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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876357/building-a-new-field-of-computational-psychiatry
#1
Michael Moutoussis, Eran Eldar, Raymond J Dolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836100/clinical-advances-from-a-computational-approach-to-anxiety
#2
Daniel S Pine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914629/cytoplasmic-fmr1-interacting-protein-2-is-a-major-genetic-factor-underlying-binge-eating
#3
Stacey L Kirkpatrick, Lisa R Goldberg, Neema Yazdani, R Keith Babbs, Jiayi Wu, Eric R Reed, David F Jenkins, Amanda F Bolgioni, Kelsey I Landaverde, Kimberly P Luttik, Karen S Mitchell, Vivek Kumar, W Evan Johnson, Megan K Mulligan, Pietro Cottone, Camron D Bryant
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are lethal and heritable; however, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Binge eating is a highly heritable trait associated with eating disorders that is comorbid with mood and substance use disorders. Therefore, understanding its genetic basis will inform therapeutic development that could improve several comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. METHODS: We assessed binge eating in closely related C57BL/6 mouse substrains and in an F2 cross to identify quantitative trait loci associated with binge eating...
October 25, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931744/learning-from-one-s-mistakes-a-dual-role-for-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-in-the-encoding-and-expression-of-punished-reward-seeking
#4
Peter J Vento, Nathan W Burnham, Courtney S Rowley, Thomas C Jhou
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders such as addiction and mania are marked by persistent reward seeking despite highly negative or aversive outcomes, but the neural mechanisms underlying this aberrant decision making are unknown. The recently identified rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) encodes a wide variety of aversive stimuli and sends robust inhibitory projections to midbrain dopamine neurons, leading to the hypothesis that the RMTg provides a brake to reward signaling in response to aversive costs...
October 21, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832841/new-concepts-in-dopamine-d2-receptor-biased-signaling-and-implications-for-schizophrenia-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Nikhil M Urs, Sean M Peterson, Marc G Caron
The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is a common target for antipsychotic drugs. Antagonism of D2R signaling in the striatum is thought to be the primary mode of action of antipsychotic drugs in alleviating psychotic symptoms. However, antipsychotic drugs are not clinically effective at reversing cortical-related symptoms, such as cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. While the exact mechanistic underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are largely unknown, deficits in cortical dopamine function likely play a contributing role...
October 19, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919403/trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonists-as-narcolepsy-therapeutics
#6
Sarah W Black, Michael D Schwartz, Tsui-Ming Chen, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy, a disorder of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, a loss of muscle tone triggered by emotional stimulation. Current narcolepsy pharmacotherapeutics include controlled substances with abuse potential or drugs with undesirable side effects. As partial agonists at trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) promote wakefulness in mice and rats, we evaluated whether TAAR1 agonism had beneficial effects in two mouse models of narcolepsy...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890468/genetic-overlap-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-evidence-from-genome-wide-association-study-meta-analysis
#7
Kimm J E van Hulzen, Claus J Scholz, Barbara Franke, Stephan Ripke, Marieke Klein, Andrew McQuillin, Edmund J Sonuga-Barke, John R Kelsoe, Mikael Landén, Ole A Andreassen, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Heike Weber, Stephen V Faraone, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, Andreas Reif
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are frequently co-occurring and highly heritable mental health conditions. We hypothesized that BPD cases with an early age of onset (≤21 years old) would be particularly likely to show genetic covariation with ADHD. METHODS: Genome-wide association study data were available for 4609 individuals with ADHD, 9650 individuals with BPD (5167 thereof with early-onset BPD), and 21,363 typically developing controls...
October 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916196/adaptive-activation-of-a-stress-response-pathway-improves-learning-and-memory-through-gs-and-%C3%AE-arrestin-1-regulated-lactate-metabolism
#8
Jun-Hong Dong, Yi-Jing Wang, Min Cui, Xiao-Jing Wang, Wen-Shuai Zheng, Ming-Liang Ma, Fan Yang, Dong-Fang He, Qiao-Xia Hu, Dao-Lai Zhang, Shang-Lei Ning, Chun-Hua Liu, Chuan Wang, Yue Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Fan Yi, Amy Lin, Alem W Kahsai, Thomas Joseph Cahill, Zhe-Yu Chen, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun
BACKGROUND: Stress is a conserved physiological response in mammals. Whereas moderate stress strengthens memory to improve reactions to previously experienced difficult situations, too much stress is harmful. METHODS: We used specific β-adrenergic agonists, as well as β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and arrestin knockout models, to study the effects of adaptive β2AR activation on cognitive function using Morris water maze and object recognition experiments. We used molecular and cell biological approaches to elucidate the signaling subnetworks...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890469/methamphetamine-addiction-vulnerability-the-glutamate-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#9
Karen K Szumlinski, Kevin D Lominac, Rianne R Campbell, Matan Cohen, Elissa K Fultz, Chelsea N Brown, Bailey W Miller, Sema G Quadir, Douglas Martin, Andrew B Thompson, Georg von Jonquieres, Matthias Klugmann, Tamara J Phillips, Tod E Kippin
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence and severity of methamphetamine (MA) abuse demands greater neurobiological understanding of its etiology. METHODS: We conducted immunoblotting and in vivo microdialysis procedures in MA high/low drinking mice, as well as in isogenic C57BL/6J mice that varied in their MA preference/taking, to examine the glutamate underpinnings of MA abuse vulnerability. Neuropharmacological and Homer2 knockdown approaches were also used in C57BL/6J mice to confirm the role for nucleus accumbens (NAC) glutamate/Homer2 expression in MA preference/aversion...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887721/comparative-multimodal-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-brain-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
Christina O Carlisi, Luke J Norman, Steve S Lukito, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share inhibitory control deficits possibly underlying poor control over stereotyped and repetitive g., v/r/ dACC /MPFC); and (iv) to indicate a pathway (e.g., if this is a pathway: bilateral putamen/caudate/nucleus accumbens / pallidum /amygdala/insula). BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent expressions of duality or alternatives. Please express these as and/or, and, or or . BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent a compound modifier such as "rostral/ dorsomedial ," which should be changed to hyphen(s), such as rostral- dorsomedial ...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884425/the-eating-disorder-associated-hdac4-a778t-mutation-alters-feeding-behaviors-in-female-mice
#11
Michael Lutter, Michael Z Khan, Kenji Satio, Kevin C Davis, Ian J Kidder, Latisha McDaniel, Benjamin W Darbro, Andrew A Pieper, Huxing Cui
BACKGROUND: While eating disorders (EDs) are thought to result from a combination of environmental and psychological stressors superimposed on genetic vulnerability, the neurobiological basis of EDs remains incompletely understood. We recently reported that a rare missense mutation in the gene for the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is associated with the risk of developing an ED in humans. METHODS: To understand the biological consequences of this missense mutation, we created transgenic mice carrying this mutation by introducing the alanine to threonine mutation at position 778 of mouse Hdac4 (corresponding to position 786 of the human protein)...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871670/convergence-of-sex-differences-and-the-neuroimmune-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Christopher L Wright
The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889187/maternal-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-offspring
#13
Kyriaki Kosidou, Christina Dalman, Linnea Widman, Stefan Arver, Brian K Lee, Cecilia Magnusson, Renee M Gardner
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder, and boys are two to three times more likely to develop ADHD. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common metabolic disorder associated with excess circulating androgens, has been associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether maternal PCOS increases the risk for ADHD in the offspring...
October 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871669/induction-and-blockade-of-adolescent-cocaine-induced-habits
#14
Lauren M DePoy, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Paul J Marvar, Shannon L Gourley
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use during adolescence increases vulnerability to drug dependence and decreases the likelihood that individuals will seek treatment as adults. Understanding how early-life cocaine exposure influences decision-making processes in adulthood is thus critically important. METHODS: Adolescent or adult mice were exposed to subchronic cocaine, then behavioral sensitivity to changes in the predictive relationship between actions and their consequences was tested...
October 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817846/reply-to-antidepressant-actions-of-ketamine-versus-hydroxynorketamine
#15
LETTER
Panos Zanos, Ruin Moaddel, Patrick J Morris, Irving W Wainer, Edson X Albuquerque, Scott M Thompson, Craig J Thomas, Carlos A Zarate, Todd D Gould
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884424/vision-as-a-beachhead
#16
REVIEW
David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Ilan Dinstein
When neural circuits develop abnormally due to different genetic deficits and/or environmental insults, neural computations and the behaviors that rely on them are altered. Computational theories that relate neural circuits with specific quantifiable behavioral and physiological phenomena, therefore, serve as extremely useful tools for elucidating the neuropathological mechanisms that underlie different disorders. The visual system is particularly well suited for characterizing differences in neural computations; computational theories of vision are well established, and empirical protocols for measuring the parameters of those theories are well developed...
September 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884423/alterations-in-a-unique-class-of-cortical-chandelier-cell-axon-cartridges-in-schizophrenia
#17
Brad R Rocco, Adam M DeDionisio, David A Lewis, Kenneth N Fish
BACKGROUND: The axons of chandelier cells (ChCs) target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons, forming an array of boutons termed a cartridge. In schizophrenia, the density of cartridges detectable by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) membrane transporter 1 immunoreactivity is lower, whereas the density of axon initial segments detectable by immunoreactivity for the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor is higher in layers 2/superficial 3 of the prefrontal cortex. These findings were interpreted as compensatory responses to lower GABA levels in ChCs...
September 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865453/neurophysiology-and-regulation-of-the-balance-between-excitation-and-inhibition-in-neocortical-circuits
#18
REVIEW
Roberta Tatti, Melissa S Haley, Olivia K Swanson, Tenzin Tselha, Arianna Maffei
Brain function relies on the ability of neural networks to maintain stable levels of activity, while experiences sculpt them. In the neocortex, the balance between activity and stability relies on the coregulation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs onto principal neurons. Shifts of excitation or inhibition result in altered excitability impaired processing of incoming information. In many neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, the excitability of local circuits is altered, suggesting that their pathophysiology may involve shifts in synaptic excitation, inhibition, or both...
September 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865452/cyp2a6-genetic-variation-alters-striatal-cingulate-circuits-network-hubs-and-executive-processing-in-smokers
#19
Sufang Li, Yihong Yang, Ewa Hoffmann, Rachel F Tyndale, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Variation in the CYP2A6 gene alters the rate of nicotine metabolic inactivation and is associated with smoking behaviors and cessation success rates. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this genetic influence are unknown. METHODS: Intrinsic functional connectivity strength, a whole-brain, data-driven, graph theory-based method, was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 66 smokers and 92 nonsmokers. A subset of subjects (n = 23/20; smokers/nonsmokers) performed the monetary incentive delay task, probing reward anticipation, and a go/no-go task, probing response inhibition, on two occasions, in the presence and absence of a nicotine patch...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863698/striatal-h3k27-acetylation-linked-to-glutamatergic-gene-dysregulation-in-human-heroin-abusers-holds-promise-as-therapeutic-target
#20
Gabor Egervari, Joseph Landry, James Callens, John F Fullard, Panos Roussos, Eva Keller, Yasmin L Hurd
BACKGROUND: Opiate abuse and overdose reached epidemic levels in the United States. However, despite significant advances in animal and in vitro models, little knowledge has been directly accrued regarding the neurobiology of the opiate-addicted human brain. METHODS: We used postmortem human brain specimens from a homogeneous European Caucasian population of heroin users for transcriptional and epigenetic profiling, as well as direct assessment of chromatin accessibility in the striatum, a brain region central to reward and emotion...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
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