Read by QxMD icon Read

Hormones and Behavior

Matthew J Fuxjager, Brian C Trainor, Catherine A Marler
The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)...
November 30, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Timothy J Greives, Ned A Dochtermann, Emily C Stewart
The immune system plays an important role in enhancing an individual's ability to survive in a world inhabited by pathogens and parasites. The innate immune system is regulated by processes encoded in an individual's genome, providing an avenue for selection to act on this system, as well as the phenotypic relationships generated between this system and other traits of interest. While relationships between innate immunity and endocrine traits (e.g. testosterone) have been reported often in the literature, these relationships are complex and may differ under varying environmental conditions...
November 29, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Stina Lundberg, My Martinsson, Ingrid Nylander, Erika Roman
Early-life socio-environmental factors are crucial for normal developmental processes; adverse experiences early in life can therefore lead to detrimental effects in several physiological systems. The aim of this study was to examine short-term effects of early adverse experiences in a maternal separation (MS) rodent model. In this study two separation conditions were used: daily 15- (MS15) or 360-min (MS360) separation of the litter from the dam during postnatal day 1-21. In early adolescence, male and female offspring were subjected to a single-isolation procedure with analysis of corticosterone levels prior to and after isolation...
November 22, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Alexandra N Garcia, Kelsey Bezner, Christina Depena, Weiling Yin, Andrea C Gore
This study tested the effects of long-term estradiol (E2) replacement on social behavior and gene expression in brain nuclei involved in the regulation of these social behaviors in adult female rats. We developed an ultrasonic vocalization (USV) test and a sociability test to examine communications, social interactions, and social preference, using young adult female cagemates. All rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and implanted with a Silastic capsule containing E2 or vehicle, and housed in same-treatment pairs for a 3-month period...
November 19, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Natalie V Motta-Mena, David A Puts
Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior...
November 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Tierney K Lorenz, Julia R Heiman, Gregory E Demas
Although testosterone (T) has been characterized as universally immunosuppressive across species and sexes, recent ecoimmunology research suggests that T's immunomodulatory effects (enhancing/suppressing) depend on the organism's reproductive context. Very little is known about the immune effects of T in healthy females, and even less about how reproductive effort modulates the immune effects of T in humans. We investigated how the interaction between endogenous T and sexual activity predicted menstrual cycle-related changes in several measures of immunity: inflammation (indexed by interleukin-6, IL-6), adaptive immunity (indexed by immunoglobulin A, IgA), and functional immunity (indexed by bactericidal assay)...
November 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Petr N Menshanov, Anita V Bannova, Nikolay N Dygalo
Glucocorticoids and hypoxia are two essential factors affecting the brain development during labor and delivery. In addition to the neurobehavioral alterations induced separately by these factors, glucocorticoids can attenuate the deleterious consequences of severe hypoxia-ischemia on the brain development, acting as a neuroprotective agent in combination with hypoxia. The role of hypoxia in the combined action with corticosteroids is less clear. Severe hypoxia-ischemia results in the massive activation of caspase-3, masking any other effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain exposed to glucocorticoids...
November 16, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Gail L McCormick, Travis R Robbins, Sonia A Cavigelli, Tracy Langkilde
Exposure to stressors can affect an organism's physiology and behavior as well as that of its descendants (e.g. through maternal effects, epigenetics, and/or selection). We examined the relative influence of early life vs. transgenerational stress exposure on adult stress physiology in a species that has populations with and without ancestral exposure to an invasive predator. We raised offspring of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) from sites historically invaded (high stress) or uninvaded (low stress) by predatory fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and determined how this different transgenerational exposure to stress interacted with the effects of early life stress exposure to influence the physiological stress response in adulthood...
November 15, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
John C Wingfield
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Over 40years ago assay methods that allowed the accurate measurement of circulating levels of hormones were developed for the first time enabling us to sample free-living as well as captive animals. This led to a new concept called "field endocrinology". It quickly became apparent that endocrine profiles of animals under natural conditions were very different from congeners in captivity. Furthermore, hormone data could be organized by functional units (e...
November 14, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Veronica Burnham, Christopher Sundby, Abigail Laman-Maharg, Janice Thornton
Luteinizing hormone (LH) rises dramatically during and after menopause, and has been correlated with an increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease and decreased memory performance in humans and animal models. To test whether LH acts directly on the dorsal hippocampus to affect memory, ovariectomized female rats were infused with either the LH-homologue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or the LH receptor antagonist deglycosylated-hCG (dg-hCG).Infusion of hCG into either the lateral ventricle or the dorsal hippocampus caused significant memory impairments in ovariectomized estradiol-treated females...
November 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Kristopher M Smith, Coren L Apicella
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The effect of postural power displays (i.e. power poses) on hormone levels and decision-making has recently been challenged. While Carney et al. (2010) found that holding brief postural displays of power leads to increased testosterone, decreased cortisol and greater economic risk taking, this failed to replicate in a recent high-powered study (Ranehill et al. 2015). It has been put forward that subtle differences in social context may account for the differences in results...
November 10, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Steven J Stanton
This manuscript reviews the current literature on the actions of the steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol in shaping humans' behavior within two applied contexts, specifically consumer behavior and decision making (both social and economic). The theoretical argument put forth is that steroids shape these everyday behaviors and choices in service to being more competitive in achieving long-term goals related to resource acquisition, mating success, and social dominance. In addition, a discussion of the increased research focus on the role of steroids in other applied business domains will highlight the relevant applications of basic science discoveries in behavioral endocrinology...
November 10, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Beate Apfelbeck, Heiner Flinks, Wolfgang Goymann
Testosterone mediates reproductive behaviours in male vertebrates. For example, breeding season territoriality depends on testosterone in many species of birds and in some, territorial interactions feed back on testosterone concentrations. However, the degree to which territorial behaviour and testosterone are associated differs even between species with seemingly similar life histories, especially between species that also defend territories outside the breeding season. Here, we investigate the link between territorial behaviour and testosterone in European stonechats...
November 10, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Natalia Estramil, Ton G G Groothuis, Marcel Eens, Bonnie de Vries, Wendt Müller
Recent studies on birds have shown that offspring begging and parental provisioning covary at the phenotypic level, which is thought to reflect genetic correlations. However, prenatal maternal factors, like yolk testosterone, may also facilitate parent-offspring coadaptation via their effects on offspring begging and development. In fact, maternal effects are thought to adjust offspring phenotype to the environmental conditions they will experience after birth, which are in turn strongly dependent on the levels of parental provisioning...
November 10, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Ondi L Crino, Katherine L Buchanan, Benjamin G Fanson, Laura L Hurley, Kristina O Smiley, Simon C Griffith
Up to 80% of all bird species are socially monogamous. Divorce (switching partners) or pair disruption (due to the death of a partner) has been associated with decreased reproductive success, suggesting social monogamy is a strategy that may maximize fitness via coordination between partners. Previous studies have demonstrated the effects of divorce and pair disruption on immediate reproductive success. Here, we used a paired experimental design in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the hormonal mechanisms that modulate parental behavior and reproductive success in response to a partnership change (hereafter divorce)...
November 9, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Cait M Williamson, Russell D Romeo, James P Curley
Social competence - the ability of animals to dynamically adjust their social behavior dependent on the current social context - is fundamental to the successful establishment and maintenance of social relationships in group-living species. The social opportunity paradigm, where animals rapidly ascend a social hierarchy following the removal of more dominant individuals, is a well-established approach for studying the neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socially competent behavior. In the current study, we demonstrate that this paradigm can be successfully adapted for studying socially competent behavior in laboratory mice...
November 5, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susannah S French
Endocrine-immune interactions are variable across species and contexts making it difficult to discern consistent patterns. There is a paucity of data in non-model systems making these relationships even more nebulous, particularly in reptiles. In the present study, we have completed a more comprehensive test of the relationship among steroid hormones and ecologically relevant immune measures. We tested the relationship between baseline and stress-induced levels of sex and adrenal steroid hormones and standard ecoimmunological metrics in both female and male Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)...
November 3, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Matthew D Taves, Jordan E Hamden, Kiran K Soma
Circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) are powerful regulators of immunity. Stress-induced GC secretion by the adrenal glands initially enhances and later suppresses the immune response. GC targets include lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, which are well known for their sensitivity to GCs. Less appreciated, however, is that GCs are locally produced in lymphoid organs, where they play a critical role in selection of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we review the roles of systemic and locally-produced GCs in T lymphocyte development, which has been studied primarily in laboratory mice...
November 3, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Landon G Vom Steeg, Sabra L Klein
The outcome of microbial infections in mammals, including humans, is affected by the age, sex, and reproductive status of the host suggesting a role for sex steroid hormones. Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone, signaling through their respective steroid receptors, affect the functioning of immune cells to cause differential susceptibility to parasitic, bacterial, and viral infections. Microbes, including fungi, bacteria, parasites, and viruses, can also use sex steroid hormones and manipulate sex steroid receptor signaling mechanisms to increase their own survival and replication rate...
November 2, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Sarah Palackdharry, Ben M Sadd, Laura A Vogel, Rachel M Bowden
Recent studies have identified phagocytic B cells in a variety of species, yet little is understood about their function and how it is influenced by natural environmental variation, such as temperature. Phagocytic B-cells are present in red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta, and the wide range of temperatures experienced by these ectotherms may have an effect on immunity, including B cell antibody secretion and phagocytosis. We examined the impact of environmental temperature on B cell function in vitro using phagocytic and ELISpot assays conducted at biologically relevant temperatures...
November 2, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"