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Tissue & Cell

David Smith, Tobias Starborg
Three-dimensional electron microscopy (3DEM) is an imaging field containing several powerful modalities such as serial section transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. However, large-scale 3D studies of biological ultrastructure on a cellular scale have historically been hampered by the difficulty of available techniques. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) is a 3DEM technique, developed in 2004, which has greatly increased the reliability, availability and throughput of 3DEM...
September 3, 2018: Tissue & Cell
Wiebke Möbius, George Posthuma
Since the pioneering work of Kiyoteru Tokuyasu in the 70ths the use of thawed cryosections prepared according to the "Tokuyasu-method" for immunoelectron microscopy did not lose popularity. We owe this method a whole subcellular world described by discrete gold particles pointing at cargo, receptors and organelle markers on delicate images of the inner life of a cell. Here we explain the procedure of sample preparation, sectioning and immunolabeling in view of recent developments and the reasoning behind protocols including some historical perspective...
September 3, 2018: Tissue & Cell
Robert Englmeier, Friedrich Förster
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) enables the three-dimensional (3D) structural characterization of macromolecular complexes in their physiological environment. Thus, cryo-ET is uniquely suited to study the structural basis of biomolecular processes that are extremely difficult or even impossible to reconstitute using purified components. Translation of mitochondrial genes, which occurs in the secluded interior of mitochondria, falls into this category. Here, we describe the principles of cryo-ET in the context of mitochondrial translation and outline recent developments and challenges of the method...
August 29, 2018: Tissue & Cell
Anastasiia Kosykh, Arkadii Beilin, Kirill Sukhinich, Ekaterina Vorotelyak
Neural crest stem cells that located in the postnatal hair follicle (HF-NCSC) are considered a promising tool for treatment of nervous system diseases and injuries. It is well known that HF-NCSC can be used in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve reparation but their ability to restore brain structures is poorly studied. In this article we are investigating the interaction between HF-NCSC and a nerve tissue (embryonic and adult). We have found out that HF-NCSC isolated from adult mice grow and differentiate in accordance with the mouse embryo developmental stage when co-cultured with the embryonic nerve tissue...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Hoda H Anan, Rania A Zidan, Samia A Abd El-Baset, Manar M Ali
Despite its wide range of application, cyclophosphamide (CP) exhibits a wide range of adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. The emerging field of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) therapy may provide a new hope for prevention of CP induced gonadal toxicity. Herein, we aim to investigate the possible role of ZnO NPs as a new strategy to protect against CP induced testicular injury. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups; control, CP treated and CP + ZnO NPs treated groups. CP group was injected with CP (5 mg/kg/day), whereas CP + ZnO NPs group was concomitantly injected with CP and ZnO NPs (5 mg/kg/day)...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Caterina Peña, Renata Vargas, Juan Pablo Hernandez-Fonseca, Jesús Mosquera
The up-regulation of HLA antigens is important during heart inflammatory events and myofibroblasts may modulate the expression of this molecule in tissues. To test this possibility, the effect of cardiac myofibroblast:macrophage contact and the production of myofibroblast inhibitor factor(s) on the macrophage HLA (Ia) expression were studied. Listeria monocytogenes-elicited Ia + peritoneal macrophages (high Ia expression) were co-cultured with cardiac myofibroblasts for 3 and 7 days (myofibroblast contact)...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Haifeng Fu, Feiyue Xing, Yi Lv, Boning Zeng, Pengtao You, Jing Liu
The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in cell proliferation and development that is closely related to an inverted CCAAT box binding protein (ICBP90), but little is known about whether there is a correlation between Notch signaling and ICBP90. The aim of the current study was to elucidate this. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of HepG2 or Hepa1-6 cells treated by N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch pathway...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Quanwei Wei, Nazar Ali Korejo, Jingle Jiang, Mulin Xu, Kaizhi Zheng, Dagan Mao, Fangxiong Shi
Acute gastric mucosal injuries are serious clinical problems worldwide and are principally found with different types of stresses in animals. A constant challenge is to find original plant products that can combat stress. In the present study, we examined the effects of big-leaf mulberry extracts on stomach injury, and the activity of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and total antioxidant activity (TAO) in the gastric mucosae of mice during water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS). Our data showed that WIRS-exposed mice produced several injuries and showed an enhanced iNOS, reduced eNOS activity, and decreased TAO activity in the stomach, whereas pretreatment with big-leaf mulberry extracts increased TAO activitiy...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Toshihiko Fukuzawa, Yutaka Kikuchi
Isolation and culture of Xenopus laevis neural tubes resulted in differentiation of melanophores and iridophores from neural crest cells; the differentiated melanophores and iridophores were then maintained in culture for more than 6 months. Guanosine has been reported to promote reflecting platelet formation in melanin-producing pigment cells; however, the process of pigment organellogenesis is still unclear. In the present study, unusual light-reflecting pigment cells were observed upon addition of guanosine to the neural tube culture system, which contained melanosomes specific to melanophores, and reflecting platelets specific to iridophores...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Mirna Luciano de Gois da Silva, George Laylson da Silva Oliveira, Dayseanny de Oliveira Bezerra, Hermínio José da Rocha Neto, Matheus Levi Tajra Feitosa, Napoleão Martins Argôlo Neto, Marcia Dos Santos Rizzo, Maria Acelina Martins de Carvalho
Cell replacement through neural stem cells has been a promising alternative therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. It was evaluated the possible protect and/or prevent role of neurospheres in experimental models of epilepsy by the use of biomarkers of oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. After 1 h of the epileptic inductions by pilocarpine, pentylenotetrazole and picrotoxin, rats were infused with a suspension of 2 × 106 cells/0.25 mL, marked with Qtracker® 655, via caudal vein. In the control group epilepsy was not induced, but received the cell infusion under the same conditions of other groups...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Mir S Ali, Nandini Deb, Xinmei Wang, Minhazur Rahman, Gordon F Christopher, Carla M R Lacerda
Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) constitute the major cell population in heart valves. Quiescent fibroblastic VICs are seen in adult healthy valves. They become activated myofibroblastic VICs during development, in diseased valves and in vitro. 2D substrate stiffness within a 5-15 kPa range along with high passage numbers promote VIC activation in vitro. In this study, we characterize VIC quiescence and activation across a 1-21 kPa range of substrate stiffness and passages. We define a cell morphology characterization system for VICs as they transform...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
David J Supeck, Senait Assefa, William Meek, J Thomas Curtis, Gerwald A Köhler
Intestinal epithelium develops during gestation and continues to mature post-natally into a selective barrier that will protect the individual while still allowing passage of nutrients. Until fully mature, the risk of translocation of microorganisms, toxins or antigens into the sub-epithelial tissue is high and could result in pathologies with life-altering consequences, or even premature death. Because of their monogamous mating system, prairie voles are an emerging model for studying the role of the intestinal microbiota in modulating social behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain-behavior axis...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Kelly Dumorné, Iván Valdebenito, Jennie Risopatron, Elías Figueroa, Rommy Díaz, Jorge Farías
In this study, the morphology and ultrastructure of Genypterus blacodes spermatozoa were characterized through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Findings revealed that the G. blacodes spermatozoa can be differentiated into three major parts: a spherical head without an acrosome (typical for externally fertilizing fish), a short mid-piece, and a long flagellum. The mean length of the spermatozoa was 57.6 ± 6.08 μm, with flagella accounting for 56.2 ± 7.2 μm. The head was 1.47 ± 0...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Choongseong Han, Geun Ho An, Dong-Hun Woo, Jong-Hoon Kim, Hee-Kyung Park
Hyposalivation because of curative radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer is a major concern. At present, there is no effective treatment for hyposalivation, highlighting the importance of cell therapy as a new therapeutic approach. To provide functional cells for cell replacement therapy, it is important to overcome the limitations of current in vitro culture methods for isolated salivary gland cells. Here, we suggest an improved culture condition method for the cultivation of isolated salivary gland cells...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Kentaro Miyake, Tasuku Kiyuna, Masuyo Miyake, Ming Zhao, Sintawat Wangsiricharoen, Kei Kawaguchi, Zhiying Zhang, Takashi Higuchi, Sahar Razmjooei, Yunfeng Li, Scott D Nelson, Tara Russell, Arun Singh, Takashi Murakami, Yukihiko Hiroshima, Masashi Momiyama, Ryusei Matsuyama, Takashi Chishima, Shree Ram Singh, Sant P Chawla, Fritz C Eilber, Itaru Endo, Robert M Hoffman
Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is metastatic disease without a known primary and therefore very difficult to identify effective therapy. Previously, we demonstrated partial efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) alone and carboplatinum alone (CAR) on a CUP patient tumor in the patient-derived xenograft (PDOX) model. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R combined with CAR on the CUP PDOX model. The CUP tumors were implanted orthotopically into the left supraclavicular fossa of nude mice to match the site from which they were resected from the patient...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Khaled Habas, Lijun Shang
Alterations of Endothelial cells (ECs) play a critical role in different pathogenesis of many serious human diseases, and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is an indicator for human disorders. Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an early indicator for atherosclerosis, which is characterised by overexpression of adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) released via neutrophils is an important mediator of endothelial cell function...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot, Karolina Barszcz
The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the tongue in the aardvark (Orycteropus afer). The tongues from one adult and one three-week old aardvark females and one neonate aardvark were studied. The tongue was elongated in the adult and young aardvarks and had a triangular apex in the rostral part of the tongue. Its dorsal surface was covered by numerous papillae divided into mechanical papillae, present in the form of abundant conical or drop-like filiform papillae, and taste papillae in the form of numerous fungiform papillae and three vallate papillae arranged in a V-shape in the caudal part of the tongue (one papilla was located centrally and caudally with respect to the remaining two papillae)...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Thiago Alves Garcia, Guilherme Akio Tamura Ozaki, Robson Chacon Castoldi, Tatiana Emy Koike, Regina Celi Trindade Camargo, José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alterations from different therapies in muscular injury using the Fractal Dimension (FD) method. METHODS: 35 animals were allocated in Control Group (C), Injury Control Group (IC), Injury Low Level Laser Therapy Group (ILT), Injury Platelet Rich Plasma Group (IP), and Injury LLLT and PRP Group (ILP). The animals suffered a stretch injury in gastrocnemius muscle and after that IP and ILP groups received PRP application. The ILT and ILP groups received daily LLLT applications for seven days...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Jordi Miquel, Srisupaph Poonlaphdecha, Alexis Ribas
The present study describes the ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Glypthelmins staffordi (Glypthelminthidae) by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live digeneans were collected from the Chinese edible frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) in Udon Thani Province (Thailand). The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of G. staffordi is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities. It exhibits the Bakhoum et al.'s type IV of spermatozoon of digeneans characterized by the 9+'1' axonemes of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, the presence of the association "external ornamentation-cortical microtubules", the external ornamentation located in the posterior part of the anterior region, the arrangement of parallel cortical microtubules in two bundles and with its maximum number located in the anterior part of the sperm cell, and the presence of two mitochondria...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Raheleh Farahzadi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Nosratollah Zarghami
The identification of factors that reduce the senescent tendency of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) upon expansion has great potential for cellular therapies in regenerative medicine. Previous studies have shown the aging protective effect of L-carnitine (LC). On the other hand, reduction in proliferation potential and age-dependent decline in number and functions of MSCs were accompanied by telomere shortening, reduction in telomerase activity and epigenetic changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LC on aging of MSCs through telomerase activity assessment and the investigation of methylation status of the hTERT gene promoter...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
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