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Environmental Science & Technology

Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Miranda J Delahoy, Lydia McAliley, Breanna Wodnik, Karen Levy, Matthew C Freeman
Humans can be exposed to pathogens from poorly managed animal feces, particularly in communities where animals live in proximity to humans. This systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature examines the human health impacts of exposure to poorly managed animal feces transmitted via water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related pathways in low- and middle-income countries where household livestock, small-scale animal operations, and free-roaming animals are common. We identify routes of contamination by animal feces, control measures to reduce human exposure, and propose research priorities for further inquiry...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Akitoshi Goto, Nguyen Minh Tue, Masayuki Someya, Tomohiko Isobe, Shin Takahashi, Shinsuke Tanabe, Tatsuya Kunisue
In addition to unintentional formation of polychlorinated (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed halogenated (PXDD/Fs) dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans during industrial activities, recent studies have shown that several PBDD and PXDD congeners can be produced by marine algal species from the coastal environment. However, multiple exposure status of anthropogenic and naturally-derived dioxins in marine organisms remains unclear. The present study examined the occurrence, geographical distribution and potential sources of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs using mussels and brown algae collected in 2012 from Seto Inland Sea, Japan...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Alex T Ford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaolin Wu, Cleo Lisa Davie-Martin, Christine Steinlin, Kimberly J Hageman, Nicolas J Cullen, Christian Bogdal
Melting glaciers release previously ice-entrapped chemicals to the surrounding environment. As glacier melting accelerates under future climate warming, chemical release may also increase. This study investigated the behavior of semi-volatile pesticides over the course of one year and predicted their behavior under two future climate change scenarios. Pesticides were quantified in air, lake water, glacial melt water, and stream water in the catchment of Lake Brewster, an alpine glacier-fed lake located in the Southern Alps of New Zealand...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Andrea Rösch, Michele Gottardi, Caroline Vignet, Nina Cedergreen, Juliane Hollender
Azole fungicides are known inhibitors of the important enzyme class cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), thereby influencing the detoxification of co-occurring substances via biotransformation. This synergism in mixtures containing an azole has mostly been studied by effect measurements, while the underlying mechanism has been less well investigated. In this study, six azole fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, ketoconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole and tebuconazole) were selected to investigate their synergistic potential and their CYP inhibition strength in the aquatic invertebrate Gammarus pulex...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Stella Eyrikh, Anja Eichler, Leonhard Tobler, Natalia Malygina, Tatyana Papina, Margit Schwikowski
Anthropogenic emissions of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) have substantially increased atmospheric Hg levels during the 20th century compared to pre-industrial times. However, on a regional scale, atmospheric Hg concentration or deposition trends vary to such an extent during the industrial period that the consequences of recent Asian emissions on atmospheric Hg levels are still unclear. Here we present a 320-year Hg deposition history for Central Asia, based on a continuous high-resolution ice-core Hg record from the Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai, covering the time period 1680-2001...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yongfeng Lin, Ting Ruan, Aifeng Liu, Guibin Jiang
Environmental occurrence and behaviors of 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate (Cl-6:2 PFESA, with trade name F-53B) have been received increasing attention recently. Nevertheless, its potential fates under diversified conditions remain concealed. In this study, susceptibility of Cl-6:2 PFESA to reductive dehalogenation was tested in an anaerobic super-reduced cyanocobalamin assay. A rapid transformation of dosed Cl-6:2 PFESA was observed, with a hydrogen-substituted polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate (1H-6:2 PFESA) identified as the predominant product by a non-target screening workflow...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Grégoire Meylan, Barbara K Reck, Helmut Rechberger, Thomas E Graedel, Oliver Schwab
Decision-makers traditionally expect "hard facts" from scientific inquiry, an expectation the results of Material Flow Analyses (MFAs) can hardly meet. MFA limitations are attributable to incompleteness of flowcharts, limited data quality, and model assumptions. Moreover, MFA results are mostly less based on empirical observation and rather on social knowledge construction processes. Developing, applying, and improving means for evaluating and communicating reliability of MFA results is imperative. We apply two recently proposed approaches for making quantitative statements on MFA reliability to national minor metals systems: rhenium, gallium, and germanium in the US in 2012...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Heli Routti, Jon Aars, Eva Fuglei, Linda Hanssen, Karen Lone, Anuschka Polder, Åshild Ø Pedersen, Sabrina Tartu, Jeffrey M Welker, Nigel G Yoccoz
We monitored concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in relation to climate-associated changes in feeding habits and food availability in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) (192 plasma and 113 liver samples, respectively) sampled from Svalbard, Norway, during 1997-2014. PFASs concentrations became greater with increasing dietary trophic level, as bears and foxes consumed more marine as opposed to terrestrial food, and as the availability of sea ice habitat increased...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Eric J Hull, Katherine Zodrow
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a metal-rich wastewater that forms upon oxidation of sulfidic minerals. Although ARD impacts >12,000 miles of rivers in the U.S. and has an estimated cleanup cost of $32 - $72 billion, the low pH and high metal concentrations in ARD make rapid, high volume treatment without chemical addition difficult. This research focuses on a novel method of ARD treatment, membrane distillation (MD). In MD, heated ARD is separated from a cooled distillate by a hydrophobic, water-excluding membrane...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jiefeng Xiao, Jia Li, Zhenming Xu
Lithium is a rare metal because of geographical scarcity and technical barrier. Recycling lithium resource from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is significant for lithium deficiency and environmental protection. A novel approach for recycling lithium element as Li2CO3 from spent LIBs is proposed. Firstly, the electrode materials pre-obtained by mechanical separation are pyrolyzed under inclosed vacuum condition. During this process, the Li is released as Li2CO3 from the crystal structure of lithium transition metal oxides due to the collapse of oxygen-framework...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Anca G Delgado, Devyn Fajardo-Williams, Emily Bondank, Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Continuous bioreactors operated at low hydraulic retention times have rarely been explored for reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes. The inability to consistently develop such bioreactors affects the way growth approaches for Dehalococcoides mccartyi bioaugmentation cultures are envisioned. It also affects interpretation of results from in situ continuous treatment processes. We report bioreactor performance and dehalogenation kinetics of a D. mccartyi-containing consortium in an upflow bioreactor...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Alina Mostovaya, Jeffrey Alistair Hawkes, Birgit Koehler, Thorsten Dittmar, Lars J Tranvik
The reactivity continuum (RC) model is a powerful statistical approach for describing the apparent kinetics of bulk organic matter (OM) decomposition. Here, we used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry data to evaluate the main premise of the RC model, namely that there is a continuous spectrum of reactivity within bulk OM, where each individual reactive type undergoes exponential decay. We performed a 120 days OM decomposition experiment on lake water, with an untreated control and a treatment preexposed to UV light, and described the loss of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with RC modeling...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yue Peng, Dong Wang, Bing Li, Chizhong Wang, Junhua Li, John C Crittenden, Jiming Hao
A CeO2-WO3/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst was employed to investigate the poisoning mechanisms of Pb and SO2 during selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The introduction of Pb and SO2 suppressed the catalytic performance by decreasing the numbers of surface acid and redox sites. Specifically, Pb preferentially bonded with amorphous WO3 species rather than with CeO2, decreasing the numbers of both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but exerting less influence on the reducibility. SO2 preferentially bonded with CeO2 as sulfate species rather than with WO3, leading to a significant decrease in reducibility and the loss of surface active oxygen groups...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yan Wang, Minmin Hou, Qiaonan Zhang, Xiaowei Wu, Hongxia Zhao, Qing Xie, Jingwen Chen
Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) have been increasingly used in various building and decoration materials to fulfill fire safety standards since the phasing out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We determined OPFR concentrations in the most commonly used building and decoration materials available in local markets and online in China. The OPFR concentrations varied significantly, from 14.78 ng/g (putty powder) to 9649000 ng/g (expanded polystyrene panel (EPS)). Relatively high concentrations of OPFRs were found in foam samples, followed by nonwoven and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper, PVC pipes, sealing materials, boards, and paints...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Paige K Aiona, Hyun Ji Lee, Peng Lin, Forrest Heller, Alexander Laskin, Julia Laskin, Sergey A Nizkorodov
Reactions of ammonia or ammonium sulfate (AS) with carbonyls in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced from limonene are known to form brown carbon (BrC) with a distinctive absorption band at 505 nm. This study examined the browning processes in aqueous solutions of AS and 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), which has a 1,4-dicarbonyl structural motif present in many limonene SOA compounds. Aqueous reactions of 4-OPA with AS were found to produce 2-methyl pyrrole (2-MP), which was detected by gas chromatography. While 2-MP does not absorb visible radiation, it can further react with 4-OPA eventually forming BrC compounds...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Hangfei Chen, MingYi Wang, Lei Yao, Jianmin Chen, Lin Wang
Amides represent an important class of nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere that can in theory interact with atmospheric acidic particles and contribute to secondary aerosol formation. In this study, uptake coefficients (γ) of six alkylamides (C1 to C3) by suspended sulfuric acid particles were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS). At 293 K and < 3% relative humidity (RH), the measured uptake coefficients for six alkylamides were in the range of (4...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Caroline G Coulter, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg Schwab
The objective of this study was to characterize human norovirus (hNoV) GI and GII reductions during disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) and monochloramine in secondary wastewater (WW) and phosphate buffer (PB) as assessed by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Infectivity and RT-qPCR reductions are also presented for surrogate viruses murine norovirus (MNV) and bacteriophage MS2 under identical experimental conditions to aid in interpretation of hNoV molecular data. In WW, RT-qPCR reductions were less than 0...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Sarang D Supekar, Steven J Skerlos
Using a least-cost optimization framework, it is shown that unless emissions reductions beyond those already in place begin at the latest by 2025 (± 2 years) for the U.S. automotive sector, and by 2026 (- 3 years) for the U.S. electric sector, 2050 targets to achieve necessary within-sector preventative CO2 emissions reductions of 70% or more relative to 2010 will be infeasible. The analysis finds no evidence to justify delaying climate action in the name of reducing technological costs. Even without considering social and environmental damage costs, delaying aggressive climate action does not reduce CO2 abatement costs even under the most optimistic trajectories for improvements in fuel efficiencies, demand, and technology costs in the U...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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