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Environmental Science & Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541679/biomagnetic-monitoring-of-atmospheric-pollution-a-review-of-magnetic-signatures-from-biological-sensors
#1
Jelle Hofman, Barbara A Maher, Adrian R Muxworthy, Karen Wuyts, Ana Castanheiro, Roeland Samson
Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily-measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ('sensors') used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541678/identification-of-active-hydrogen-species-on-palladium-nanoparticles-for-an-enhanced-electrocatalytic-hydrodechlorination-of-2-4-dichlorophenol-in-water
#2
Guangming Jiang, Mengna Lan, Zhiyong Zhang, Xiaoshu Lv, Zimo Lou, Xinhua Xu, Fan Dong, Sen Zhang
Clarifying hydrogen evolution and identifying the active hydrogen species are crucial to the understanding of electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination (EHDC) mechanism. Here, monodisperse palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) are used as a model catalyst to demonstrate the potential-dependent evolutions of three hydrogen species, including adsorbed atomic hydrogen (H*ads), absorbed atomic hydrogen (H*abs) and molecular hydrogen (H2) on Pd NPs, and then their effect on EHDC of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). Our results show that H*ads, H*abs and H2 all emerge at -0...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541672/impacts-of-unregulated-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-on-human-liver-thyroid-deiodination-and-sulfotransferation
#3
Tristan Alexander Smythe, Craig M Butt, Heather M Stapleton, Kerri Pleskach, Geemitha Ratnayake, Chae Yoon Song, Nicole Riddell, Alex Konstantinov, Gregg Thomas Tomy
The inhibitory effects of five novel brominated flame retardants: 1,2-bis(2,4,5-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), and β-tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (β-TBECH) on thyroid hormone deiodinase (DIO) and sulfotransferase (SULT) activity were investigated using human in vitro liver microsomal and cytosolic bioassays. Enzymatic activity was measured by incubating active human liver sub-cellular fractions with thyroid hormones (T4 and rT3 separately) and measuring changes in thyroid hormone (T4, T3, rT3, and 3,3'-T2) concentrations...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541669/effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-and-their-hydroxylated-metabolites-oh-pcbs-on-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Srishty Subramanian, Jerald L Schnoor, Benoit Van Aken
Plants metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into hydroxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs), which are sometimes more toxic than the parent PCBs. The objective of this research was to compare the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and OH-PCBs toward the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. While parent PCBs and higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs exhibited a low or non-detectable toxicity, lower-chlorinated OH-PCBs significantly inhibited the germination rate and plant growth, with IC50 ranging from 1.6 to 12.0 mg L-1. The transcriptomic response of A...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541663/mechanistic-insight-into-the-reactivity-of-chlorine-derived-radicals-in-the-aqueous-phase-uv-chlorine-advanced-oxidation-process-quantum-mechanical-calculations
#5
Daisuke Minakata, Divya Kamath, Shaye Maetzold
The combined ultraviolet (UV) and free chlorine (UV/chlorine) advanced oxidation process that produces highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (HO•) and chlorine radicals (Cl•) is an attractive alternative to UV alone or chlorination for disinfection because of the destruction of a wide variety of organic compounds. However, concerns about the potential formation of chlorinated transformation products require an understanding of the radical-induced elementary reaction mechanisms and their reaction rate constants...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541661/a-complementary-isothermal-amplification-method-to-the-us-epa-qpcr-approach-for-the-detection-of-enterococci-in-environmental-waters
#6
Claudia Kolm, Roland Martzy, Kurt Brunner, Robert L Mach, Rudolf Krska, Georg Heinze, Regina Sommer, Georg H Reischer, Andreas H Farnleitner
We report a novel molecular assay, based on helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), for the detection of enterococci as markers for fecal pollution in water. This isothermal assay targets the same Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene region as the existing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the US Environmental Protection Agency Methods 1611 and 1609 but can be entirely performed on a simple heating block. The developed Enterococcus HDA assay successfully discriminated 15 enterococcal from 15 non-enterococcal reference strains and reliably detected 48 environmental isolates of enterococci...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538100/enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-polyester-thin-films-at-the-nanoscale-effects-of-polyester-structure-and-enzyme-active-site-accessibility
#7
Michael Thomas Zumstein, Daniela Rechsteiner, Nicolas Roduner, Veronika Perz, Doris Ribitsch, Georg M Guebitz, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Kristopher McNeill, Michael Sander
Biodegradable polyesters have a large potential to replace persistent polymers in numerous applications and to thereby reduce the accumulation of plastics in the environment. Ester hydrolysis by extracellular carboxylesterases is considered the rate-limiting step in polyester biodegradation. In this work, we systematically investigated the effects of polyester and carboxylesterase structure on the hydrolysis of nanometer-thin polyester films using a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Hydrolyzability increased with increasing polyester-chain flexibility as evidenced from differences in the hydrolysis rates and extents of aliphatic polyesters varying in the length of their dicarboxylic acid unit and of poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate) (PBAT) polyesters varying in their terephthalate-to-adipate ratio by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and Fusarium solani cutinase...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538093/toxic-byproduct-formation-during-electrochemical-treatment-of-latrine-wastewater
#8
Justin T Jasper, Yang Yang, Michael R Hoffmann
Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537717/organophosphate-esters-in-air-snow-and-seawater-in-the-north-atlantic-and-the-arctic
#9
Jing Li, Zhiyong Xie, Wenying Mi, Senchao Lai, Chongguo Tian, Kay-Christian Emeis, Ralf Ebinghaus
The concentrations of eight organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been investigated in air, snow and seawater samples collected during the cruise of ARK-XXVIII/2 from 6th June to 3rd July 2014 across the North Atlantic and the Arctic. The sum of gaseous and particle concentrations (∑OPE) ranged from 35 to 343 pg/m3. The three chlorinated OPEs accounted for 88 ± 5% of the ∑OPE. The most abundant OPE was tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), with concentrations ranging from 30 to 227 pg/m3, followed by three major OPEs, such as tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP, 0...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537711/synthetic-textiles-as-a-source-of-microplastics-from-households-a-mechanistic-study-to-understand-microfiber-release-during-washing
#10
Edgar Hernandez, Bernd Nowack, Denise M Mitrano
Microplastic fibers make up a large proportion of microplastics found in the environment, especially in urban areas. There is good reason to consider synthetic textiles a major source of microplastic fibers and it will not diminish since the use of synthetic fabrics, especially polyester, continues to increase. In this study we provide quantitative data regarding the size and mass of microplastic fibers released from synthetic (polyester) textiles during simulated home washing under controlled laboratory conditions...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537710/elucidating-adsorptive-fractions-of-natural-organic-matter-on-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Mohamed Ateia, Onur G Apul, Yuta Shimizu, Astri Muflihah, Chihiro Yoshimura, Tanju Karanfil
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a heterogeneous mixture of organic compounds that is omnipresent in natural waters. To date, our understanding of NOM components' adsorption by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is limited due to limited number of comprehensive studies in the literature examining the adsorption of NOM by CNTs. In this study, eleven standard NOMs from various sources were characterized, and their adsorption on four different CNTs were examined side-by-side using total organic carbon, fluorescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analysis...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537706/sodium-rivals-silver-as-single-atom-active-centers-for-catalyzing-abatement-of-formaldehyde
#12
Yaxin Chen, Jiayi Gao, Zhiwei Huang, Meijuan Zhou, Junxiao Chen, Chao Li, Zhen Ma, Jianmin Chen, Xingfu Tang
The development of efficient alkali-based catalysts for the abatement of formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous air pollutant, is economically desirable. Here we comparatively study the catalytic performance of two single-atom catalysts, Na1/HMO and Ag1/HMO (HMO = Hollandite manganese oxide), in the complete oxidation of HCHO at low temperatures, in which the products are only CO2 and H2O. These catalysts are synthesized by anchoring single sodium ions or silver atoms on HMO(001) surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns with structural refinement together with transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate that single sodium ions on the HMO(001) surfaces of Na1/HMO have the same local structures as silver atoms of Ag1/HMO...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537376/elucidation-of-the-molecular-determinants-for-optimal-pfos-adsorption-using-a-combinatorial-nanoparticle-library-approach
#13
Yin Liu, Gaoxing Su, Fei Wang, Jianbo Jia, Shuhuan Li, Linlin Zhao, Yali Shi, Yaqi Cai, Hao Zhu, Bin Zhao, Guibin Jiang, Hongyu Zhou, Bing Yan
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is persistently accumulated in the environment and in humans, causing various toxicities. To determine the key molecular determinants for optimal PFOS specificity and efficiency, we designed and synthesized a combinatorial gold nanoparticle (GNP) library consisting of 18 members with rationally diversified hydrophobic, electrostatic and fluorine-fluorine interaction components for PFOS bindings. According to our findings the electrostatic and F-F interactions between PFOS and nanoparticles are complementary...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537069/life-cycle-assessment-and-release-studies-for-15-nanosilver-enabled-consumer-products-investigating-hotspots-and-patterns-of-contribution
#14
Leila Pourzahedi, Marina Eller Vance, Matthew J Eckelman
Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products as antimicrobial agents has prompted extensive research towards evaluation of their potential release to the environment and subsequent ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. It has also been shown that AgNPs can pose significant burdens to the environment from life cycle emissions associated with their production, but these impacts must be considered in the context of actual products that contain nanosilver. Here a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment for production of 15 different AgNP-enabled consumer products was performed, coupled with release studies of those same products, thus providing a consistent analytical platform for investigation of nanosilver impacts across a range of product types and concentrations...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535674/analysis-of-measurement-errors-in-passive-sampling-of-porewater-pcb-concentrations-under-static-and-periodically-vibrated-conditions
#15
Mehregan Jalalizadeh, Upal Ghosh
Although the field of passive sampling to measure freely dissolved concentrations in sediment porewater has been sufficiently advanced for organic compounds in the low- to mid-range of hydrophobicity, in situ passive sampling of strongly hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is still challenged by slow approach to equilibrium. Periodic vibration of polyethylene (PE) passive samplers during exposure has been previously shown to enhance the mass transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediment into PE...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485591/a-laboratory-comparison-of-emission-factors-number-size-distributions-and-morphology-of-ultrafine-particles-from-11-different-household-cookstove-fuel-systems
#16
Guofeng Shen, Chethan K Gaddam, Seth M Ebersviller, Randy L Vander Wal, Craig Williams, Jerroll W Faircloth, James J Jetter, Michael D Hays
Ultrafine particle (UFP) emissions and particle number size distributions (PNSD) are critical in the evaluation of air pollution impacts; however, data on UFP number emissions from cookstoves, which are a major source of many pollutants, are limited. In this study, 11 fuel-stove combinations covering a variety of fuels and different stoves are investigated for UFP emissions and PNSD. The combustion of LPG and alcohol (∼10(11) particles per useful energy delivered, particles/MJd), and kerosene (∼10(13) particles/MJd), produced emissions that were lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than solid fuels (10(14)-10(15) particles/MJd)...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535339/ecophysiological-examination-of-the-lake-erie-microcystis-bloom-in-2014-linkages-between-biology-and-the-water-supply-shutdown-of-toledo-ohio
#17
Morgan Michelle Steffen, Timothy W Davis, Robert Michael McKay, George S Bullerjahn, Lauren E Krausfeldt, Joshua M A Stough, Michelle L Neitzey, Naomi E Gilbert, Gregory L Boyer, Thomas H Johengen, Duane C Gossiaux, Ashley M Burtner, Danna Palladino, Mark Rowe, Gregory J Dick, Kevin Meyer, Shawn Levy, Braden Boone, Richard Stumpf, Timothy Wynne, Paul V Zimba, Danielle B Gutierrez, Steven W Wilhelm
Annual cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis have occurred in western Lake Erie (USA/Canada) during summer months since 1995. The production of toxins by bloom-forming cyanobacteria can lead to drinking water crises, such as the one experienced by the city of Toledo in August of 2014, when the city was rendered without drinking water for > 2 days. It is important to understand the conditions and environmental cues that were driving this specific bloom to provide a scientific framework for management of future bloom events...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535063/airborne-precursors-predict-maternal-serum-perfluoroalkyl-acid-pfaa-concentrations
#18
Colleen M Makey, Thomas F Webster, Jonathan W Martin, Mahiba Shoeib, Tom Harner, Linda Dix-Cooper, Glenys M Webster
Human exposure to persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), can occur directly from contaminated food, water, air and dust. However, precursors to PFAAs (PreFAAs), such as di-polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (diPAPs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctyl sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs) - which can be biotransformed to PFAAs - may also be a source of exposure. PFAAs were analyzed in 50 maternal sera collected in 2007-2008 from participants in Vancouver, Canada, while PFAAs and PreFAAs were measured in matching samples of residential bedroom air collected by passive sampler, and in sieved vacuum dust (< 150 μm)...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534616/microbes-and-the-next-nitrogen-revolution
#19
Ilje Pikaar, Silvio Matassa, Korneel Rabaey, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Alexander Popp, Mario Herrero, Willy Verstraete
The Haber Bosch process is among the greatest inventions of the 20th century. It provided agriculture with reactive nitrogen and ultimately mankind with nourishment for a population of 7 billion people. However, the present agricultural practice of growing crops for animal production and human food constitutes a major threat to the sustainability of the planet in terms of reactive nitrogen pollution. In view of the shortage of directly feasible and cost-effective measures to avoid these planetary nitrogen burdens and the necessity to remediate this problem, we foresee the absolute need for, and expect, a revolution in the use of microbes as a source of protein...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534608/accelerating-innovation-that-enhances-resource-recovery-in-the-wastewater-sector-advancing-a-national-testbed-network
#20
James R Mihelcic, Zhiyong Jason Ren, Pablo K Cornejo, Aaron Fisher, A J Simon, Seth W Snyder, Qiong Zhang, Diego Rosso, Tyler M Huggins, William J Cooper, Jeff C Moeller, Robert J Rose, Brandi L Schottel, Jason Turgeon
This article examines significant challenges and opportunities to spur innovation and accelerate adoption of reliable technologies that enhance integrated resource recovery in the wastewater sector through the creation of a national testbed network. The network is a virtual entity that connects appropriate physical testing facilities, and other components needed for a testbed network, with researchers, investors, technology providers, utilities, regulators, and other stakeholders to accelerate the adoption of innovative technologies and processes that are needed for the water resource recovery facility of the future...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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