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Environmental Science & Technology

Zoe Ruge, Derek Muir, Paul A Helm, Rainer Lohmann
The largest fresh water body in North America, Lake Superior, has both the potential to both accumulate and serve as a secondary source of persistent bioaccumulative toxins, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were thus simultaneously deployed at 19 sites in surface water and near surface atmosphere across Lake Superior to determine air- and water gaseous exchangeconcentrations and air-water gradients of 18 PCBs and 24 OCPs. PCBs in the air and water were characterized by penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls with distribution along the coast correlated with proximity to developed areas...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xinyao Shi, Wen Fang, Ni Tang, Paul Nicholas Williams, Xuan Hu, Zhaodong Liu, Daixia Yin, Lena Q Ma, Jun Luo
The speciation of selenium (Se) controls its fate and behavior, determining both its biological and environmental activities. However, in-situ monitoring of SeIV presents a significant challenge due to its sensitivity to redox change. A novel diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique containing mercapto-, amino- bi-functionalized SBA15 mesoporous silica nanoparticles was developed and evaluated in a series of laboratory and field deployment tests. The SBA-DGT exhibited a linear accumulation of SeIV (r2 > 0...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Charles E Schaefer, Paul Ho, Erin Berns, Charles Werth
Bench-scale experiments were performed on natural sediments to assess abiotic dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the absence of oxygen (<26 μM), TCE dechlorination proceeded via a reductive pathway generating acetylene and/or ethene. Reductive dechlorination rate constants up to 3.1 × 10-5 d-1 were measured, after scaling to in situ solid:water ratios. In the presence of oxygen greater than 120 μM, TCE dechlorination proceeded via an oxidative pathway generating formic/glyoxylic and glycolic/acetic acids, and oxidative dechlorination rate constants (again scaled to in situ conditions) up to 7...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Joseph O Okeme, Timothy F M Rodgers, Liisa M Jantunen, Miriam L Diamond
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) in air have been found to be captured entirely on filters of typical active air samplers and thus designated as being in the particle phase. However, this particle fraction is unexpected, especially for more volatile tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP). We evaluated gas-particle partitioning in indoor and outdoor air for OPEs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using single-parameter models (Junge-Pankow, Harner-Bidleman) and poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) models...
November 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mesfin M Mekonnen, Thiago Libório Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M U Neale
Driven by biofuel policies, which aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase domestic energy supply, global production and consumption of bioethanol have doubled between 2007 and 2016, with rapid growth in corn-based bioethanol in the US and sugarcane-based bioethanol in Brazil. Advances in crop yields, energy use efficiency in fertilizer production, biomass-to-ethanol conversion rates, and energy efficiency in ethanol production have improved the energy balance and GHG emission reduction potential of bioethanol...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hongyu Dang, Yogendra H Kanitkar, Robert D Stedtfeld, Paul B Hatzinger, Syed A Hashsham, Alison M Cupples
Shotgun sequencing was used for the quantification of taxonomic and functional biomarkers associated with chlorinated solvent bioremediation in twenty groundwater samples (five sites), following bioaugmentation with SDC-9. The analysis determined the abundance of 1) genera associated with chlorinated solvent degradation, 2) reductive dehalogenase (RDases) genes, 3) genes associated with 1,4-dioxane removal, 4) genes associated with aerobic chlorinated solvent degradation and 5) D. mccartyi genes associated with hydrogen and corrinoid metabolism...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chuansha Wu, Wei Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Jiufeng Li, Bin Zhang, Tongzhang Zheng, Aifen Zhou, Hongzhi Zhao, Wenqian Huo, Jie Hu, Minmin Jiang, Chen Hu, Jiaqiang Liao, Xi Chen, Bing Xu, Shi Lu, Zongwei Cai, Shunqing Xu
Parabens are potential endocrine disruptors with short half-lives in the human body. To date, few epidemiological studies regarding repeated paraben measurements during pregnancy associated with fetal and childhood growth have been conducted. Within a Chinese prenatal cohort, 850 mother-infant pairs from whom a complete set of maternal urine samples were acquired during three trimesters were included, and the levels of five parabens were measured. We assessed the associations of both average and trimester-specific urinary paraben levels with weight and height z-scores at birth, 6 months, 1, and 2 years of age...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Handong Yang, Ewan Shilland, Peter G Appleby, Neil Rose, Richard W Battarbee
There has been a considerable reduction in anthropogenic lead (Pb) emission to the atmosphere in recent decades. However, reduction in Pb inputs to many lakes does not match this as Pb stored in catchment upper soil layers, derived from previous deposition, has become an important source although it is difficult to assess quantitatively. This work uses atmospherically deposited 210Pb as tracer to track Pb movement and so is able, for first time to calculate the relative Pb inputs from direct atmospheric deposition and catchment sources to lakes in the UK directly...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Vasiliki Karanikola, Chanhee Boo, Julianne Rolf, Menachem Elimelech
Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging thermal desalination process, which can potentially treat high salinity industrial wastewaters, such as shale gas produced water and power plant blowdown. The performance of MD systems is hampered by inorganic scaling, particularly when treating hypersaline industrial wastewaters with high-scaling potential. In this study, we developed a scaling-resistant MD membrane with an engineered "slippery" surface for desalination of high-salinity industrial wastewaters at high water recovery...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jianfei Yan, Jiali Peng, Leiduo Lai, Fangzhou Ji, Yunhong Zhang, Bo Lai, Qixuan Chen, Gang Yao, Xi Chen, Liping Song
A new potential oxidation process is provided by CuFe2O4/hydroxylamine (HA) system for degradation of antibiotics in water. The CuFe2O4/HA system can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The addition of radical scavengers, including benzoquinone (BQ) and catalase (CAT), inhibited the oxidation of SMX in CuFe2O4/HA system. Electron transfer in the CuFe2O4/HA system played a key function for the generation of ROS and the degradation of SMX. The main ROS, was the superoxide radical (O2•-) mainly generated from adsorbed oxygen (O2 (A)), which came from the oxidation of the lattice oxygen (O2- (L)) in CuFe2O4...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mengjiao Xu, Yao Chen, Jiangtao Qin, Yawei Feng, Wei Li, Wei Chen, Jian Zhu, Hexing Li, Zhenfeng Bian
The status of defects of TiO2 are of fundamental importance in determining its physicochemical properties. Here we report a simple chemical deposition method for controllable synthesis of defective anatase TiO2 nanocrystals under various calcination atmospheres. XPS and ESR analysis reveals that both the oxygen vacancies (VO) and the trivalent titanium (Ti3+) defects exists in TiO2 after N2 treatment (N-TiO2). Meanwhile, mainly VO defects can be obtained in TiO2 with air calcination (A-TiO2). ESR spectra for reactive oxygen species determination, clearly show that the visible light catalytic activity is mainly caused by the efficient activation of oxygen molecules to •O2- species for A-TiO2, which play an important role in hindering the accumulation of intermediates during p-chlorophenol (4-CP) photodegradation process...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Guodong Fang, Xiru Chen, Wenhui Wu, Cun Liu, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Tingting Fan, Yujun Wang, Changyin Zhu, Dong-Mei Zhou
Persulfate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) for soil remediation has received great attention in recent years. However, the mechanisms of interaction between persulfate (PS) and soil constituents are not fully understood. In this study, PS decomposition, activation, free radical formation and conversion processes in 10 different soils were examined. The results showed that soil organic matter (SOM) was the dominant factor affecting PS decomposition in soil, but Fe/Mn-oxides were mainly responsible for PS decomposition when SOM was removed...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yaowen Gao, Yue Zhu, Lai Lyu, Qingyi Zeng, Xueci Xing, Chun Hu
Oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (O-CN) was fabricated via a facile thermal polymerization method using urea and oxalic acid dehydrate as the graphitic carbon nitride precursor and oxygen source, respectively. Experimental and theoretical results revealed that oxygen doping preferentially occurred on the two-coordinated nitrogen positions, which create the formation of low and high electron density areas resulting in the electronic structure modulation of O-CN. As a result, the resultant O-CN exhibits enhanced catalytic activity and excellent long-term stability for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation toward the degradation of organic pollutants...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sunil Paul M Menacherry, Kitae Kim, Woojin Lee, Cheol Ho Choi, Wonyong Choi
The freezing-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides by various ligands has been recently proposed as a new mechanism that may influence the supply of bioavailable iron in frozen environments. The ligand-induced dissolution of iron oxides is sensitively affected by the kind and concentration of ligands, pH, and kind of iron oxides. While most ligands are thought to be freeze-concentrated in the ice grain boundary region along with iron oxides to enhance the iron dissolution, this study found that some ligands, such as ascorbic acid, suppress the iron dissolution in frozen solution relative to that in aqueous solution...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ana Kroflič, Matej Huš, Miha Grilc, Irena Grgić
Many ambiguities surround the possible mechanisms of colored and toxic nitrophenols formation in natural systems. Nitration of a biologically and environmentally relevant aromatic compound, guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), under mild aqueous-phase conditions (ambient temperatures, pH 4.5) was investigated by a temperature-dependent experimental modeling coupled to extensive ab initio calculations to obtain the activation energies of the modeled reaction pathways. The importance of dark nonradical reactions is emphasized, involving nitrous (HNO2 ) and peroxynitrous (HOONO) acids...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiang-Zhao Kong, Claudia A Deuber, Anniina Kittilä, Márk Somogyvári, Gediminas Mikutis, Peter Bayer, Wendelin J Stark, Martin O Saar
This study presents the first field validation of using DNA-labeled silica nanoparticles as tracers to image subsurface reservoirs by travel time based tomography. During a field campaign in Switzerland, we performed short-pulse tracer tests under a forced hydraulic head gradient to conduct a multisource-multireceiver tracer test and tomographic inversion, determining the two-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field between two vertical wells. Together with three traditional solute dye tracers, we injected spherical silica nanotracers, encoded with synthetic DNA molecules, which are protected by a silica layer against damage due to chemicals, microorganisms, and enzymes...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Henning Prommer, Jing Sun, Lauren Helm, Bhasker Rathi, Adam J Siade, Ryan Morris
Coal seam gas (CSG) extraction generates large volumes of coproduced water. Injection of the excess water into deep aquifers is often the most sustainable management option. However, such injection risks undesired sediment-water interactions that mobilize metal(loid)s in the receiving aquifer. This risk can be mitigated through pretreatment of the injectant. Here, we conducted a sequence of three push-pull tests (PPTs) where the injectant was pretreated using acid amendment and/or deoxygenation to identify the processes controlling the fate of metal(loid)s and to understand the treatment requirements for large-scale CSG water injection...
November 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mustafa Kamal Sikder, Umar Daraz, Daniele S Lantagne, Roberto Saltori
To provide safe drinking water and reduce the risk of disease, emergency responders in southern Syria are implementing a multi-level risk reduction strategy with the aim of ensuring free chlorine residual (FCR) in household drinking water. Responders implemented activities across the water chain (from chlorination station and well operators to water vendors to household members), including distribution of supplies for chlorination and training on chlorine use; activities varied by responder. We evaluated the effectiveness of these interventions in a cross-sectional observation study including: interviews and observations with 24 chlorination station operators and 63 well owners/managers; interviews, observations, and water quality testing with 220 water truckers; and, surveys and water quality testing with 1,006 households...
November 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Holly Beverley Clare Pearson, Sean David W Comber, Charlotte Braungardt, Paul J Worsfold, Anthony Stockdale, Stephen Lofts
Lowering of the estuarine Environmental Quality Standard for zinc in the UK to 121 nM reflects rising concern regarding zinc in ecosystems and is driving the need to better understand its fate and behaviour and to develop and parameterise speciation models to predict the metal species present. For the first time, an extensive dataset has been gathered for the speciation of zinc within an estuarine system with supporting physico-chemical characterisation, in particular dissolved organic carbon. WHAM/Model VII and Visual MINTEQ speciation models were used to simulate zinc speciation, using a combination of measured complexation variables and available defaults...
November 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Rickard Arvidsson, Anders Baun, Anna Furberg, Steffen Foss Hansen, Sverker Molander
Proxy measures have been proposed as a low-data option for simplified assessment of environmental threat given the high complexity of the natural environment. We here review studies of environmental release, fate, toxicity and risk to identify relevant proxy measures for manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). In total, 18 potential proxy measures were identified and evaluated regarding their link to environmental risk, an aspect of relevance, and data availability, an aspect of practice. They include socio-technical measures (e...
November 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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