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Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25400099/editorial-an-introduction-to-the-new-infectious-diseases
#1
EDITORIAL
Arne Tärnvik, Ola Weiland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25290584/delayed-hiv-diagnosis-common-in-sweden-2003-2010
#2
Katarina Widgren, Helena Skar, Torsten Berglund, Anna-Maria Kling, Anders Tegnell, Jan Albert
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. METHODS: Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n < 0...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25290583/tuberculosis-outbreak-in-an-immigrant-reception-center-in-israel-a-clinical-and-epidemiologic-perspective
#3
Hashem Bishara, Moshe Lidji, Drora Goldblatt, Efrat Rorman, Zohar Mor, Daniel Weiler-Ravell
Tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks in congregate settings pose a public health concern and a clinical challenge. We report a TB outbreak involving 6 cases of active TB among 28 recent Ethiopian immigrants (EIs) in an immigrant reception center in Israel. The outbreak erupted several weeks after a meticulous pre-immigration TB screening of this group. All five culture-positive TB patients were infected with the CAS1_DELHI family, SIT 25 strain. Pulmonary involvement manifested as only a persistent cough without systemic symptoms...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25290582/septic-internal-jugular-vein-thrombosis-caused-by-fusobacterium-necrophorum-and-mediated-by-a-broken-needle
#4
George Galyfos, Konstantinos Palogos, Nikolaos Kavouras
The injection of drugs into the neck is unusual and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein can be a rare clinical presentation with a high risk for severe complications. We report a case of a 31-year-old male intravenous drug user presenting with fever, shortness of breath and right neck oedema. Laboratory studies revealed elevated inflammation parameters. X-ray imaging revealed a broken syringe needle inside the soft tissues of the neck. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the thorax and brain were unremarkable, while cervical CT showed a fully thrombosed, right internal jugular vein...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25290581/enterococcus-virulence-and-susceptibility-to-photodynamic-therapy-of-clinical-isolates-from-lower-silesia-poland
#5
Ewa Dworniczek, Justyna Piwowarczyk, Alicja Seniuk, Grażyna Gościniak
BACKGROUND: A collection of 400 enterococcal isolates from clinical samples of hospitalized patients were studied for their virulence traits according to the isolation site. Formation of biofilm and production of DNase, hemolysin, lipase, and gelatinase were characterized. Biofilms of selected strains were examined for their susceptibility to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). METHODS: All strains were tested for biofilm production by microtiter method and the activity of hemolysin, gelatinase, lipase, and DNase by plate method with an adequate substrate...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25290580/blood-culture-positive-infections-in-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#6
Pernille Glahn Wernlund, Sidsel Støy, Lars Lemming, Hendrik Vilstrup, Thomas Damgaard Sandahl
Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening disease and its course is often determined by infections. However, the pattern of pathogens has not been studied. We examined the microbiological pathogens that caused blood-borne infection in patients with AH. We included 32 AH patients without infection at inclusion. Patients were followed for 1 month and their infection status was recorded based on clinical records, radiologic exams and cultures of different secreta. Nine patients (28%) developed blood culture-positive infections...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25288384/sputum-bacteriology-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-patterns-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-adult-patients-in-nigeria-a-5-year-multicentre-retrospective-study
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Michael O Iroezindu, Emmanuel I Chima, Godsent C Isiguzo, Godwin C Mbata, Cajetan C Onyedum, Kenneth I Onyedibe, Leo E Okoli
BACKGROUND: A clear knowledge of the pathogens responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a given region and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns is necessary for optimal treatment. We determined the common bacterial pathogens causing CAP in Nigeria and further reviewed their antibiotic senstivity patterns with a view to providing recommendations to improve antibiotic management of CAP. METHODS: Case notes of all adult patients who were 18 years or more admitted to four major tertiary hospitals in South East Nigeria with a diagnosis of CAP between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively studied...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25288383/positive-tip-culture-with-candida-and-negative-blood-culture-to-treat-or-not-to-treat-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Bernardo Machado De Almeida, Giovanni L Breda, Flavio Queiroz-Telles, Felipe F Tuon
BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis is a major invasive fungal infection. It has high lethality, and even higher if not treated early. There is no consensus on antifungal treatment in patients with positive catheter tip culture for Candida spp. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of antifungal therapy and mortality of patients with positive culture for Candida spp. in catheter tip that have negative blood culture. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched to identify articles related to Candida and catheter...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25288382/comparison-of-the-filmarray-assay-and-in-house-real-time-pcr-for-detection-of-respiratory-infection
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Maria E Andersson, Sigvard Olofsson, Magnus Lindh
Recently, molecular methods capable of detecting almost all microbial agents that may cause acute respiratory infection have been introduced. The FilmArray Respiratory Panel assay, which integrates nucleic acid extraction, nested amplification and detection in a reaction pouch preloaded with all reagents required for detection of 17 viruses and 3 bacteria, was compared with an in-house real-time PCR that detects these agents in 8 parallel amplifications. When 128 clinical samples representing 18 of these agents were analysed by both assays the agreement was excellent, with kappa values ranging between 0...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25268280/antibiotic-consumption-in-relation-to-socio-demographic-factors-co-morbidity-and-accessibility-of-primary-health-care
#10
Anders Ternhag, Maria Grünewald, Pontus Nauclér, Karin Tegmark Wisell
BACKGROUND: Differences in antibiotic consumption between individuals are not only due to differences in primary infection morbidity, other non-medical factors are important. Our objective was to investigate how socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and access to primary care affect antibiotic prescribing. METHODS: The study population included all 2 078 481 persons in Sweden who received at least one antibiotic prescription during 2010, and an unmatched control population of 788 580 individuals...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25238607/alternative-diagnosis-in-the-putative-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-patient-not-meeting-lavage-based-diagnostic-criteria
#11
Rik J Schoemakers, Ronny Schnabel, Guy J Oudhuis, Catharina F M Linssen, Walther N K A van Mook, Annelies Verbon, Dennis C J J Bergmans
BACKGROUND: The clinical picture of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be mimicked by other infectious and non-infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the alternative diagnoses and to develop a diagnostic flow chart for patients suspected of having VAP not meeting the diagnostic broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) criteria. METHODS: Adult intensive care patients with a clinical suspicion of VAP and negative BAL results were included. The clinical suspicion of VAP was based on the combination of clinical, radiological, and microbiological criteria...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25229167/efficacy-and-safety-of-switching-to-raltegravir-plus-atazanavir-dual-therapy-in-pretreated-hiv-1-infected-patients-over-144-weeks-a-cohort-study
#12
Pierre Gantner, Christine Koeppel, Marialuisa Partisani, Marie-Laure Batard, Claudine Bernard-Henry, Christine Cheneau, Erik De Mautort, Michele Priester, Patrice Muret, Charlotte Sueur, Samira Fafi-Kremer, David Rey
BACKGROUND: To decrease drug burden among HIV-1-positive adults, we need a new gold standard for antiretroviral therapy maintenance strategies. METHODS: This retrospective study aimed to assess efficacy in maintenance strategy of atazanavir (ATV) and raltegravir (RAL) dual therapy. The proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA < 40 copies/ml at specific time points was recorded. Immunological response, safety, and pharmacokinetics were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 39 patients were switched to a RAL/ATV (n = 32) or RAL/ATV plus ritonavir (n = 7) regimen...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25229166/the-decline-of-the-impetigo-epidemic-caused-by-the-epidemic-european-fusidic-acid-resistant-impetigo-clone-an-11-5-year-population-based-incidence-study-from-a-community-in-western-norway
#13
Sverre Rørtveit, Dag Harald Skutlaberg, Nina Langeland, Guri Rortveit
BACKGROUND: From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed 'the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone' (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001-2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25195650/elevated-levels-of-circulating-histones-indicate-disease-activity-in-patients-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-hfmd
#14
Xiuhui Li, Qin Li, Junhong Li, Ying Li, Yuping Chen, Aiping Lv, Jian Zhang, Jianbo Ding, Kristine Von Maltzan, Tao Wen
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in children, characterized by acute viral infection accompanying acute inflammatory responses. Circulating histones are leading mediators of the inflammatory processes. This study aimed to elucidate whether circulating histones play a contributory role during HFMD. METHODS: We measured plasma levels of histones, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cytokines in HFMD patients (n = 126) and compared the results with those of a control group (n = 30)...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25195649/performance-of-the-simplexa%C3%A2-flu-a-b-rsv-direct-kit-on-respiratory-samples-collected-in-saline-solution
#15
Malin J Svensson, Ingrid Lind, Benita Zweygberg Wirgart, Maria Rotzén Östlund, Jan Albert
BACKGROUND: Molecular assays for diagnosis of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with short turnaround time are of considerable clinical importance. We have evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Simplexa(™) Flu A/B & RSV Direct Kit, which has a run time of 60 min, using different types of respiratory samples collected from patients with a suspected respiratory tract infection, including materials not previously evaluated on this kit. METHODS: In total, 210 clinical respiratory samples were analyzed using both the Simplexa direct assay and a laboratory-developed assay (LDA)...
December 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25262922/clinical-comparison-of-ertapenem-and-cefepime-for-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-ampc-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lisa M Blanchette, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau, Michael D Nailor
There are no comparative data evaluating outcomes of ertapenem treatment for infections with AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. This retrospective matched case-control study was conducted between 2009 and 2012. Sixteen cases treated with ertapenem were matched 1:2 with 32 control cases treated with cefepime based on age, culture source, and hospital service. There were more cefepime-resistant organisms in the ertapenem group (cefepime resistance present in 44% of patients treated with ertapenem compared with 0% of control patients, p < 0...
November 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25244675/comparison-of-liver-fibrosis-progression-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-and-hcv-mono-infected-patients-by-transient-elastometry
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Susanna Mazzocato, Elena Orsetti, Rosaria Gesuita, Francesca Piraccini, Davide Drenaggi, Francesco Barchiesi
Monitoring of liver fibrosis (LF) is an essential tool for preventing liver-related complications in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. In this study, we compared LF progression by transient elastometry (TE) in 50 HIV/HCV co-infected and 115 HCV mono-infected patients followed in our institution between June 2006 and December 2011. Patients naive to interferon therapy and with at least two measurements of liver stiffness by TE were included. In all, 76% of HIV/HCV co-infected and 75% of HCV mono-infected patients remained in the same stage of LF over time...
November 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25244674/first-report-of-isolation-of-mycobacterium-canariasense-from-hospital-water-supplies
#18
Davood Azadi, Ramin Dibaj, Mahnaz Pourchangiz, Abass Daei-Naser, Hasan Shojaei
Mycobacterium canariasense was first isolated as a novel species in 2004 from clinical specimens in Spain. Since then there have only been a few additional reports from Spain, the USA, and Lebanon on the isolation of this rare species from clinical specimens. We herein present the first report on isolation of this organism from hospital water, which provides evidence for determining the natural habitat of this rare species. The water samples were collected from hospital departments and cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Sauton's media...
November 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25195652/diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-before-initiation-of-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-using-both-tuberculin-skin-test-and-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay
#19
Ho-Cheol Kim, Kyung-Wook Jo, Young Ju Jung, Bin Yoo, Chang-Keun Lee, Yong-Gil Kim, Suk-Kyun Yang, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Kyung-Jo Kim, Byong Duk Ye, Tae Sun Shim
BACKGROUND: Reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important complication in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blocking agents. However, the best method for LTBI detection before initiation of anti-TNF therapy remains to be determined. METHODS: From January 2010 to August 2013, anti-TNF therapy was initiated in 426 patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) assay were performed before starting anti-TNF treatment...
November 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25195651/procalcitonin-levels-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-correlation-with-aetiology-and-severity
#20
Niclas Johansson, Mats Kalin, Carolina Backman-Johansson, Anders Larsson, Kristina Nilsson, Jonas Hedlund
We studied procalcitonin (PCT) levels at hospital admittance and their association with aetiology and severity in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Median PCT concentrations were higher in bacteraemic patients than in those without bacteraemia (6.11 μg/L vs 0.34 μg/L, p = 0.0002), in patients with non-bacteraemic pneumococcal aetiology than in those infected with other classic bacteria (1.18 vs 0.18, p = 0.038), and in patients with pneumococcal as compared with viral aetiology (2.43 vs 0...
November 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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