recovery. In light of this need, research on work recovery has focused on how distinct recovery experiences during postwork time relate to employee well-being. However, investigators have largely tested the effects of these experiences in isolation, neglecting the possibility that profiles of recovery experiences may exist and influence the recovery process. The current set of studies adopted a person-centered approach using latent profile analysis to understand whether unique constellations of recovery experiences-psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, control, and problem-solving pondering-emerged for 2 samples of full-time employees...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Guo-Hua Huang, Ned Wellman, Susan J Ashford, Cynthia Lee, Li Wang
This study examines why and when employees might respond to job insecurity by engaging in workplace deviance and developing intentions to leave-2 activities that are costly for organizations. Drawing on social exchange theory and the theory of moral disengagement, we propose that job insecurity increases workplace deviance and intentions to leave by encouraging employees to morally disengage. We further propose that the strength of the positive association between job insecurity, moral disengagement, and these outcomes is contingent upon 2 aspects of the situation-employees' perceived employment opportunities outside the organization and the quality of the exchange relationship they have developed with their supervisors (leader-member exchange, or LMX)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
David G Allen, Vesa Peltokorpi, Alex L Rubenstein
Job embeddedness is predominately assumed to benefit employees, work groups, and organizations (e.g., higher performance, social cohesion, and lower voluntary turnover). Challenging this assumption, we examined the potentially negative outcomes that may occur if employees are embedded in an adverse work environment-feeling "stuck," yet unable to exit a negative situation. More specifically, we considered two factors representing adverse work conditions: abusive supervision and job insecurity. Drawing from conservation of resources theory, we hypothesized that job embeddedness would moderate the relationship between these conditions and outcomes of voluntary turnover, physical health, emotional exhaustion, and sleep quality/quantity, such that employees embedded in more adverse environments would be less likely to quit, but would experience more negative personal outcomes...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Nicholas O Rule, R Thora Bjornsdottir, Konstantin O Tskhay, Nalini Ambady
Theories linking the literatures on stereotyping and human resource management have proposed that individuals may enjoy greater success obtaining jobs congruent with stereotypes about their social categories or traits. Here, we explored such effects for a detectable, but not obvious, social group distinction: male sexual orientation. Bridging previous work on prejudice and occupational success with that on social perception, we found that perceivers rated gay and straight men as more suited to professions consistent with stereotypes about their groups (nurses, pediatricians, and English teachers vs...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Kelsey-Jo Ritter, Russell A Matthews, Michael T Ford, Alexandra A Henderson
In this study, we seek to highlight a potentially fundamental shift in how dynamic stressor-strain relationships should be conceptualized over time. Specifically, we provide an integrated empirical test of adaptation and role theory within a longitudinal framework. Data were collected at 3 time points, with a 6-week lag between time points, from 534 respondents. Using latent change modeling, results supported within-person adaptation to changes in job satisfaction and role conflict. Specifically, over the 12-week course of the study, changes in role clarity tended to be maintained, whereas changes in job satisfaction and role conflict tended to be fleeting and reverse themselves...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Saul Fine, Judith Goldenberg, Yair Noam
Promotion decisions focus primarily on the successes of those selected, with surprisingly little attention given to the outcomes of those rejected. Negative emotional reactions among rejected candidates, for example, may motivate retaliations against the organization in the form of counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). Indeed, in a sample of 568 military officer training candidates, we found a greater incidence of CWB among rejected versus accepted candidates, which peaked within 6 months after promotion decisions were made (d = ...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Helen H Zhao, Scott E Seibert, M Susan Taylor, Cynthia Lee, Wing Lam
Leader succession often occurs during organizational change processes, but the implications of leader succession, in terms of reactions to the change, rarely have been investigated. Employee attitudes and behaviors during organizational change may be influenced jointly by a former leader who recently has transitioned out of the team and the new leader who recently has transitioned into it. We predict an interaction between former and new leaders' transformational leadership on employees' behavioral resistance to and support for change...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Prajya R Vidyarthi, Satvir Singh, Berrin Erdogan, Anjali Chaudhry, Richard Posthuma, Smriti Anand
The authors extend i-deals theory to an individual-within-a-team context. Drawing upon social comparison theory, they contend that individuals will react to their own i-deals within the context of group members' i-deals. Therefore, they examine the role of relative i-deals (an individual's i-deals relative to the team's average) in relation to employee performance. Furthermore, integrating social comparison theory with social identity theory the authors assert that the behavioral outcomes of relative i-deals are influenced by the team's social and structural attributes of team orientation and task interdependence...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Crystal M Harold, In-Sue Oh, Brian C Holtz, Soojung Han, Robert A Giacalone
In this article, the authors integrate the theory of work adjustment (Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1964) and the stressor emotion model of counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs; Spector & Fox, 2005) to examine workplace frustration as an intervening mechanism that mediates relations between person-environment (P-E) fit and CWBs. Moreover, we adopt a multifoci perspective to estimate effects for multiple fit, frustration, and CWB foci. We examine the nature of relations between fit, frustration, and CWB for like foci (target similar effects), as well as cross-foci effects...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Wen-Dong Li, Kevin C Stanek, Zhen Zhang, Deniz S Ones, Matt McGue
Job satisfaction research has unfolded as an exemplary manifestation of the "person versus environment" debate in applied psychology. With the increasing recognition of the importance of time, it is informative to examine a question critical to the dispositional view of job satisfaction: Are genetic influences on job satisfaction stable across different time points? Drawing upon dispositional and situational perspectives on job satisfaction and recent research in developmental behavioral genetics, we examined whether the relative potency of genetic (i...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Zoe Kinias, Jessica Sim
Two field experiments examined if and how values affirmations can ameliorate stereotype threat-induced gender performance gaps in an international competitive business environment. Based on self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988), we predicted that writing about personal values unrelated to the perceived threat would attenuate the gender performance gap. Study 1 found that an online assignment to write about one's personal values (but not a similar writing assignment including organizational values) closed the gender gap in course grades by 89...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Christopher C Rosen, Joel Koopman, Allison S Gabriel, Russell E Johnson
Incivility at work-low intensity deviant behaviors with an ambiguous intent to harm-has been on the rise, yielding negative consequences for employees' well-being and companies' bottom-lines. Although examinations of incivility have gained momentum in organizational research, theory and empirical tests involving dynamic, within-person processes associated with this negative interpersonal behavior are limited. Drawing from ego depletion theory, we test how experiencing incivility precipitates instigating incivility toward others at work via reduced self-control...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Kyoung Yong Kim, Leanne Atwater, Pankaj C Patel, James W Smither
We investigated the relationship between organizations' use of multisource feedback (MSF) programs and their financial performance. We proposed a moderated mediation framework in which the employees' ability and knowledge sharing mediate the relationship between MSF and organizational performance and the purpose for which MSF is used moderates the relationship of MSF with employees' ability and knowledge sharing. With a sample of 253 organizations representing 8,879 employees from 2005 to 2007 in South Korea, we found that MSF had a positive effect on organizational financial performance via employees' ability and knowledge sharing...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
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