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Hormones and Behavior

D M Babstock, S G Walling, C W Harley, C W Malsbury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Tiffany Yang, Nu-Chu Liang
Physical inactivity and increased consumption of energy dense, high fat (HF) foods often leads to a state of positive energy balance. Regular exercise can facilitate the maintenance of a healthy body weight and mediate changes in dietary selection. Past studies using a two-diet choice (chow vs. HF) and voluntary wheel running paradigm found that when a novel HF diet and wheel running are simultaneously introduced, male rats show complete and persistent HF diet avoidance whereas the majority of females show HF diet avoidance for a few days, but then revert to HF diet preference...
March 9, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Gökhan Aydogan, Andrea Jobst, Fabian Loy, Sandra Dehning, Peter Zill, Norbert Müller, Martin Kocher
Decision-making in groups is a remarkable and decisive element of human societies. Humans are able to organize themselves in groups, engage in collaborative decision-making processes and arrive at a binding agreement, even in the absence of unanimous consent. However, the transfer of decision-making autonomy requires a willingness to deliberately expose oneself to the decisions of others. A lack of trust in the abilities of others or of the underlying decision-making process, i.e. public trust, can lead to a breakdown of organizations in political or economic domains...
March 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Ramune Griksiene, Rasa Monciunskaite, Aurina Arnatkeviciute, Osvaldas Ruksenas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Nancy G Forger, Elara Ruszkowski, Andrew Jacobs, Kim Wallen
The role of gonadal steroids in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) is well established in rodents, but no study to date has manipulated androgens prenatally and examined their effects on any CNS structure in a primate. Onuf's nucleus is a column of motoneurons in the sacral spinal cord that innervates the striated perineal muscles. This cell group is larger in males than in females of many species, due to androgens acting during a sensitive perinatal period. Here, we examined Onuf's nucleus in 21 adult rhesus monkeys, including control males and females, as well as males whose mothers had been treated with an anti-androgen or testosterone during gestation...
March 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Katherine R Tonn Eisinger, Kellie S Gross, Brian P Head, Paul G Mermelstein
Estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ) have a unique relationship with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the female rodent brain such that estradiol is able to recruit intracellular G-protein signaling cascades to influence neuronal physiology, structure, and ultimately behavior. While this association between ERs and mGluRs exists in many cell types and brain regions, its effects are perhaps most striking in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This review will discuss the original characterization of ER/mGluR signaling and how estradiol activity in the NAc confers increased sensitivity to drugs of abuse in females through this mechanism...
March 2, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Sanne Tops, Ute Habel, Sina Radke
Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) play an important role in a large variety of social behaviors. The oxytocinergic system interacts with environmental cues and is highly dependent on interindividual factors. Deficits in this system have been linked to mental disorders associated with social impairments, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review focuses on the modulation of social behavior by alterations in two domains of the oxytocinergic system. We discuss genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and alterations in these mechanisms that were found to have clinical implications for ASD...
March 2, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Laurie L Wellman, Mairen E Fitzpatrick, Amy M Sutton, Brook L Williams, Mayumi Machida, Larry D Sanford
The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) plays a significant role in mediating individual differences in the effects of fear memory on sleep. Here, we assessed the effects of antagonizing corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) after shock training (ST) on fear-conditioned behaviors and sleep. Outbred Wistar rats were surgically implanted with electrodes for recording EEG and EMG and with bilateral guide cannulae directed at BLA. Data loggers were placed intraperitoneally to record core body temperature...
March 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Heather S Mayer, Jamie Helton, Lisette Y Torres, Ignacio Cortina, Whitney M Brown, Danielle S Stolzenberg
The peripartum period is associated with the onset of behaviors that shelter, feed and protect young offspring from harm. The neural pathway that regulates caregiving behaviors has been mapped in female rats and is conserved in mice. However, rats rely on late gestational hormones to shift their perception of infant cues from aversive to attractive, whereas laboratory mice are "spontaneously" maternal, but their level of responding depends on experience. For example, pup-naïve virgin female mice readily care for pups in the home cage, but avoid pups in a novel environment...
February 27, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
T Kunkhyen, E Perez, M Bass, A Coyne, M J Baum, J A Cherry
In mice, olfaction is crucial for identifying social odors (pheromones) that signal the presence of suitable mates. We used a custom-built olfactometer and a thirst-motivated olfactory discrimination Go/No-Go (GNG) task to ask whether discrimination of volatile odors is sexually dimorphic and modulated in mice by adult sex hormones. Males and females gonadectomized prior to training failed to learn even the initial phase of the task, which involved nose poking at a port in one location obtaining water at an adjacent port...
February 23, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
C J Meakin, E M Martin, H P Santos, I Mokrova, K Kuban, T M O'Shea, R M Joseph, L Smeester, R C Fry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Lee-Ming Kow, Donald W Pfaff
This paper reviews early evidence for the existence of rapid, non-genomic effects of estrogens on neurons, and, further, proposes that these rapid effects are often synergistic with later, genomic effects. Finally, suggestions about potential molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid effects of estrogens are offered. A mechanistic step we propose to be common among rapid estrogenic actions includes membrane ER's binding to histamine, and NMDA receptors and subsequent dimerization, and clustering (respectively) in a manner that enhances histamine and NMDA actions...
February 21, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Genaro A Coria-Avila, Tamara Cibrian-Llanderal, Victor X Díaz-Estrada, Luis I García, Rebeca Toledo-Cárdenas, James G Pfaus, Jorge Manzo
Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus...
February 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Catherine A Dayger, Michael P LeMaster, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
When opportunities to feed and reproduce are limited, females are often unable to recover sufficient energy stores to reproduce in consecutive years. Body condition has been used as a proxy for recent reproductive history in such species. We previously found that glucocorticoid responses to capture stress vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), a species with limited seasonal breeding opportunities. Because variation in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in the brain could explain these differences, we first assessed GR protein content in females in different body conditions...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Charlotte A Cornil, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on multiple physiological and behavioral traits including sexual behavior. These effects are classically mediated via binding to nuclear receptors and subsequent regulation of target gene transcription. Estrogens also affect neuronal activity and cell-signaling pathways via faster, membrane-initiated events. Although the distinction between appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior has been criticized, this distinction remains valuable in that it facilitates the causal analysis of certain behavioral systems...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Luis Romero-Morales, Martín Martínez-Torres, Mario Cárdenas, Carmen Álvarez, Agustín Carmona, Benita Cedillo, Loya-Zurita Eduardo, Juana Luis
In the dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli), activational effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) in the regulation of paternal behavior have been repeatedly rejected because peripheral concentrations of E2 do not change across the reproductive cycle of males. Further, castration no affected paternal behavior despite that both T and E2 concentrations decreased significantly. However, the role of these hormones has not been evaluated in models of castration and hormonal replacement in virgin males. Here, we analysed the effects of E2 and T in paternal behavior in virgin male dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli)...
February 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Lena Wallensteen, Leif Karlsson, Valeria Messina, Anton Gezelius, Malin Thomsen Sandberg, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is effective in reducing virilization in affected girls, but potential long-term adverse effects are largely unknown. In this report we intended to explore potential side effects of DEX therapy to enhance the adequacy of future risk benefit analyses of DEX treatment. We investigated the long-term effects of first trimester prenatal DEX treatment on behavioral problems and temperament in children and adolescents aged 7-17 years...
February 6, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Aubrey M Kelly, Alexander G Saunders, Alexander G Ophir
Although prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) social behavior is well-characterized in adults, surprisingly little is known about the development of social behavior in voles. Further, the overwhelming majority of studies in prairie voles examine social behavior in a reproductive context. Here, we examine developmental plasticity in affiliation and aggression and their underlying neural correlates. Using sexually naïve males, we characterized interactions with an age-matched, novel, same-sex conspecific in four different age groups that span pre-weaning to adulthood...
February 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
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