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Environmental Science & Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813406/environmental-life-cycle-analysis-of-water-and-co2-based-fracturing-fluids-used-in-unconventional-gas-production
#1
Rodney Franklin Wilkins, Anne Holland Menefee, Andres F Clarens
Many of the environmental impacts associated with hydraulic fracturing of unconventional gas wells are tied to the large volumes of water that such operations require. Efforts to develop non-aqueous alternatives have focused on carbon dioxide as a tunable working fluid even though the full environmental and production impacts of a switch away from water have yet to be quantified. Here we report on a life cycle analysis of using either water or CO2 for gas production in the Marcellus shale. The results show that CO2-based fluids, as currently conceived, could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 400% (with sequestration credit) and water consumption by 80% when compared to conventional water-based fluids...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809487/evaluation-of-exhaust-emissions-from-three-diesel-hybrid-cars-and-simulation-of-after-treatment-systems-for-ultra-low-real-world-nox-emissions
#2
Vicente Franco, Theodora Zacharopoulou, Jan Hammer, Helge Schmidt, Peter Mock, Martin Weiss, Zissis Samaras
Hybridisation offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is yet missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the NEDC and WLTP...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766855/does-biotransformation-of-aryl-phosphate-flame-retardants-in-blood-cast-a-new-perspective-on-their-debated-biomarkers
#3
Nele Van den Eede, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez, Hugo Neels, Adrian Covaci
Aryl phosphate flame retardants (aryl-PFRs), such as triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), are emerging contaminants that can exhibit toxic properties, including severe aquatic toxicity and endocrine disruptive effects. Monitoring exposure to aryl-PFRs through specific biomarkers is necessary to assess the health risk associated with chronic exposure. Hydrolytic serum enzymes could play an important role in the formation of the hydrolysis product diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), the seemingly most abundant in vivo biomarker of TPHP in urine...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809494/comparison-of-ultrafine-particles-and-black-carbon-concentration-predictions-from-a-mobile-and-short-term-stationary-land-use-regression-model
#4
Jules Kerckhoffs, Gerard Hoek, Kyle P Messier, Bert Brunekreef, Kees Meliefste, Jochem O Klompmaker, Roel Vermeulen
Mobile and short-term monitoring campaigns are increasingly used to develop land use regression (LUR) models for ultrafine particles (UFP) and black carbon (BC). It is not yet established whether LUR models based on mobile or short-term stationary measurements result in comparable models and concentration predictions. The goal of this paper is to compare LUR models based on stationary (30 minutes) and mobile UFP and BC measurements from a single campaign. An electric car collected both repeated stationary and mobile measurements in Amsterdam and Rotterdam, The Netherlands...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809491/1-2-dichloroethane-exposure-alters-the-population-structure-metabolism-and-kinetics-of-a-trichloroethene-dechlorinating-dehalococcoides-mccartyi-consortium
#5
Koshlan Mayer-Blackwell, Maeva Fincker, Olivia Molenda, Benjamin Callahan, Holly Sewell, Susan Holmes, Elizabeth A Edwards, Alfred M Spormann
Bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as perchloroethene and trichloroethene can result in the accumulation of the undesirable intermediate vinyl chloride. Such accumulation can either be due to the absence of specific vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi or to the inhibition of such strains by the metabolism of other microorganisms. The fitness of vinyl chloride respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi subpopulations is particularly uncertain in the presence of chloroethene/chloroethane cocontaminant mixtures, which are commonly found in contaminated groundwater...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808508/response-to-comment-on-uptake-and-accumulation-of-polystyrene-microplastics-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-toxic-effects-in-liver
#6
Yifeng Lu, Yan Zhang, Yongfeng Deng, Wei Jiang, Yanping Zhao, Jinju Geng, Lili Ding, Hongqiang Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808505/comment-on-uptake-and-accumulation-of-polystyrene-microplastics-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-toxic-effects-in-liver
#7
Lisa Baumann, Heike Schmidt-Posthaus, Helmut Segner, Jeffrey C Wolf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806572/degradation-of-polymeric-brominated-flame-retardants-development-of-an-analytical-approach-using-polyfr-and-uv-irradiation
#8
Christoph Koch, Alexander Dundua, Jackelyn Aragon-Gomez, Milen Nachev, Susanne Stephan, Sarah Willach, Mathias Ulbricht, Oliver Johannes Schmitz, Torsten C Schmidt, Bernd Sures
Many well-established methods for studying the degradation of brominated flame retardants are not useful when working with polymeric and water insoluble species. An example for this specific class of flame retardants is PolyFR (polymeric flame retardant; CAS No 1195978-93-8), which is used as a substituent for hexabromocyclododecane. Although it has been on the market for two years now, almost no information is available about its long time behaviour in the environment. Within this study, we focus on how to determine a possible degradation of both pure PolyFR as well as PolyFR in the final insulation product, expanded polystyrene foam...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804303/identification-of-preferential-paths-of-fossil-carbon-within-water-resource-recovery-facilities-via-radiocarbon-analysis
#9
Linda Y Tseng, Alice K Robinson, Xiaying Zhang, Xiaomei Xu, John Southon, Andrew J Hamilton, Reza Sobhani, Michael K Stenstrom, Diego Rosso
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that all carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) during treatment are modern, based on available literature. Therefore, such emissions were omitted from IPCC's greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting procedures. However, a fraction of wastewater's carbon is fossil in origin. We hypothesized that since the fossil carbon entering municipal WRRFs is mostly from soaps and detergents as dissolved organic matter, its fate can be selectively determined during the universally applied separation treatment processes...
November 2, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802594/dispersion-of-short-and-medium-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-cps-from-a-cp-production-plant-to-the-surrounding-surface-soils-and-coniferous-leaves
#10
Jiazhi Xu, Yuan Gao, Haijun Zhang, Faqiang Zhan, Jiping Chen
Chlorinated paraffin (CP) production is one important emission source for short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in the environment. In this study, 48 CP congener groups were measured in the surface soils and coniferous leaves collected from the inner and surrounding environment of a CP production plant that run has been operation for more than 30 years to investigate the dispersion and deposition behavior of SCCPs and MCCPs. The average concentrations of the sum of SCCPs and MCCPs in the in-plant coniferous leaves and surface soils were 4548...
November 2, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802028/deconstructing-demand-the-anthropogenic-and-climatic-drivers-of-urban-water-consumption
#11
Azadeh Hemati, Megan A Rippy, Stanley B Grant, Kristen Davis, David Feldman
Cities in drought prone regions of the world such as South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and security challenges. Here we use 72 years of urban water consumption data from Melbourne, Australia, a city that recently overcame a 12 year "Millennium" drought, to evaluate 1) the relative importance of climatic and anthropogenic drivers of urban water demand (using wavelet-based approaches) and 2) the relative contribution of various water saving strategies to demand reduction during the Millennium Drought...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802027/an-isotopic-exchange-kinetic-model-to-assess-the-speciation-of-metal-available-pool-in-soil-the-case-of-nickel
#12
Isabella Olga Zelano, Yann Sivry, Cécile Quantin, Alexandre Gelabert, Adeline Maury, Karine Phalyvong, Marc F Benedetti
In this study an innovative approach is proposed to predict the relative contribution of each mineral phase to the total metal availability in soils, which, in other words, could be called the available metal fractionation. Through the use of isotopic exchange kinetics (IEK) performed on typical Ni bearing phases (i.e. two types of serpentines, chlorite, smectite, goethite and hematite) the isotopic exchange and metal-solid interaction processes are connected, considering both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801579/evidence-for-different-reactive-hg-sources-and-chemical-compounds-at-adjacent-valley-and-high-elevation-locations
#13
Mae Sexauer Gustin, Ashley M Pierce, Jiaoyan Huang, Matthieu B Miller, Heather A Holmes, S Marcela Loria-Salazar
The spatial distribution of chemical compounds and concentration of reactive mercury (RM), defined as the sum of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and <3 μm particulate bound mercury (PBM), are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to understand the chemistry, concentration, and spatial and temporal distribution of GOM at adjacent locations (12 km apart) with a difference in elevation of ∼1000 m. Atmospheric GOM measurements were made with passive and active samplers using membranes, and at one location, a Tekran mercury measurement system was used...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800688/-virtual-water-flows-uphill-toward-money
#14
Ranran Wang, Edgar Hertwich, Julie B Zimmerman
This study provides a more precise understanding of the main driving forces of anthropogenic water use across countries. The anthropogenic water use was distinguished as blue water (i.e., fresh surface and groundwater) and total water (i.e. blue + green water; green water is rainwater insofar as it does not become runoff) used for producing, consuming, exporting, and importing of primary and manufactured goods and services, measured on a per country and per capita basis. The population effect on national blue water consumption associated with producing and consuming was found to be bigger than what the commonly assumed unitary population elasticity indicates...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753482/effects-of-lead-exposure-on-sperm-quality-and-reproductive-success-in-an-avian-model
#15
Núria Vallverdú-Coll, François Mougeot, Manuel E Ortiz-Santaliestra, Cristina Castaño, Julián Santiago-Moreno, Rafael Mateo
Lead (Pb) poisoning via ingestion of shot pellets is a frequent cause of death in wild birds and also has a wide range of subclinical effects. Here we report on the sublethal effects Pb exposure has on the breeding performance of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa). We studied the effects of Pb exposure on sperm quality, reproductive success, egg properties, laying performance, antioxidant levels, and carotenoid-based coloration. Birds were exposed by oral gavage to one or three No. 6 Pb shot pellets (2...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797533/influence-of-soil-characteristics-and-proximity-to-antarctic-research-stations-on-abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soils
#16
Fang Wang, Robert D Stedtfeld, Ok-Sun Kim, Benli Chai, Luxi Yang, Tiffany M Stedtfeld, Soon Gyu Hong, Dockyu Kim, Hyoun Soo Lim, Syed A Hashsham, James M Tiedje, Woo Jun Sul
Soil is an important environmental reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are increasingly recognized as environmental contaminants. Methods to assess the risks associated with the acquisition or transfer of resistance mechanisms are still underdeveloped. Quantification of background levels of antibiotic resistance genes and what alters those is a first step in understanding our environmental resitome. Towards this goal, 62 samples were collected over 3 years from soils near the 30-year old Gondwana Research Station and for 4 years before and during development of the new Jang Bogo Research Station, both at Terra Nova Bay in Antarctica...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797507/pore-water-carbonate-and-phosphate-as-predictors-of-arsenate-toxicity-in-soil
#17
Dane Lamb, Mohammed Kader, Liang Wang, Girish Choppala, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Ravi Naidu
Phytotoxicity of inorganic contaminants is influenced by the presence of competing ions at the site of uptake. In this study, interaction of soil pore-water constituents with arsenate toxicity was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L) using 10 contrasting soils. Arsenate phytotoxicity was shown to be linked to soluble carbonate and phosphate. The data indicated that dissolved phosphate and carbonate had an antagonistic impact on arsenate toxicity to cucumber. To predict arsenate phytotoxicity in soils with a diverse range of soil solution properties, both were required...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797497/sulfur-cycling-related-biogeochemical-processes-of-arsenic-mobilization-in-the-western-hetao-basin-china-evidence-from-multiple-isotope-approaches
#18
Huaming Guo, Yinzhu Zhou, Yongfeng Jia, Xiaohui Tang, Xiaofeng Li, Mengmeng Shen, Hai Lu, Shuangbao Han, Chao Wei, Stefan Norra, Fucun Zhang
The role of sulfur cycling in arsenic behavior under reducing conditions is not well-understood in previous investigations. This study provides observations of sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation in sulfate and evaluation of sulfur cycling-related biogeochemical processes controlling dissolved arsenic groundwater concentrations using multiple isotope approaches. As a typical basin hosting high arsenic groundwater, the western Hetao basin was selected as the study area. Results showed that, along the groundwater flow paths, groundwater δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4 and δ13CDOC increased with increases in arsenic, dissolved iron, hydrogen sulfide and ammonium concentrations, while δ13CDIC decreased with decreasing Eh and sulfate/chloride...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797199/uranium-isotope-fractionation-during-adsorption-co-precipitation-and-biotic-reduction
#19
Duc Huy Dang, Breda Novotnik, Wei Wang, R Bastian Georg, Robert Douglas Evans
Uranium contamination of surface environments is a problem associated with both U-ore extraction/processing and situations in which groundwater comes into contact with geological formations high in uranium. Apart from the environmental concerns about U contamination, its accumulation and isotope composition have been used in marine sediments as a paleo-proxy of the Earth' oxygenation history. Understanding U isotope geochemistry is then essential either to develop sustainable remediation procedures as well as for use in paleo-tracer applications...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797183/the-roles-of-biofilm-conductivity-and-donor-substrate-kinetics-in-a-mixed-culture-biofilm-anode
#20
Hyung-Sool Lee, Bipro Ranjan Dhar, Junyeong An, Bruce E Rittmann, Hodon Ryu, Jorge W Santo Domingo, Hao Ren, Junseok Chae
We experimentally assessed the kinetics and thermodynamics of electron transfer (ET) from the donor substrate (acetate) to the anode for a mixed-culture biofilm anode. We interpreted the results with a modified biofilm-conduction model consisting of three ET steps is series: (1) intracellular ET, (2) non-Ohmic extracellular ET (EET) from an outer membrane protein to an extracellular cofactor (EC), and (3) ET from the EC to the anode by Ohmic-conduction in the biofilm matrix. The steady-state current density was 0...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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