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Hormones and Behavior

Michaela Pfundmair, Clarissa Zwarg, Markus Paulus, Anne Rimpel
The social saliency account proposes that oxytocin (OT) plays a major role in modulating attentional shifts toward social cues at early stages of processing. We investigated how OT promotes early attention toward nonsocial and social stimuli and explored differences between in-group- and out-group-related social cues. After participants intranasally self-administered OT or placebo, they were eye-tracked while observing a nonsocial and social cues that were assigned to the in- or out-group by a minimal group paradigm...
March 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Lauren J Human, Katherine R Thorson, Joshua D Woolley, Wendy Berry Mendes
Intranasal administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has, in some studies, been associated with positive effects on social perception and cognition. Similarly, positive emotion inductions can improve a range of perceptual and performance-based behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examined how OT administration and positive emotion inductions interact in their associations with social and analytical performance. Participants (N=124) were randomly assigned to receive an intranasal spray of OT (40IU) or placebo and then viewed one of three videos designed to engender one of the following emotion states: social warmth, pride, or an affectively neutral state...
March 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Ross DeAngelis, Joseph Gogola, Logan Dodd, Justin S Rhodes
The nonapeptides isotocin (IT) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), along with their mammalian homologs oxytocin and arginine vasopressin, are well known regulators of social behaviors across vertebrate taxa. However, little is known about their involvement in paternal care. Here, we measured the effect of an IT and an AVT V1a receptor antagonist on paternal behaviors in the primarily paternal teleost Amphiprion ocellaris. We also measured the effect of the IT receptor antagonist on aggression in dyadic contests between two non-reproductive fish to assess specificity of the effect on paternal behaviors...
March 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Jacinta C Beehner, Thore J Bergman
Glucocorticoids are hormones that mediate the energetic demands that accompany environmental challenges. It is therefore not surprising that these metabolic hormones have come to dominate endocrine research on the health and fitness of wild populations. Yet, several problems have been identified in the vertebrate research that also apply to the non-human primate research. First, glucocorticoids should not be used as a proxy for fitness (unless a link has previously been established between glucocorticoids and fitness for a particular population)...
March 15, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Khandis R Blake, Barnaby J W Dixson, Siobhan M O'Dean, Thomas F Denson
Several studies report that wearing red clothing enhances women's attractiveness and signals sexual proceptivity to men. The associated hypothesis that women will choose to wear red clothing when fertility is highest, however, has received mixed support from empirical studies. One possible cause of these mixed findings may be methodological. The current study aimed to replicate recent findings suggesting a positive association between hormonal profiles associated with high fertility (high estradiol to progesterone ratios) and the likelihood of wearing red...
March 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Inhibition of stress-induced elevations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or its primary receptor tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) within the reward pathway may modulate vulnerability to anxiety and mood disorders. The current study examined the role of BDNF/TrkB signaling on biochemistry and behavior under basal conditions and following exposure to a 10-day heterotypic stress paradigm in male rats. Effects of intra-accumbal administration of TrkB antagonist ANA-12 (0.25μg/0.5μl/min) on anxiety, and expression of Trk-B, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within the mesolimbic pathway were determined...
March 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Susanne Sangenstedt, Iman Jaljuli, Norbert Sachser, Sylvia Kaiser
The early social environment can profoundly affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes. We investigated how male wild cavy offspring, whose mothers had either lived in a stable (SE) or an unstable social environment (UE) during pregnancy and lactation, differed in their anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. At two different time points in life, we tested the offspring's anxiety-like behavior in a dark-light test and their endocrine reaction to challenge in a cortisol reactivity test. Furthermore, we analyzed whether individual traits remained stable over time...
March 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
George T Taylor, Francesca M Manzella, Jacob Huffman, Omar H Cabrera, Jessica Hoffman
Women and non-human females have surprisingly high levels of circulating testosterone, yet the effects of androgens on non-reproductive behaviors, including cognition, of females are not well characterized. The current project used an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to block conversion of androgens to estrogens. Adult female rats were ovariectomized and administered either vehicle only, testosterone propionate only (400μg/kg, TP only), letrozole only (1mg/kg, Letro only), or the combination of letrozole and testosterone (TP+Letro) over 4weeks...
March 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Lisa Wagels, Sina Radke, Katharina Sophia Goerlich, Ute Habel, Mikhail Votinov
BACKGROUND: Testosterone can motivate human approach and avoidance behavior. Specifically, the conscious recognition of and implicit reaction to angry facial expressions is influenced by testosterone. The study tested whether exogenous testosterone modulates the personal distance (PD) humans prefer in a social threat context. METHODS: 82 healthy male participants underwent either transdermal testosterone (testosterone group) or placebo application (placebo group)...
March 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Nicholas M Grebe, Andreas Aarseth Kristoffersen, Trond Viggo Grøntvedt, Melissa Emery Thompson, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Steven W Gangestad
Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies...
March 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Toni E Ziegler, Catherine Crockford
Primates maintain a variety of social relationships and these can have fitness consequences. Research has established that different types of social relationships are unpinned by different or interacting hormonal systems, for example, the neuropeptide oxytocin influences social bonding, the steroid hormone testosterone influences dominance relationships, and paternal care is characterized by high oxytocin and low testosterone. Although the oxytocinergic system influences social bonding, it can support different types of social bonds in different species, whether pair bonds, parent-offspring bonds or friendships...
March 8, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Nathan D Horrell, Juan P Perea-Rodriguez, Breanna N Harris, Wendy Saltzman
In biparental mammals, the factors facilitating the onset of male parental behavior are not well understood. While hormonal changes in fathers may play a role, prior experience with pups has also been implicated. We evaluated effects of prior exposure to pups on paternal responsiveness in the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). We analyzed behavioral, neural, and corticosterone responses to pups in adult virgin males that were interacting with a pup for the first time, adult virgin males that had been exposed to pups 3 times for 20min each in the previous week, and new fathers...
March 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Esther K Diekhof, Susanne Kraft
The capacity to flexibly adapt responding to unexpected changes in the environment is crucial for survival. Several neurotransmitters have been implicated in stimulus-outcome reversal learning. Yet, it remains an open question whether inter-individual differences in the neuroactive hormone testosterone may also be related to this type of behavioral flexibility. In this study we assessed the association between endogenous testosterone level and reversal learning in young healthy men. We used an observer reversal learning task, in which subjects viewed computer-based decisions between two stimuli, of which one was currently rewarded while the other one was punished...
February 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Julia L Desprat, Nathalie Mondy, Thierry Lengagne
During the breeding season, males often produce costly and extravagant displays or physical ornaments to attract females. Numerous studies have established that testosterone could directly influence the expression of certain sexual signals. However, few of these studies have focused on the indirect role that testosterone could play in modulating prey detection and visual performance to improve the foraging ability of males and hence their acquisition of nutritional resource. In the present study, we experimentally modified the testosterone levels of European tree frog males (Hyla arborea), staying in the natural range previously measured in the field, and we investigated the effect of testosterone on the foraging ability of individuals...
February 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
James R Roney, Zachary L Simmons
What role do ovarian hormones play in modulating day-to-day shifts in women's motivational priorities? In many nonhuman mammals, estradiol causes drops in feeding and foraging, progesterone reverses this effect, and the two hormones in combination produce cycle phase shifts characterized by lower food intake near ovulation when sexual receptivity is at its peak. Hormonal predictors of within-cycle shifts in women's total food intake have not been previously tested. Here, in a study with both daily hormone measures and self-reported food intake, we found that within-cycle fluctuations in estradiol negatively predicted shifts in food intake, progesterone fluctuations positively predicted them, and the two hormones together statistically mediated a significant peri-ovulatory drop in eating...
February 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
V Behringer, T Deschner
The monitoring of endocrine markers that inform about an animal's physiological state has become an invaluable tool for studying the behavioral ecology of primates. While the collection of blood samples usually requires the animal to be caught and immobilized, non-invasively collected samples of saliva, urine, feces or hair can be obtained without any major disturbance of the subject of interest. Such samples enable repeated collection which is required for matching behavioral information over long time periods with detailed information on endocrine markers...
February 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Laura A Schoenle, Alana M Dudek, Ignacio T Moore, Frances Bonier
Glucocorticoid hormones facilitate responses to environmental challenges by mediating diverse physiological and behavioral changes, including resource mobilization and altered reproductive effort. Elevated glucocorticoids might indicate that an individual is facing high levels of environmental challenges and thus, elevated concentrations might be associated with reduced fitness (CORT-fitness hypothesis). Alternatively, the energetic demands of reproduction might be a challenge that requires elevated glucocorticoids to mobilize resources to support reproductive effort, ultimately increasing reproductive investment and fitness (CORT-adaptation hypothesis)...
February 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Maria I Cordero, Dominik A Moser, Aurelia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Ana Sancho-Rossignol, Raffaella Torrisi, Michel F Rossier, François Ansermet, Alexandre G Dayer, Sandra Rusconi-Serpa, Daniel S Schechter
Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia...
February 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
John Coates, Mark Gurnell
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Financial markets are periodically destabilized by bubbles and crashes during which investors display respectively what has been called "irrational exuberance" and "irrational pessimism". How can we best study these pathologies in competitive and risk-taking behaviours? In this article, we argue that a science of risk-taking and of the financial markets needs to draw heavily on physiology and especially endocrinology, due to their central roles in moderating human behaviour...
February 4, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Michael G Emmerson, Karen A Spencer
Experiencing stress during adolescence can increase neophobic behaviors in adulthood, but most tests have been conducted in the absence of conspecifics. Conspecifics can modulate responses to stressors, for example by acting as 'social buffers' to attenuate the aversive appraisal of stressors. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of adolescent stress on the behavioral responses to novel stimuli (a mild stressor) across social contexts in an affiliative passerine bird, the zebra finch. During early (days 40-60) or late (days 65-85) adolescence the birds (n=66) were dosed with either saline or the hormone corticosterone (CORT)...
February 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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