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Hormones and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512038/involvement-of-the-oxytocin-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-the-regulation-of-juvenile-social-novelty-seeking-behavior
#1
Caroline J W Smith, Jazmin N Mogavero, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
Exploration of novel environments, stimuli, and conspecifics is highly adaptive during the juvenile period, as individuals transition from immaturity to adulthood. We recently showed that juvenile rats prefer to interact with a novel individual over a familiar cage mate. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this juvenile social novelty-seeking behavior remain largely unknown. One potential candidate is the oxytocin (OXT) system, given its involvement in various motivated social behaviors. Here, we show that administration of the specific oxytocin receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4)]OVT reduces social novelty seeking-behavior in juvenile male rats when injected into the nucleus accumbens (10ng/0...
May 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514644/the-importance-of-hormonal-circadian-rhythms-in-daily-feeding-patterns-an-illustration-with-simulated-pigs
#2
Iris J M M Boumans, Imke J M de Boer, Gert Jan Hofstede, Susanne E la Fleur, Eddie A M Bokkers
The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day. We simulated the feeding behaviour of pigs over a 24h period. The simulation model contained mechanisms that regulate feeding behaviour of animals, including: processing of feed in the gastrointestinal tract, fluctuation in energy balance, circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol and motivational decision-making...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495558/acute-psychosocial-stress-and-everyday-moral-decision-making-in-young-healthy-men-the-impact-of-cortisol
#3
Nina Singer, Monika Sommer, Katrin Döhnel, Sandra Zänkert, Stefan Wüst, Brigitte M Kudielka
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506816/ghrelin-suppresses-cholecystokinin-cck-peptide-yy-pyy-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-in-the-intestine-and-attenuates-the-anorectic-effects-of-cck-pyy-and-glp-1-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#4
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ana Isabel Valenciano, María Jesús Delgado, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527589/competition-related-testosterone-cortisol-and-perceived-personal-success-in-recreational-women-athletes
#5
Kathleen V Casto, Aileen Rivell, David A Edwards
Thirty-five women participating in one or more intramural flag-football games provided saliva samples before, immediately after, and 10min after competition and completed an after-competition questionnaire appraising their own performance during the game. As seen in other studies of elite athletes, these recreational athletes, on average, showed significant elevations in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) across the competition period - the "competition effect". In winners and losers, T levels at all time points measured were positively related to athletes' appraisals of their own individual performance...
May 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522306/the-effects-of-chronic-testosterone-administration-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-adipose-tissue-are-changed-by-estrogen-treatment-in-female-rats
#6
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Rie Yanagihara, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Yiliyasi Mayila, Akira Kuwahara, Minoru Irahara
In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excess body weight (BW) gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgens in female BW, appetite, and energy metabolism have not been fully examined. We hypothesized that androgens' effects on food intake (FI) and BW regulation change according to the estrogens' levels. To evaluate this hypothesis, the effects of chronic testosterone administration in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol supplementation were examined in this study. Chronic testosterone administration decreased BW, FI, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, and adipocyte size in OVX rats, whereas it increased BW, WAT weight, and adipocyte size in OVX with estradiol-administered rats...
May 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526234/recommendations-for-the-study-of-women-in-hormones-and-competition-research
#7
Kathleen V Casto, Smrithi Prasad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434901/male-song-sparrows-have-elevated-testosterone-in-response-to-neighbors-versus-strangers
#8
Christopher Moser-Purdy, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Frances Bonier, Brendan A Graham, Andrea C Boyer, Daniel J Mennill
Upon hearing a conspecific signal, animals must assess their relationship with the signaller and respond appropriately. Territorial animals usually respond more aggressively to strangers than neighbors in a phenomenon known as the "dear enemy effect". This phenomenon likely evolved because strangers represent a threat to an animal's territory tenure and parentage, whereas neighbors only represent a threat to an animal's parentage because they already possess a territory (providing territory boundaries are established and stable)...
May 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478216/endocrine-differences-among-colour-morphs-in-a-lizard-with-alternative-behavioural-strategies
#9
Madeleine St Clair Yewers, Tim S Jessop, Devi Stuart-Fox
Alternative behavioural strategies of colour morphs are expected to associate with endocrine differences and to correspond to differences in physical performance (e.g. movement speed, bite force in lizards); yet the nature of correlated physiological and performance traits in colour polymorphic species varies widely. Colour morphs of male tawny dragon lizards Ctenophorus decresii has previously been found to differ in aggressive and anti-predator behaviors. We tested whether known behavioural differences correspond to differences in circulating baseline and post-capture stress levels of androgen and corticosterone, as well as bite force (an indicator of aggressive performance) and field body temperature...
May 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356224/socially-induced-variation-in-physiological-mediators-of-parental-care-in-a-colonial-bird
#10
Michaël Beaulieu, André Ancel, Olivier Chastel, François Criscuolo, Thierry Raclot
Social facilitation of reproduction occurs in humans and animals, and may represent one of the bases of reproduction in groups. However, its underlying physiological mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we found in a colonial bird, the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), that the number of parental interactions (nest relief ceremonies) performed by breeding individuals on the colony was positively related to prolactin levels in other breeding individuals exposed to these interactions (i.e. focal individuals)...
April 27, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455183/the-effects-of-competition-and-implicit-power-motive-on-men-s-testosterone-emotion-recognition-and-aggression
#11
John G Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression...
April 25, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390864/an-acute-social-defeat-stressor-in-early-puberty-increases-susceptibility-to-social-defeat-in-adulthood
#12
Anna M Rosenhauer, Katharine E McCann, Alisa Norvelle, Kim L Huhman
Syrian hamsters readily display territorial aggression. If they lose even a single agonistic encounter, however, hamsters show striking reductions in aggressive behavior and increases in submissive behavior, a distinct behavioral change that we have previously termed conditioned defeat. This acute social defeat stressor is primarily psychological and is effective in both males and females. Therefore, we maintain that this procedure presents an ideal model for studying behavioral and physiological responses to social stress...
April 25, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389277/spatial-learning-and-memory-in-male-mice-with-altered-growth-hormone-action
#13
Amrita Basu, Hewlet G McFarlane, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) has a significant influence on cognitive performance in humans and other mammals. To understand the influence of altered GH action on cognition, we assessed spatial learning and memory using a Barnes maze (BM) comparing twelve-month old, male, bovine GH (bGH) and GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice and their corresponding wild type (WT) littermates. During the acquisition training period in the BM, bGH mice showed increased latency, traveled longer path lengths and made more errors to reach the target than WT mice, indicating significantly poorer learning...
April 24, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359742/increased-vasopressin-expression-in-the-bnst-accompanies-paternally-induced-territoriality-in-male-and-female-california-mouse-offspring
#14
Christine N Yohn, Amanda B Leithead, Elizabeth A Becker
While developmental consequences of parental investment on species-typical social behaviors has been extensively characterized in same-sex parent-offspring interactions, the impact of opposite-sex relationships is less clear. In the bi-parental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal retrieval behavior induces territorial aggression and the expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in adult male offspring. Although similar patterns of territorially emerge among females, the sexually dimorphic AVP system has not been considered since it is generally thought to regulate male-typical behavior...
April 24, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377236/synthesizing-research-on-field-endocrinology-of-nonhuman-primates-and-humans
#15
James R Roney, James P Higham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414036/blunted-cortisol-response-to-acute-pre-learning-stress-prevents-misinformation-effect-in-a-forced-confabulation-paradigm
#16
Phillip R Zoladz, Chelsea E Cadle, Alison M Dailey, Miranda K Fiely, David M Peters, Hannah E Nagle, Brianne E Mosley, Amanda R Scharf, Callie M Brown, Tessa J Duffy, McKenna B Earley, Boyd R Rorabaugh, Kristie E Payment
Research examining the effects of stress on false memory formation has been equivocal, partly because of the complex nature of stress-memory interactions. A major factor influencing stress effects on learning is the timing of stress relative to encoding. Previous work has shown that brief stressors administered immediately before learning enhance long-term memory. Thus, we predicted that brief stress immediately before learning would decrease participants' susceptibility to subsequent misinformation and reduce false memory formation...
April 21, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433517/causal-attribution-and-psychobiological-response-to-competition-in-young-men
#17
A Salvador, R Costa, V Hidalgo, E González-Bono
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Psychoneuroendocrine effects of competition have been widely accepted as a clear example of the relationship between androgens and aggressive/dominant behavior in humans. However, results about the effects of competitive outcomes are quite heterogeneous, suggesting that personal and contextual factors play a moderating role in this relationship. To further explore these dimensions, we aimed to examine (i) the effect of competition and its outcome on the psychobiological response to a laboratory competition in young men, and (ii) the moderating role of some cognitive dimensions such as causal attributions...
April 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428002/performance-during-competition-and-competition-outcome-in-relation-to-testosterone-and-cortisol-among-women
#18
Andrea Henry, Jason R Sattizahn, Greg J Norman, Sian L Beilock, Dario Maestripieri
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. This study investigated the relation between competition, testosterone (T), and cortisol (C) in women. One hundred and twenty female participants competed against a male confederate in a computerized laboratory task. The task was preprogrammed so that half the women won and half of the women lost the competition. T and C concentrations were measured in saliva samples collected at four time points before and after the competition. Accuracy and reaction time during the competition were recorded...
April 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365397/hormonal-underpinnings-of-status-conflict-testosterone-and-cortisol-are-related-to-decisions-and-satisfaction-in-the-hawk-dove-game
#19
Pranjal H Mehta, Nicole M Lawless Desjardins, Mark van Vugt, Robert A Josephs
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off (status differentiation)...
March 29, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322748/oxytocin-promotes-attention-to-social-cues-regardless-of-group-membership
#20
Michaela Pfundmair, Clarissa Zwarg, Markus Paulus, Anne Rimpel
The social saliency account proposes that oxytocin (OT) plays a major role in modulating attentional shifts toward social cues at early stages of processing. We investigated how OT promotes early attention toward nonsocial and social stimuli and explored differences between in-group- and out-group-related social cues. After participants intranasally self-administered OT or placebo, they were eye-tracked while observing a nonsocial and social cues that were assigned to the in- or out-group by a minimal group paradigm...
March 23, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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