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Biological Psychiatry

Anzela Niraula, Kristina G Witcher, John F Sheridan, Jonathan P Godbout
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is elevated in circulation with chronic stress and may contribute to neurobehavioral complications. We have reported that repeated social defeat stress in mice caused recruitment of proinflammatory monocytes to the brain and triggered the onset of anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the role of IL-6 signaling in the peripheral immune response, neuroinflammation, and anxiety following stress. METHODS: Wild-type and IL-6 knockout mice were subjected to repeated social defeat, and immune and behavioral parameters were determined 14 hours later...
October 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Hyunjung Oh, Sean C Piantadosi, Brad R Rocco, David A Lewis, Simon C Watkins, Etienne Sibille
BACKGROUND: A parallel downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and somatostatin (SST), a marker of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid interneurons that target pyramidal cell dendrites, has been reported in several brain areas of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Rodent genetic studies suggest that they are linked and that both contribute to the illness. However, the mechanism by which they contribute to the pathophysiology of the illness has remained elusive...
October 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Linn B Norbom, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Tobias Kaufmann, Torgeir Moberget, Jaroslav Rokicki, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye, Christian K Tamnes
BACKGROUND: Cerebral myeloarchitecture shows substantial development across childhood and adolescence, and aberrations in these trajectories are relevant for a range of mental disorders. Differential myelination between intracortical and subjacent white matter can be approximated using signal intensities in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: To test the sensitivity of gray/white matter contrast (GWC) to age and individual differences in psychopathology and general cognitive ability in youths (8-23 years), we formed data-driven psychopathology and cognitive components using a large population-based sample, the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 6487, 52% female)...
October 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Rebecca B Price, Vanessa Brown, Greg J Siegle
BACKGROUND: Biased patterns of attention are implicated as key mechanisms across many forms of psychopathology and have given rise to automated mechanistic interventions designed to modify such attentional preferences. However, progress is substantially hindered by limitations in widely used methods to quantify attention, bias leading to imprecision of measurement. METHODS: In a sample of patients who were clinically anxious (n = 70), we applied a well-validated form of computational modeling (drift-diffusion model) to trial-level reaction time data from a two-choice "dot-probe task"-the dominant paradigm used in hundreds of attention bias studies to date-in order to model distinct components of task performance...
October 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Johanna Bick, Erin N Palmwood, Lindsay Zajac, Robert Simons, Mary Dozier
BACKGROUND: Growing work points to the negative impact of early adverse experiences on the developing brain. An outstanding question concerns the extent to which early intervention can normalize trajectories of brain development in at-risk children. We tested this within the context of a randomized clinical trial of an early parenting program, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC), delivered to parents and infants monitored for maltreatment by Child Protective Services. METHODS: Families participated in the randomized clinical trial when children were 2...
October 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Rammohan Shukla, Thomas D Prevot, Leon French, Ruth Isserlin, Brad R Rocco, Mounira Banasr, Gary D Bader, Etienne Sibille
BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by altered thinking (cognition) and feeling (mood), functions that depend on information processing by brain cortical cell microcircuits. We hypothesized that age-associated long-term functional and biological changes are mediated by gene transcriptomic changes within neuronal cell types forming cortical microcircuits, namely excitatory pyramidal cells (PYCs) and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), somatostatin (Sst), and parvalbumin (Pvalb)...
October 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Amber M Leaver, Megha Vasavada, Shantanu H Joshi, Benjamin Wade, Roger P Woods, Randall Espinoza, Katherine L Narr
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) induces neuroplasticity in patients with severe depression, though how this relates to antidepressant response is less clear. Arterial spin-labeled functional magnetic resonance imaging tracks absolute changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) linked with brain function and offers a potentially powerful tool when observing neurofunctional plasticity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Using arterial spin-labeled functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured global and regional CBF associated with clinically prescribed ECT and therapeutic response in patients (n = 57, 30 female) before ECT, after two treatments, after completing an ECT treatment "index" (∼4 weeks), and after long-term follow-up (6 months)...
October 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Thomas T van Sloten, Pierre Boutouyrie, Muriel Tafflet, Lucile Offredo, Frédérique Thomas, Catherine Guibout, Rachel E Climie, Cédric Lemogne, Bruno Pannier, Stéphane Laurent, Xavier Jouven, Jean-Philippe Empana
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness may contribute to late-life depression via cerebral microvascular damage, but evidence is scarce. No longitudinal study has evaluated the association between arterial stiffness and risk of depressive symptoms. Therefore, we investigated the association between carotid artery stiffness and incident depressive symptoms in a large community-based cohort study. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 7013 participants (mean age 59.7 ± 6...
October 4, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Cecilie N Lydholm, Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Merete Nordentoft, Robert H Yolken, Preben B Mortensen, Liselotte Petersen, Michael E Benros
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and increased risks of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. However, large-scale studies investigating an association between parental infections both during and outside the pregnancy period and the risk of any mental disorder in the child are lacking. METHODS: A nationwide Danish cohort study identified 1,206,600 children born between 1996 and 2015 and followed them to a maximum of 20 years of age...
October 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Elliott Rees, Noa Carrera, Joanne Morgan, Kirsty Hambridge, Valentina Escott-Price, Andrew J Pocklington, Alexander L Richards, Antonio F Pardiñas, Colm McDonald, Gary Donohoe, Derek W Morris, Elaine Kenny, Eric Kelleher, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, George Kirov, James T R Walters, Peter Holmans, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan
BACKGROUND: Sequencing studies have pointed to the involvement in schizophrenia of rare coding variants in neuronally expressed genes, including activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complexes; however, larger samples are required to reveal novel genes and specific biological mechanisms. METHODS: We sequenced 187 genes, selected for prior evidence of association with schizophrenia, in a new dataset of 5207 cases and 4991 controls...
October 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Mohamed Abdulkadir, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf, Dongmei Yu, Jay A Tischfield, Gary A Heiman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) has a well-established genetic background, but its genetic architecture remains largely unknown. The authors investigated the role of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from a TS genome-wide association study in relation to the occurrence of tics and associated traits in a general population cohort. METHODS: Using the most recent TS genome-wide association study (n = 4819 cases; n = 9488 controls) as the discovery sample, PRSs were calculated in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children participants (n = 8941)...
September 29, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Robert A McCutcheon, Matthew M Nour, Tarik Dahoun, Sameer Jauhar, Fiona Pepper, Paul Expert, Mattia Veronese, Rick A Adams, Federico Turkheimer, Mitul A Mehta, Oliver D Howes
BACKGROUND: A wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, from schizophrenia to drug addiction, involve abnormalities in both the mesolimbic dopamine system and the cortical salience network. Both systems play a key role in the detection of behaviorally relevant environmental stimuli. Although anatomical overlap exists, the functional relationship between these systems remains unknown. Preclinical research has suggested that the firing of mesolimbic dopamine neurons may activate nodes of the salience network, but in vivo human research is required given the species-specific nature of this network...
September 29, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jennifer A Sumner, Natalie L Colich, Monica Uddin, Don Armstrong, Katie A McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Recent conceptual models argue that early life adversity (ELA) accelerates development, which may contribute to poor mental and physical health outcomes. Evidence for accelerated development in youths comes from studies of telomere shortening or advanced pubertal development following circumscribed ELA experiences and neuroimaging studies of circuits involved in emotional processing. It is unclear whether all ELA is associated with accelerated development across global metrics of biological aging or whether this pattern emerges following specific adversity types...
September 26, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Yusuke Iwata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Eric Plitman, Fernando Caravaggio, Julia Kim, Parita Shah, Wanna Mar, Sofia Chavez, Vincenzo De Luca, Masaru Mimura, Gary Remington, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: In terms of antipsychotic treatment response, patients with schizophrenia can be classified into three groups: 1) treatment resistant to both non-clozapine (non-CLZ) antipsychotics and CLZ (ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia [URS]), 2) treatment resistant to non-CLZ antipsychotics but CLZ-responsive schizophrenia [non-URS]), and 3) responsive to first-line antipsychotics (non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia). This study aimed to compare glutamatergic neurometabolite levels among these three patient groups and healthy control subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
September 26, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Hannah M Kilian, Dora M Meyer, Bettina H Bewernick, Susanne Spanier, Volker A Coenen, Thomas E Schlaepfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Alan M Smith, Joseph J King, Paul R West, Michael A Ludwig, Elizabeth L R Donley, Robert E Burrier, David G Amaral
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is behaviorally and biologically heterogeneous and likely represents a series of conditions arising from different underlying genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. There are currently no reliable diagnostic biomarkers for ASD. Based on evidence that dysregulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of ASD, we tested whether dysregulation of amino acids (AAs) was a pervasive phenomenon in individuals with ASD...
September 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Anil P S Ori, Merel H M Bot, Remco T Molenhuis, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Roel A Ophoff
BACKGROUND: Common psychiatric disorders are characterized by complex disease architectures with many small genetic effects that contribute and complicate biological understanding of their etiology. There is therefore a pressing need for in vitro experimental systems that allow for interrogation of polygenic psychiatric disease risk to study the underlying biological mechanisms. METHODS: We have developed an analytical framework that integrates genome-wide disease risk from genome-wide association studies with longitudinal in vitro gene expression profiles of human neuronal differentiation...
September 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Hongxing Zhang, Dipesh Chaudhury, Alexander R Nectow, Allyson K Friedman, Song Zhang, Barbara Juarez, He Liu, Madeline L Pfau, Hossein Aleyasin, Cheng Jiang, Marshall Crumiller, Erin S Calipari, Stacy M Ku, Carole Morel, Nikos Tzavaras, Sarah E Montgomery, Michelle He, Stephen R Salton, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler, Jeffrey M Friedman, Jun-Li Cao, Ming-Hu Han
BACKGROUND: Homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons plays an essential role in mediating resilience to social stress. Recent evidence implicates an association between stress resilience and projections from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) (LC→VTA) DA system. However, the precise circuitry and molecular mechanisms of the homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic DA neurons mediated by the LC→VTA circuitry, and its role in conferring resilience to social defeat stress, have not been described...
September 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Liisa Hantsoo, Sara Kornfield, Montserrat C Anguera, C Neill Epperson
During pregnancy, programming of the fetal central nervous system establishes vulnerabilities for emergence of neuropsychiatric phenotypes later in life. Psychosocial influences during pregnancy, such as stressful life events and chronic stress, correlate with offspring neuropsychiatric disorders and inflammation, respectively. Stress promotes inflammation, but the role of inflammation as a mediator between maternal psychosocial stress and offspring neuropsychiatric outcomes has not been extensively studied in humans...
September 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Serena B Gumusoglu, Hanna E Stevens
Early disruptions to neurodevelopment are highly relevant to understanding both psychiatric risk and underlying pathophysiology that can be targeted by new treatments. Much convergent evidence from the human literature associates inflammation during pregnancy with later neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Preclinical models of prenatal inflammation have been developed to examine the causal maternal physiological and offspring neural mechanisms underlying these findings. Here we review the strengths and limitations of preclinical models used for these purposes and describe selected studies that have shown maternal immune impacts on the brain and behavior of offspring...
August 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
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