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Environmental Science & Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727456/constrained-mixed-effect-models-with-ensemble-learning-for-prediction-of-nitrogen-oxides-concentrations-at-a-high-spatiotemporal-resolution
#1
Lianfa Li, Fred Lurmann, Rima Habre, Robert Urman, Edward Rappaport, Beate Ritz, Jiu-Chiuan Chen, Frank Gilliland, Jun Wu
Spatiotemporal models to estimate ambient exposures at high spatiotemporal resolutions are crucial in large-scale air pollution epidemiological studies that follow participants over extended periods. Previous models typically rely on central-site monitoring data and/or covered short periods, limiting their applications to long-term cohort studies. Here we developed a spatiotemporal model that can reliably predict nitrogen oxide concentrations with a high spatiotemporal resolution over a long time span (>20 years)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727453/formation-of-developmentally-toxic-phenanthrene-metabolite-mixtures-by-mycobacterium-sp-elw1
#2
Jill E Schrlau, Amber L Kramer, Anna Chlebowski, Lisa Truong, Robert L Tanguay, Staci L Massey Simonich, Lewis Semprini
Mycobacterium sp. ELW1 co-metabolically degraded up to 1.8 μmol of phenanthrene (PHE) in ∼48 h, and hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPHE) metabolites, including 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OHPHE), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OHPHE), 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPHE), 9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene (1,9-OHPHE), and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (trans-9,10-OHPHE), were identified and quantified over time. The monooxygenase responsible for co-metabolic transformation of PHE was inhibited by 1-octyne...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727446/reductive-outer-sphere-single-electron-transfer-is-an-exception-rather-than-the-rule-in-natural-and-engineered-chlorinated-ethene-dehalogenation
#3
Benjamin Heckel, Stefan Cretnik, Sarah Kliegman, Orfan Shouakar-Stash, Kristopher McNeill, Martin Elsner
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene are notorious groundwater contaminants. Although reductive dehalogenation is key to their environmental and engineered degradation, underlying reaction mechanisms remain elusive. Outer-sphere reductive single electron transfer (OS-SET) has been proposed for such different processes as Vitamin B12-dependent biodegradation and zero-valent metal-mediated dehalogenation. Compound-specific isotope effect (13C/12C, 37Cl/35Cl) analysis offers a new opportunity to test these hypotheses...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727429/elliptic-cylinder-airborne-sampling-and-geostatistical-mass-balance-approach-for-quantifying-local-greenhouse-gas-emissions
#4
Jovan M Tadić, Anna M Michalak, Laura T Iraci, Velibor Ilic, Sébastien C Biraud, Daniel R Feldman, Thaopaul V Bui, Matthew S Johnson, Max Loewenstein, Seongeun Jeong, Marc L Fischer, Emma L Yates, Ju-Mee Ryoo
In this study, we explore observational, experimental, methodological and practical aspects of the flux quantification of greenhouse gases from local point sources by using in-situ airborne observations, and suggest a series of conceptual changes to improve flux estimates. We address the major sources of uncertainty reported in previous studies by modifying (1) the shape of the typical flight path, (2) the modeling of covariance and anisotropy, and (3) the type of interpolation tools used. We show that a cylindrical flight profile offers considerable advantages compared to traditional profiles collected as curtains, although this new approach brings with it the need for a more comprehensive subsequent analysis...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727423/seasonal-variation-of-terrigenous-pahs-along-the-marginal-seas-of-china-input-phase-partitioning-ocean-current-transport
#5
Miao-Lei Ya, Xin-Hong Wang, Yu-Ling Wu, Yong-Yu Li, Jing-Ming Yan, Chao Fang, Yan-Yan Zhao, Ran-Ran Qian, Xiao-Long Lin
To study the spatial distributions and seasonal differences of concentrations, source identification, and phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface water, intensive sampling was carried out along the marginal seas of China in four seasons. In the northern South China Sea (SCS), the highest PAH levels occurred in summer (July to August) and autumn (October to November). In the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea, the highest occurred in summer (August) and winter (December)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726397/potential-releases-of-129-i-236-u-and-pu-isotopes-from-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plants-to-the-ocean-during-2013-to-2015
#6
Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Ken O Buesseler, YikSze Lau, Christof Vockenhuber, Maxi Castrillejo, Hans-Arno Synal, Pere Masque
After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear accident, many efforts were put into the determination of the presence of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I and other gamma-emitting radionuclides in the ocean, but minor work was done regarding the monitoring of less volatile radionuclides, pure beta-ray emitters or simply radionuclides with very long half-lives. In this study we document the temporal evolution of (129)I, (236)U and Pu isotopes ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) in seawater sampled during four different cruises performed 2, 3 and 4 years after the accident, and compare the results to (137)Cs collected at the same stations and depths...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726392/characterization-of-naphthenic-acids-and-other-dissolved-organics-in-natural-water-from-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-canada
#7
Chenxing Sun, William Shotyk, Chad W Cuss, Mark W Donner, Jon Fennell, Muhammad Javed, Tommy Noernberg, Mark Poesch, Rick Pelletier, Nilo Sinnatamby, Tariq Siddique, Jonathan W Martin
With growth of the Canadian oil sands industry, concerns have been raised about possible seepage of toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) into the Athabasca River (AR). A sampling campaign in fall 2015 was undertaken to monitor for anthropogenic seepage while also considering natural sources. Naphthenic acids (NAs) and thousands of bitumen-derived organics were characterized in surface water, groundwater, and OSPW using a highly sensitive online solid phase extraction-HPLC-Orbitrap method. Elevated NA concentrations and bitumen-derived organics were detected in McLean Creek (30...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695732/reduction-and-simultaneous-removal-of-99-tc-and-cr-by-fe-oh-2-s-mineral-transformation
#8
Sarah A Saslow, Wooyong Um, Carolyn I Pearce, Mark H Engelhard, Mark E Bowden, Wayne Lukens, Ian I Leavy, Brian J Riley, Dong-Sang Kim, Michael J Schweiger, Albert A Kruger
Technetium (Tc) remains a priority remediation concern due to persistent challenges, including mobilization due to rapid reoxidation of immobilized Tc, and competing comingled contaminants, e.g., Cr(VI), that inhibit Tc(VII) reduction and incorporation into stable mineral phases. Here Fe(OH)2(s) is investigated as a comprehensive solution for overcoming these challenges, by serving as both the reductant, (Fe(II)), and the immobilization agent to form Tc-incorporated magnetite (Fe3O4). Trace metal analysis suggests removal of Tc(VII) and Cr(VI) from solution occurs simultaneously; however, complete removal and reduction of Cr(VI) is achieved earlier than the removal/reduction of comingled Tc(VII)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686435/animal-feces-contribute-to-domestic-fecal-contamination-evidence-from-e-coli-measured-in-water-hands-food-flies-and-soil-in-bangladesh
#9
Ayse Ercumen, Amy J Pickering, Laura H Kwong, Benjamin F Arnold, Sarker Masud Parvez, Mahfuja Alam, Debashis Sen, Sharmin Islam, Craig Kullmann, Claire Chase, Rokeya Ahmed, Leanne Unicomb, Stephen P Luby, John M Colford
Fecal-oral pathogens are transmitted through complex, environmentally mediated pathways. Sanitation interventions that isolate human feces from the environment may reduce transmission but have shown limited impact on environmental contamination. We conducted a study in rural Bangladesh to (1) quantify domestic fecal contamination in settings with high on-site sanitation coverage; (2) determine how domestic animals affect fecal contamination; and (3) assess how each environmental pathway affects others. We collected water, hand rinse, food, soil, and fly samples from 608 households...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686423/nanoparticle-uptake-in-plants-gold-nanomaterial-localized-in-roots-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-x-ray-computed-nanotomography-and-hyperspectral-imaging
#10
Astrid Avellan, Fabienne Schwab, Armand Masion, Perrine Chaurand, Daniel Borschneck, Vladimir Vidal, Jérôme Rose, Catherine Santaella, Clément Levard
Terrestrial plants can internalize and translocate nanoparticles (NPs). However, direct evidence for the processes driving the NP uptake and distribution in plants is scarce at the cellular level. Here, NP-root interactions were investigated after 10 days of exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to 10 mg·L(-1) of negatively or positively charged gold NPs (∼12 nm) in gels. Two complementary imaging tools were used: X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and enhanced dark-field microscopy combined with hyperspectral imaging (DF-HSI)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723108/oral-exposure-of-silver-nanoparticles-or-silver-ions-may-aggravate-fatty-liver-disease-in-overweight-mice
#11
Jianbo Jia, Feifei Li, Hongyu Zhou, Yuhong Bai, Sijin Liu, Yiguo Jiang, Guibin Jiang, Bing Yan
As the applications and environmental release of silver ions and nanoparticles are increasing, growing human exposures to these pollutants have become an emerging health concerns. The impeding effects of such pollutants on susceptible populations are severely under-studied. Here, we demonstrate that Ag NPs, at a dose that causes no general toxicity in normal mice, promote the progression of fatty liver disease from steatosis to steatohepatitis only in overweight mice. Exposure to Ag+ ions induces the same effects in overweight mice...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723099/fledging-critical-zone-science-for-environmental-sustainability
#12
Yihe Lü, Ting Li, Kun Zhang, Bojie Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723084/mineral-reactions-in-shale-gas-reservoirs-barite-scale-formation-from-reusing-produced-water-as-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid
#13
Amelia N Paukert Vankeuren, J Alexandra Hakala, Karl Jarvis, Johnathan E Moore
Hydraulic fracturing for gas production is now ubiquitous in shale plays, but relatively little is known about shale-hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) reactions within the reservoir. To investigate reactions during the shut-in period of hydraulic fracturing, experiments were conducted flowing different HFFs through fractured Marcellus Shale cores at reservoir temperature and pressure (66(o)C, 20 MPa) for one week. Results indicate HFFs with hydrochloric acid cause substantial dissolution of carbonate minerals, as expected, increasing effective fracture volume (fracture volume + near-fracture matrix porosity) by 56-65%...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723081/fluorescent-molecular-probes-for-detection-of-one-electron-oxidants-photochemically-generated-by-dissolved-organic-matter
#14
Vivian S Lin, Matthew Grandbois, Kristopher McNeill
We report a dual probe system based on 4'-substituted biphenyl-2-carboxylic acids (BPAs) for analysis of photooxidants generated by dissolved organic matter. The BPA probes are converted to the corresponding benzocoumarins (BZCs) at different rates depending on the mechanism of oxidation; thus, two probes used simultaneously can differentiate strong triplet excited state sensitizers from hydroxylating species such as hydroxyl radical (•OH) present in dissolved organic matter (DOM). Comparison of the ratios of BZC-CH3 and BZC-CF3 product formation using model photooxidants such as NaNO2, a •OH precursor, and model triplet sensitizer lumichrome gave a range of 2 to 250...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722400/experimental-measurements-and-surface-complexation-modeling-of-u-vi-adsorption-onto-multilayered-graphene-oxide-the-importance-of-adsorbate-adsorbent-ratios
#15
Thomas A Duster, Jennifer E S Szymanowski, Jeremy B Fein
Surface complexation models use experimental adsorption measurements to calculate stability constants that quantify the thermodynamic stability of adsorbed species. However, these constants are often poorly constrained due to nearly complete removal of the solute from solution and/or because the tested adsorbate:adsorbent ratios are not varied sufficiently. Using data sets that quantify the adsorption of U(VI) to multilayered graphene oxide (MLGO), we tested whether three different U(VI):MLGO ratios (3 ppm U; 20-210 mg L(-1) MLGO) affect the ability of nonelectrostatic and diffuse layer models to predict U(VI) adsorption behaviors across a range of ionic strength (1-100 mM) and pH (2-9...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722398/fractionation-and-concentration-of-high-salinity-textile-wastewater-using-an-ultra-permeable-sulfonated-thin-film-composite
#16
Meng Li, Yujian Yao, Wen Zhang, Junfeng Zheng, Xuan Zhang, Lianjun Wang
A sulfonated thin-film composite (TFC) nanofiltration membrane was fabricated using 2,2'-benzidinedisulfonic acid (BDSA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on a polyether sulfone substrate by conventional interfacial polymerization. Due to a nascent barrier layer with a loose architecture, the obtained TFC-BDSA-0.2 membrane showed an ultra-high pure water permeability of 48.1 ± 2.1 L-1 m-2 h-1 bar-1, and a considerably low NaCl retention ability of <1.8% over a concentration range of 10-100 g L-1. The membrane, which possesses a negatively charged surface, displayed an excellent rejection of over 99% towards Congo red (CR), and allowed the fast fractionation of high-salinity textile wastewater...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686420/mechanistic-insights-from-discrete-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-pesticide-nanoparticle-interactions
#17
Nicholas K Geitner, Weilu Zhao, Feng Ding, Wei Chen, Mark R Wiesner
Nanoscale particles have the potential to modulate the transport, lifetimes, and ultimate uptake of pesticides that may otherwise be bound to agricultural soils. Engineered nanoparticles provide a unique platform for studying these interactions. In this study, we utilized discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) as a screening tool for examining nanoparticle-pesticide adsorptive interactions. As a proof-of-concept, we selected a library of 15 pesticides common in the United States and 4 nanomaterials with likely natural or incidental sources, and simulated all possible nanoparticle-pesticide pairs...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682633/cost-of-tolerance-physiological-consequences-of-evolved-resistance-to-inhabit-a-polluted-environment-in-teleost-fish-fundulus-heteroclitus
#18
Nishad Jayasundara, Pani W Fernando, Joshua S Osterberg, Kristina M Cammen, Thomas F Schultz, Richard T Di Giulio
Anthropogenic stressors, including pollutants, are key evolutionary drivers. It is hypothesized that rapid evolution to anthropogenic changes may alter fundamental physiological processes (e.g., energy metabolism), compromising an organism's capacity to respond to additional stressors. The Elizabeth River (ER) Superfund site represents a "natural-experiment" to explore this hypothesis in several subpopulations of Atlantic killifish that have evolved a gradation of resistance to a ubiquitous pollutant-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682605/characterizing-aggregated-exposure-to-primary-particulate-matter-recommended-intake-fractions-for-indoor-and-outdoor-sources
#19
Peter Fantke, Olivier Jolliet, Joshua S Apte, Natasha Hodas, John Evans, Charles J Weschler, Katerina S Stylianou, Matti Jantunen, Thomas E McKone
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide a set of consistent primary PM2.5 aggregated exposure factors. We followed a matrix-based mass balance approach for quantifying exposure from indoor and ground-level urban and rural outdoor sources using an effective indoor-outdoor population intake fraction and a system of archetypes to represent different levels of spatial detail...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666088/dynamic-changes-of-disinfection-byproduct-precursors-following-exposures-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-to-wildfire-ash-solutions
#20
Kuo-Pei Tsai, Habibullah Uzun, Tanju Karanfil, Alex T Chow
Wildfires can elevate dissolved organic matter (DOM) levels due to ash input and algal growth in source waters, and consequently impacting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in finished water; however, it remains unclear how quality and quantity of overall allochthonous and autochthonous DOM as well as associated DBP formation are changed during an entire algal life cycle. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured in the medium containing low and high concentrations [10% and 65% (v/v)] of black and white ash water extracts (BE and WE) to study dynamic changes of carbonaceous, nitrogenous, and oxygenated DBP precursors during algal growth...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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