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Biochimica et Biophysica Acta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535936/lipids-in-infectious-diseases-the-case-of-aids-and-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Fabrice Dumas, Evert Haanappel
Lipids play a central role in many infectious diseases. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and tuberculosis are two of the deadliest infectious diseases to have struck mankind. The pathogens responsible for these diseases, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, rely on lipids and on lipid membrane properties to gain access to their host cells, to persist in them and ultimately to egress from their hosts. In this Review, we discuss the life cycles of these pathogens and the roles played by lipids and membranes...
May 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533132/relations-between-the-loop-transposition-of-dna-g-quadruplex-and-the-catalytic-function-of-dnazyme
#2
Mingpan Cheng, Jun Zhou, Guoqing Jia, Xuanjun Ai, Jean-Louis Mergny, Can Li
The structures of DNA G-quadruplexes are essential for their functions in vivo and in vitro. Our present study revealed that sequential order of the three G-quadruplex loops, that is, loop transposition, could be a critical factor to determinate the G-quadruplex conformation and consequently improved the catalytic function of G-quadruplex based DNAzyme. In the presence of 100mM K(+), loop transposition induced one of the G-quadruplex isomers which shared identical loops but differed in the sequential order of loops into a hybrid topology while the others into predominately parallel topologies...
May 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533056/white-matter-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-role-for-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#3
REVIEW
Molly Braun, Kumar Vaibhav, Nancy M Saad, Sumbul Fatima, John R Vender, Babak Baban, Md Nasrul Hoda, Krishnan M Dhandapani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and long-term morbidity worldwide. Despite decades of pre-clinical investigation, therapeutic strategies focused on acute neuroprotection failed to improve TBI outcomes. This lack of translational success has necessitated a reassessment of the optimal targets for intervention, including a heightened focus on secondary injury mechanisms. Chronic immune activation correlates with progressive neurodegeneration for decades after TBI; however, significant challenges remain in functionally and mechanistically defining immune activation after TBI...
May 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529180/structure-function-relationships-in-reconstituted-hdl-focus-on-antioxidative-activity-and-cholesterol-efflux-capacity
#4
Alexandre M O Cukier, Patrice Therond, Svetlana A Didichenko, Isabelle Guillas-Baudouin, M John Chapman, Samuel D Wright, Anatol Kontush
AIMS: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) contains multiple components that endow it with biological activities. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and surface phospholipids contribute to these activities; however, structure-function relationships in HDL particles remain incompletely characterized. METHODS: Reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) were prepared from apoA-I and soy phosphatidylcholine (PC) at molar ratios of 1:50, 1:100 and 1:150. Oxidative status of apoA-I was varied using controlled oxidation of Met112 residue...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529179/mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-targets-for-a-better-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle
#5
REVIEW
Alexis Boulinguiez, Bart Staels, Helene Duez, Steve Lancel
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders represent a major health burden, with economic and social consequences. Although adapted lifestyle and bariatric surgery are effective in reducing body weight, obesity prevalence is still rising. Obese individuals often become insulin-resistant. Obesity impacts on insulin responsive organs, such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and cancer. In this review, we discuss the effects of obesity and insulin resistance on skeletal muscle, an important organ for the control of postprandial glucose...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529047/bezafibrate-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-antioxidant-system-disturbance-glial-reactivity-and-neuronal-damage-induced-by-sulfite-administration-in-striatum-of-rats-implications-for-a-possible-therapeutic-strategy-for-sulfite-oxidase-deficiency
#6
Mateus Grings, Alana Pimentel Moura, Belisa Parmeggiani, Julia Tauna Pletsch, Gabriela Miranda Fernandez Cardoso, Pauline Maciel August, Cristiane Matté, Angela T S Wyse, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Sulfite accumulates in tissues of patients affected by sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency, a neurometabolic disease characterized by seizures and progressive encephalopathy, often resulting in early death. We investigated the effects of sulfite on mitochondrial function, antioxidant system, glial reactivity and neuronal damage in rat striatum, as well as the potential protective effects of bezafibrate on sulfite-induced toxicity. Thirty-day-old rats were intrastriatally administered with sulfite (2μmol) or NaCl (2μmol; control) and euthanized 30min after injection for evaluation of biochemical parameters and western blotting, or 7days after injection for analysis of glial reactivity and neuronal damage...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529046/targeted-downregulation-of-dmyc-restricts-neurofibrillary-tangles-mediated-pathogenesis-of-human-neuronal-tauopathies-in-drosophila
#7
Soram Idiyasan Chanu, Surajit Sarkar
Formation of Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTs) in neuronal tissues has been implicated as the hallmark of disease pathogenesis and tau mediated toxicity in human and mammalian models. However, previous studies had failed to correlate NFT formation with pathogenesis of human neuronal tauopathies in Drosophila disease models. Though, a recent report suggests formation of tau mediated NFTs like structures confined to dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila adult brain, by utilizing various approaches, we demonstrate distinct and recurrent formation of NFTs in Drosophila neuronal tissues upon expression of wild type or mutant isoforms of human tau, and this appears as the key mediator of the pathogenesis of human neuronal tauopathy in Drosophila...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528958/investigation-of-calcium-dependent-activity-and-conformational-dynamics-of-zebra-fish-12-lipoxygenase
#8
Monica Mittal, Mahmudul Hasan, Navisraj Balagunaseelan, Alexander Fauland, Craig Wheelock, Olof Rådmark, Jesper Z Haeggström, Agnes Rinaldo-Matthis
BACKGROUND: A 12-lipoxygenase in zebra fish (zf12-LOX) was found to be required for normal embryonic development and LOXs are of great interest for targeted drug designing. In this study, we investigate the structural-functional aspects of zf12-LOX in response to calcium. METHODS: A soluble version of zf12-LOX was created by mutagenesis. Based on multiple sequence alignment, we mutated the putative calcium-responsive amino acids in N-PLAT domain of soluble zf12-LOX...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528876/modeling-covalent-modifier-drugs
#9
REVIEW
Ernest Awoonor-Williams, Andrew G Walsh, Christopher N Rowley
In this review, we present a summary of how computer modeling has been used in the development of covalent modifier drugs. Covalent modifier drugs bind by forming a chemical bond with their target. This covalent binding can improve the selectivity of the drug for a target with complementary reactivity and result in increased binding affinities due to the strength of the covalent bond formed. In some cases, this results in irreversible inhibition of the target, but some targeted covalent inhibitor (TCI) drugs bind covalently but reversibly...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528214/nmr-structure-conformational-dynamics-and-biological-activity-of-psdef1-defensin-from-pinus-sylvestris
#10
Bulat I Khairutdinov, Elena A Ermakova, Yuri M Yusypovych, Elena K Bessolicina, Nadezhda B Tarasova, Yana Y Toporkova, Valentina Kovaleva, Yuriy F Zuev, Irina V Nesmelova
Plants have developed a complex defense response system against pests and pathogens. Defensins, produced by plants as part of their innate immune response, form the family of small, basic, cysteine-rich proteins with activity primarily directed against fungal pathogens. In addition, plant defensins can show antibacterial activity and protease and insect amylase inhibitory activities. However, in gymnosperms, only antifungal activity of defensins has been described thus far. Here, we report antibacterial and insect α-amylase inhibition activities for defensin PsDef1 from P...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528213/optimal-electrostatic-interactions-between-substrate-and-protein-are-essential-for-radical-chemistry-in-ornithine-4-5-aminomutase
#11
Caitlyn Makins, Douglas A Whitelaw, Michael McGregor, Alix Petit, Robert G Mothersole, Kathleen E Prosser, Kirsten R Wolthers
Ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (OAM) from Clostridium sticklandii is an adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes a 1,2-amino shift, interconverting D-ornithine and 2S, 4R-diaminopentanoate. The reaction occurs via a radical-based mechanism whereby a PLP-bound substrate radical undergoes intramolecular isomerization via an azacyclopropylcarbinyl radical intermediate. Herein, we investigated the catalytic role of active site residues that form non-covalent interactions with PLP and/or substrate, D-ornithine...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528135/presymptomatically-applied-ampa-receptor-antagonist-prevents-calcium-increase-in-vulnerable-type-of-motor-axon-terminals-of-mice-modeling-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Roland Patai, Melinda Paizs, Massimo Tortarolo, Caterina Bendotti, Izabella Obál, József I Engelhardt, László Siklós
Increased intracellular calcium (Ca), which might be the consequence of an excess influx through Ca-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, plays a crucial role in degeneration of motor neurons. Previously we demonstrated that the presymptomatic application of AMPA receptor antagonist, talampanel, could reduce Ca elevation in spinal motor neurons of mice carrying the G93A mutation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), modeling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It remained to be examined whether the remote, functionally semi-autonomous motor axon terminals could be rescued from the Ca overload, or if the terminals, where the degeneration possibly starts, already experience intractable changes at early time points...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527948/opinion-articles-on-lipidomics-a-critical-assessment-of-the-state-of-the-art
#13
EDITORIAL
Sepp D Kohlwein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527894/hfe-genotype-affects-exosome-phenotype-in-cancer
#14
Oliver D Mrowczynski, A B Madhankumar, Becky Slagle-Webb, Sang Y Lee, Brad E Zacharia, James R Connor
Neuroblastoma is the third most common childhood cancer, and timely diagnosis and sensitive therapeutic monitoring remain major challenges. Tumor progression and recurrence is common with little understanding of mechanisms. A major recent focus in cancer biology is the impact of exosomes on metastatic behavior and the tumor microenvironment. Exosomes have been demonstrated to contribute to the oncogenic effect on the surrounding tumor environment and also mediate resistance to therapy. The effect of genotype on exosomal phenotype has not yet been explored...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527893/chemistry-and-biology-of-reactive-species-with-special-reference-to-the-antioxidative-defence-status-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#15
REVIEW
Sigurd Lenzen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease. Dysfunction and subsequent loss of the β-cells in the islets of Langerhans through apoptosis ultimately cause a life-threatening insulin deficiency. The underlying reason for the particular vulnerability of the β-cells is an extraordinary sensitivity to the toxicity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) due to its low antioxidative defense status. SCOPE REVIEW: This review considers the different aspects of the chemistry and biology of the biologically most important reactive species and their chemico-biological interactions in the β-cell toxicity of proinflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes and of lipotoxicity in type 2 diabetes development...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527708/cortical-cytoskeleton-dynamics-regulates-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-isoform-2-pmca2-activity
#16
Marianela G Dalghi, Mariela Ferreira-Gomes, Nicolás Montalbetti, Alexandre Simonin, Emanuel E Strehler, Matthias A Hediger, Juan Pablo Rossi
We have previously shown that purified actin can directly bind to human plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 4b (hPMCA4b) and exert a dual modulation on its Ca(2+)-ATPase activity: F-actin inhibits PMCA while short actin oligomers may contribute to PMCA activation. These studies had to be performed with purified proteins given the nature of the biophysical and biochemical approaches used. To assess whether a functional interaction between the PMCAs and the cortical cytoskeleton is of physiological relevance, we characterized this phenomenon in the context of a living cell by monitoring in real-time the changes in the cytosolic calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]CYT)...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527668/imaging-mass-spectrometry-ims-of-cortical-lipids-from-preclinical-to-severe-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
E Gónzalez de San Román, I Manuel, M T Giralt, I Ferrer, R Rodríguez-Puertas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of patients worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated alterations in the lipid composition of lipid extracts from plasma and brain samples of AD patients. However, there is no consensus regarding the qualitative and quantitative changes of lipids in brains from AD patients. In addition, the recent developments in imaging mass spectrometry methods are leading to a new stage in the in situ analysis of lipid species in brain tissue slices from human postmortem samples...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526583/the-connexin-43-c-terminus-a-tail-of-many-tales
#18
REVIEW
Edward Leithe, Marc Mesnil, Trond Aasen
Connexins are chordate gap junction channel proteins that, by enabling direct communication between the cytosols of adjacent cells, create a unique cell signalling network. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has important roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation and in tissue development and homeostasis. Moreover, several non-canonical connexin functions unrelated to GJIC have been discovered. Of the 21 members of the human connexin family, connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most widely expressed and studied...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526562/new-intracellular-activities-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-shine-in-the-moonlight
#19
REVIEW
Parker G Jobin, Georgina S Butler, ChristopherM Overall
Adaption of a single protein to perform multiple independent functions facilitates functional plasticity of the proteome allowing a limited number of protein-coding genes to perform a multitude of cellular processes. Multifunctionality is achievable by post-translational modifications and by modulating subcellular localization. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), classically viewed as degraders of the extracellular matrix (ECM) responsible for matrix protein turnover, are more recently recognized as regulators of a range of extracellular bioactive molecules including chemokines, cytokines, and their binders...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526561/mitochondrial-contact-site-and-cristae-organizing-system-a-central-player-in-membrane-shaping-and-crosstalk
#20
Florian Wollweber, Karina von der Malsburg, Martin van der Laan
Mitochondria are multifunctional metabolic factories and integrative signaling organelles of eukaryotic cells. The structural basis for their numerous functions is a complex and dynamic double-membrane architecture. The outer membrane connects mitochondria to the cytosol and other organelles. The inner membrane is composed of a boundary region and highly folded cristae membranes. The evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) connects the two inner membrane domains via formation and stabilization of crista junction structures...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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