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Environmental Science & Technology

Martin Cheong Wai Wong, Nicolas Noel Duprey, David M Baker
Marine ecosystem health is threatened by excessive inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from various anthropogenic sources and effective mitigation can result from source identification. Here, we use stable isotope analysis of endosymbiotic <i>Symbiodinium</i> hosted by hard corals </i>Porites</i> spp. (<i>δ</i><sup>15</sup>N<sub><i>sym</i></sub>) as recorder of DIN sources. Thus, we resolved the major DIN sources and examined their spatial and seasonal variation in Hong Kong...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yun Shen, Conghui Huang, Jie Lin, Wenjing Wu, Nicholas J Ashbolt, Wen-Tso Liu, Thanh H Nguyen
Legionella pneumophila, the most commonly identified causative agent in drinking water associated with disease outbreaks, can be harbored by and released from drinking water biofilms. In this study, the release of biofilm-associated L. pneumophila under simulated drinking water flow containing a disinfectant residual was examined. Meanwhile, the inactivation and infectivity (to amoebae) of the released L. pneumophila were studied. To simulate drinking water system conditions, biofilms were prepared under either disinfectant exposure (pre-disinfected biofilms) or disinfectant-free (untreated biofilms) conditions, respectively...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ahmed Tlili, Jérémy Jabiol, Renata Behra, Carmen Gil-Allué, Mark O Gessner
With the accelerated use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in commercial products, streams will increasingly serve as recipients of, and repositories for, AgNP. This raises concerns about the potential toxicity of these nanomaterials in the environment. Here we aimed to assess the impacts of chronic AgNP exposure on the metabolic activities and community structure of fungal and bacterial plant litter decomposers as central players in stream ecosystems. Minimal variation in the size and surface charge of AgNP indicated that nanoparticles were rather stable during the experiment...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Seth Newton, Rebecca McMahen, James A Stoeckel, Michael Chislock, Andrew Lindstrom, Mark Strynar
Concern over persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity has led to international regulation and phase-outs of certain perfluorinated compounds and little is known about their replacement products. High resolution mass spectrometry was used to investigate the occurrence and identity of replacement fluorinated compounds in surface water and sediment of the Tennessee River near Decatur, Alabama. Analysis of legacy Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) revealed a marked increase in concentrations downstream of manufacturing facilities, with the most abundant compounds being perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as high as 220 ng L(-1), 160 ng L(-1), and 120 ng L(-1), respectively...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Debra M Hausladen, Scott Fendorf
Chromium(VI) produced from the oxidation of indigenous Cr(III) minerals is increasingly being recognized as a threat to groundwater quality. A critical determinant of Cr(VI) generation within soils and sediments is the necessary interaction of two low solubility phases - Cr(III) silicates or (hydr)oxides and Mn(III/IV) oxides - that lead to its production. Here we investigate the potential for Cr(III) oxidation by Mn oxides within fixed solid matrices common to soils and sediment. Artificial aggregates were constructed from Cr(OH)3- and Cr0...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Dandan Cao, Jiehong Guo, Yawei Wang, Zhuona Li, Kang Liang, Margaret B Corcoran, Soheil Hosseini, Solidea M C Bonina, Karl J Rockne, Neil C Sturchio, John P Giesy, Jing-Fu Liu, An Li, Guibin Jiang
This is the first study on organophosphate esters (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers in the sediment of the Great Lakes. Concentrations of 14 OPEs were measured in three sediment cores and 88 Ponar surface grabs collected from Lakes Ontario, Michigan, and Superior of North America. The sum of these OPEs (Σ14OPEs) in Ponar grabs averaged 2.2, 4.7, and 16.6 ng g-1 dw in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Ontario, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated statistically significant associations between logarithm concentrations of Σ14OPEs as well as selected congeners in surface grab samples and sediment organic carbon content as well as a newly developed urban distance factor...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jingbo Wang, Ryan Scott Kingsbury, Lamar A Perry, Orlando Coronell
The partition coefficient of solutes into the polyamide active layer of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is one of the three membrane properties (together with solute diffusion coefficient and active layer thickness) that determine solute permeation. However, no well-established method exists to measure solute partition coefficients into polyamide active layers. Further, the few studies that measured partition coefficients for inorganic salts report values significantly higher than one (~3-8), which is contrary to expectations from Donnan theory and the observed high rejection of salts...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Juan Qi, Qing Li, Jianjun Wu, Jingkun Jiang, Zhenyong Miao, Duosong Li
Clean fuels are urgently needed to reduce household cooking emissions. The thermal efficiencies (ηth) and pollutant emission factors (EFs) of biocoal briquettes (made from a mixture of biomass and coal powder) burned in a typical cooking stove were investigated and compared with those of coal briquettes and biomass briquettes. Biocoal briquette samples were obtained by molding blends of anthracite with 10-30 wt % crop straw of various types (maize straw, wheat straw, or rice straw). The optimum proportions for energy savings and PM2...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Eetu Kari, Liqing Hao, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Ari Leskinen, Miika Kortelainen, Julija Grigonyte, Douglas R Worsnop, Jorma Jokiniemi, Olli Sippula, Celia L Faiola, Annele Virtanen
Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
A nanostructure-based mechanism is presented on the enrichment, separation and immobilization of arsenic with nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI). The As-Fe reactions are studied with Spherical Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cs-STEM). Near atomic-resolution (<1 nm3) electron tomography discovers a thin continuous layer (23±3 Å) of elemental arsenic sandwiched between the iron oxide shell and the zero-valent iron core. This points to a unique mechanism of nano-encapsulation and proves that the outer layer, especially the Fe(0)/oxide interface is the edge of the As-Fe reactions...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Chuanjia Jiang, Benjamin T Castellon, Cole W Matson, George R Aiken, Heileen Hsu-Kim
The toxicity of soluble metal-based nanomaterials may be due to the uptake of metals in both dissolved and nanoparticulate forms, but the relative contributions of these different forms to overall metal uptake rates under environmental conditions are not quantitatively defined. Here we investigated the linkage between the dissolution rates of copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their bioavailability to Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos, with the aim of quantitatively delineating the relative contributions of nanoparticulate and dissolved species for Cu uptake...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Wenfang Gao, Xihua Zhang, Xiaohong Zheng, Xiao Lin, Hongbin Cao, Yi Zhang, Zhi H I Sun
A closed-loop process to recover lithium carbonate from cathode scrap of lithium-ion battery (LIB) is developed. Lithium could be selectively leached into solution using formic acid while aluminum remained as metallic form and most of other metals from the cathode scrap could be precipitated out. This phenomenon clearly demonstrates that formic acid can be used for lithium recovery from cathode scrap, as both leaching and separation reagent. By investigating the effects of different parameters including temperature, formic acid concentration, H2O2 amount and solid to liquid ratio, the leaching rate of Li can reach 99...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yaqi You, Kamol K Das, Huiyuan Guo, Che-Wei Chang, Maria Navas-Moreno, James W Chan, Paul Verburg, Simon R Poulson, Xilong Wang, Baoshan Xing, Yu Yang
Carbonaceous nanomaterials are widely used in industry and consumer products, but concerns have been raised regarding their release into the environment and subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human health. Although many efforts have been devoted to understanding the environmental fate of carbonaceous nanomaterials, information about their microbial transformation is still rare. In this study, we found that within 1 month a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1, was able to degrade both pristine and carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNT and c-MWCNT), as demonstrated by consistent results from high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman microspectroscopy...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Evi Dons, Michelle Laeremans, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Ione Avila-Palencia, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Tom Cole-Hunter, Esther Anaya-Boig, Arnout Standaert, Patrick De Boever, Tim S Nawrot, Thomas Götschi, Audrey de Nazelle, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Luc Int Panis
Physical activity and ventilation rates have an effect on an individual's dose and may be important to consider in exposure-response relationships; however, these factors are often ignored in environmental epidemiology studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollution and understand variability, in the absence of a true gold standard metric. Five types of methods were identified: (1) methods using (physical) activity types; (2) methods based on energy expenditure, METs (metabolic equivalents of task) and oxygen consumption; (3) methods based on heart rate or (4) breathing rate; and (5) methods that combine heart and breathing rate...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Shannon N Koplitz, Daniel J Jacob, Melissa P Sulprizio, Lauri Myllyvirta, Colleen Reid
Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a(-1) SO2 and 2.6 Tg a(-1) NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m(-3) for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Gunnar R Stratton, Fei Dai, Christopher L Bellona, Thomas M Holsen, Eric Reyvell Velazquez Dickenson, Selma Mededovic Thagard
A process based on electrical discharge plasma was tested for the transformation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The plasma-based process was adapted for two cases, high removal rate and high removal efficiency. During a 30 minute treatment, the PFOA concentration in 1.4 L aqueous solutions was reduced by 90% with the high rate process (76.5 W input power) and 25% with the high efficiency process (4.1 W input power). Both achieved remarkably high PFOA removal and defluorination efficiencies compared to leading alternative technologies...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ciaran Ellis, Kirsty J Park, Penelope Whitehorn, Arthur David, Dave Goulson
The impacts of pesticides, and in particular of neonicotinoids, on bee health remain much debated. Many studies describing negative effects have been criticised as the experimental protocol did not perfectly simulate real-life field scenarios. Here, we placed free-flying bumblebee colonies next to raspberry crops that were either untreated or treated with the neonicotinoid thiacloprid as part of normal farming practice. Colonies were exposed to the raspberry crops for a two week period before being relocated to either a flower-rich or flower-poor site...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Henry Y Sintim, Markus Flury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jeff S Wesner, David M Walters, Travis S Schmidt, Johanna M Kraus, Craig A Stricker, William H Clements, Ruth E Wolf
Insect metamorphosis often results in substantial chemical changes that can alter contaminant concentrations and fractionate isotopes. We exposed larval mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus) and their food (periphyton) to an aqueous zinc gradient (3-340 µg Zn/l) and measured zinc concentrations at different stages of metamorphosis: larval, subimago, and imago. We also measured changes in stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in unexposed mayflies. Larval zinc concentrations were positively related to aqueous zinc, increasing 9-fold across the exposure gradient...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Benjamin Horemans, Bart Raes, Johanna Vandermaesen, Yanti Simanjuntak, Hannelore Brocatus, Jeroen T'Syen, Julie Degryse, Jos Boonen, Janneke Wittebol, Ales Lapanje, Sebastian R Sørensen, Dirk Springael
Aminobacter sp. MSH1 immobilized in an alginate matrix in porous stones was tested in a pilot system as an alternative inoculation strategy to the use of free suspended cells for biological removal of micropollutant concentrations of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). BAM removal rates and MSH1 cell numbers were recorded during operation and assessed with specific BAM degradation rates obtained in lab conditions using either freshly grown cells or starved cells to explain reactor performance...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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