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Environmental Science & Technology

Shuchi K Talati, Haibo Zhai, G Page Kyle, M Granger Morgan, Pralit Patel, Lu Liu
This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3%-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Luke David Knibbs, Craig P Coorey, Matthew John Bechle, Christine Therese Cowie, Mila Dirgawati, Jane S Heyworth, Guy Barrington Marks, Julian D Marshall, Lidia Morawska, Gavin Pereira, Michael G Hewson
Including satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in land-use regression (LUR) models can improve their predictive ability, but requires rigorous evaluation. We used 123 passive NO2 samplers sited to capture within-city and near-road variability in two Australian cities (Sydney and Perth) to assess the validity of annual mean NO2¬ estimates from existing national satellite-based LUR models (developed with 68 regulatory monitors). The samplers spanned roadside, urban near traffic (≤100 m to a major road), and urban background (>100 m to a major road) locations...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Kyle D Custard, Kerri A Pratt, Siyuan Wang, Paul B Shepson
During springtime, unique halogen chemistry involving chlorine and bromine atoms controls the prevalence of volatile organic compounds, ozone, and mercury in the Arctic lower troposphere. In situ measurements of the chlorine monoxide radical (ClO) and its precursor Cl2, along with BrO and Br2, were conducted using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) during the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) near Barrow, Alaska in March 2012. To our knowledge, these data represent the first ClO measurements made using CIMS...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuheng Wang, Konstantin von Gunten, Barbora Bartova, Nicolas Meisser, Markus Astner, Mario Burger, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these post-conflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ke Yuan, Sang Soo Lee, Vincent De Andrade, Neil C Sturchio, Paul Fenter
The mobility of toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) can be attenuated by adsorption, incorporation, and precipitation on carbonate minerals in subsurface environments. Here, we report a study of the bulk transformation of single-crystal calcite (CaCO3) into polycrystalline cerussite (PbCO3) through reaction with acidic Pb-bearing solutions. This reaction began with the growth of a cerussite shell on top of calcite surfaces followed by the replacement of the remaining calcite core. The external shape of the original calcite was preserved by a balance between calcite dissolution and cerussite growth controlled by adjusting the Pb(2)(+) concentration and pH...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Matthew R Noerpel, Sang Soo Lee, John J Lenhart
Predicting the environmental fate of lead relies on a detailed understanding of its coordination to mineral surfaces, which in turn reflects the innate reactivity of the mineral surface. In this research, we investigated fundamental dependencies in lead adsorption to hematite by coupling extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy on hematite particles (10 and 50 nm) with resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity (RAXR) to single crystals expressing the (001), (012), or (110) crystallographic face...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
R Kelman Wieder, Melanie A Vile, Kimberli D Scott, Cara M Albright, Kelly McMillen, Dale H Vitt, Mark Fenn
Oil extraction and development activities in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of northern Alberta, Canada release NOx, SOx, and NHx to the atmosphere, ultimately resulting in increasing N and S inputs to surrounding ecosystems through atmospheric deposition. Peatlands are a major feature of the northern Alberta landscape, with bogs covering 6-10% of the land area, and fens covering 21-53%. Bulk deposition of NH4+-N, NO3--N, total inorganic N (TIN), and SO42--S, was quantified using ion exchange resin collectors deployed at 23 locations, over 1-6 years, reveal maximum N and S deposition of 9...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Nele Van den Eede, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez, Hugo Neels, Adrian Covaci
Aryl phosphate flame retardants (aryl-PFRs), such as triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), are emerging contaminants that can exhibit toxic properties, including severe aquatic toxicity and endocrine disruptive effects. Monitoring exposure to aryl-PFRs through specific biomarkers is necessary to assess the health risk associated with chronic exposure. Hydrolytic serum enzymes could play an important role in the formation of the hydrolysis product diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), the seemingly most abundant in vivo biomarker of TPHP in urine...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Erik V Johnstone, Sascha Hofmann, Andrea Cherkouk, Moritz Schmidt
The biomineralization of calcium carbonate using the ureolyzing bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii in the presence of trivalent europium, a substitute for trivalent actinides, was investigated by time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and a variety of physicochemical techniques. Results show the bacteria induce the increase in both pH and [NH4](+), which initiates mineral precipitation coinciding with Eu(3+) uptake. Precipitate morphologies were characteristic of biogenically formed CaCO3, and consistent with the mineral phase composition...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Adeyemi S Adeleye, Arturo A Keller
The implications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment are often investigated using pristine particles. However, there are several biogenic and geogenic materials in natural waters that interact with and modify the surface of ENMs, thereby influencing their fate and effects. Here we studied the influence of soluble extracellular polymeric substances (sEPS) produced by freshwater and marine algae on the surface properties and fate of three commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) with different coatings...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Shengkun Dong, Jinfeng Lu, Michael J Plewa, Thanh H Nguyen
Reusing wastewater in agriculture is becoming increasingly common, which necessitates disinfection to ensure reuse safety. However, disinfectants can react with wastewater constituents to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), many of which are toxic and restrict the goal of safe reuse. Our objective was to benchmark the induction of mammalian cell cytotoxicity after ozonation against chlorination for three types of real wastewaters: municipal secondary effluent and two sources of minimally treated swine farm wastewaters...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhi Zhao, Nasser Hamdan, Li Shen, Hanqing Nan, Abdullah Almajed, Edward Kavazanjian, Ximin He
We have developed a novel method to synthesize a hyper-branched bio-mimetic hydrogel network across a soil matrix to improve the mechanical strength of the loose soil and simultaneously mitigate potential contamination due to a harmful by-product. This method successfully yielded a hierarchical structure that possesses the water retention, ion absorption, and soil aggregation capabilities of plant root systems in a chemically controllable manner. Inspired by the robust organic-inorganic composites found in many living organisms, we have combined this hydrogel network with a calcite biomineralization process to stabilize soil...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Chanhee Boo, Jongho Lee, Menachem Elimelech
Microporous membranes fabricated from hydrophobic polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been widely used for membrane distillation (MD). However, hydrophobic MD membranes are prone to wetting by low surface tension substances, thereby limiting their use in treating challenging industrial wastewaters, such as shale gas produced water. In this study, we present a facile and scalable approach for the fabrication of omniphobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes that repel both water and oil...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiang Li, Timothy R Dallmann, Andrew A May, Daniel S Tkacik, Andrew T Lambe, John T Jayne, Philip L Croteau, Albert A Presto
We measured the gas-particle partitioning of vehicle emitted primary organic aerosol (POA) in a traffic tunnel with three independent methods: artifact corrected bare-quartz filters, thermodenuder (TD) measurements, and thermal-desorption gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Results from all methods consistently show that vehicle emitted POA measured in the traffic tunnel is semivolatile under a wide range of fleet compositions and ambient conditions. We compared the gas-particle partitioning of POA measured in both tunnel and dynamometer studies and found that volatility distributions measured in the traffic tunnel are similar to volatility distributions measured in the dynamometer studies, and predict similar gas-particle partitioning in the TD...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhen Yang, Andreas Kappler, Jie Jiang
Humic substances (HS) are redox-active organic compounds with a broad spectrum of molecular sizes and reducing capacities, i.e. number of electrons donated or accepted. However, it is unknown which role the distribution of redox-active functional groups in different molecule sizes plays for HS redox reactions in varying pore sizes micro-environments. We used dialysis experiments to separate bulk humic acids (HA) into low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) and retentate, e.g. the remaining HA in the dialysis bag...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Noah Edward Jemison, Thomas M Johnson, Alyssa Shiel, Craig Lundstrom
Uranium groundwater contamination due to U mining and processing affects numerous sites globally. Bioreduction of soluble, mobile U(VI) to U(IV)-bearing solids is potentially a very effective remediation strategy. Uranium isotopes (238U/235U) have been utilized to track the progress of microbial reduction, with laboratory and field studies finding a ~1‰ isotopic fractionation, with the U(IV) product enriched in 238U. However, the isotopic fractionation produced by adsorption may complicate the use of 238U/235U to trace microbial reduction...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Wu-Jun Liu, Ke Tian, Li-Li Ling, Han-Qing Yu, Hong Jiang
The optimal strategy for the safe disposal of large amounts of hydrophyte biomass with enriched levels of N and P is challenging. In this study, we proposed and illustrated a facile pyrolysis approach to prepare an N, P-dually doped porous carbon (NPC) material with robust energy storage performance using a thermochemical self-doping process and a widely distributed hydrophyte biomass (Typha angustifolia). As a supercapacitor electrode material for electrochemical energy storage, the NPC shows a maximum capacitance of 257 F g-1 and energy density of 19...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
M Josick Comarmond, Robin Steudtner, Madlen Stockmann, Karsten Heim, Katharina Müller, Vinzenz Brendler, Timothy E Payne, Harald Foerstendorf
The ternary system containing aqueous U(VI), aqueous phosphate and solid SiO2 was comprehensively investigated using a batch sorption technique, in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS), and surface complexation modeling (SCM). The batch sorption studies on silica gel (10 g/L) in the pH range 2.5 to 5 showed no significant increase in U(VI) uptake in the presence of phosphate at equimolar concentration of 20 μM, but significant increase in U(VI) uptake was observed for higher phosphate concentrations...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Hongshin Lee, Hye-Jin Lee, Jiwon Seo, Hyung-Eun Kim, Yun Kyung Shin, Jae-Hong Kim, Changha Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Núria Vallverdú-Coll, Francois Mougeot, Manuel E Ortiz-Santaliestra, Cristina Castaño, Julián Santiago-Moreno, Rafael Mateo
Lead (Pb) poisoning via ingestion of shot pellets is a frequent cause of death in wild birds and also has a wide range of subclinical effects. Here we report on the sublethal effects Pb exposure has on the breeding performance of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa). We studied the effects of Pb exposure on sperm quality, reproductive success, egg properties, laying performance, antioxidants levels and carotenoid-based colouration. Birds were exposed by oral gavage to one or three No. 6 Pb shot pellets (2...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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