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Environmental Science & Technology

Xitong Liu, Jay F Whitacre, Meagan S Mauter
Though electrochemical deionization technologies have been widely explored for brackish water desalination and selective ion removal, their sustained performance in the presence of foulants common to environmental waters remains unclear. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms by which carbonaceous electrodes used in capacitive deionization and insertion electrodes used for high-capacity selective ion removal are affected by the presence of humic acid (HA). We evaluate HA adsorption behavior and the resulting impact on the ion storage capacity and cycling stability of the electrode materials...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Pralay Gayen, Chen Chen, Jeremiah T Abiade, Brian P Chaplin
This research focused on improving mineralization rates during the advanced electrochemical oxidation treatment of agricultural water contaminants. For the first time, bismuth-doped tin oxide (BDTO) catalysts were deposited on Magnéli phase (Ti<sub>n</sub>O<sub>2n-1</sub>, n = 4-6 ) reactive electrochemical membranes (REMs). Terephthalic acid (TA) was used as OH<sup>●</sup> probe, whereas atrazine (ATZ) and clothianidin (CDN) were chosen as model agricultural water pollutants...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Casey Quinn, Daniel D Miller-Lionberg, Kevin J Klunder, Jaymin Kwon, Elizabeth M Noth, John Mehaffy, David Leith, Sheryl Magzamen, S Katharine Hammond, Charles S Henry, John Volckens
Traditional methods for measuring personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) are cumbersome and lack spatiotemporal resolution; methods that are time-resolved are limited to a single species/component of PM. To address these limitations, we developed an automated microenvironmental aerosol sampler (AMAS), capable of resolving personal exposure by microenvironment. The AMAS is a wearable device that uses a GPS sensor algorithm in conjunction with a custom valve manifold to sample PM2.5 onto distinct filter channels to evaluate home, school, and other (e...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Shengjun Xu, Shugeng Feng, Haishu Sun, Shanghua Wu, Guoqiang Zhuang, Ye Deng, Zhihui Bai, Chuanyong Jing, Xuliang Zhuang
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) contributes up to 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions, with approximately 70% from terrestrial sources; over one-third of this terrestrial emission has been linked to increased agricultural fertilizer use. Much of the nitrogen in fertilizers is converted to N2 O by microbial processes in soil. However, the potential mechanism of biofertilizers and the role of microbial communities in mitigating soil N2 O emissions are not fully understood. Here, we used a greenhouse-based pot experiment with tea plantation soil to investigate the effect of Trichoderma viride biofertilizer on N2 O emission...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yunpeng Zhao, Shufeng Liu, Bo Jiang, Ying Feng, Tingting Zhu, Huchun Tao, Xi Tang, Sitong Liu
Although using anammox communities for efficient wastewater treatment has attracted much attention, the pure anammox bacteria are difficult to obtain, and the potential roles of symbiotic bacteria in anammox performance are still elusive. Here, we combined long-term reactor operation, genome-centered metagenomics, community functional structure, and metabolic pathway reconstruction to reveal multiple potential cross-feedings during anammox reactor start-up according to the 37 recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs)...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Judith Mehlhorn, Johannes Besold, Juan S Lezama Pacheco, Jon Petter Gustafsson, Ruben Kretzschmar, Britta Planer-Friedrich
Mofettes (natural geogenic CO2 exhalations) represent excellent sites to study the behavior of Cu in soils and the co-occurrence of different mobilization and immobilization processes since they exhibit both a gradient in redox conditions (oxic to permanently anoxic) and in soil organic matter (SOM; low to high contents). Soil and pore water samples from an 18 m-transect over a mofette showed a complex behavior of Cu, with highest mobility in the transition between oxic and anoxic conditions. Cu(II) sorption experiments on SOM-rich topsoil revealed that Cu mobility under oxic conditions was confined by adsorption to SOM while in the oxygen-free mofette center reduction and precipitation of sulfides was the dominating Cu-sequestering process...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hongli Tan, Da Chen, Changfeng Peng, Xiaotu Liu, Yan Wu, Xue Li, Rui Du, Bin Wang, Ying Guo, Eddy Y Zeng
The present study investigated the occurrence of 20 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in house dust from 51 South China homes and the risks of human exposure to OPEs via two pathways: dust ingestion and hand-to-mouth contact. In addition to several traditional OPEs, five out of six novel OPEs, including bisphenol A bis(deiphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDPP), cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDPP), and resorcinol-bis(diphenyl)phosphate (RDP), were frequently detected in house dust (median concentration: 59...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Julio C Zambrano-Gutiérrez, Sean Nicholson-Crotty, Sanya Carley, Saba Siddiki
The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is regarded by many as a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, so long as the radical technology is able to overcome technical and financial shortcomings that dictate consumer acceptance. States have instituted a variety of policies aimed at mitigating these shortcomings and simultaneously increasing consumer demand for PEV vehicles. Motivated by a limited body of literature on the effects of these policies, and a significant need for information about policy efficacy, in this study we evaluate the relationship between a suite of state-level policies and PEV registrations...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
William O Collinge, Harold J Rickenbacker, Amy E Landis, Cassandra L Thiel, Melissa M Bilec
Our study assesses the differences between regional average- and marginal-electricity generation mixes as well as the variability between predicted and observed energy consumption of a "conventional green" Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) building and a Net-Zero Energy Living Building (NZEB). The aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of using temporally resolved building-level data while capturing the dynamic effects a changing electrical grid has on the life cycle impacts of buildings...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yaxin Chen, Chao Li, Junxiao Chen, Xingfu Tang
Low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 (NH3-SCR) is a promising technology for controlling NO emission from various industrial boilers, but it remains challenging because unavoidable deposition of ammonium bisulfates (ABS) in the stack gases containing both SO2 and H2O inevitably results in deactivation of catalysts. Here we developed a stable low-temperature NH3-SCR catalyst by supporting Fe2O3 cubes on surfaces of MoO3 nanobelts with NH4+-intercalatable interlayers, which enables Fe2O3/MoO3 to spontaneously prevent ABS from depositing on the surfaces...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Qi Zhou, Jianxun Yang, Miaomiao Liu, Yang Liu, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, Jun Bi
Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration has developed rapidly in China. However, the air pollution-related health risks attributable to MSW incinerators are still far from known. In this context, an MSW incineration emission inventory was compiled using plant-level activity data and localized emission factors. Subsequently, Gaussian plume model and Risk Quotients Model were utilized to calculate the spatialized hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (CR). Altogether, 76449 tons (t) of NOX, 25725 t of SO2, 16937 t of CO, 9279 t of HCl, 5629 t of particulate matter, 33 t of Cr, 33 t of Pb, 20 t of Hg, 6 t of Cd, 4 t of Ni, 0...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Haijie Tong, Pascale Sylvie Jeanne Lakey, Andrea M Arangio, Joanna Socorro, Fangxia Shen, Kurt Lucas, William H Brune, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in adverse health effects of air pollutants. Respiratory deposition of fine air particulate matter can lead to the formation of ROS in epithelial lining fluid, potentially causing oxidative stress and inflammation. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a large fraction of fine particulate matter, but their role in adverse health effects is unclear. Here, we quantify and compare the ROS yields and oxidative potential of isoprene, β-pinene, and naphthalene SOA in water and surrogate lung fluid (SLF)...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tingjie Zhan, Liumeng Pan, Zhenfeng Liu, Jiayan Chen, Zhi-Wei Ge, Liping Lu, Xiaofang Zhang, Shixuan Cui, Chunlong Zhang, Weiping Liu, Shulin Zhuang
Thioxanthones (TXs) are photoinitiators widely used in UV curable resins and food packaging, and their residues have been frequently detected in human bodies. Our current understanding of the susceptibility of residual thioxanes to metabolism and their effects on human health is very limited. The in vitro metabolism of TXs and its toxic effects on cytochrome P450 (CYP) (the key xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes) were examined in this study. 2-Chlorothioxanthone (2-Cl-TX) significantly inhibited the enzymatic activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 with IC50 of 8...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zachary Weller, Joseph Robert Roscioli, W Conner Daube, Brian K Lamb, Thomas Ferrara, Paul E Brewer, Joseph C von Fischer
Managing leaks in urban natural gas (NG) distribution systems is important for reducing methane emissions and costly waste. Mobile surveying technologies have emerged as a new tool for monitoring system integrity, but this new technology has not yet been widely adopted. Here, we establish the efficacy of mobile methane surveys for managing local NG distribution systems by evaluating their ability to detect and locate NG leaks and quantify their emissions. In two cities, three-quarters of leak indications from mobile surveys corresponded to NG leaks, but local distribution companies' field crews did not find most of these leaks, indicating that the national CH4 activity factor for leaks in local NG distribution pipelines is underestimated by a factor of 2...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Andrew R Zimmerman, Gerard Cornelissen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yi Chen, Shengrui Tong, Jing Wang, Chao Peng, Maofa Ge, Xiaofeng Xie, Jing Sun
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a dominant air pollutant in many countries, threatens the lives of millions of people. Extensive efforts have been invested in studying the formation mechanisms and influence factors of SOA. As promising materials in eliminating air pollutants, the role of photocatalytic materials in SOA formation is unclear. In this study, TiO2 was employed to explore its impact on SOA formation during the photooxidation of m-xylene with NOx in a smog chamber. We found that the presence of TiO2 strongly suppressed SOA formation...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Timothy F M Rodgers, Jimmy W Truong, Liisa M Jantunen, Paul A Helm, Miriam L Diamond
Organophosphate esters (OPEs), used as flame retardants and plasticizers, occur at relatively high concentrations in urban air and surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that some OPEs could be considered persistent and mobile organic compounds (PMOCs), using the poly-parameter linear free energy relationship-modified Multimedia Urban Model (ppLFER-MUM) in Toronto, Canada, as a case study. Modelled air emissions of ∑6 OPEs of 3,300 (190 - 190,000) kg yr-1 were 10 - 100 times higher than emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑5 PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑5 PBDEs)...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Helen M Amos, Chelcy Miniat, Jason A Lynch, Jana E Compton, Pamela Templer, Lori Sprague, Denice Marie Shaw, Douglas A Burns, Anne W Rea, David R Whitall, Myles Latoya, David Gay, Mark Nilles, John T Walker, Anita Rose, Jerad Bales, Jeffery Deacon, Richard Pouyat
Excess nitrogen and phosphorus (i.e., nutrients) environmental loadings continue to affect ecosystem function and human health across the U.S. Our ability to connect atmospheric inputs of nutrients to aquatic endpoints remains limited due to uncoupled air and water quality monitoring. Where connections exist, the information provides insights about source apportionment, trends, risk to sensitive ecosystems, and efficacy of pollution reduction efforts. We examine several issues driving the need for better integrated monitoring, including: coastal eutrophication, urban hotspots of deposition, a shift from oxidized to reduced nitrogen deposition, and the disappearance of pristine lakes...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Shiwen Hu, Yang Lu, Lanfang Peng, Pei Wang, Mengqiang Zhu, Alice Dohnalkova, Hong Chen, Zhang Lin, Zhi Dang, Zhenqing Shi
In natural environments, kinetics of As(V) sequestration/release is usually coupled with dynamic Fe mineral transformation, which is further influenced by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). Previous work mainly focused on the interactions between As(V) and Fe minerals. However, there is a lack of both mechanistic and quantitative understanding on the coupled kinetic processes in the As(V)-Fe mineral-NOM system. In this study, we investigated the effect of humic acids (HA) on the coupled kinetics of ferrihydrite transformation into hematite/goethite and sequestration of As(V) on Fe minerals...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yan Zhou, Rong Fan, Michael D Short, Jun Li, Russell C Schumann, Haolan Xu, Roger St C Smart, Andrea R Gerson, Gujie Qian
The aim of this study was to test the performance of a novel method for acid rock drainage (ARD) control through the formation of Al(OH)3 -doped passivating surface layers on pyrite. At pH 2.0 and 4.0, there was no obvious inhibition of the pyrite oxidation rate on addition of 20 mg L-1 Al3+ (added as AlCl3 •6H2 O). In comparison, the pyrite oxidation rate at circum-neutral pH (7.4 ± 0.4) decreased with increasing added Al3+ with ≈98% reduction in long-term (282 days) dissolution rates in the presence of 20 mg L-1 Al3+ ...
September 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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