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Journal of Membrane Biology

Nikolay A Simakov, Maria G Kurnikova
The dependency of current-voltage characteristics of the α-hemolysin channel on the channel position within the membrane was studied using Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory of ion conductivity with soft repulsion between mobile ions and protein atoms (SP-PNP). The presence of the membrane environment also influences the protonation state of the residues at the boundary of the water-lipid interface. In this work, we predict that Asp and Lys residues at the protein rim change their protonation state upon penetration to the lipid environment...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Ran Friedman
Biomembranes assemble and operate at the interface with electrolyte solutions. Interactions between ions in solutions and the lipid affect the membrane structure, dynamics and electrostatic potential. In this article, I review some of the experimental and computational methods that are used to study membrane-ions interactions. Experimental methods that account for membrane-ion interactions directly and indirectly are presented first. Then, studies in which molecular dynamics simulations were used to gain an understanding of membrane-ion interactions are surveyed...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Denis G Knyazev, Roland Kuttner, Mirjam Zimmermann, Ekaterina Sobakinskaya, Peter Pohl
This review focusses on the energetics of protein translocation via the Sec translocation machinery. First we complement structural data about SecYEG's conformational rearrangements by insight obtained from functional assays. These include measurements of SecYEG permeability that allow assessment of channel gating by ligand binding and membrane voltage. Second we will discuss the power stroke and Brownian ratcheting models of substrate translocation and the role that the two models assign to the putative driving forces: (i) ATP (SecA) and GTP (ribosome) hydrolysis, (ii) interaction with accessory proteins, (iii) membrane partitioning and folding, (iv) proton motive force (PMF), and (v) entropic contributions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Alina Asandei, Irina Schiopu, Corina Ciobanasu, Yoonkyung Park, Tudor Luchian
Herein, we report uni-molecular observations of electric potential- and electrolyte-dependent elasticity of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM)-G1.5 dendrimers containing sodium carboxylate surface groups, using the electric field-assisted migration through the α-hemolysin nanopore (α-HL). Although at moderate transmembrane potentials the dendrimer (~ 2.5 nm in diameter) is sterically excluded from translocation across the constriction region of the nanopore (~ 1.5 nm in diameter), we found a threshold for its translocation that depends on both the electrolyte pH and ionic strength...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Filipe M Coreta-Gomes, Winchil L C Vaz, Maria J Moreno
The rate at which phospholipids equilibrate between different membranes and between the non-polar environments in biological fluids is of high importance in the understanding of biomembrane diversity, as well as in the development of liposomes for drug delivery. In this work, we characterize the rate of insertion into and desorption from POPC bilayers for a homologous series of amphiphiles with the fluorescent NBD group attached to phosphoethanolamines of different acyl chain lengths, NBD-diC n -PE with n = 6, 8, 10, and 12...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Sandra Paschkowsky, Felix Oestereich, Lisa Marie Munter
Proteases, sharp yet unforgivable tools of every cell, require tight regulation to ensure specific non-aberrant cleavages. The relatively recent discovered class of intramembrane proteases has gained increasing interest due to their involvement in important signaling pathways linking them to diseases including Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite tremendous efforts, their regulatory mechanisms have only started to unravel. There is evidence that the membrane composition itself can regulate intramembrane protease activity and specificity...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Kenneth P Lloyd, Ogooluwa A Ojelabi, Andrew H Simon, Julie K De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that GLUT1-mediated erythrocyte sugar transport is more complex than widely assumed and that contemporary interpretations of emergent GLUT1 structural data are incompatible with the available transport and biochemical data. This study examines the kinetic basis of one such incompatibility-transport allostery-and in doing so suggests how the results of studies examining GLUT1 structure and function may be reconciled. Three types of allostery are observed in GLUT1-mediated, human erythrocyte sugar transport: (1) exofacial cis-allostery in which low concentrations of extracellular inhibitors stimulate sugar uptake while high concentrations inhibit transport; (2) endofacial cis-allostery in which low concentrations of intracellular inhibitors enhance cytochalasin B binding to GLUT1 while high concentrations inhibit binding, and (3) trans-allostery in which low concentrations of ligands acting at one cell surface stimulate ligand binding at or sugar transport from the other surface while high concentrations inhibit these processes...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Hadeel Alobeedallah, Bruce Cornell, Hans Coster
Cholesterol plays an important role in regulating the properties of phospholipid bilayers and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain why cholesterol is so ubiquitous within biological membranes of animals. Here we present the results of studies on the effect of cholesterol on the electrical/dielectric properties of lipid membranes tethered to a solid substrate. These tethered bilayer lipid membranes tBLM were formed on a commercially available chemically modified gold substrate. These lipid bilayers are very robust...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
M Laura Fernández, Marcelo Raúl Risk, P Thomas Vernier
Molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers in aqueous systems reveal how an applied electric field stabilizes the reorganization of the water-membrane interface into water-filled, membrane-spanning, conductive pores with a symmetric, toroidal geometry. The pore formation process and the resulting symmetric structures are consistent with other mathematical approaches such as continuum models formulated to describe the electroporation process. Some experimental data suggest, however, that the shape of lipid electropores in living cell membranes may be asymmetric...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
M Salai Mathi Selvi, G Hariharan, K Kannan
A mathematical model of a reaction-diffusion within an entrapped-cell photobioreactor packed with gel granules containing immobilized photosynthetic bacterial cells is discussed. A theoretical model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations. In this research work, we have developed an efficient wavelet-based spectral approach for solving the proposed model. Analytical expressions for the concentration of substrate and product are established for all values of reaction-diffusion parameters using second kind Chebyshev wavelet method...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Violeta Rajeckaitė, Baltramiejus Jakštys, Arnas Rafanavičius, Martynas Maciulevičius, Milda Jakutavičiūtė, Saulius Šatkauskas
The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of calcein extraction and cell viability on the parameters of pulsed electric field (PEF). Two different approaches concerning PEF parameters were investigated: (1) extraction efficiency and cell viability dependence on pulse number, exploiting 1200 V/cm 100 µs duration high voltage (HV) electric pulses and (2) extraction efficiency and cell viability dependence on the pulses with different duration (44-400 µs) and electric field strength (600-1800 V/cm) that result in the same amount of electric field energy delivered to Chinese hamster ovary cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Vahid Pirouzfar, Hamed Azami
In the present work, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) sheets were synthesized via pyrolysis of polybenzimidazole (PBI)-Kapton inside the pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO). The synthesized VA-CNT sheets were then evaluated for the desalination of salty water. The results indicated that the VA-CNT sheets were effective for application as an adsorbent for desalination of salty water due to their high adsorption capacity, with no loss of CNTs in the treated water. This study explored the impact of operating time and temperature on liquid adsorption performance through optimization and modeling methods...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Gamaleldin I Harisa, Mohamed M Badran, Fars K Alanazi, Sabry M Attia
Hybrid vesicles are considered as a bridge between natural nanosystems (NNSs) and artificial nanosystems (ANSs). NNSs are extracellular vesicles (EVs), membranous, bio-formed endogenously, which act as endogenous cargoes, and reflecting cellular dynamics. EVs have cellular tropism, permeate tight junctions, and are non-immunogenic. EVs are used as tools in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents. ANSs can induce biogenesis of hybrid vesicles as promising smart diagnostic agents, and innovative drug cargoes...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Silvia T Cardona, Matthew Choy, Andrew M Hogan
Novel therapies are urgently needed to alleviate the current crisis of multiple drug-resistant infections. The bacterial signal transduction mechanisms, known as two-component systems (TCSs), are ideal targets of novel inhibitory molecules. Highly restricted to the bacterial world, TCSs control a diverse set of cellular functions, namely virulence, response to cell envelope stress, and drug efflux. Impaired regulation of any of these aspects could affect the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics, which highlights the potential of TCS as targets of antibiotic adjuvant therapies...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Luke Bown, Santosh K Srivastava, Brandon M Piercey, Clarissa K McIsaac, Kapil Tahlan
Infections caused by mycobacteria are difficult to treat due to their inherent physiology, cellular structure, and intracellular lifestyle. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen of global concern as it causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans, which requires 6-9 months of chemotherapy. The situation is further exacerbated in the case of infections caused by drug-resistant strains, which necessitate the prolonged use of agents associated with increased host toxicities. Great effort has been invested into the development of new agents for the treatment of drug-resistant infections, in addition to novel strategies to reduce treatment time...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
F Castellani, J Teissié, P T Vernier
Since 2003, molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying electropermeabilization (electroporation)-an electric field-induced increase in the permeability of biological membranes. The convention in these studies has been to apply the electric field normal to the plane of the membrane. In a typical electroporation application, however, where the electric field is reasonably uniform and unidirectional, the field is perpendicular to the membrane only at a few locations-for spherical cells only at the poles of the cells along the axis defined by the direction of the electric field...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Anjali Y Bhagirath, Deepti Somayajula, Yanqi Li, Kangmin Duan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous organism which is able to infect and colonize many types of hosts including humans. Colonization of P. aeruginosa in chronic infections leads to the formation of biofilms, which are difficult to eradicate. P. aeruginosa is capable of regulating its virulence factors in response to external environment triggers and its signaling mechanism involves two-component regulatory systems and small molecules such as bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. PA1611-RetS-GacS/A-RsmA/Y/Z is a key regulatory pathway in P...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Carmine J Slipski, George G Zhanel, Denice C Bay
Bacterial resistance to biocides used as antiseptics, dyes, and disinfectants is a growing concern in food preparation, agricultural, consumer manufacturing, and health care industries, particularly among Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, some of the most common community and healthcare-acquired bacterial pathogens. Biocide resistance is frequently associated with antimicrobial cross-resistance leading to reduced activity and efficacy of both antimicrobials and antiseptics. Multidrug resistant efflux pumps represent an important biocide resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
December 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
Takehiko Mima, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, Yumiko Yamamoto, Keiko Maeda, Taku Shirakawa, Shunsuke Matsui, Yumi Murata, Takaki Koide, Hiroshi Tokumitsu, Osamu Matsushita
Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen in both humans and marine animals. Collagenase encoded by colA is considered to be one of the virulence factors. Expression of colA is regulated by multiple environmental factors, e.g., temperature, growth phase, and substrate. To elucidate the mechanism of regulation of colA expression, transposon mutagenesis was performed. VarS, a sensor histidine kinase of the two-component regulatory system, was demonstrated to regulate the expression of colA. VarA, a cognate response regulator of VarS, was also identified and shown to be involved in the regulation of colA expression...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
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