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Environmental Science & Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028950/impact-of-environmental-radiation-on-the-health-and-reproductive-status-of-fish-from-chernobyl
#1
Adélaïde Lerebours, Dmitri Gudkov, Liubov Nagorskaya, Alexander Kaglyan, Viktor Rizewski, Andrey Leshchenko, Elizabeth H Bailey, Adil Bakir, Svetlana Ovsyanikova, Gennady Laptev, Jim T Smith
Aquatic organisms at Chernobyl have now been chronically exposed to environmental radiation for three decades. The biological effects of acute exposure to radiation are relatively well documented, but much less is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure of organisms in their natural environment. Highly exposed fish in freshwater systems at Chernobyl showed morphological changes in their reproductive system in the years after the accident. However, the relatively limited scope of past studies did not allow robust conclusions to be drawn...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028949/influence-of-biochar-addition-on-nitrogen-transformation-during-co-pyrolysis-of-algae-and-lignocellulosic-biomass
#2
Wei Chen, Haiping Yang, Yingquan Chen, Kaixu Li, Mingwei Xia, Hanping Chen
Algae are extremely promising sustainable feedstock for fuels and chemicals, while they contain high nitrogen content, which may cause some serious nitrogen emission during algae pyrolysis utilization. In this study, we proposed a feasible method to control the nitrogen emission during algae pyrolysis by introducing lignocellulosic biomass and biochar addition. Nitrogen transformation mechanism was investigated through quantitative analysis of N-species in the pyrolysis products. Results showed that co-pyrolysis of algae and lignocellulosic biomass greatly increased nitrogen in solid char with large amount of NH3 and HCN releasing (~20 wt...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028946/assessing-current-local-capacity-for-agrifood-production-to-meet-household-demand-analyzing-select-food-commodities-across-377-us-metropolitan-areas
#3
Peter Nixon, Anu Ramaswami
Increasing food production in local urban and peri-urban areas is articulated as a potential way for local governments to achieve multiple sustainability outcomes (environmental, social, and human health). However, scientific judgements on localization are difficult to make because the degree of current food localization has not been systematically measured or defined across large numbers of cities. We develop new methods to quantify current local capacity for food production to meet total household agrifood demand, harmonizing bottom-up and top-down approaches to assess direct-plus-embodied agrifood demand of both fresh and processed foods...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028944/enhancing-the-water-accounting-and-vulnerability-evaluation-model-wave
#4
Markus Berger, Stephanie Eisner, Ruud J van der Ent, Martina Floerke, Andreas Link, Joseph Poligkeit, Vanessa Bach, Matthias Finkbeiner
Due to the increasing relevance of analyzing water consumption along product life cycles, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation model (WAVE) has been updated and methodologically enhanced. Recent data from the atmospheric moisture tracking model WAM2-layers is used to update the basin internal evaporation recycling (BIER) ratio, which denotes atmospheric moisture recycling within drainage basins. Potential local impacts resulting from water consumption are quantified by means of the water deprivation index (WDI)...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028602/temperature-dependence-of-dissolved-organic-matter-fluorescence
#5
Garrett McKay, Julie Ann Korak, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz
The temperature dependence of organic matter fluorescence quantum yields (f) was measured for a diverse set of organic matter isolates (i.e., marine aquatic, microbial aquatic, terrestrial aquatic, and soil) in aqueous solution and for whole water samples to determine apparent activation energies (Ea) for radiationless decay processes of the excited singlet state. Ea was calculated from temperature dependent f data obtained by steady-state methods using a simplified photophysical model and the Arrhenius equation...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028598/parameterized-yields-of-semi-volatile-products-from-isoprene-oxidation-under-different-nox-levels-impacts-of-chemical-aging-and-wall-loss-of-reactive-gases
#6
Li Xing, ManishKumar Shrivastava, T-M Fu, Pontus Roldin, Yun Qian, Lu Xu, Nga Lee Ng, John E Shilling, Alla Zelenyuk, Christopher David Cappa
We developed a parameterizable box model to empirically derive the yields of semi-volatile products from VOC oxidation using chamber measurements, while explicitly accounting for the multigenerational chemical aging processes (such as the gas-phase fragmentation and functionalization and aerosol-phase oligomerization and photolysis) under different NOx levels and the loss of particles and gases to chamber walls. Using the oxidation of isoprene as an example, we showed that the assumptions regarding the NOx-sensitive, multigenerational aging processes of VOC oxidation products have large impacts on the parameterized product yields and SOA formation...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028595/disruptive-environmental-research
#7
David L Sedlak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028593/combined-organic-fouling-and-inorganic-scaling-in-reverse-osmosis-role-of-protein-silica-interactions
#8
Amanda Quay, Tiezheng Tong, Sara M Hashmi, Yu Zhou, Song Zhao, Menachem Elimelech
We investigated the relationship between silica scaling and protein fouling in reverse osmosis (RO). Flux decline caused by combined scaling and fouling was compared with those by individual scaling or fouling. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ), two proteins with opposite charges at typical feedwater pH, were used as model protein foulants. Our results demonstrate that water flux decline was synergistically enhanced when silica and protein were both present in the feedwater. For example, flux decline after 500 minutes was far greater in combined silica scaling and BSA fouling experiments (55 ± 6% decline) than those caused by silica (11 ± 2% decline) or BSA (9 ± 1% decline) alone...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027743/lead-levels-at-the-tap-and-consumer-exposure-from-legacy-and-recent-lead-service-line-replacements-in-6-utilities
#9
Elise Deshommes, Benjamin Trueman, Ian Douglas, Daniel Huggins, Laurent Laroche, Jeff Swertfeger, Abby Spielmacher, Graham A Gagnon, Michèle Prévost
Profile, regulatory, and investigative sampling were completed in six utilities to study the impact of partial and full lead service line replacements (LSLRs) on water lead levels (WLLs) and consumer's exposure. As compared to households with no replacement, lead release after partial LSLR (PLSLR) was generally greater in the short-term (3-50 days), comparable or lower in the medium (<2 years) and long term (>2 years). This was mainly explained by insufficient time elapsed to stabilize scales after disturbances to the service line...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027739/catalytic-removal-of-aqueous-contaminants-on-n-doped-graphitic-biochars-inherent-roles-of-adsorption-and-nonradical-mechanism
#10
Shishu Zhu, Xiaochen Huang, Fang Ma, Li Wang, Xiaoguang Duan, Shaobin Wang
Green and low-cost catalysts are important for rapid mineralization of organic contaminants in powerful advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In this study, we reported N-doped graphitic biochars (N-BCs) as low-cost and efficient catalysts for peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation and degradation of diverse organic pollutants in water treatment including Orange G, phenol, sulfamethoxazole and bisphenol A. The biochars derived from wetland plants at high annealing temperatures (>700 °C) presented highly graphitic nanosheets, large specific surface areas (SSAs), and rich doped nitrogen...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027737/catalytic-ozonation-in-arrayed-zinc-oxide-nanotubes-as-highly-efficient-mini-column-catalyst-reactors-mcrs-augmentation-of-hydroxyl-radical-exposure
#11
Shuo Zhang, Xie Quan, Dong Wang
Reactor design is significant to catalytic ozonation for an efficient mass transfer and exposure of the powerful but short-lived hydroxyl radicals (HO·). Herein, five groups of zinc oxide nanotube arrays with pore sizes from 168 to 10 nm were produced as mini-column catalyst reactors (MCRs) for internal catalytic ozonation, whose performance was comparatively studied on the kinetics of ozone transfer, consumption, and radical probe interaction. Using an RCT value describing HO· exposure, all the MCRs with sufficient ozone transfer featured an RCT level of at least 3...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025452/multi-parameter-phenotypic-profiling-in-mcf-7-cells-for-assessing-the-toxicity-and-estrogenic-activity-of-whole-environmental-water
#12
Wenlong Wang, Mitsuru Tada, Daisuke Nakajima, Manabu Sakai, Minoru Yoneda, Hideko Sone
Multi-parameter phenotypic profiling of small molecules is a powerful approach to their toxicity assessment and identifying potential mechanisms of actions. The present study demonstrates the application of image-based multi-parameter phenotypic profiling in MCF-7 cells to assess the overall toxicity and estrogenic activity of whole environmental water. Phenotypic profiling of 30 reference compounds and their complex mixtures was evaluated to investigate the cellular morphological outcomes to targeted biological pathways...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024152/singlet-oxygen-phosphorescence-as-a-probe-for-triplet-state-dissolved-organic-matter-reactivity
#13
Paul R Erickson, Kyle J Moor, Jeffrey J Werner, Douglas E Latch, William A Arnold, Kristopher McNeill
Triplet-state chromophoric dissolved organic matter (3 CDOM*) plays an important role in aquatic photochemistry, yet much remains unknown about reactivity of these intermediates. To better understand the kinetic behavior and reactivity of 3 CDOM*, we have developed an indirect observation method based on monitoring time-resolved singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) phosphorescence kinetics. The underpinning principle of our approach relies on the fact that O2 quenches almost all triplets with near diffusion-limited rate constants, resulting in the formation of 1 O2 , which is kinetically linked to the precursors...
July 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024151/monothioarsenate-uptake-transformation-and-translocation-in-rice-plants
#14
Carolin F Kerl, Colleen Rafferty, Stephan Clemens, Britta Planer-Friedrich
Thioarsenates form under sulfur-reducing conditions in paddy soil pore waters. Sulfur fertilization, recently promoted for decreasing total arsenic (As) grain concentrations, could enhance their formation. Yet, to date, thioarsenate toxicity, uptake, transformation, and translocation in rice are unknown. Our growth inhibition experiments showed that the toxicity of monothioarsenate (MTA) was similar to that of arsenate, but lower than that of arsenite. Higher toxicity of MTA with lower phosphate availability might imply uptake through phosphate transporters similar to arsenate...
July 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021437/near-road-air-pollutant-measurements-accounting-for-inter-site-variability-using-emission-factors
#15
Jonathan M Wang, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Nathan Hilker, Kerolyn K Shairsingh, Robert Healy, Uwayemi Sofowote, Jerzy Debosz, Yushan Su, Michiyo McGaughey, Geoff Doerksen, Tony Munoz, Luc White, Dennis Herod, Greg J Evans
A daily-integrated emission factor (EF) method was applied to data from three near-road monitoring sites to identify variables that impact traffic related pollutant concentrations in the near-road environment. The sites were operated for twenty months in 2015-2017, with each site differing in terms of design, local meteorology, and fleet compositions. Measurement distance from the roadway and local meteorology were found to affect pollutant concentrations irrespective of background subtraction. However, using emission factors mostly accounted for the effects of dilution and dispersion, allowing inter-site differences in emissions to be resolved...
July 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020776/metal-reactivity-in-laboratory-burned-wood-from-a-watershed-affected-by-wildfires
#16
Asifur Rahman, Eliane El Hayek, Johanna M Blake, Rebecca J Bixby, Abdul-Mehdi Ali, Michael Spilde, Amanda A Otieno, Keely Miltenberger, Cyrena Ridgeway, Kateryna Artyushkova, Viorel Atudorei, José M Cerrato
We investigated interfacial processes affecting metal mobility by wood ash under laboratory-controlled conditions using aqueous chemistry, microscopy, and spectroscopy. The Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico experiences catastrophic wildfires of devastating effects. Wood samples of Ponderosa Pine, Colorado Blue Spruce, and Quaking Aspen collected from this site were exposed to temperatures of 60, 350, and 550 °C. The 350 °C Pine ash had the highest content of Cu (4997 ± 262 mg kg-1 ), Cr (543 ± 124 mg kg-1 ), and labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 11...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020775/climatic-influence-on-temporal-trends-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-organochlorine-pesticides-in-landlocked-char-from-lakes-in-the-canadian-high-arctic
#17
Ana Cabrerizo, Derek C G Muir, Günter Köck, Deborah Iqaluk, Xiaowa Wang
Temporal trends and climate related parameters affecting the fate of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were examined in landlocked Arctic char from four lakes in the Canadian Arctic. Among biological parameters, lipid content was a key factor explaining the concentration of most POPs in Arctic char. Legacy PCBs and OCPs generally showed declining trends of concentrations in Arctic char, consistent with past restriction on uses and emissions of POPs...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020774/tracking-the-sources-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-an-urban-stream-during-wet-weather-using-shotgun-metagenomic-analyses
#18
Darshan Baral, Bruce I Dvorak, David Admiraal, Shangang Jia, Chi Zhang, Xu Li
Stormwater runoff has been known to cause increases in bacterial loadings in urban streams. However, little is known about its impacts on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in urban watersheds. This study was performed to characterize the ARG composition of various environmental compartments of an urban watershed and to quantify their contributions of microbes and ARGs to an urban stream under wet weather conditions. Shotgun metagenomic results showed that the ARG abundance in wet weather flow was significantly higher than in base flow...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019578/traditional-tibetan-medicine-induced-high-methylmercury-exposure-level-and-environmental-mercury-burden-in-tibet-china
#19
Maodian Liu, Yipeng He, Zofia Baumann, Chenghao Yu, Shidong Ge, Xuejun Sun, Menghan Cheng, Huizhong Shen, Robert P Mason, Long Chen, Qianggong Zhang, Xuejun Wang
Highly elevated concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were found in the municipal sewage in Tibet. Material flow analysis supports the hypothesis that these elevated concentrations are related to regular ingestion of Hg-containing Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM). In Tibet in 2015, a total of 3600 kg of THg was released from human body into the terrestrial environment as a result of TTM ingestion, amounting to 45% of the total THg release into the terrestrial environment in Tibet, hence substantially enhancing the environmental Hg burden...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016592/hazy-weather-induced-variation-in-environmental-behavior-of-pcdd-fs-and-pbdes-in-winter-atmosphere-of-a-north-china-megacity
#20
Rong Cao, Haijun Zhang, Lijuan Zhao, Yichi Zhang, Ningbo Geng, Man Teng, Lili Zou, Yuan Gao, Yuwen Ni, Qiang Fu, Jiping Chen
Haze is a serious pollution problem during the wintertime in North China. In this study, we investigated how the periodic cycle of winter haze events affect the environmental behaviors of two typical persistent organic pollutants, namely, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the atmosphere of a typical megacity, Beijing. The average atmospheric concentrations of the total di- to octa-CDD/Fs (∑PCDD/Fs: 378.0 pg/m3) and the total mono- to nona-BDEs (∑9hPBDEs: 166...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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