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Hormones and Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065712/experimentally-reducing-corticosterone-mitigates-rapid-captivity-effects-on-behavior-but-not-body-composition-in-a-wild-bird
#1
Christine R Lattin, Anita V Pechenenko, Richard E Carson
Wild animals and captives display physiological and behavioral differences, and it has been hypothesized, but rarely tested, that these differences are caused by sustained elevation of the hormone corticosterone. We used repeated computed tomography (CT) imaging to examine body composition changes in breeding male and female wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus; n=20) in response to two weeks of captivity, and assessed behavioral changes using video recordings. Half of the birds received the drug mitotane, which significantly decreased stress-induced corticosterone titers compared to controls...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065711/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-male-pheromone-priming-and-optogenetic-inhibition-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-forebrain-inputs-on-the-sexual-behavior-of-estrous-female-mice
#2
E A McCarthy, T Kunkhyen, W J Korzan, A Naik, A Maqsudlu, J A Cherry, M J Baum
Previous research has shown that repeated testing with a stimulus male is required for ovariectomized, hormone-primed female mice to become sexually receptive (show maximal lordosis quotients; LQs) and that drug-induced, epigenetic enhancement of estradiol receptor function accelerated the improvement in LQs otherwise shown by estrous females with repeated testing. We asked whether pre-exposure to male pheromones ('pheromone priming') would also accelerate the improvement in LQs with repeated tests and whether optogenetic inhibition of accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) projection neurons could inhibit lordosis in sexually experienced estrous female mice...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065710/ecoimmunology-and-microbial-ecology-contributions-to-avian-behavior-physiology-and-life-history
#3
REVIEW
Jessica K Evans, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith, Kirk C Klasing, BriAnne Addison
Bacteria have had a fundamental impact on vertebrate evolution not only by affecting the evolution of the immune system, but also generating complex interactions with behavior and physiology. Advances in molecular techniques have started to reveal the intricate ways in which bacteria and vertebrates have coevolved. Here, we focus on birds as an example system for understanding the fundamental impact bacteria have had on the evolution of avian immune defenses, behavior, physiology, reproduction and life histories...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063803/tamoxifen-and-ici-182-780-activate-hypothalamic-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-to-rapidly-facilitate-lordosis-in-female-rats
#4
Nathan Long, Bertha Long, Asma Mana, Dream Le, Lam Nguyen, Sima Chokr, Kevin Sinchak
In the female rat, sexual receptivity (lordosis) can be facilitated by sequential activation of estrogen receptor (ER) α and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) by estradiol. In the estradiol benzoate (EB) primed ovariectomized (OVX) rat, EB initially binds to ERα in the plasma membrane that complexes with and transactivates metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a to activate β-endorphin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). This activates MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOP), inhibiting lordosis...
January 4, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062231/the-effect-of-maternal-glucocorticoid-levels-on-juvenile-docility-in-yellow-bellied-marmots
#5
Matthew B Petelle, Brian N Dang, Daniel T Blumstein
Maternal effects can have significant and long-term consequences on offspring behavior and survival, while consistent individual differences (i.e., personality) can have profound impacts on individual fitness. Thus, both can influence population dynamics. However, the underlying mechanisms that determine variation in personality traits are poorly understood. Maternal effects are one potential mechanism that may explain personality variation. We capitalized on a long-term study of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to identify maternal effects on juvenile docility...
January 4, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062232/interactions-between-estradiol-and-haloperidol-on-perseveration-and-reversal-learning-in-amphetamine-sensitized-female-rats
#6
Anne Almey, Lauren Arena, Joshua Oliel, Nada Hafez, Cynthia Mancinelli, Lukas Henning, Aleks Tsanev, Wayne G Brake
There are sex differences associated with schizophrenia, as women exhibit later onset of the disorder, less severe symptomatology, and better response to antipsychotic medications. Estrogens are thought to play a role in these sex differences; estrogens facilitate the effects of antipsychotic medications to reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether estrogens protect against the cognitive symptoms of this disorder. Amphetamine sensitization is used to model some symptoms of schizophrenia in rats, including cognitive deficits like excessive perseveration and slower reversal learning...
January 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062230/the-influence-of-offspring-parity-and-oxytocin-on-cognitive-flexibility-during-the-postpartum-period
#7
Christopher C Albin-Brooks, Connor A Nealer, Sara Sabihi, Achikam Haim, Benedetta Leuner
Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of profound behavioral change including alterations in cognitive function. This has been most often studied using hippocampal-dependent tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. However, less is known about the cognitive effects of motherhood for tasks that rely on areas other than the hippocampus. We have previously shown that postpartum females perform better on the extradimensional phase of an attentional set shifting task, a measure of cognitive flexibility which is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
January 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025041/effect-of-lps-treatment-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-and-parkinson-like-behaviors
#8
Olivier Girard-Joyal, Nafissa Ismail
Puberty is a critical period of development during which the brain undergoes reorganizing and remodeling. Exposure to stress during this period is thought to interfere with normal brain development and increase susceptibility to mental illnesses. In female mice, pubertal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, has been shown to alter sexual, anxiety-like, and depression-like behaviors and cognition in an enduring manner. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The present study examined age and sex difference in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine-dependent and Parkinson-like behaviors following LPS treatment...
December 24, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025042/quercetin-ameliorates-chronic-unpredicted-stress-mediated-memory-dysfunction-in-male-swiss-albino-mice-by-attenuating-insulin-resistance-and-elevating-hippocampal-glut4-levels-independent-of-insulin-receptor-expression
#9
Vineet Mehta, Arun Parashar, Arun Sharma, Tiratha Raj Singh, Malairaman Udayabanu
Chronic stress is associated with impaired neuronal functioning, altered insulin signaling, and behavioral dysfunction. Quercetin has shown neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects, besides modulating cognition and insulin signaling. Therefore, in the present study, we explored whether or not quercetin ameliorates stress-mediated cognitive dysfunction and explored the underlying mechanism. Swiss albino male mice were subjected to an array of unpredicted stressors for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally...
December 23, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017597/repeated-restraint-stress-lowers-the-threshold-for-response-to-third-ventricle-crf-administration
#10
Ruth B S Harris
Rats and mice exposed to repeated stress or a single severe stress exhibit a sustained increase in energetic, endocrine, and behavioral response to subsequent novel mild stress. This study tested whether the hyper-responsiveness was due to a lowered threshold of response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or an exaggerated response to a standard dose of CRF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3h of restraint on each of 3 consecutive days (RRS) or were non-restrained controls. RRS caused a temporary hypophagia but a sustained reduction in body weight...
December 23, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017596/the-role-of-the-kisspeptin-system-in-regulation-of-the-reproductive-endocrine-axis-and-territorial-behavior-in-male-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#11
Lorin Neuman-Lee, Timothy Grieves, Gareth R Hopkins, Susannah S French
The neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor are essential for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and regulating reproduction. While the role of kisspeptin in regulating the HPG axis in mammals has been well established, little is known about the functional ability of kisspeptins to activate the HPG axis and associated behavior in non-mammalian species. Here we experimentally examined the effects of kisspeptin on downstream release of testosterone and associated aggression and display behaviors in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana)...
December 23, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017595/brain-prolactin-is-involved-in-stress-induced-rem-sleep-rebound
#12
Ricardo Borges Machado, Murilo Ramos Rocha, Deborah Suchecki
REM sleep rebound is a common behavioural response to some stressors and represents an adaptive coping strategy. Animals submitted to multiple, intermittent, footshock stress (FS) sessions during 96h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) display increased REM sleep rebound (when compared to the only REMSD ones, without FS), which is correlated to high plasma prolactin levels. To investigate whether brain prolactin plays a role in stress-induced REM sleep rebound two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, rats were either not sleep-deprived (NSD) or submitted to 96h of REMSD associated or not to FS and brains were evaluated for PRL immunoreactivity (PRL-ir) and determination of PRL concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus...
December 23, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011060/sex-differences-in-cortisol-s-regulation-of-affiliative-behavior
#13
Gary D Sherman, Leslie K Rice, Ellie Shuo Jin, Amanda S Jones, Robert A Josephs
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. A stress perspective is used to illuminate how competitive defeat and victory shape biology and behavior. We report on a field study examining how change in cortisol following perceived defeat (vs. victory) in a competition-in this case, a dog agility competition-relates to affiliative behavior. Following competition, we measured cortisol change and the extent to which dog handlers directed affiliative behaviors toward their dogs. We found striking sex differences in affiliation...
December 20, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988316/effect-of-melatonin-injection-into-the-periaqueductal-gray-on-antinociception-and-tonic-immobility-in-male-rats
#14
Abraham Miranda-Páez, Sergio R Zamudio, Priscila Vázquez-León, Vicente Sandoval-Herrera, Ivan Villanueva-Becerril, Giancarlo Carli
Melatonin (MLT) is a neurohormone with significant involvement in several biological functions, of which antinociception and tonic immobility (TI) may be the key neurobehavioral components to survive in adverse conditions such as a predator attack. TI-induced antinociception can be elicited, facilitated, or increased through opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) among other chemical mediators at several levels of the central nervous system, mainly in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the microinjection of MLT into the main PAG regions that are related to different integrated defensive responses, namely dorsal (D) and ventrolateral (VL), on both antinociception through the tail-flick (TF) test and TI duration as single behavioral response and on combined behavioral responses (TF/TI)...
December 15, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986541/the-influence-of-androgens-on-hibernation-phenology-of-free-living-male-arctic-ground-squirrels
#15
M M Richter, B M Barnes, K M O'Reilly, A M Fenn, C L Buck
Free-living ground squirrel species are sexually dimorphic in hibernation phenology. The underlying causes of these differences are not yet known. Androgens, testosterone (T) in particular, inhibit hibernation. To determine the influence of endogenous androgens on annual timing of hibernation we first measured circulating levels of T and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal androgen implicated in non-mating season aggression in other species, in free-living male arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii, AGS)...
December 13, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979632/cortisol-and-dhea-in-development-and-psychopathology
#16
REVIEW
Hayley S Kamin, Darlene A Kertes
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol...
December 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956227/the-sexual-preference-of-female-rats-is-influenced-by-males-adolescent-social-stress-history-and-social-status
#17
Cheryl M McCormick, Nicole M Cameron, Madison A Thompson, Mark J Cumming, Travis E Hodges, Marissa Langett
Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS...
December 9, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956226/sex-differences-in-immune-responses-hormonal-effects-antagonistic-selection-and-evolutionary-consequences
#18
REVIEW
Jacob Roved, Helena Westerdahl, Dennis Hasselquist
Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses...
December 9, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914879/what-can-animal-research-tell-us-about-the-link-between-androgens-and-social-competition-in-humans
#19
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Brian C Trainor, Catherine A Marler
The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)...
December 1, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913139/estimating-heritable-genetic-contributions-to-innate-immune-and-endocrine-phenotypic-correlations-a-need-to-explore-repeatability
#20
REVIEW
Timothy J Greives, Ned A Dochtermann, Emily C Stewart
The immune system plays an important role in enhancing an individual's ability to survive in a world inhabited by pathogens and parasites. The innate immune system is regulated by processes encoded in an individual's genome, providing an avenue for selection to act on this system, as well as the phenotypic relationships generated between this system and other traits of interest. While relationships between innate immunity and endocrine traits (e.g. testosterone) have been reported often in the literature, these relationships are complex and may differ under varying environmental conditions...
November 29, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
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