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Biological Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619481/computational-psychosomatics-and-computational-psychiatry-toward-a-joint-framework-for-differential-diagnosis
#1
REVIEW
Frederike H Petzschner, Lilian A E Weber, Tim Gard, Klaas E Stephan
This article outlines how a core concept from theories of homeostasis and cybernetics, the inference-control loop, may be used to guide differential diagnosis in computational psychiatry and computational psychosomatics. In particular, we discuss 1) how conceptualizing perception and action as inference-control loops yields a joint computational perspective on brain-world and brain-body interactions and 2) how the concrete formulation of this loop as a hierarchical Bayesian model points to key computational quantities that inform a taxonomy of potential disease mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629541/stress-and-loss-of-adult-neurogenesis-differentially-reduce-hippocampal-volume
#2
Timothy J Schoenfeld, Hayley C McCausland, H Douglas Morris, Varun Padmanaban, Heather A Cameron
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume loss is a hallmark of clinical depression. Chronic stress produces volume loss in the hippocampus in humans and atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cells and suppression of adult neurogenesis in rodents. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between decreased adult neurogenesis and stress-induced changes in hippocampal structure and volume, we compared the effects of chronic unpredictable restraint stress and inhibition of neurogenesis in a rat pharmacogenetic model...
May 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601192/treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-via-magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound-surgery
#3
LETTER
Minsoo Kim, Chan-Hyung Kim, Hyun Ho Jung, Se Joo Kim, Jin Woo Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624112/opposing-roles-of-rapid-dopamine-signaling%C3%A2-across-the-rostral-caudal-axis-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-nucleus-accumbens-shell-in-drug-induced-negative-affect
#4
Seth W Hurley, Elizabeth A West, Regina M Carelli
BACKGROUND: Negative reinforcement theories of drug addiction posit that addicts use drugs to alleviate negative mood states. In a preclinical model developed in our laboratory, rats exhibit negative affect to a normally rewarding taste cue when it predicts impending but delayed cocaine. The emergence of this state is accompanied by a reduction in dopamine concentration in the rostral nucleus accumbens shell. However, the rostral and caudal regions of the shell have been implicated in promoting opposing appetitive and aversive states, respectively...
May 11, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629540/kinetics-and-dose-dependency-of-intranasal-oxytocin-effects-on-amygdala-reactivity
#5
Franny B Spengler, Johannes Schultz, Dirk Scheele, Maximiliane Essel, Wolfgang Maier, Markus Heinrichs, René Hurlemann
BACKGROUND: Current neuroimaging perspectives on a variety of mental disorders emphasize dysfunction of the amygdala. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), a key mediator in the regulation of social cognition and behavior, accumulates in cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration in macaques and humans and modulates amygdala reactivity in both species. However, the translation of neuromodulatory OXT effects to novel treatment approaches is hampered by the absence of studies defining the most effective dose and dose-response latency for targeting the amygdala...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599833/the-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-the-neural-signatures-of-sustained-attention
#6
Paul M Dockree, Jessica J Barnes, Natasha Matthews, Angela J Dean, Rafael Abe, L Sanjay Nandam, Simon P Kelly, Mark A Bellgrove, Redmond G O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that methylphenidate (MPH) enhances sustained attention, the neural mechanisms underpinning this improvement remain unclear. We examined how MPH influenced known electrophysiological precursors of lapsing attention over different time scales. METHODS: We measured the impact of MPH, compared with placebo, on behavioral and electrocortical markers while healthy adults (n = 40) performed a continuous monitoring paradigm designed to elicit attentional lapses...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577753/cocaine-induced-chromatin-modifications-associate-with-increased-expression-and-three-dimensional-looping-of-auts2
#7
Olivia Engmann, Benoit Labonté, Amanda Mitchell, Pavel Bashtrykov, Erin S Calipari, Chaggai Rosenbluh, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Deena M Walker, Dominika Burek, Peter J Hamilton, Orna Issler, Rachael L Neve, Gustavo Turecki, Yasmin Hurd, Andrew Chess, Li Shen, Isabelle Mansuy, Albert Jeltsch, Schahram Akbarian, Eric J Nestler
BACKGROUND: Exposure to drugs of abuse alters the epigenetic landscape of the brain's reward regions, such as the nucleus accumbens. We investigated how combinations of chromatin modifications affect genes that regulate responses to cocaine. We focused on Auts2, a gene linked to human evolution and cognitive disorders, which displays strong clustering of cocaine-induced chromatin modifications in this brain region. METHODS: We combined chromosome conformation capture, circularized chromosome conformation capture, and related approaches with behavioral paradigms relevant to cocaine phenotypes...
May 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526398/genomics-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-sequencing-stress-and-modeling-misfortune
#8
Murray B Stein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587718/%C3%AE-amyloid-precursor-protein-intracellular-domain-controls-mitochondrial-function-by-modulating-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-induced-kinase-1-transcription-in-cells-and-in-alzheimer-mice-models
#9
Thomas Goiran, Eric Duplan, Mounia Chami, Alexandre Bourgeois, Wejdane El Manaa, Lila Rouland, Julie Dunys, Inger Lauritzen, Han You, Vuk Stambolic, Maria-Grazia Biféri, Martine Barkats, Sanjay W Pimplikar, Nicolas Sergeant, Morvane Colin, Vanessa A Morais, Raphaelle Pardossi-Piquard, Frédéric Checler, Cristine Alves da Costa
BACKGROUND: Mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics alterations are two major hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. Dysfunctional mitochondria accumulate in Alzheimer's disease-affected brains by yet unexplained mechanisms. METHODS: We combined cell biology, molecular biology, and pharmacological approaches to unravel a novel molecular pathway by which presenilins control phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced kinase 1 (Pink-1) expression and transcription. In vivo approaches were carried out on various transgenic and knockout animals as well as in adeno-associated virus-infected mice...
May 3, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549499/unilateral-atonia-and-asymmetric-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-ross-syndrome
#10
LETTER
Hiroki Shiwaku, Yukio Kimura, Kenji Narushima, Hiroshi Matsuda, Toru Nishikawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527567/a-case-of-recovery-after-delayed-intracranial-hemorrhage-after-deep-brain-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#11
LETTER
Raphaëlle Richieri, Pierre-Yves Borius, Michel Cermolacce, Bruno Millet, Christophe Lançon, Jean Régis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599832/model-based-control-in-dimensional-psychiatry
#12
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, Andrea Reiter, Miriam Sebold, Stephanie Groman
We use parallel interacting goal-directed and habitual strategies to make our daily decisions. The arbitration between these strategies is relevant to inflexible repetitive behaviors in psychiatric disorders. Goal-directed control, also known as model-based control, is based on an affective outcome relying on a learned internal model to prospectively make decisions. In contrast, habit control, also known as model-free control, is based on an integration of previous reinforced learning autonomous of the current outcome value and is implicit and more efficient but at the cost of greater inflexibility...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506438/prion-like-spreading-in-tauopathies
#13
REVIEW
Jacob I Ayers, Benoit I Giasson, David R Borchelt
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that functions in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics, especially in neurons. Misfolded and aggregated forms of tau produce pathological structures in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tauopathy dementias. These disorders can present with a sporadic etiology, such as in AD, or a familial etiology, such as in some cases of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism. Notably, the pathological features of tau pathology in these diseases can be very distinct...
April 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527566/abnormalities-in-high-energy-phosphate-metabolism-in-first-episode-bipolar-disorder-measured-using-31-p-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#14
Fei Du, Cagri Yuksel, Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Polly Huynh, Kyle Ryan, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Brain energy metabolism is critical for supporting synaptic function and information processing. A growing body of evidence suggests abnormalities in brain bioenergetics in psychiatric disorders, including both bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides a noninvasive window into these processes in vivo. Using this approach, we previously showed that patients with BD show normal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine levels at rest but cannot maintain normal ATP levels in the visual cortex during times of high energy demand (photic stimulation)...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499489/neuronal-pas-domain-proteins-1-and-3-are-master-regulators-of-neuropsychiatric-risk-genes
#15
Jacob J Michaelson, Min-Kyoo Shin, Jin-Young Koh, Leo Brueggeman, Angela Zhang, Aaron Katzman, Latisha McDaniel, Mimi Fang, Miles Pufall, Andrew A Pieper
BACKGROUND: NPAS3 has been established as a robust genetic risk factor in major mental illness. In mice, loss of neuronal PAS domain protein 3 (NPAS3) impairs postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, while loss of the related protein NPAS1 promotes it. These and other findings suggest a critical role for NPAS proteins in neuropsychiatric functioning, prompting interest in the molecular pathways under their control. METHODS: We used RNA sequencing coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify genes directly regulated by NPAS1 and NPAS3 in the hippocampus of wild-type, Npas1(-/-), and Npas3(-/-) mice...
April 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465019/first-dose-methylphenidate-induced-changes-in-brain-functional-connectivity-are-correlated-with-3-month-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-response
#16
Richard B Silberstein, Florence Levy, Andrew Pipingas, Maree Farrow
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are most commonly treated with stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH); however, approximately 25% of patients show little or no symptomatic response. We examined the extent to which initial changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) associated with the first MPH dose in boys newly diagnosed with ADHD predict MPH-associated changes in ADHD inattentiveness and hyperactivity symptoms at 3 months. METHODS: Brain FC was estimated using steady-state visual evoked potential partial coherence before and 90 minutes after the administration of the first MPH dose to 40 stimulant drug-naïve boys newly diagnosed with ADHD while they performed the AX version of the continuous performance task...
April 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460841/low-endogenous-fibroblast-growth-factor-2%C3%A2-levels-are-associated-with-heightened-conditioned-fear-expression-in-rats-and-humans
#17
Bronwyn M Graham, Dino Zagic, Rick Richardson
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal concentrations of the neurotrophic factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are negatively associated with the expression of fear following conditioning in rats. Heightened conditioned fear expression may be a prospective risk factor for the development of human anxiety and trauma disorders. However, the relationship between conditioned fear expression and FGF2 is yet to be established in humans. METHODS: Using a cross-species approach, we first investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of FGF2 and individual differences in conditioned fear expression in rats (n = 19)...
April 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476208/transcriptome-alterations-in-prefrontal-pyramidal-cells-distinguish-schizophrenia-from-bipolar-and-major-depressive-disorders
#18
Dominique Arion, Zhiguang Huo, John F Enwright, John P Corradi, George Tseng, David A Lewis
BACKGROUND: Impairments in certain cognitive processes (e.g., working memory) are typically most pronounced in schizophrenia (SZ), intermediate in bipolar disorder, and least in major depressive disorder. Given that working memory depends, in part, on neural circuitry that includes pyramidal cells in layer 3 (L3) and layer 5 (L5) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), we sought to determine if transcriptome alterations in these neurons were shared or distinctive for each diagnosis...
April 4, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545678/rapid-synaptogenesis-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-induced-by-a-single-cocaine-administration-and-stabilized-by-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-interacting-kinase-1-activity
#19
Marc Dos Santos, Marine Salery, Benoit Forget, Maria Alexandra Garcia Perez, Sandrine Betuing, Thomas Boudier, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Nicolas Heck
BACKGROUND: Repeated cocaine exposure produces new spine formation in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of the nucleus accumbens. However, an acute exposure to cocaine can trigger long-lasting synaptic plasticity in SPNs leading to behavioral alterations. This raises the intriguing question as to whether a single administration of cocaine could enduringly modify striatal connectivity. METHODS: A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of presynaptic glutamatergic boutons and dendritic spines was performed on SPNs 1 hour and 1 week after a single cocaine administration...
March 29, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506437/association-between-interleukin-6-and-striatal-prediction-error-signals-following-acute-stress-in-healthy-female-participants
#20
Michael T Treadway, Roee Admon, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Gordana Vitaliano, David P Olson, Jessica A Cooper, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Stress is widely known to alter behavioral responses to rewards and punishments. It is believed that stress may precipitate these changes through modulation of corticostriatal circuitry involved in reinforcement learning and motivation, although the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. One candidate is inflammation, which can rapidly increase following stress and can disrupt dopamine-dependent reward pathways. METHODS: Here, in a sample of 88 healthy female participants, we first assessed the effect of an acute laboratory stress paradigm on levels of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine known to be both responsive to stress and elevated in depression...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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