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Biological Psychiatry

Kaichuan Zhu, Finn Peters, Severin Filser, Jochen Herms
Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder among elderly persons. Overt accumulation and aggregation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is thought to be the initial causative factor for Alzheimer's disease. Aβ is produced by sequential proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the initial and rate-limiting protease for the generation of Aβ. Therefore, inhibiting BACE1 is considered one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease...
June 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Joseph J Taylor, Hedy Kober, David A Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Rachel D Penrod, Ethan M Anderson, Christopher W Cowan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Martina Sgritta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Edmund A Griffin, Philippe A Melas, Denise B Kandel, Eric R Kandel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Kang Ik K Cho, Yoo Bin Kwak, Wu Jeong Hwang, Junhee Lee, Minah Kim, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: Disruption in the thalamus, such as volume, shape, and cortical connectivity, is regarded as an important pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia. However, there is little evidence of nuclei-specific structural alterations in the thalamus during early-stage psychosis, mainly because of the methodological limitations of conventional structural imaging in identifying the thalamic nuclei. METHODS: A total of 37 patients with first-episode psychosis and 36 matched healthy control subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging, and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
May 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Leif Oltedal, Katherine L Narr, Christopher Abbott, Amit Anand, Miklos Argyelan, Hauke Bartsch, Udo Dannlowski, Annemieke Dols, Philip van Eijndhoven, Louise Emsell, Vera Jane Erchinger, Randall Espinoza, Tim Hahn, Lars G Hanson, Gerhard Hellemann, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Ute Kessler, Mardien L Oudega, Olaf B Paulson, Ronny Redlich, Pascal Sienaert, Max L Stek, Indira Tendolkar, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Ketil J Oedegaard, Anders M Dale
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal enlargements are commonly reported after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To clarify mechanisms, we examined if ECT-induced hippocampal volume change relates to dose (number of ECT sessions and electrode placement) and acts as a biomarker of clinical outcome. METHODS: Longitudinal neuroimaging and clinical data from 10 independent sites participating in the Global ECT-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research Collaboration (GEMRIC) were obtained for mega-analysis...
May 29, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Philipp Sterzer, Rick A Adams, Paul Fletcher, Chris Frith, Stephen M Lawrie, Lars Muckli, Predrag Petrovic, Peter Uhlhaas, Martin Voss, Philip R Corlett
Fueled by developments in computational neuroscience, there has been increasing interest in the underlying neurocomputational mechanisms of psychosis. One successful approach involves predictive coding and Bayesian inference. Here, inferences regarding the current state of the world are made by combining prior beliefs with incoming sensory signals. Mismatches between prior beliefs and incoming signals constitute prediction errors that drive new learning. Psychosis has been suggested to result from a decreased precision in the encoding of prior beliefs relative to the sensory data, thereby garnering maladaptive inferences...
May 25, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Sephira G Ryman, James F Cavanagh, Christopher J Wertz, Nicholas A Shaff, Andrew B Dodd, Brigitte Stevens, Josef Ling, Ronald A Yeo, Faith M Hanlon, Juan Bustillo, Shannon F Stromberg, Denise S Lin, Swala Abrams, Andrew R Mayer
BACKGROUND: Disrupted proactive cognitive control, a form of early selection and active goal maintenance, is hypothesized to underlie the broad cognitive deficits observed in patients with schizophrenia (SPs). Current research suggests that the disrupted activation within and connectivity between regions of the cognitive control network contribute to disrupted proactive cognitive control; however, no study has examined these mechanisms using an AX Continuous Performance Test task in schizophrenia...
May 25, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Brent Wilkinson, Oleg V Evgrafov, DongQing Zheng, Nicolas Hartel, James A Knowles, Nicholas A Graham, Justin K Ichida, Marcelo P Coba
BACKGROUND: Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric diseases along with neurodevelopmental phenotypes such as the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. While there has been significant effort directed toward understanding the function of DISC1 through the determination of its protein-protein interactions within an in vitro setting, endogenous interactions involving DISC1 within a cell type-specific setting relevant to neural development remain unclear...
May 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Cindy M Pinhal, Bastijn J G van den Boom, Fabiana Santana-Kragelund, Lizz Fellinger, Pol Bech, Ralph Hamelink, Guoping Feng, Ingo Willuhn, Matthijs G P Feenstra, Damiaan Denys
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that do not respond to conventional therapies. Although the precise mechanism of action of DBS remains unknown, modulation of activity in corticofugal fibers originating in the prefrontal cortex is thought to underlie its beneficial effects in OCD. METHODS: To gain more mechanistic insight into DBS in OCD, we used Sapap3 mutant mice. These mice display excessive self-grooming and increased anxiety, both of which are responsive to therapeutic drugs used in OCD patients...
May 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Fabio Bernardoni, Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Julian Birkenstock, Friederike I Tam, Kerstin Weidner, Veit Roessner, Tonya White, Stefan Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Cortical folding is thought to remain relatively invariant after birth. Therefore, differences seen in psychiatric disorders have been proposed as early biomarkers or used as intermediate phenotypes in imaging genetics studies. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with drastic and rapid structural brain alterations and thus may be an ideal model disorder to study environmental influences on cortical folding. METHODS: To date, the only two studies in AN applied different methods (local gyrification index and mean curvature) and found seemingly discordant results...
May 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Theo G M van Erp, Esther Walton, Derrek P Hibar, Lianne Schmaal, Wenhao Jiang, David C Glahn, Godfrey D Pearlson, Nailin Yao, Masaki Fukunaga, Ryota Hashimoto, Naohiro Okada, Hidenaga Yamamori, Juan R Bustillo, Vincent P Clark, Ingrid Agartz, Bryon A Mueller, Wiepke Cahn, Sonja M C de Zwarte, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn, Roel A Ophoff, Neeltje E M van Haren, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Nhat Trung Doan, Tiril P Gurholt, Cecilie B Hartberg, Unn K Haukvik, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Trine V Lagerberg, Ingrid Melle, Lars T Westlye, Oliver Gruber, Bernd Kraemer, Anja Richter, David Zilles, Vince D Calhoun, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Diana Tordesillas-Gutiérrez, Carmel Loughland, Vaughan J Carr, Stanley Catts, Vanessa L Cropley, Janice M Fullerton, Melissa J Green, Frans A Henskens, Assen Jablensky, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Bryan J Mowry, Patricia T Michie, Christos Pantelis, Yann Quidé, Ulrich Schall, Rodney J Scott, Murray J Cairns, Marc Seal, Paul A Tooney, Paul E Rasser, Gavin Cooper, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Thomas W Weickert, Derek W Morris, Elliot Hong, Peter Kochunov, Lauren M Beard, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Daniel H Wolf, Aysenil Belger, Gregory G Brown, Judith M Ford, Fabio Macciardi, Daniel H Mathalon, Daniel S O'Leary, Steven G Potkin, Adrian Preda, James Voyvodic, Kelvin O Lim, Sarah McEwen, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan, Shuping Tan, Zhiren Wang, Fengmei Fan, Jingxu Chen, Hong Xiang, Shiyou Tang, Hua Guo, Ping Wan, Dong Wei, Henry J Bockholt, Stefan Ehrlich, Rick P F Wolthusen, Margaret D King, Jody M Shoemaker, Scott R Sponheim, Lieuwe De Haan, Laura Koenders, Marise W Machielsen, Therese van Amelsvoort, Dick J Veltman, Francesca Assogna, Nerisa Banaj, Pietro de Rossi, Mariangela Iorio, Fabrizio Piras, Gianfranco Spalletta, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Raymond Salvador, Aiden Corvin, Gary Donohoe, Sinead Kelly, Christopher D Whelan, Erin W Dickie, David Rotenberg, Aristotle N Voineskos, Simone Ciufolini, Joaquim Radua, Paola Dazzan, Robin Murray, Tiago Reis Marques, Andrew Simmons, Stefan Borgwardt, Laura Egloff, Fabienne Harrisberger, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Renata Smieskova, Kathryn I Alpert, Lei Wang, Erik G Jönsson, Sanne Koops, Iris E C Sommer, Alessandro Bertolino, Aurora Bonvino, Annabella Di Giorgio, Emma Neilson, Andrew R Mayer, Julia M Stephen, Jun Soo Kwon, Je-Yeon Yun, Dara M Cannon, Colm McDonald, Irina Lebedeva, Alexander S Tomyshev, Tolibjohn Akhadov, Vasily Kaleda, Helena Fatouros-Bergman, Lena Flyckt, Geraldo F Busatto, Pedro G P Rosa, Mauricio H Serpa, Marcus V Zanetti, Cyril Hoschl, Antonin Skoch, Filip Spaniel, David Tomecek, Saskia P Hagenaars, Andrew M McIntosh, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie, Christian Knöchel, Viola Oertel-Knöchel, Michael Stäblein, Fleur M Howells, Dan J Stein, Henk S Temmingh, Anne Uhlmann, Carlos Lopez-Jaramillo, Danai Dima, Agnes McMahon, Joshua I Faskowitz, Boris A Gutman, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Jessica A Turner
BACKGROUND: The profile of cortical neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia is not fully understood, despite hundreds of published structural brain imaging studies. This study presents the first meta-analysis of cortical thickness and surface area abnormalities in schizophrenia conducted by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Schizophrenia Working Group. METHODS: The study included data from 4474 individuals with schizophrenia (mean age, 32...
May 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Chun Yang, Shizuka Kobayashi, Kazuhito Nakao, Chao Dong, Mei Han, Youge Qu, Qian Ren, Ji-Chun Zhang, Min Ma, Hidetoh Toki, Jun-Ichi Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki Chaki, Yukihiko Shirayama, Kazu Nakazawa, Toshiya Manabe, Kenji Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, exerts robust antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression. The precise mechanisms underlying ketamine's antidepressant actions remain unclear, although previous research suggests that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) activation plays a role. We investigated whether (S)-norketamine and (R)-norketamine, the two main metabolites of (R,S)-ketamine, also play a significant role in ketamine's antidepressant effects and whether the effects are mediated by AMPAR...
May 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Cindy Barrientos, Daniel Knowland, Mingche M J Wu, Varoth Lilascharoen, Kee Wui Huang, Robert C Malenka, Byung Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain region implicated in pathological motivated behaviors such as drug addiction and is composed predominantly of two discrete populations of neurons, dopamine receptor-1- and dopamine receptor-2-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs, respectively). It is unclear whether these populations receive inputs from different brain areas and whether input regions to these cell types undergo distinct structural adaptations in response to the administration of addictive drugs such as cocaine...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Christian Wachinger, Kwangsik Nho, Andrew J Saykin, Martin Reuter, Anna Rieckmann
BACKGROUND: Contralateral brain structures represent a unique, within-patient reference element for disease, and asymmetries can provide a personalized measure of the accumulation of past disease processes. Neuroanatomical shape asymmetries have recently been associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the biological basis of asymmetric brain changes in AD remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated genetic influences on brain asymmetry by identifying associations between magnetic resonance imaging-derived measures of asymmetry and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have previously been identified in genome-wide association studies for AD diagnosis and for brain subcortical volumes...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Manoj K Doss, Jessica Weafer, David A Gallo, Harriet de Wit
BACKGROUND: It is well established that the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs episodic memory encoding and modulates emotional processing, but little is known about the impact of THC during the retrieval of emotional episodic memories. With the rise of cannabis to treat medical conditions, including those characterized by emotional and episodic memory disturbances, there is an urgent need to determine the effects of THC on memory accuracy and distortion...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Anthony L Berger, Angela M Henricks, Janelle M Lugo, Hayden R Wright, Collin R Warrick, Martin A Sticht, Maria Morena, Itziar Bonilla, Sarah A Laredo, Rebecca M Craft, Loren H Parsons, Pedro R Grandes, Cecilia J Hillard, Matthew N Hill, Ryan J McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: The ability to effectively cope with stress is a critical determinant of disease susceptibility. The lateral habenula (LHb) and the endocannabinoid (ECB) system have independently been shown to be involved in the selection of stress coping strategies, yet the role of ECB signaling in the LHb remains unknown. METHODS: Using a battery of complementary techniques in rats, we examined the localization of type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 Rs) and assessed the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of intra-LHb CB1 R manipulations...
May 8, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Teemu Mäntylä, Lauri Nummenmaa, Eva Rikandi, Maija Lindgren, Tuula Kieseppä, Riitta Hari, Jaana Suvisaari, Tuukka T Raij
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychotic disorders have reported both hypoactivity and hyperactivity in numerous brain regions. In line with the dysconnection hypothesis, these regions include cortical integrative hub regions. However, most earlier studies focused on a single cognitive function at a time, assessed by delivering artificial stimuli to patients with chronic psychosis. Thus, it remains unresolved whether these findings are present already in early psychosis and whether they translate to real-life-like conditions that require multisensory processing and integration...
May 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Sade Spencer, Daniela Neuhofer, Vivian C Chioma, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Danielle J Schwartz, Nicholas Allen, Michael D Scofield, Tara Ortiz-Ithier, Peter W Kalivas
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, but knowledge of the neurological consequences of cannabis use is deficient. Two primary components of cannabis are Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We established a THC+CBD model of self-administration and reinstated drug seeking to determine if, similar to other addictive drugs, cannabis produces enduring synaptic changes in nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) thought to contribute vulnerability to drug reinstatement...
May 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
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