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Environmental Science & Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445647/how-will-copper-contamination-constrain-future-global-steel-recycling
#1
Katrin Ellen Daehn, Andre Cabrera Serrenho, Julian M Allwood
Copper in steel causes metallurgical problems, but is pervasive in end-of-life scrap and cannot currently be removed commercially once in the melt. Contamination can be managed to an extent by globally trading scrap for use in tolerant applications and dilution with primary iron sources. However, the viability of long-term strategies can only be evaluated with a complete characterization of copper in the global steel system and this is presented in this paper. The copper concentration of flows along the 2008 steel supply chain is estimated from a survey of literature data and compared with estimates of the maximum concentration that can be tolerated in steel products...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445642/the-predictive-power-of-clean-bed-filtration-theory-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-removal-in-stormwater-biofilters
#2
Emily Parker, Megan A Rippy, Andrew Mehring, Brandon Winfrey, Richard F Ambrose, Lisa A Levin, Stanley B Grant
Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445067/photoelectrochemical-degradation-of-organic-compounds-coupled-with-molecular-hydrogen-generation-using-electrochromic-tio2-nanotube-arrays
#3
Min Seok Koo, Kangwoo Cho, Jeyong Yoon, Wonyong Choi
Vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTs) were prepared by electrochemical anodization, and then cathodically polarized with dark blue coloration for the dual-functional photoelectrochemical water treatment of organic substrates degradation and accompanying H2 generation. The resulting Blue-TNTs (inner diameter: ~40 nm; length: ~9 μm) showed negligible shift in X-ray diffraction pattern compared with the intact TNTs, but the X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated a partial reduction of Ti(4+) to Ti(3+) on the surface...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445051/potential-air-pollutant-emissions-and-permitting-classifications-for-two-biorefinery-process-designs-in-the-united-states
#4
Annika Eberle, Arpit Bhatt, Yimin Zhang, Garvin A Heath
Advanced biofuel production facilities (biorefineries), such as those envisioned by the United States (U.S.) Renewable Fuel Standard and U.S. Department of Energy's research and development programs, often lack historical air pollutant emissions data, which can pose challenges for obtaining air emission permits that are required for construction and operation. To help fill this knowledge gap, we perform a thorough regulatory analysis and use engineering process designs to assess the applicability of federal air regulations and quantify air pollutant emissions for two feasibility-level biorefinery designs...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445044/highly-oxygenated-multifunctional-compounds-in-%C3%AE-pinene-secondary-organic-aerosol
#5
Xuan Zhang, Andrew T Lambe, Mary Alice Upshur, William A Brooks, Ariana Gray Be, Regan J Thomson, Franz M Geiger, Jason Douglas Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, Avram Gold, Stephan Graf, Michael J Cubison, Michael Groessl, John T Jayne, Douglas R Worsnop, Manjula R Canagaratna
Highly oxygenated multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) originating from biogenic emissions constitute a widespread source of organic aerosols in the pristine atmosphere. Yet, the molecular forms in which HOMs are present in the condensed phase upon gas-particle partitioning remain unclear. In this study, we show that highly oxygenated molecules that contain multiple peroxide functionalities are readily cationized by the attachment of Na(+) during electrospray ionization operated in the positive ion mode...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445042/structural-transformation-of-mno2-during-the-oxidation-of-bisphenol-a
#6
Sarah Balgooyen, Peter J Alaimo, Christina K Remucal, Matthew Ginder-Vogel
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting compound widely used in the plastic industry and found in natural waters at concentrations considered harmful for aquatic life. BPA is susceptible to oxidation by Mn(III/IV) oxides, which are commonly found in near-surface environments. Here, we quantify BPA oxidation rates and the formation of its predominant product, 4-hydroxycumyl alcohol (HCA), in tandem with transformation of a synthetic, Mn(III)-rich δ-MnO2. To investigate the effect of Mn oxide structural changes on BPA oxidation rate, twelve sequential additions of 80 μM BPA are performed at pH 7...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445036/ag-nanoparticles-and-wheat-roots-a-complex-interplay
#7
Ana Elena Pradas Del Real, Vladimir Vidal, Marie Carriere, Hiram A Castillo-Michel, Clément Levard, Perrine Chaurand, Géraldine Sarret
Agricultural soils are major sinks of silver nanoparticles in the environment, and crops are directly exposed to these emerging contaminants. A clear picture of their chemical transformations, uptake and transport mechanisms, and phytotoxic impacts is still lacking. In this work, wheat plants were exposed to pristine metallic (Ag-NPs) and sulfidized (Ag2S-NPs) silver nanoparticles and ionic Ag. Data on Ag distribution and speciation, phytotoxicity markers and gene expression were studied. A multi-technique and multi-scale approach was applied combining innovating tools at both laboratory and synchrotron...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443660/assessing-the-risk-of-engineered-nanomaterials-in-the-environment-development-and-application-of-the-nanofate-model
#8
Kendra L Garner, Sangwon Suh, Arturo A Keller
We developed a dynamic multimedia fate and transport model (nanoFate) to predict the time-dependent accumulation of metallic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) across environmental media. nanoFate considers a wider range of processes and environmental sub-compartments than most previous models and considers ENM releases to compartments (e.g. urban, agriculture) in a manner that reflects their different patterns of use and disposal. As an example, we simulated ten years of release of nano CeO2, CuO, TiO2, and ZnO in the San Francisco Bay area...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443333/emulation-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-cmaq-model-for-a-uk-ozone-pollution-episode
#9
Andrew V Beddows, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Martin L Williams, Sean D Beevers
Gaussian process emulation techniques have been used for the first time with the CMAQ model, simulating the effects of input uncertainties on ozone and NO\textsubscript{2} output, to allow robust global sensitivity analysis (SA). A screening process ranked the effect of perturbations in 223 inputs, isolating the 30 most influential from emissions, boundary conditions (BCs) and reaction rates. CMAQ simulations of a July 2006 ozone pollution episode in the UK were made with input values for these variables plus ozone dry deposition velocity chosen according to a 576 point Latin hypercube design...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425288/tracking-nitrogen-sources-transformation-and-transport-at-a-basin-scale-with-complex-plain-river-networks
#10
Qitao Yi, Qiuwen Chen, Liuming Hu, Wenqing Shi
This research developed an innovative approach to reveal nitrogen sources, transformation, and transport in large and complex river networks in the Taihu Lake basin using measurement of dual stable isotopes of nitrate. The spatial patterns of δ(15)N corresponded to the urbanization level, and the nitrogen cycle was associated with the hydrological regime at the basin level. During the high flow season of summer, nonpoint sources from fertilizer/soils and atmospheric deposition constituted the highest proportion of the total nitrogen load...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414429/sublethal-lead-exposure-alters-movement-behavior-in-free-ranging-golden-eagles
#11
Frauke Ecke, Navinder J Singh, Jon M Arnemo, Anders Bignert, Björn Helander, Åsa M M Berglund, Hans Borg, Caroline Bröjer, Karin Holm, Michael Lanzone, Tricia Miller, Åke Nordström, Jannikke Räikkönen, Ilia Rodushkin, Erik Ågren, Birger Hörnfeldt
Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free-ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403606/halogenated-organic-compounds-identified-in-hydraulic-fracturing-wastewaters-using-ultrahigh-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#12
Jenna L Luek, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Paula J Mouser, William Tyler Petty, Susan D Richardson, Michael Gonsior
Large volumes of water return to the surface following hydraulic fracturing of deep shale formations to retrieve oil and natural gas. Current understanding of the specific organic constituents in these hydraulic fracturing wastewaters is limited to hydrocarbons and a fraction of known chemical additives. In this study, we analyzed hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) as a nontargeted technique to assign unambiguous molecular formulas to singly charged molecular ions...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391701/predicting-reactive-intermediate-quantum-yields-from-dissolved-organic-matter-photolysis-using-optical-properties-and-antioxidant-capacity
#13
Garrett Mckay, Wenxi Huang, Cristina Romera-Castillo, Jenna E Crouch, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz, Rudolf Jaffé
The antioxidant capacity and formation of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (RI) was studied for water samples collected from the Florida Everglades with different spatial (marsh versus estuarine) and temporal (wet versus dry season) characteristics. Measured RI included triplet excited states of dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM*), singlet oxygen ((1)O2), and the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). Single and multiple linear regression modeling were performed using a broad range of extrinsic (to predict RI formation rates, RRI) and intrinsic (to predict RI quantum yields, ΦRI) parameters...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441862/spatial-temporal-dispersion-of-aerosolized-nanoparticles-during-the-use-of-consumer-spray-products-and-estimates-of-inhalation-exposure
#14
Jihoon Park, Seunghon Ham, Miyeon Jang, Jinho Lee, Sunju Kim, Sungkyoon Kim, Kiyoung Lee, Donguk Park, Jung-Taek Kwon, Hyunmi Kim, Pilje Kim, Kyunghee Choi, Chungsik Yoon
We evaluated the spatial-temporal dispersion of airborne nanomaterials during the use of spray consumer products and estimated the level of consumer inhalation exposure. A total of eight spray products including five propellant and three pump types were selected to evaluate the dispersion of airborne nanoparticles across time and space in a cleanroom which could control the background particles. Four products were advertised to contain silver and one contained titanium nanoparticles, while three products were specified no ENM but as being manufactured through the use of nanotechnology...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441489/a-comparison-of-gasoline-direct-injection-gdi-and-port-fuel-injection-pfi-vehicle-emissions-emission-certification-standards-cold-start-secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-potential-and-potential-climate-impacts
#15
Georges Saliba, Rawad Saleh, Yunliang Zhao, Albert A Presto, Andrew T Lambe, Bruce Frodin, Satya Sardar, Hector Maldonado, Christine Maddox, Andrew A May, Greg T Drozd, Allen H Goldstein, Lynn M Russell, Fabian P Hagen, Allen L Robinson
Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from eighty-two light duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most stringent emissions standard, super-ultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441488/formaldehyde-hcho-as-a-hazardous-air-pollutant-mapping-surface-air-concentrations-from-satellite-and-inferring-cancer-risks-in-the-united-states
#16
Lei Zhu, Daniel J Jacob, Frank N Keutsch, Loretta J Mickley, Richard D Scheffe, Madeleine Strum, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Bernhard Rappenglueck, Dylan B Millet, Munkhbayar Baasandorj, Lyatt Jaeglé, Viral Pinakin Shah
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most important carcinogen in outdoor air among the 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), not including ozone and particulate matter. However, surface observations of HCHO are sparse and the EPA monitoring network could be prone to positive interferences. Here we use 2005-2016 summertime HCHO column data from the OMI satellite instrument, validated with high-quality aircraft data and oversampled on a 5 × 5 km(2) grid, to map surface air HCHO concentrations across the contiguous US...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441002/correction-to-assessing-the-methane-emissions-from-natural-gas-fired-power-plants-and-oil-refineries
#17
Tegan N Lavoie, Paul B Shepson, Chloe A Gore, Brian H Stirm, Robert Kaeser, Bernard Wulle, David Lyon, Joseph Rudek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440655/species-and-tissue-specific-profiles-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-their-hydroxylated-and-methoxylated-derivatives-in-cats-and-dogs
#18
Kei Nomiyama, Kohki Takaguchi, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yasuko Nagano, Tomoko Oshihoi, Susumu Nakatsu, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe
The adverse effects of elevated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels, reported in the blood of domestic dogs and cats, are considered to be of great concern. However, the tissue distribution of PBDEs and their derivatives in these animals is poorly understood. This study determined the concentrations and profiles of PBDEs, hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and 2,4,6-tri-bromophenol (2,4,6-tri-BPh) in the blood, livers, bile, and brains of dogs and cats in Japan. Higher tissue concentrations of PBDEs were found in cats, with the dominant congener being BDE209...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440654/holocene-atmospheric-mercury-levels-reconstructed-from-peat-bog-mercury-stable-isotopes
#19
Maxime Enrico, Gael Le Roux, Lars-Eric Heimburger, Pieter Van Beek, Marc Souhaut, Jerome Chmeleff, Jeroen E Sonke
Environmental regulations on mercury (Hg) emissions and associated ecosystem restoration are closely linked to what Hg levels we consider natural. It is widely accepted that atmospheric Hg deposition has increased by a factor 3±1 since pre-industrial times. However, no long-term historical records of actual atmospheric gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations exist. In this study we report Hg stable isotope signatures in Pyrenean peat records (southwestern Europe) that are used as tracers of Hg deposition pathway (Δ(200)Hg, wet vs dry Hg deposition) and atmospheric Hg sources and cycling (δ(202)Hg, Δ(199)Hg)...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440648/fate-and-trophic-transfer-of-rare-earth-elements-in-temperate-lake-food-webs
#20
Marc Amyot, Meredith Gabrielle Clayden, Gwyneth A MacMillan, Tania Perron, Alexandre Arscott-Gauvin
Many mining projects targeting rare earth elements (REE) are in development in North America, but the background concentrations and trophic transfer of these elements in natural environments have not been well characterized. We sampled abiotic and food web components in 14 Canadian temperate lakes unaffected by mines, to assess the natural ecosystem fate of REE. Individual REE and total REE concentrations (sum of individual element concentrations, ΣREE) were strongly related with each other throughout different components of lake food webs...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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