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Methods in Enzymology

Sheila S David
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Chandrima Majumdar, Nicole N Nuñez, Alan G Raetz, Cindy Khuu, Sheila S David
Many DNA repair enzymes, including the human adenine glycosylase MUTYH, require iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster cofactors for DNA damage recognition and subsequent repair. MUTYH prokaryotic and eukaryotic homologs are a family of adenine (A) glycosylases that cleave A when mispaired with the oxidatively damaged guanine lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG). Faulty OG:A repair has been linked to the inheritance of missense mutations in the MUTYH gene. These inherited mutations can result in the onset of a familial colorectal cancer disorder known as MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP)...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Serena DeBeer
In this chapter, a brief overview of X-ray spectroscopic methods that may be utilized to obtain insight into the geometric and electronic structure of iron-sulfur proteins is provided. These methods include conventional methods, such as metal and ligand K-edge X-ray absorption, as well as more advanced methods including nonresonant and resonant X-ray emission. In each section, the basic information content of the spectra is highlighted and important experimental considerations are discussed. Throughout the chapter, recent applications to iron-sulfur-containing models and proteins are highlighted...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Leland B Gee, Hongxin Wang, Stephen P Cramer
For over 20 years, nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) has been used to study vibrational dynamics of iron-containing materials. With the only selection rule being iron motion, 57 Fe NRVS has become an excellent tool to study iron-containing enzymes. Over the past decade, considerable progress has been made in the study of complex metalloenzymes using NRVS. Iron cofactors in heme-containing globins; [2Fe2S], [3Fe4S], [4Fe4S] proteins; the [NiFe] and [FeFe] hydrogenases; and nitrogenases have been explored in a fashion not possible through traditional vibrational spectroscopy...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Fraser A Armstrong, Rhiannon M Evans, Clare F Megarity
A suite of dynamic electrochemical techniques known as protein film electrochemistry (PFE) offers important insight into the roles of active sites in enzymes, including properties of electron-transfer centers (individually or collectively), rates and dependences of catalytic electron transport, and binding and dissociation of inhibitors. In this chapter, we explain how PFE is used to investigate the properties of FeS clusters-centers lacking distinctive or convenient spectroscopic signatures that are often very sensitive to O2 ...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Cedric P Owens, Faik A Tezcan
Nitrogenase is a complex, bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent reduction of dinitrogen (N2 ) to ammonia (NH3 ). In its most prevalent form, it consists of two proteins, the catalytic molybdenum-iron protein (MoFeP) and its specific reductase, the iron protein (FeP). A defining feature of nitrogenase is that electron and proton transfer processes linked to substrate reduction are synchronized by conformational changes driven by ATP-dependent FeP-MoFeP interactions. Yet, despite extensive crystallographic, spectroscopic, and biochemical information on nitrogenase, the structural basis of the ATP-dependent synchronization mechanism is not understood in detail...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Angela-Nadia Albetel, Caryn E Outten
Monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) with a conserved Cys-Gly-Phe-Ser (CGFS) active site are iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-binding proteins that interact with a variety of partner proteins and perform crucial roles in iron metabolism including Fe-S cluster transfer, Fe-S cluster repair, and iron signaling. Various analytical and spectroscopic methods are currently being used to monitor and characterize glutaredoxin Fe-S cluster-dependent interactions at the molecular level. The electronic, magnetic, and vibrational properties of the protein-bound Fe-S cluster provide a convenient handle to probe the structure, function, and coordination chemistry of Grx complexes...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
John D Grossman, Eric J Camire, Deborah L Perlstein
Nucleotide hydrolases play integral yet poorly understood roles in several metallocluster biosynthetic pathways. For example, the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) is initiated by the CIA scaffold, an ATPase which builds new iron-sulfur clusters for proteins localized to the cytosol and the nucleus in eukaryotic organisms. While in vivo studies have demonstrated the scaffold's nucleotide hydrolase domain is vital for its function, in vitro approaches have not revealed tight allosteric coupling between the cluster scaffolding site and the ATPase site...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Andrew Melber, Dennis R Winge
Iron-sulfur clusters (Fe/S clusters) are essential cofactors required throughout the clades of biology for performing a myriad of unique functions including nitrogen fixation, ribosome assembly, DNA repair, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolite catabolism. Although Fe/S clusters can be synthesized in vitro and transferred to a client protein without enzymatic assistance, biology has evolved intricate mechanisms to assemble and transfer Fe/S clusters within the cellular environment. In eukaryotes, the foundation of all cellular clusters starts within the mitochondria...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Oliver Stehling, Viktoria D Paul, Janina Bergmann, Somsuvro Basu, Roland Lill
Maturation of Fe/S proteins in mammals is an intricate process mediated by two assembly systems located in the mitochondrial and cytosolic-nuclear compartments. Malfunction particularly of the mitochondrial system gives rise to severe neurological, metabolic, or hematological disorders, often with fatal outcome. In this chapter, we describe approaches for the differential biochemical investigation of cellular Fe/S protein maturation in mitochondria, cytosol, and nucleus. The analyses may also facilitate the identification of the affected Fe/S protein assembly step in diseased state...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Nicole N Nuñez, Chandrima Majumdar, Kori T Lay, Sheila S David
A growing number of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster cofactors have been identified in DNA repair proteins. MutY and its homologs are base excision repair (BER) glycosylases that prevent mutations associated with the common oxidation product of guanine (G), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) by catalyzing adenine (A) base excision from inappropriately formed OG:A mispairs. The finding of an [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster cofactor in MutY, Endonuclease III, and structurally similar BER enzymes was surprising and initially thought to represent an example of a purely structural role for the cofactor...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Sven-Andreas Freibert, Benjamin D Weiler, Eckhard Bill, Antonio J Pierik, Ulrich Mühlenhoff, Roland Lill
Iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins are involved in numerous key biological functions such as respiration, metabolic processes, protein translation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. The simplest types of Fe/S clusters include [2Fe-2S], [3Fe-4S], and [4Fe-4S] forms that sometimes are present in multiple copies. De novo assembly of Fe/S cofactors and their insertion into apoproteins in living cells requires complex proteinaceous machineries that are frequently highly conserved. In eukaryotes such as yeast and mammals, the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery and the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly system consist of more than 30 components that cooperate in the generation of some 50 cellular Fe/S proteins...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Chi-Lin Tsai, John A Tainer
[Fe-S] clusters are essential cofactors in all domains of life. They play many biological roles due to their unique abilities for electron transfer and conformational control. Yet, producing and analyzing Fe-S proteins can be difficult and even misleading if not done anaerobically. Due to unique redox properties of [Fe-S] clusters and their oxygen sensitivity, they pose multiple challenges and can lose enzymatic activity or cause their component proteins to be structurally disordered due to [Fe-S] cluster oxidation and loss in air...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Gregory P Holmes-Hampton, Manik C Ghosh, Tracey A Rouault
Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) are two cytosolic proteins that maintain cellular iron homeostasis by regulating the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism. IRPs respond to cellular iron deficiency by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) found in the mRNAs of iron metabolism transcripts, enhancing iron import, and reducing iron storage, utilization, and export. IRP1, a bifunctional protein, exists in equilibrium between a [Fe4 S4 ] cluster containing cytosolic aconitase, and an apoprotein that binds to IREs...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Geoffrey D Shimberg, Jordan D Pritts, Sarah L J Michel
Zinc finger (ZF) proteins are proteins that use zinc as a structural cofactor. The common feature among all ZFs is that they contain repeats of four cysteine and/or histidine residues within their primary amino acid sequence. With the explosion of genome sequencing in the early 2000s, a large number of proteins were annotated as ZFs based solely upon amino acid sequence. As these proteins began to be characterized experimentally, it was discovered that some of these proteins contain iron-sulfur sites either in place of or in addition to zinc...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Andrey G Baranovskiy, Hollie M Siebler, Youri I Pavlov, Tahir H Tahirov
Research during the past decade witnessed the discovery of [4Fe-4S] clusters in several members of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery. The presence of clusters was confirmed by UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and metal analysis for primase and the B-family DNA polymerases δ and ζ. The crystal structure of primase revealed that the [4Fe-4S] cluster is buried inside the protein and fulfills a structural role. Although [4Fe-4S] clusters are firmly established in the C-terminal domains of catalytic subunits of DNA polymerases δ and ζ, no structures are currently available and their precise roles have not been ascertained...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Ivan J Dmochowski, Roderic G Eckenhoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Daniel J Emerson, Ivan J Dmochowski
Methods for using exogenous fluorophore and general anesthetic 1-aminoanthracene (1-AMA) and its photoactive derivative 1-azidoanthracene (1-AZA) are provided. 1-AMA potentiates GABAA chloride currents and immobilizes Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Cellular and tissue anesthetic distribution can be imaged for quantifying "on-pathway" and "off-pathway" targets. 1-AZA shares targets with 1-AMA and offers further optoanesthetic spatial and temporal control upon near-UV laser irradiation. Furthermore, 1-AZA adduction provides screening of possible relevant anesthetic protein targets and binding site characterization...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
J Kent Blasie
The mechanism of electromechanical coupling for voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) involved in neurological signal transmission, primarily Nav- and Kv-channels, remains unresolved. Anesthetics have been shown to directly impact this mechanism, at least for Kv-channels. Molecular dynamics computer simulations can now predict the structures of VGICs embedded within a hydrated phospholipid bilayer membrane as a function of the applied transmembrane voltage, but significant assumptions are still necessary. Nevertheless, these simulations are providing new insights into the mechanism of electromechanical coupling at the atomic level in 3-D...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Vasyl Bondarenko, Marta Wells, Yan Xu, Pei Tang
NMR spectroscopy is one of the major tools to provide atomic resolution protein structural information. It has been used to elucidate the molecular details of interactions between anesthetics and ion channels, to identify anesthetic binding sites, and to characterize channel dynamics and changes introduced by anesthetics. In this chapter, we present solution NMR methods essential for investigating interactions between ion channels and general anesthetics, including both volatile and intravenous anesthetics...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
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