journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Environmental Science & Technology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166006/coptem-a-model-to-investigate-the-factors-driving-crude-oil-pipeline-transportation-emissions
#1
Nicolas Choquette-Levy, Margaret Zhong, Heather L MacLean, Joule A Bergerson
Previous transportation fuel life cycle assessment studies have not fully accounted for the full variability in the crude oil transport stage - e.g. transporting a light crude through a high-diameter pipeline, vs. transporting a heavy crude through a small-diameter pipeline. We develop a first principles, fluid mechanics-based crude oil pipeline transportation emissions model (COPTEM) that calculates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with pipeline transport as a function of crude oil parameters, pipeline dimensions, and external factors...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166004/comment-on-molecular-mechanism-of-dioxin-formation-from-chlorophenol-based-on-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#2
Hans-Gert Korth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165998/characterization-of-natural-organic-substances-potentially-hindering-rt-pcr-based-virus-detection-in-large-volumes-of-environmental-water
#3
Akihiko Hata, Manami Inaba, Hiroyuki Katayama, Hiroaki Furumai
Quantitative detection of pathogenic viruses in the environmental water is essential for the assessment of water safety. It is known that some of natural organic substances interfere with virus detection processes, i.e., nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription-PCR. Such substances are carried over into a sample after virus concentration. In this study, inhibitory substances in coastal water samples were characterized in view of their effects on efficiency of virus detection and property as organic matters...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164871/modeling-transport-of-chemotactic-bacteria-in-granular-media-containing-distributed-contaminant-sources
#4
Joanna S T Adadevoh, Sassan Ostvar, Brian D Wood, Roseanne Marie Ford
Chemotaxis has the potential to improve bioremediation strategies by enhancing the transport of pollutant-degrading bacteria to the source of contamination, leading to increased pollutant accessibility and biodegradation. This computational study extends work reported previously in the literature to include predictions of chemotactic bacterial migration in response to multiple localized contaminant sources within porous media. An advection-dispersion model, in which chemotaxis was represented explicitly as an additional advection-like term, was employed to simulate the transport of bacteria within a sand-packed column containing a distribution of chemoattractant sources...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164869/role-of-secondary-particle-formation-in-the-persistence-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-humic-acid-containing-water-under-light-irradiation
#5
Tuoya Zhang, Dawei Lu, Lixi Zeng, Yongguang Yin, Yujian He, Qian Liu, Guibin Jiang
The wide use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) leads to the increasing release of AgNPs into the environment. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a key factor affecting the behaviors and fate of AgNPs in the aquatic environment. However, the mechanisms for the DOM-mediated transformations of AgNPs are still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the persistence of AgNPs in aquatic environment in the presence of different concentrations of humic acid (HA) over periods of time up to 14 days. The Ag species were monitored and characterized by absorption spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and multicollector ICP-MS (MC-ICP-MS)...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164867/is-traffic-still-an-important-emitter-of-mono-aromatic-organic-compounds-in-european-urban-areas
#6
Agnès Borbon, Anne Boynard, Therese Salameh, Alexia Baudic, Valerie Gros, Julie Gauduin, Olivier Perrussel, Cyril Pallares
Trends of long-term observations and emission inventories suggest that traffic emissions will no longer dominate the concentrations of mono-aromatic compounds (i.e. TEX - Toluene, Xylenes and Ethylbenzene) in European urban areas. But the split limit between traffic and other emission sector contributions such as solvent use remains tenuous. Here long-term observations of an extensive set of hydrocarbons, including TEX, at traffic and urban background sites in London, Paris and Strasbourg were combined to estimate the relative importance of traffic emissions on TEX in every city...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164864/treatment-of-aqueous-film-forming-foam-by-heat-activated-persulfate-under-conditions-representative-of-in-situ-chemical-oxidation
#7
Thomas A Bruton, David L Sedlak
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in an increasing number of water supplies. In many instances, the contamination is associated with the use of PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) in firefighting activities. To investigate the potential for remediating AFFF contamination in groundwater with heat-activated persulfate, PFAS oxidation and the generation of transformation products was evaluated under well-controlled conditions. Fluorotelomer- and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide-based polyfluorinated compounds were transformed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, which underwent further degradation under acidic conditions produced after persulfate decomposed...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135229/effects-of-nh4-k-mg-2-and-ca-2-on-the-cesium-adsorption-desorption-in-binding-sites-of-vermiculitized-biotite
#8
Xiangbiao Yin, Xinpeng Wang, Hao Wu, Hideharu Takahashi, Yusuke Inaba, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Kenji Takeshita
The reversibility of cesium adsorption in contaminated soil is largely dependent on its interaction with micaceous minerals, which may be greatly influenced by various cations. Herein, we systematically investigated the effects of NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) on the adsorption/desorption of Cs(+) into different binding sites of vermiculitized biotite (VB). Original VB was initially saturated by NH4(+), K(+), or Mg(2+); we then evaluated the adsorption of Cs(+) on three treated VBs, and the desorption by extraction with NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) was further evaluated...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121472/comparing-the-uv-monochloramine-and-uv-free-chlorine-advanced-oxidation-processes-aops-to-the-uv-hydrogen-peroxide-aop-under-scenarios-relevant-to-potable-reuse
#9
Yi-Hsueh Chuang, Serena Chen, Curtis J Chinn, William A Mitch
Utilities incorporating the potable reuse of municipal wastewater are interested in converting from the UV/H2O2 to the UV/free chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP). The AOP treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) permeate often includes the de facto UV/chloramine AOP because chloramines applied upstream permeate RO membranes. Models are needed that accurately predict oxidant photolysis and subsequent radical reactions. By combining radical scavengers and kinetic modeling, we have derived quantum yields for radical generation by the UV photolysis of HOCl, OCl(-), and NH2Cl of 0...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121469/removal-of-soluble-phosphorus-from-surface-water-using-iron-fe-fe-and-aluminum-al-al-electrodes
#10
T R Devlin, A di Biase, V Wei, M Elektorowicz, J A Oleszkiewicz
The removal of soluble phosphorus using iron and aluminum electrodes was studied in water samples from the Red River, a hyper-eutrophic stream in Winnipeg, Canada. Four trials were conducted: (I) mixed batch with 150-900 mA applied for 1 min to 1 L, (II) stagnant batch with 600-900 mA applied for 1 min to 1 L, and (III and IV) continuously stirred-tank reactor with 6.25-10 min hydraulic retention times and constant 900 mA. Maximum soluble phosphorus removals of 70-80% were observed in mixed batch, and there was no significant difference between aluminum and iron electrodes (P value of 0...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116768/greenhouse-gas-dynamics-in-a-salt-wedge-estuary-revealed-by-high-resolution-cavity-ring-down-spectroscopy-observations
#11
Douglas R Tait, Damien T Maher, WeiWen Wong, Isaac R Santos, Mahmood Sadat-Noori, Ceylena Holloway, Perran L M Cook
Estuaries are an important source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, but uncertainties remain in the flux rates and production pathways of greenhouse gases in these dynamic systems. This study performs simultaneous high resolution measurements of the three major greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane, above and below the pycnocline along a salt wedge estuary (Yarra River estuary, Australia). We identified distinct zones of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161512/trophodynamics-of-organic-pollutants-in-pelagic-and-benthic-food-webs-of-lake-dianchi-importance-of-ingested-sediment-as-uptake-route
#12
Senrong Fan, Beili Wang, Hang Liu, Shixiong Gao, Tong Li, Shuran Wang, Yong Liu, Xueqin Liu, Yi Wan
Habitat is of great importance in determining the trophic transfer of pollutants in freshwater ecosystems; however, the major factors influencing chemical trophodynamics in pelagic and benthic food webs remain unclear. This study investigated the levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and substituted PAHs (s-PAHs) in two plankton species, six invertebrate species, and ten fish species collected from Lake Dianchi in southern China. Relatively high concentrations of PAHs and s-PAHs were detected with total concentrations of 11...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161501/phenanthrene-induced-apoptosis-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#13
Xiangsheng Hong, Jianhui Qin, Rui Chen, Lilai Yuan, Jinmiao Zha, Chao Huang, Na Li, Xiaoya Ji, Zijian Wang
Phenanthrene (Phe) is one of the most abundant low-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Widespread human and aquatic organism exposure to Phe has been reported, but the toxic effects of Phe and potential mechanisms are unclear. We focused on the chronic hepatotoxicity of Phe in adult Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) and the underlying mechanisms. The chronic effects of exposing Chinese rare minnows to 8.9, 82.3, or 510.0 μg/L Phe for 30 days were examined by histopathological observation, TUNEL assays, caspase activity assays, and gene expression profiles...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161037/biodegradation-of-carbon-nanotube-polymer-nanocomposites-using-a-monoculture
#14
David G Goodwin, Iruhany Boyer, Thomas Devahif, Cong Gao, Benjamin Frank, Xier Lu, Leo Kuwama, Tucker B Gordon, JingJing Wang, James F Ranville, Edward J Bouwer, D Howard Fairbrother
The biodegradation rates of carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) containing poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) were investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a microorganism commonly found in the environment. CNT/PCL nanocomposite mass loss profiles revealed that the rate of PCL matrix biodegradation decreased systematically as the CNT loading increased from 0.1 to 10% w/w. Addition of even a low CNT loading (< 1% w/w) caused the CNT/PCL biodegradation rate constant to decrease by more than 50%...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161033/carbon-quantum-dots-grafted-antifouling-membranes-for-osmotic-power-generation-via-pressure-retarded-osmosis-process
#15
Die Ling Zhao, Subhabrata Das, Tai-Shung Chung
Osmotic power generated by pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has attracted global attention as a clean, abundant and renewable energy resource. However, the substrates of PRO membranes are particularly prone to fouling because of their direct contact with various foulants in raw water. This leads to a significant decline in power density and impedes the commercialization of PRO technology. In this work, a facile surface modification method has been developed to obtain a new type of nanoparticle functionalized antifouling PRO membranes...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161030/nanoplastic-in-the-north-atlantic-subtropical-gyre
#16
Alexandra Ter Halle, Laurent Jeanneau, Marion Martignac, Emilie Jardé, Boris Pedrono, Laurent Brach, Julien Gigault
Plastics can be found in all ecosystems across the globe. This type of environmental pollution is important, even if its impact is not fully understood. The presence of small plastic particles at the micro- and nanoscales is of growing concern, but nanoplastic has not yet been observed in natural samples. In this study, we examined four size fractions (meso-, large micro-, small micro-, and nanoplastics) of debris collected in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. To obtain the nanoplastic portion, we isolated the colloidal fraction of seawater...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161027/virus-transfer-at-the-skin-liquid-interface
#17
Ana K Pitol, Heather Bischel, Tamar Kohn, Timothy R Julian
Understanding virus transfer between liquid and skin is necessary to estimate transmission during water-related activities. In the present study, we modeled virus transfer from liquid-to-skin and skin-to-liquid. Specifically, we performed human subject studies using unenveloped (MS2, Qβ) and enveloped (Φ6) bacteriophage as pathogenic virus surrogates. Our study shows that transfer from liquid-to-skin is describable by a single, universal model based on 1) virus concentration and 2) volume of liquid remaining on skin...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160699/diversity-and-abundance-of-high-molecular-weight-azaarenes-in-pah-contaminated-environmental-samples
#18
Zhenyu Tian, Joaquim Vila, Hanyan Wang, Wanda Bodnar, Michael D Aitken
Azaarenes are N-heterocyclic polyaromatic pollutants that co-occur with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Despite the known toxicity of some high-molecular-weight azaarenes, their diversity, abundance, and fate in contaminated soils remain to be elucidated. We applied high-resolution mass spectrometry and mass-defect filtering to four PAH-contaminated samples from geographically distant sites and detected 232 azaarene congeners distributed in eight homologous series, including alkylated derivatives and two hitherto unknown series...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134799/e-waste-driven-pollution-in-pakistan-the-first-evidence-of-environmental-and-human-exposure-to-flame-retardants-frs-in-karachi-city
#19
Mehreen Iqbal, Jabir Hussain Syed, Knut Breivik, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal Chaudhry, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Riffat Naseem Malik
Informal e-waste recycling activities have been shown to be a major emitter of organic flame retardants (FRs), contributing to both environmental and human exposure to laborers at e-waste recycling sites in some West African countries, as well as in China and India. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of selected organic FRs in both air and soil samples collected from areas with intensive informal e-waste recycling activities in Karachi, Pakistan. Dechlorane Plus (DP) and "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were often detected in high concentrations in soils, while phosphorus-based FRs (OPFRs) dominated atmospheric samples...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121473/polyvinylidene-fluoride-micropore-membranes-as-solid-phase-extraction-disk-for-preconcentration-of-nanoparticulate-silver-in-environmental-waters
#20
Xiao-Xia Zhou, Yu-Jian Lai, Rui Liu, Sha-Sha Li, Jing-Wen Xu, Jing-Fu Liu
Efficient separation and preconcentration of trace nanoparticulate silver (NAg) from large-volume environmental waters is a prerequisite for reliable analysis and therefore understanding the environmental processes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Herein, we report the novel use of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) filter membrane for disk-based solid phase extraction (SPE) of NAg in 1 L of water samples with the disk-based SPE system, which consists of a syringe pump and a syringe filter holder to embed the filter membrane...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
journal
journal
22232
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"