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Hormones and Behavior

Olivia Le Moëne, Anders Ågmo
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are involved in sexual as well as non-sexual behaviors. In the present study we assessed the effects of stimuli inducing positive or negative affect on sociosexual, exploratory and fear-related behaviors of female rats housed in groups (4 females, 3 males) in a seminatural environment. Ovariectomized females were treated with oil, 17β‑estradiol benzoate (EB, 18 μg/kg), the ERα agonist propylpyrazoletriol (PPT), or the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (both 2 × 10 mg/rat)...
November 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
David Kabelik, Hans A Hofmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn Mustoe, Stephanie L Womack, Jeffrey A French
In socially-monogamous species, intolerance of interactions between a pairmate and a sexual rival (i.e., mate-guarding) promotes the preservation of long-lasting partnerships. One promising neurobiological candidate for the regulation of mate-guarding behavior in monogamous primates is the oxytocin (OT) system, given its established role in both the development of monogamous bonds and the behavioral processes that facilitate the preservation of those bonds. In this study, male and female marmosets were exposed to a same-sex intruder in their home environment during conditions when their pairmate was present and absent, and across three treatment conditions (OT receptor agonist; saline control; OT receptor antagonist)...
October 26, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Diana Pietrowski, Laura Schäfer, Jana Kromer, Alexander H Schmidt, Jürgen Sauter, Thomas Hummel, Ilona Croy
The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene complex that encodes important elements of the human immune system. HLA profile is communicated via olfaction and interindividual diversity is assumed to be advantageous for mate choice. Additionally, HLA diversity appears to enhance satisfaction and sexual attraction in existing romantic partnerships. However, whether this effect is transmitted via body odors and whether it results in an attraction towards HLA-dissimilar individuals and/or an avoidance of HLA-similar ones remains unclear...
October 25, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
S Burroughs, W F Schwindinger, J J Venditti, T Trautwein, A Dalsania, C M Klingerman
Prokineticins are involved in many physiological processes including circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer. Recently, they have been found to play a role in regulating food intake. Historically, proteins that increase feeding behavior in mammals decrease reproductive behavior to prevent pregnancy and lactation when food is scarce. In the current study, prokineticin-2 (PK2) had pronounced effects on reproductive and ingestive behaviors when given to female Syrian hamsters. Administration of PK2 prevented ingestive behaviors induced by food restriction, such as the amount of time spent with food and eating...
October 25, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Julia Jünger, Natalie V Motta-Mena, Rodrigo Cardenas, Drew Bailey, Kevin A Rosenfield, Christoph Schild, Lars Penke, David A Puts
Are estrous mate preference shifts robust? This question is the subject of controversy within human evolutionary sciences. For nearly two decades, mate preference shifts across the ovulatory cycle were considered an important feature of human sexual selection, directing women's attention toward mates with indicators of "good genes" in their fertile phase, when conception is possible. However, several recent studies on masculine faces, bodies and behaviors did not find evidence supporting this account, known as the good genes ovulatory shift hypothesis...
October 20, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Priscila Vázquez-León, Carolina Campos-Rodríguez, Carlos Gonzalez-Pliego, Abraham Miranda-Páez
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the main neurohormone peptide systems in the brain, and a major anxiogenic mediator. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a key midbrain structure for defensive behaviors, which could include anxiety, fear, or even panic. The CCK system has wide distribution in the PAG, where the dorsolateral region (DL) participates in active defensive behavior and the ventrolateral region (VL) in passive defensive behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of CCK-8 microinjection into DL-PAG or VL-PAG on anxiety-like behavior through two tests: elevated plus maze (EPM) and defensive burying behavior (DBB)...
October 19, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Xiang Hu, Yan Wang, Jens C Pruessner, Juan Yang
Interdependent self-construal (ISC) is a concept positing that people define their self through social roles and relationships with others. We investigated in two independent studies whether ISC had an effect on psychological and endocrine stress responses. Study 1 collected data of 295 healthy young Chinese participants' subjective report of ISC using the self-construal scale, and daily levels of stress using the daily stress inventory. Correlational analyses showed that individuals with higher ISC perceived higher levels of stress in daily life...
October 19, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Maggie C Evans, Nivesh S Kumar, Megan A Inglis, Greg M Anderson
Leptin and insulin's hunger-suppressing and activity-promoting actions on hypothalamic neurons are well characterized, yet the mechanisms by which they modulate the midbrain dopamine system to influence energy balance remain less clear. A subset of midbrain dopamine neurons express receptors for leptin (Lepr) and insulin (Insr). Leptin-dopamine signaling reduces running reward and homecage activity. However, dopamine-specific deletion of Lepr does not affect body weight or food intake in mice. We hypothesized insulin-dopamine signaling might compensate for disrupted leptin-dopamine signaling...
October 19, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
David Kabelik, Chelsea A Weitekamp, Shelley C Choudhury, Jacob T Hartline, Alexandra N Smith, Hans A Hofmann
Animals have evolved flexible strategies that allow them to evaluate and respond to their social environment by integrating the salience of external stimuli with internal physiological cues into adaptive behavioral responses. A highly conserved social decision-making network (SDMN), consisting of interconnected social behavior and mesolimbic reward networks, has been proposed to underlie such adaptive behaviors across all vertebrates, although our understanding of this system in reptiles is very limited. Here we measure neural activation across the SDMN and associated regions in the male brown anole (Anolis sagrei), within both reproductive and agonistic contexts, by quantifying the expression density of the immediate early gene product Fos...
October 17, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Manon Chasles, Didier Chesneau, Chantal Moussu, Kevin Poissenot, Massimiliano Beltramo, José Alberto Delgadillo, Philippe Chemineau, Matthieu Keller
In rodents, early exposure to adult male is well known to induce an early puberty in females (Vandenbergh effect). This phenomenon has been less studied in other mammals. In goats, despite our extensive knowledge about the "male-effect" phenomenon in adults (i.e. ovulation induced by the introduction of the male during the anestrous), there are few data on the consequences of an early exposure of females to males. Here, we evaluated the puberty onset of young alpine goats when raised since weaning with intact bucks (INT), with castrated bucks (CAS) or isolated from bucks (ISOL)...
October 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
W J Hastings, A M Chang, R P Ebstein, I Shalev
Sex hormones are significant regulators of stress reactivity, however, little is known about how genetic variation in hormone receptors contributes to this process. Here we report interactions between biological sex and repeat polymorphisms in genes encoding sex hormone receptors, and their effects on salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 100 participants (47 men & 53 women; 24.7 ± 3.23 years). Three genes were investigated: estrogen receptors alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2), and the androgen receptor (AR)...
October 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Lily Yan, Joseph S Lonstein, Antonio A Nunez
Light profoundly affects the behavior and physiology of almost all animals, including humans. One such effect in humans is that the level of illumination during the day positively contributes to affective well-being and cognitive function. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of daytime light intensity on affect and cognition are poorly understood. One barrier for progress in this area is that almost all laboratory animal models studied are nocturnal. There are substantial differences in how light affects nocturnal and diurnal species, e...
October 9, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Brina Snyder, Phong Duong, Jenny Trieu, Rebecca L Cunningham
Sleep apnea is associated with testosterone dysregulation as well as increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). A rodent model of the hypoxemic events of sleep apnea, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), has been previously documented to impair cognitive function and elevate oxidative stress in male rats, while simultaneously decreasing testosterone. Therefore, androgens may modulate neuronal function under CIH. To investigate the role of androgens during CIH, male rats were assigned to one of four hormone groups: 1) gonadally intact, 2) gonadectomized (GDX), 3) GDX + testosterone (T) supplemented, or 4) GDX + dihydrotestosterone (DHT) supplemented...
October 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Adam H Boyette, Sheina Lew-Levy, Mallika S Sarma, Lee T Gettler
Males in vertebrate species with biparental care commonly face a life history trade-off between investing in mating versus parenting effort. Among these males, testosterone is frequently elevated during mating and competition and reduced when males help raise offspring. These physiological patterns may be adaptive, increasing males' fitness through investments in young. However, for some species, including humans, indirect parenting often benefits young but can also involve male competition and risk-taking behavior and may be facilitated by elevated testosterone...
September 27, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Jessica Burgstaller, Markus Paulus, Michaela Pfundmair
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to facilitate social cognition and behavior. As predicting others' behavior is at the core of human social-cognitive abilities and is indispensable for successful social interaction, we hypothesized that OT would increase action prediction. To test this hypothesis, 61 male and female healthy participants self-administered OT or placebo intranasally and their anticipatory eye-movements were recorded using eye-tracking techniques. We found that the ability to predict others' future actions was enhanced following OT treatment...
September 20, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Travis W Rusch, Michael W Sears, Michael J Angilletta
Hormones such as glucocorticoids and androgens enable animals to respond adaptively to environmental stressors. For this reason, circulating glucocorticoids became a popular biomarker for estimating the quality of an environment, and circulating androgens are frequently used to indicate social dominance. Here, we show that access to thermal resources influence the hormones and behavior of male lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi). We exposed isolated and paired males to different thermal landscapes, ranging from one large patch of shade to sixteen smaller patches...
September 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Katarzyna Pisanski, Aleksander Kobylarek, Luba Jakubowska, Judyta Nowak, Amelia Walter, Kamil Błaszczyński, Magda Kasprzyk, Krystyna Łysenko, Irmina Sukiennik, Katarzyna Piątek, Tomasz Frackowiak, Piotr Sorokowski
Examining the effects of acute stress across multiple modalities (behavioral, physiological, and endocrinological) can increase our understanding of the interplay among stress systems, and may improve the efficacy of stress detection. A multimodal approach also allows for verification of the biological stress response, which can vary between individuals due to myriad internal and external factors, thus allowing for reliable interpretation of behavioral markers of stress. Here, controlling for variables known to affect the magnitude of the stress response, we utilized the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to elicit an acute stress response in 80 healthy adult men and women...
September 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Monika Ogrizek, Neža Grgurevič, Tomaž Snoj, Gregor Majdič
Maternal stress could reprogram the developing fetal nervous system. A common target of maternal glucocorticoids is fetal neuro-endocrine axis. In the present study, pregnant mice were exposed to stress by injection and their male offspring were tested for sexual and aggressive behaviors in adult life. Three groups of pregnant mice were exposed to stress by sham syringe injection. The first group was injected on days 13, 14, and 15 p.c., the second group was injected on days 17 and 18 p.c., and the third group was injected daily from days 13 to 18 p...
September 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Patty X Kuo, Julia M Braungart-Rieker, Jennifer E Burke Lefever, Mallika S Sarma, Molly O'Neill, Lee T Gettler
Human paternal behavior is multidimensional, and extant research has yet to delineate how hormone patterns may be related to different dimensions of fathering. Further, although studies vary in their measurement of hormones (i.e., basal or reactivity), it remains unclear whether basal and/or reactivity measures are predictive of different aspects of men's parenting. We examined whether men's testosterone and cortisol predicted fathers' involvement in childcare and play with infants and whether fathers' testosterone and cortisol changed during fathers' first interaction with their newborn...
September 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
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