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Environmental Science & Technology

Montserrat Nunez, Ralph K Rosenbaum, Shooka Karimpour, Anne-Marie Boulay, Michael J Lathuillière, Manuele Margni, Laura Scherer, Francesca Verones, Stephan Pfister
Many new damage oriented methods have recently been developed to address environmental consequences of water consumption in life cycle assessment (LCA). However, such methods can only partially be compared and combined, since their modelling structure and metrics are inconsistent. Moreover, they focus on specific water sources (e.g. river) and miss description of transport flows between water compartments (e.g. from river to atmosphere via evaporation) and regions (e.g. atmospheric advection). Consequently, they provide a partial regard of the local and global hydrological cycle and derived impacts on the environment...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kang Jia Lu, Jian Zuo, Jian Chang, Hong Nan Kuan, Tai-Shung Chung
Management of produced water from shale gas production is a global challenge. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as a promising solution because of its various advantages. However, low surface tension species in produced water can easily deposit on the membrane surface and cause severe fouling or wetting problems. To solve the problems, an omniphobic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane has been developed via silica nanoparticle deposition followed by a Teflon® AF 2400 coating in this study...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Saer Samanipour, Malcolm Reid, Kine Bæk, Kevin V Thomas
Non-target analysis is considered one of the most comprehensive tools for identification of unknown compounds in a complex sample analyzed via liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Due to the complexity of the data generated via LC-HRMS, the data dependent acquisition mode, which produces the MS2 spectra of a limited number of the precursor ions, has been one of the most common approaches used during non-target screening. On the other hand, data independent acquisition mode produces highly complex spectra that require proper deconvolution and library search algorithms...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Peter R Tentscher, Marc Bourgin, Urs von Gunten
Phenolic moieties are common functional groups in organic micropollutants and in dissolved organic matter, and are exposed to ozone during drinking water and wastewater ozonation. Although unsubstituted phenol is known to yield potentially genotoxic p-benzoquinone during ozonation, little is known about the effects of substitution of the phenol ring on transformation product formation. With batch experiments employing differing ozone/target compound ratios, it is shown that para-substituted phenols ( p-alkyl, p-halo, p-cyano, p-methoxy, p-formyl, p-carboxy) yield p-benzoquinones, p-substituted catechols, and 4-hydroxy-4-alkyl-cyclohexadien-1-ones as common ozonation products...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Stef Ghysels, Frederik Ronsse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Julien Caubel, Vi H Rapp, Sharon S Chen, Ashok J Gadgil
Nearly 40% of the world's population regularly cooks on inefficient biomass stoves that emit harmful airborne pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM). Secondary air injection can significantly reduce PM mass emissions to mitigate the health and climate impacts associated with biomass cookstoves. However, secondary air injection can also increase the number of ultrafine particles emitted, which may be more harmful to health. This research investigates the effect of secondary air injection on the mass and size distribution of PM emitted during solid biomass combustion...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Weilan Zhang, Irene M C Lo, Liming Hu, Chia Pao Voon, Boon L Lim, Wayne K Versaw
The use of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) for arsenate (As(V)) remediation has proven effective, but full-scale injection of nZVI into the subsurface has aroused serious concerns for associated environmental risks. This study evaluated the efficacy of nZVI treatment for arsenate remediation and its potential hazards to plants using Arabidopsis thaliana grown in a hydroponic system. Biosensors for inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgATP2- were used to monitor in vivo Pi and MgATP2- levels in plant cells. The results showed that nZVI could remove As(V) from growth media, decrease As uptake by plants, and mitigate As(V) toxicity to plants...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Shaohu Ouyang, Xiangang Hu, Qixing Zhou, Xiaokang Li, Xinyu Miao, Ruiren Zhou
Nanocolloids are widespread in natural water systems, but their characterization and ecological risks are largely unknown. Herein, tangential flow ultrafiltration (TFU) was used to separate and concentrate nanocolloids from surface waters. Unexpectedly, nanocolloids were present in high concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 7.2 mg/L in the surface waters of the Harihe River in Tianjin City, China. Most of the nanocolloids were 10-40 nm in size, contained various trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and exhibited fluorescence properties...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Song Wu, Guodong Fang, Cun Liu, Dongmei Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xuguang Li, Tong Li, Tong Zhang, Cheng Gu, Shourong Zheng, Haijun Zhang, Wei Chen
Nano-scale titanium dioxide (nTiO2) is one of the most widely used metal oxide nanomaterials. Once released into the environment, nTiO2 may catalyze abiotic transformation of contaminants, and consequently affect their fate and effects. Here, we show that the overall catalytic efficiency of nTiO2 for the dehydrochlorination reaction of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, a commonly used solvent, depends on the crystalline phase and exposed facets of nTiO2, which significantly affect the adsorption capacity and surface catalytic activity of nTiO2...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chang-Gu Lee, Hassan Javed, Danning Zhang, Jae-Hong Kim, Paul Westerhoff, Qilin Li, Pedro J J Alvarez
Using a bi-polymer system consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), P25-TiO2 was immobilized into thin film mats of porous electrospun fibers. Pores were introduced by dissolving sacrificial PVP to increase surface area and enhance access to TiO2. The highest photocatalytic activity was achieved using a PVDF:PVP weight ratio of 2:1. Methylene blue (MB) was used to visualize contaminant removal, assess the sorption capacity (5.93 ± 0.23 mg/g) and demonstrate stable removal kinetics (kMB > 0...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kate Basley, Dave Goulson
Arable field margins are often sown with wildflowers to encourage pollinators and other beneficial or desirable insects such as bees and butterflies. Concern has been raised that these margins may be contaminated with systemic pesticides such as neonicotinoids used on the adjacent crop, and that this may negatively impact beneficial insects. The use of neonicotinoids has been linked to butterfly declines, and species such as the common blue butterfly ( Polyommatus icarus) that feed upon legumes commonly sown in arable field margins, may be exposed to such toxins...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hajime Ohno, Hirokazu Sato, Yasuhiro Fukushima
To achieve the goals of Paris Agreement, global society is directing much effort in substantially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition to energy-related efforts, prevention of carbon release into the atmosphere with carbon capture and storage (CCS) and/or utilization of biomass resources is considered indispensable to achieving the global objective. In this study, considering carbon-containing goods as carbon reservoirs in our society similar to forests and reservoirs enabling CCS, the flow of materially utilized carbon was quantified by input-output-based material flow analysis (IO-MFA)...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jianliang Sun, Lianghai Li, Guangying Zhou, Xue Wang, Liang Zhang, Yueping Liu, Jierui Yang, Xianghong Lü, Feng Jiang
The conventional flue gas treatment technologies require high capital investments and chemical costs, which limit their application in industrial sectors. This study developed a sulfur-cycling technology to integrate sulfide production by biological sulfur reduction and simultaneous catalytic desulfurization and denitrification with H2 S (H2 S-SCDD) for flue gas treatment and sulfur recovery. In a packed bed reactor, high-rate sulfide production (1.63 ± 0.16 kg S/m3 -d) from biological sulfur reduction was achieved using organics in wastewater as electron donors at pH around 5...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Rui Liu, Huimin Chen, Liping Fang, Cuihong Xu, Zuoliang He, Yujian Lai, Huachao Zhao, Deribachew Bekana Hirpa, Jing-Fu Liu
AuPd bimetallic nanocatalysts exhibit superior catalytic performance in the cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds (C-X) in the hazardous halogenated pollutants. A better understanding of how Au atoms promote the reactivity of Pd sites rather than vaguely interpreting as bimetallic effect, and determining which type of Pd sites are necessary for these reactions are crucial factors for the design of atomically precise nanocatalysts that make full use of both the Pd and Au atoms. Herein, we systematically manipulated the coordination number of Pd-Pd, d-orbital occupation state and Au-Pd interface of the Pd reactive centers, and studied the structure-activity relationship of Au-Pd in the catalyzed cleavage of C-X bonds...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nick Zwart, Shan Li Nio, Corine J Houtman, Jacob De Boer, Jeroen Kool, Timo Hamers, Marja H Lamoree
Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) is a commonly used approach for effect-based identification of endocrine disruptive chemicals in complex (environmental) mixtures. For routine toxicity assessment of e.g. water samples however, current EDA approaches are considered time consuming and laborious. We achieved faster EDA and identification, by downscaling of sensitive cell-based hormone reporter gene assays and increasing fractionation resolution to allow testing of smaller fractions with reduced complexity. The high-resolution EDA approach is demonstrated by analysis of four environmental passive sampler extracts...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yu Zhan, Yuzhou Luo, Xunfei Deng, Kaishan Zhang, Minghua Zhang, Michael L Grieneisen, Baofeng Di
A novel model named random-forest-spatiotemporal-kriging (RF-STK) was developed to estimate the daily ambient NO2 concentrations across China during 2013-2016 based on the satellite retrievals and geographic covariates. The RF-STK model showed good prediction performance, with cross-validation R2=0.62 (RMSE=13.3 µg/m3) for daily and R2=0.73 (RMSE=6.5 µg/m3) for spatial predictions. The nationwide population-weighted multiyear average of NO2 was predicted to be 30.9±11.7 µg/m3 (mean±standard deviation), with a slowly but significantly decreasing trend at a rate of -0...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jianping Cao, Xu Zhang, Yinping Zhang
Dermal exposure to indoor gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) has recently received a great deal of attention, and this has included evaluating the role of clothing in this process. Several models have been developed to assess dermal exposure to SVOCs, based on the transient mass transfer of SVOCs from air to dermal capillaries. However, these models assume either that clothing completely retards SVOC transport, or that there is an air gap of constant thickness between the clothing and the surface of the skin, leading to significant errors in the model calculations...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Junjian Zheng, Zhiwei Wang, Jinxing Ma, Shaoping Xu, Zhichao Wu
Inability to remove low molecular weight anthropogenic contaminants is a critical issue in low-pressure membrane filtration processes for water treatment. In this work, a novel electrochemical ceramic membrane filtration (ECMF) system using TiO2@SnO2-Sb anode was developed for removing persistent p-chloroaniline (PCA). Results showed that the ECMF system achieved efficient removal of PCA from contaminated waters. At a charging voltage of 3 V, the PCA removal rate of TiO2@SnO2-Sb ECMF system under flow-through mode was 2...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lai Lyu, Dengbiao Yan, Guangfei Yu, Wenrui Cao, Chun Hu
Carbon nitride compounds (CN) complexed with the in-situ produced Cu(II) on the surface of CuAlO2 substrate (CN-Cu(II)-CuAlO2) is prepared via a surface growth process for the first time, which exhibits exceptionally high activity and efficiency for the degradation of the refractory pollutants in water through a Fenton-like process in a wide pH range. The reaction rate for BPA removal is ~25 times higher than that of the CuAlO2. According to the characterization, Cu(II) generation on the surface of CuAlO2 during the surface growth process result in the marked decrease of the surface oxygen vacancies and the formation of the C-O-Cu bridges between CN and Cu(II)-CuAlO2 in the catalyst...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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