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Hormones and Behavior

Travis W Rusch, Michael W Sears, Michael J Angilletta
Hormones such as glucocorticoids and androgens enable animals to respond adaptively to environmental stressors. For this reason, circulating glucocorticoids became a popular biomarker for estimating the quality of an environment, and circulating androgens are frequently used to indicate social dominance. Here, we show that access to thermal resources influence the hormones and behavior of male lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi). We exposed isolated and paired males to different thermal landscapes, ranging from one large patch of shade to sixteen smaller patches...
September 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Katarzyna Pisanski, Aleksander Kobylarek, Luba Jakubowska, Judyta Nowak, Amelia Walter, Kamil Błaszczyński, Magda Kasprzyk, Krystyna Łysenko, Irmina Sukiennik, Katarzyna Piątek, Tomasz Frackowiak, Piotr Sorokowski
Examining the effects of acute stress across multiple modalities (behavioral, physiological, and endocrinological) can increase our understanding of the interplay among stress systems, and may improve the efficacy of stress detection. A multimodal approach also allows for verification of the biological stress response, which can vary between individuals due to myriad internal and external factors, thus allowing for reliable interpretation of behavioral markers of stress. Here, controlling for variables known to affect the magnitude of the stress response, we utilized the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to elicit an acute stress response in 80 healthy adult men and women...
September 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Monika Ogrizek, Neža Grgurevič, Tomaž Snoj, Gregor Majdič
Maternal stress could reprogram the developing fetal nervous system. A common target of maternal glucocorticoids is fetal neuro-endocrine axis. In the present study, pregnant mice were exposed to stress by injection and their male offspring were tested for sexual and aggressive behaviors in adult life. Three groups of pregnant mice were exposed to stress by sham syringe injection. The first group was injected on days 13, 14, and 15 p.c., the second group was injected on days 17 and 18 p.c., and the third group was injected daily from days 13 to 18 p...
September 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Patty X Kuo, Julia M Braungart-Rieker, Jennifer E Burke Lefever, Mallika S Sarma, Molly O'Neill, Lee T Gettler
Human paternal behavior is multidimensional, and extant research has yet to delineate how hormone patterns may be related to different dimensions of fathering. Further, although studies vary in their measurement of hormones (i.e., basal or reactivity), it remains unclear whether basal and/or reactivity measures are predictive of different aspects of men's parenting. We examined whether men's testosterone and cortisol predicted fathers' involvement in childcare and play with infants and whether fathers' testosterone and cortisol changed during fathers' first interaction with their newborn...
September 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Allison S Injaian, Conor C Taff, Kira L Pearson, Michelle M Y Gin, Gail L Patricelli, Maren N Vitousek
Transportation noise affects urbanized, rural, and otherwise unaltered habitats. Given expanding transportation networks, alterations in the acoustic landscapes experienced by animals are likely to be pervasive and persistent (i.e. chronic). It is important to understand if chronic noise exposure alters behavior and physiology in free-living animals, as it may result in long-lasting impacts, such as reduced reproductive success. Here, we experimentally tested the effects of chronic traffic noise on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone (the primary avian glucocorticoid), parental feeding behavior, and fitness proxies in breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)...
September 7, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Firyal Ramzan, Amber B Azam, D Ashley Monks, Iva B Zovkic
Although sex-hormones have a well-documented role in memory formation, most literature has focused on estrogens, whereas the role of androgens and their receptor (the androgen receptor; AR) in fear memory is relatively unexplored. To address this gap, we used a transgenic mouse model of AR overexpression (CMV-AR) to determine if AR regulates fear memory, and if this effect can be reversed either by the removal of circulating androgens via gonadectomy, or by antagonising AR activity with flutamide. We found that AR overexpression results in reduced freezing in response to foot shock, and that this difference is reversed with both gonadectomy and flutamide treatment...
September 7, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Kelcie C Schatz, Robert F Kyne, Stephanie L Parmeter, Matthew J Paul
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has recently been implicated in juvenile and adolescent social development. How AVP influences social development, however, is not understood. Adolescent homozygous Brattleboro rats (Hom), which lack AVP due to a mutation in the Avp gene, exhibit fewer active social behaviors (e.g., social play) but more passive social behaviors (e.g., huddling) than their wild type and heterozygous (Het) littermates, raising the possibility that AVP impacts social development through an arousal mechanism...
September 5, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Shivam Swamy, Xiaobin Xie, Ayaka Kukino, Haley E Calcagno, Michael R Lasarev, Jin Ho Park, Matthew P Butler
Circadian disruptions impair reproductive health in human populations and in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that mistimed food, a common disruptive feature of shift work, impairs reproductive success in mice. Male and female mPer2Luc mice on a C57BL/6 background were fed during the light or dark phase in two experiments. Food-induced internal misalignment of the liver clock was verified by in vivo bioluminescence in anesthetized mice in both experiments. In Experiment 1, food-restricted pairs were monitored for litters for 18 weeks...
September 5, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
S Burroughs, W F Schwindinger, J J Venditti, T Trautwein, A Dalsania, C M Klingerman
Prokineticins are involved in many physiological processes including circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer. Recently, they have been found to play a role in regulating food intake. Historically, proteins that increase feeding behavior in mammals decrease reproductive behavior to prevent pregnancy and lactation when food is scarce. In the current study, prokineticin-2 (PK2) had pronounced effects on reproductive and ingestive behaviors when given to female Syrian hamsters. Administration of PK2 prevented ingestive behaviors induced by food restriction, such as the amount of time spent with food and eating...
September 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Jean-Baptiste Leca, Noëlle Gunst, Keiko Shimizu, Michael A Huffman, Yukio Takahata, Paul L Vasey
We assessed the effect of a progestin-based contraceptive treatment (chlormadinone acetate) on female heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Central Japan. The data included estimated intensity of fertility cues, sexual solicitations and mounting behaviors collected daily during 17 consecutive mating seasons (1995-2012) from 159 females. Females that were on contraception: (1) exhibited less intense cues of putative fertility and for shorter periods; (2) were solicited by fewer males, and those males that did solicit them did so less often (i...
September 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Anka Bernhard, Cindy van der Merwe, Katharina Ackermann, Anne Martinelli, Inga D Neumann, Christine M Freitag
Oxytocin (OXT) shows anxiolytic and stress-reducing effects, but salivary OXT response to laboratory-induced stress has only been assessed in one study in healthy adults. The present study aimed at extending these findings by assessing salivary OXT stress reactivity in healthy adolescents (aged 11-18) compared to a control condition. A higher salivary OXT response to stress compared to the control condition was expected. In addition, the association between OXT, cortisol (CORT) and psychological reactivity patterns was explored...
September 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Aline Vilar Machado-Nils, Daniella Sabino Battagello, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jéssica Andrade-Silva, Sinésio Silva, Raphael Afonso Matos, Fernanda Gaspar do Amaral, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Russel J Reiter, Paul John Lucassen, Aniko Korosi, José Cipolla-Neto
Maternal melatonin provides photoperiodic information to the fetus and thus influences the regulation and timing of the offspring's internal rhythms and preparation for extra-uterine development. There is clinical evidence that melatonin deprivation of both mother and fetus during pregnancy, and of the neonate during lactation, results in negative long-term health outcomes. As a consequence, we hypothesized that the absence of maternal pineal melatonin might determine abnormal brain programming in the offspring, which would lead to long-lasting implications for behavior and brain function...
September 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Marcela Cristina Garnica-Siqueira, Andressa Busetti Martins, Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia, Cristiane Mota Leite, Ernane Torres Uchôa, Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) are anorexigenic neuropeptides that act in the hypothalamus to regulate food intake. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of VIP promotes increased plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone, indicating that VIP activates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between VIP and CRF, by verifying the effects of ICV administration of VIP on the activity of neurons and CRF mRNA expression in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN)...
August 28, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Dusti K Sloan, Diana S Spencer, Kathleen S Curtis
Multiple stimulatory and inhibitory neural circuits control eating, and these circuits are influenced by an array of hormonal, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter signals. For example, estrogen and oxytocin (OT) both are known to decrease food intake, but the mechanisms by which these signal molecules influence eating are not fully understood. These studies investigated the interaction between estrogen and OT in the control of food intake. RT-qPCR studies revealed that 17β-estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated rats showed a two-fold increase in OT mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) compared to Oil-treated controls...
August 23, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Kim Wallen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Parker J Holman, Linda Ellis, Erin Morgan, Joanne Weinberg
Social behavior deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) emerge early in life and become more pronounced across development. Maturational changes associated with adolescence, including pubertal onset, can have significant consequences for social behavior development, making adolescence a unique period of increased vulnerability to social behavior dysfunction. Unfortunately, little is known about the underlying neurobiology supporting PAE-related social behavior impairments, particularly in the context of adolescence, when the transition to a more complex social environment may exacerbate existing deficits in social behavior function...
August 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Bronwyn M Graham
Rats exposed to early-life maternal separation (MS) exhibit later alterations in fear conditioning and impairments in fear extinction. As MS creates long-lasting anxiety in the mother, the present study assessed the influence of MS on fear conditioning and extinction in mother rats. It also examined whether estrous cycle effects on extinction, which are robust in nulliparous rats, but abolished in primiparous rats, re-emerge after MS. Following parturition, pups were removed from their mothers for 3 h daily from postpartum day 2-14 (MS), or remained housed with their mothers (standard reared condition, SR)...
August 15, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Nicolas M Adreani, Wolfgang Goymann, Lucia Mentesana
Behaviors such as territorial interactions among individuals can modulate vertebrate physiology and vice versa. Testosterone has been pointed out as a key hormone that can be rapidly affected by aggressive interactions. However, experimental evidence for such a link is mixed. In addition, behaviors can elicit changes in multiple hormones, which in turn have the potential to synergistically feedback to behavior. For example testosterone and progesterone can act interdependently in modulating male behavior. However, if aggression can affect progesterone levels in males remain unknown and - to the best of our knowledge - no one has yet tackled if and how aggressive behavior simultaneously affects testosterone and progesterone in free-living animals...
August 10, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Su-Su Tang, Yi Ren, Li-Jie Xu, Jing-Ran Cao, Hao Hong, Hui Ji, Qing-Hua Hu
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are thought to be associated with the onset and progression of neurodegenerative injuries and diseases, but the relationship and mechanisms underlying between ERs and cognition in type 1 diabetes remain elusive. In the current study, we investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ on the memory impairment and apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. We found that ERα and/or ERβ activation using their agonists (0.5 mg/kg E2, PPT or DPN) ameliorate memory impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze tests and suppress apoptosis as evidenced by decreased caspase-3 activity and increased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax...
August 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Christine M Prater, Breanna N Harris, James A Carr
The optic tectum and superior colliculus rapidly inhibit food intake when a visual threat is present. Previous work indicates that CRF, acting on CRFR1 receptors, may play a role in tectal inhibition of feeding behavior and food intake. Here we test the hypothesis that tectal CRFR1 receptors modulate food intake and feeding behavior in juvenile Xenopus laevis. We performed five experiments to test the following questions: 1) Does tectal CRF injection decrease food intake/feeding behavior? 2) Does a selective CRFR1 antagonist block CRF effects on feeding/feeding behavior? 3) Does a reactive stressor decrease food intake/feeding behavior? 4) Does a selective CRFR1 antagonist block reactive stress-induced decrease in feeding/feeding behavior? 5) Does food deprivation increase food intake/feeding behavior? Tectal CRF injections reduced food intake and influenced exploratory behavior, hindlimb kicks, and time in contact with food...
August 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
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