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Environmental Science & Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340298/quantum-yield-of-nitrite-from-the-photolysis-of-aqueous-nitrate-above-300-nm
#1
Katherine Beem Benedict, Alexander S McFall, Cort Anastasio
Photolysis of nitrate (NO3(-)) produces reactive nitrogen and oxygen species via three different channels, forming: (1) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), (2) nitrite (NO2(-)) and oxygen atom (O((3)P)), and (3) peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). These photoproducts are important oxidants and reactants in surface waters, atmospheric drops, and snowpacks. While the efficiency of the first channel, to form NO2, is well documented, a large range of values have been reported for the second channel, nitrite, above 300 nm...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339194/a-systematic-evaluation-of-chronic-metal-mixture-toxicity-to-three-species-and-implications-for-risk-assessment
#2
Charlotte Nys, Liske Versieren, Katherine Cordery, Ronny Blust, Erik Smolders, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Metal contamination generally occurs as mixtures. However, it is yet unresolved how to address metal mixtures in risk assessment. Therefore, using consistent methodologies, we have set up experiments to identify which mixture model applies best at low level effects, i.e. the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) reference model. Toxicity of metal mixtures (Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) to Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hordeum vulgare was investigated in different waters or soils, totaling 30 different experiments...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339193/3d-printing-techniques-in-environmental-science-and-engineering-will-bring-new-innovation
#3
Ligang Hu, Guibin Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339192/a-novel-exposure-system-termed-navetta-for-in-vitro-laminar-flow-electrodeposition-of-nanoaerosol-and-evaluation-of-immune-effects-in-human-lung-reporter-cells
#4
Evelien Frijns, Sandra Verstraelen, Linda Corinna Stoehr, Jo van Laer, An Jacobs, Jan Peters, Kristof Tirez, Matthew Boyles, Mark Geppert, Pierre Madl, Inge Nelissen, Albert Duschl, Martin Himly
A new prototype air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system, a flatbed aerosol exposure chamber termed NAVETTA, was developed to investigate deposition of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cultured human lung A549 cells directly from the gas phase. This device mimics human lung cell exposure to NPs due to a low horizontal gas flow combined with cells exposed at the ALI. Electrostatic field assistance is applied to improve NP deposition efficiency. As proof-of-principle, cell viability and immune responses after short-term exposure to nano-copper oxide (CuO)-aerosol were determined...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272882/inside-story-of-gas-processes-within-stormwater-biofilters-does-greenhouse-gas-production-tarnish-the-benefits-of-nitrogen-removal
#5
Emily G I Payne, Tracey Pham, Perran L M Cook, Ana Deletic, Belinda E Hatt, Tim D Fletcher
Stormwater biofilters are dynamic environments, supporting diverse processes that act to capture and transform incoming pollutants. However, beneficial water treatment processes can be accompanied by undesirable greenhouse gas production. This study investigated the potential for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) generation in dissolved form at the base of laboratory-scale stormwater biofilter columns. The influence of plant presence, species, inflow frequency, and inclusion of a saturated zone and carbon source were studied...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333458/declining-trends-of-polychlorinated-naphthalenes-in-seabird-eggs-from-the-canadian-arctic-1975-2014
#6
Birgit M Braune, Derek C G Muir
There are relatively few studies of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) for biota in polar regions and even fewer reports of temporal trends. We determined concentrations of PCNs in eggs of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) collected from the Canadian high Arctic between 1975 and 2014 and calculated their associated toxic equivalents (TEQs). Concentrations of Σ67PCN decreased significantly in the murre eggs between 1975 and 2014 at an average annual rate of -14.9 pg g(-1) wet weight. Although the penta- and tetra-CNs (predominantly CN-52/60 and CN-42) dominated the PCN profile, the hexa-CNs (mainly CN-66/67) accounted for the majority of the Σ67TEQ-PCN, concentrations of which also decreased significantly between 1975 to 2014...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333457/two-dimensional-offline-chromatographic-fractionation-for-the-characterization-of-humic-like-substances-in-atmospheric-aerosol-particles
#7
Tobias Spranger, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann
Organic carbon in atmospheric particles comprises a large fraction of chromatographically unresolved compounds, often referred to as humic-like substances (HULIS), which influence particle properties and impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems. To better understand its composition, a two-dimensional (2D) offline method combining size-exclusion (SEC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using a new spiked gradient profile is presented. It separates HULIS into 55 fractions of different size and polarity, with estimated ranges of molecular weight and octanol/water partitioning coefficient (log P) from 160-900 g/mol and 0...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333454/sub-structural-components-of-organic-colloids-from-a-pu-polluted-soil-with-implications-for-pu-mobilization
#8
Nicole DiDonato, Chen Xu, Peter H Santschi, Patrick G Hatcher
Contaminated soil organic matter from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has been previously shown to accumulate plutonium (Pu) in a colloidal sub-fraction and hypothesized to contain cutin-like chemical structures cross-linked with hydroxamate functionality. The present study further characterizes this high Pu-affinity sub-fraction using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICRMS) and discovers additional sub-structural components. The Pu-enriched fraction was extracted and purified through a series of ultrafiltration and isoelectric focusing (IEF) electrophoresis steps...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333451/aerosol-formation-from-oh-oxidation-of-the-volatile-cyclic-methyl-siloxane-cvms-decamethylcyclopentasiloxane
#9
Yue Wu, Murray V Johnston
Aerosol formation from OH oxidation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5, C10H30O5Si5), a cyclic volatile methyl siloxane (cVMS) found in consumer products, was studied in a flow-through photo chamber with and without the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol. For the unseeded experiments, chemical characterization with high performance mass spectrometry showed that the molecular composition changed substantially with aerosol mass loading in the 1-12 μg/m3 range. Monomers (5 Si atoms/molecule) and dimers (10 Si atoms/molecule) dominated the mass spectra of aerosols at higher mass loadings while ring opened species (neither 5 nor 10 Si atoms/molecule) dominated the mass spectra of aerosols at lower mass loadings...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333448/role-of-oxygen-functionalities-in-graphene-oxide-architectural-laminates-goal-sub-nanometer-spacing-and-water-transport
#10
Carlo Alberto Amadei, Andrea Montessori, Julian P Kadow, Sauro Succi, Chad David Vecitis
Active research in nanotechnology contemplates the use of nanomaterials for environmental engineering applications. However, a primary challenge is understanding the effects of nanomaterial properties on industrial device performance and translating unique nanoscale properties to the macroscale. One emerging example is graphene oxide (GO) membranes for separation processes. Thus, here we investigate how individual GO properties, in particular the GO chemistry, can impact GO membrane characteristics and water permeability...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333444/host-symbiont-interaction-model-explains-non-monotonic-response-of-soybean-growth-and-seed-production-to-nano-ceo2-exposure
#11
Tin Klanjscek, Erik B Muller, Patricia A Holden, Roger M Nisbet
Recent nanotoxicity studies have demonstrated non-monotonic dose-response mechanisms for planted soybean that have a symbiotic relationship with bacteroids in their root nodules: reduction of growth and seed production was greater for low, as compared to high, exposures. To investigate mechanistic underpinnings of the observed patterns, we formulated an energy budget model coupled to a toxicokinetic module describing bioaccumulation, and two toxicodynamic modules describing respectively toxic effects on host plant and symbionts...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332835/toward-nucleating-the-concept-of-the-water-resource-recovery-facility-wrrf-perspective-from-the-principal-actors
#12
Erik R Coats, Patrick I Wilson
Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach - seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Conversely positing that economics is a primary barrier, we investigated, characterized, and described non-technical socio-political barriers to realizing wastewater resource recovery...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332830/performance-and-mechanism-of-uranium-adsorption-from-seawater-to-polydopamine-inspired-sorbents
#13
Fengcheng Wu, Ning Pu, Gang Ye, Taoxiang Sun, Zhe Wang, Yang Song, Wenqing Wang, Xiaomei Huo, Yuexiang Lu, Jing Chen
Developing facile and robust technologies for effective enrichment of uranium from the seawater is of great significance for resource sustainability and environmental safety. By exploiting the mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry, diverse types of PDA-functionalized sorbents including magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and glass fiber carpet (GFC) were synthesized. The PDA functional layers with abundant catechol and amine/imine groups provided an excellent platform for the binding to uranium...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332819/a-path-to-impact-for-autonomous-field-deployable-chemical-sensors-a-case-study-of-in-situ-nitrite-sensors
#14
Tim M Schierenbeck, Matthew C Smith
Natural freshwater systems have been severely affected by excess loading of macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorous) from fertilizers, fossil fuels, and human and livestock waste. In the USA, impacts to drinking water quality, biogeochemical cycles, and aquatic ecosystems are estimated to cost US$210 billion annually. Field-deployable nutrient sensors (FDS) offer potential to support research and resource management efforts by acquiring higher resolution data than are currently supported by expensive conventional sampling methods...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298079/occurrence-and-characteristics-of-microplastic-pollution-in-xiangxi-bay-of-three-gorges-reservoir-china
#15
Kai Zhang, Xiong Xiong, Hongjuan Hu, Chenxi Wu, Yonghong Bi, Yonghong Wu, Bingsheng Zhou, Paul K S Lam, Jiantong Liu
Microplastic pollution in inland waters is receiving growing attentions. Reservoirs are suspected to be particularly vulnerable to microplastic pollution. However, very limited information is currently available on pollution characteristics of microplastics in reservoir ecosystems. This work studied the distribution and characteristics of microplastics in the backwater area of Xiangxi River, a typical tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Microplastics were detected in both surface water and sediment with concentrations ranging from 0...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287716/biocide-runoff-from-building-facades-degradation-kinetics-in-soil
#16
Ulla E Bollmann, David Fernández-Calviño, Kristian K Brandt, Morten S Storgaard, Hans Sanderson, Kai Bester
Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted runoff water (up to several mg L(-1) biocides) being infiltrated into the soil surrounding houses. In the present study the degradation rates in soil of 11 biocides used for the protection of building materials were determined in laboratory microcosms...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329444/acute-toxicity-of-ternary-cd-cu-ni-and-cd-ni-zn-mixtures-to-daphnia-magna-dominant-metal-pairs-change-along-a-concentration-gradient
#17
Elizabeth M Traudt, James F Ranville, Joseph Snyder Meyer
Multiple metals are usually present in surface waters, sometimes leading to toxicity that currently is difficult to predict due to potentially non-additive mixture toxicity. Previous toxicity tests with Daphnia magna exposed to binary mixtures of Ni combined with Cd, Cu, or Zn demonstrated that Ni and Zn strongly protect against Cd toxicity but Cu-Ni toxicity is more-than-additive and Ni-Zn toxicity is slightly less-than-additive. To consider multiple metal-metal interactions, we exposed D. magna neonates to Cd, Cu, Ni, or Zn alone and in ternary Cd-Cu-Ni and Cd-Ni-Zn combinations in standard 48-h lethality tests...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328216/natural-attenuation-in-streambed-sediment-receiving-chlorinated-solvents-from-underlying-fracture-networks
#18
Burcu Simsir, Jun Yan, Jeongdae Im, Duane Graves, Frank E Löffler
Contaminant discharge from fractured bedrock formations remains a remediation challenge. We applied an integrated approach to assess the natural attenuation potential of sediment that forms the transition zone between upwelling groundwater from a chlorinated solvent-contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer and the receiving surface water. In situ measurements demonstrated that reductive dechlorination in the sediment attenuated chlorinated compounds before reaching the water column. Microcosms established with creek sediment or in situ incubated Bio-Sep beads degraded C1-C3 chlorinated solvents to less chlorinated or innocuous products...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328210/reevaluating-the-significance-of-estrone-as-an-environmental-estrogen
#19
Gerald T Ankley, David Feifarek, Brett Blackwell, Jenna E Cavallin, Kathleen M Jensen, Michael D Kahl, Shane Poole, Eric Randolph, Travis Saari, Daniel L Villeneuve
Studies worldwide have demonstrated the occurrence of feminized male fish at sites impacted by human and animal wastes. A variety of chemicals could contribute to this phenomenon, but those receiving the greatest attention in terms of research and monitoring have been 17β-estradiol (β-E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol, due both to their prevalence in the environment and strong estrogenic potency. A third steroid, estrone (E1), also can occur at high concentrations in surface waters, but generally has been of lesser concern due to its relatively lower affinity for vertebrate estrogen receptors...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328192/molecular-insights-on-dissolved-organic-matter-transformation-by-supraglacial-microbial-communities
#20
Runa Antony, Amanda S Willoughby, Amanda M Grannas, Victoria Catanzano, Rachel L Sleighter, Meloth Thamban, Patrick G Hatcher, Shanta Nair
Snow overlays the majority of Antarctica and is an important repository of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM transformations by supraglacial microbes are not well understood. We use ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to elucidate molecular changes in snowpack DOM by in situ microbial processes (up to 55 days) in a coastal Antarctic site. Both autochthonous and allochthonous DOM is highly bio-available and is transformed by resident microbial communities through parallel processes of degradation and synthesis...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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