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Biology of Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679164/maternal-placenta-modulates-a-deleterious-fetal-mutation
#1
Hongen Xu, Hubert Pausch, Heli Venhoranta, Karolina Rutkowska, Christine Wurmser, Beate Rieblinger, Tatiana Flisikowska, Dmitrij Frishman, Lech Zwierzchowski, Ruedi Fries, Magnus Andersson, Alexander Kind, Angelika Schnieke, Krzysztof Flisikowski
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by dysregulation of placental metabolism. Paternally inherited IUGR mutations in the fetus influence maternal physiology via the placenta. However, it is not known whether the maternal placenta also affects the extent of IUGR in such fetuses. In cattle and other ruminants, maternal-fetal communication occurs primarily at the placentomes. We previously identified a 3' deletion in the non-coding MIMT1 gene that, when inherited from the sire, causes IUGR and late abortion in Ayshire cattle with variable levels of severity...
June 29, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651359/altered-mirna-and-pirna-profiles-in-cumulus-cells-from-patients-with-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#2
Dawei Chen, Zhiguo Zhang, Beili Chen, Dongmei Ji, Yan Hao, Ping Zhou, Zhaolian Wei, Yunxia Cao
Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is defined as decreased number or quality of follicles and oocytes in a woman at childbearing age. It is estimated that up to 10% of women in the general population may suffer from DOR. The present study aims to comprehensively characterize miRNA and piRNA expression profiles in cumulus cells of DOR patients. Cumulus cells were collected from 20 women of similar chronological age who received assisted reproductive technology treatment, 10 with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), 10 with normal ovarian reserve (NOR)...
June 23, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651344/uterine-responses-to-early-pre-attachment-embryos-in-the-domestic-dog-and-comparisons-with-other-domestic-animal-species
#3
Felix R Graubner, Aykut Gram, Ewa Kautz, Stefan Bauersachs, Selim Aslan, Ali R Agaoglu, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
In the dog there is no luteolysis in the absence of pregnancy. Thus, this species lacks any anti-luteolytic endocrine signal as found in other species that modulate uterine function during the critical period of pregnancy establishment. Nevertheless, in the dog an embryo-maternal communication must occur in order to prevent rejection of embryos. Based on this hypothesis, we performed microarray analysis of canine uterine samples collected during pre-attachment phase (days 10-12) and in corresponding non-pregnant controls, in order to elucidate the embryo attachment signal...
June 23, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633489/effects-of-early-pregnancy-on-uterine-lymphocytes-and-endometrial-expression-of-immune-regulatory-molecules-in-dairy-heifers1
#4
Sreelakshmi Vasudevan, Manasi M Kamat, Sadhat S Walusimbi, Joy L Pate, Troy L Ott
Natural killer (NK) cells are essential for establishment of human and rodent pregnancies. The function of these and other cytotoxic T cells (CTL) is controlled by stimulatory and inhibitory signaling. A role for cytotoxic cells during early pregnancy in cattle has not been described, but regulation of their function at the fetal-maternal interface is thought to be critical for conceptus survival. The hypothesis that the relative abundance of CTL and expression of inhibitory signaling molecules is increased by the conceptus during early pregnancy was tested...
June 19, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637327/effect-of-simvastatin-on-baboon-endometriosis
#5
Hugh S Taylor, Myles Alderman, Thomas M D'Hooghe, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Duleba J Antoni
Endometriosis, a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age is characterized by ectopic growth of the endometrial tissues, altered steroid hormone response and inflammation. Previous studies revealed that statins, selective inhibitors of the key step of mevalonate pathway, inhibit growth of endometrial stromal cells in vitro and reduce endometriotic lesions in murine models of endometriosis. This study evaluated the effects of simvastatin on the development of endometriosis in a baboon model of this disease...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637295/inhibition-of-polyamine-synthesis-causes-entry-of-the-mouse-blastocyst-into-embryonic-diapause1
#6
Jane C Fenelon, Bruce D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is a common reproductive strategy amongst mammals, requiring an intimate cross-talk between the endometrium and the blastocyst. To date, the precise molecular signals responsible are unknown in the mouse or any other mammal. Previous studies in the mink implicate polyamines as major regulators of the control of diapause. In the mouse, inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) during early pregnancy largely prevents implantation, but the fate of the non-implanted embryos is unknown...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637242/yap-and-wwtr1-regulate-the-expression-of-sex-determining-genes-in-sertoli-cells-but-their-inactivation-does-not-cause-sex-reversal
#7
Adrien Levasseur, Marilène Paquet, Derek Boerboom, Alexandre Boyer
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1) are two functionally redundant transcriptional regulators that are downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, and that act as major regulators of cell growth and differentiation. To elucidate their role in Sertoli cells, primary Sertoli cell culture from Yapflox/flox; Wwtr1flox/flox animals were infected with a Cre recombinase-expressing adenovirus. Concomitant inactivation of Yap and Wwtr1 resulted in a decrease in the mRNA levels of the male sex differentiation genes Dhh, Dmrt1, Sox9 and Wt1, whereas those of genes involved in female differentiation (Wnt4, Rspo1 and Foxl2) were induced...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605413/acute-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-infection-inhibits-expression-of-interferon-tau-stimulated-genes-in-bovine-endometrium
#8
Zhangrui Cheng, Latta Chauhan, Amy Teresa Barry, Ayimuguli Abudureyimu, Chike F Oguejiofor, Xing Chen, D Claire Wathes
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) can evade host detection by down-regulation of interferon signalling pathways. Infection of cows with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV can cause early embryonic mortality. Upregulation of type I interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) by blastocyst-secreted interferon tau (IFNT) is a crucial component of the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in ruminants. This study investigated the potential of acute BVDV infection to disrupt MRP by modulating endometrial ISG expression. Endometrial cells from 10 BVDV-free cows were cultured and treated with 0 or 100 ng/ml IFNT for 24 h in the absence or presence of ncpBVDV infection to yield 4 treatment groups: CONT, ncpBVDV, IFNT or ncpBVDV+IFNT...
June 12, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595291/the-expression-of-cxcr4-is-induced-by-the-lh-surge-and-mediated-by-progesterone-receptors-in-human-preovulatory-granulosa-cells
#9
Yohan Choi, Ji Yeon Park, Kalin Wilson, Katherine L Rosewell, Mats Brännström, James W Akin, Thomas E Curry, Misung Jo
The chemokine CXC Motif Ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its cognate receptor, CXCR4, have been implicated in the ovulatory process in various animal models. However, little is known about the expression and regulation of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and their functions during the ovulatory period in the human ovary. In the present study, we characterized the expression patterns of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in preovulatory follicles collected before the LH surge and at defined hours after hCG administration in women with the regular menstrual cycle...
June 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595266/melatonin-protects-against-cisplatin-induced-ovarian-damage-in-mice-via-the-mt1-receptor-and-antioxidant-activity1
#10
Ricássio S Barberino, Vanúzia G Menezes, Anita E A S Ribeiro, Raimundo C Palheta Júnior, Xuejun Jiang, Johan E J Smitz, Maria Helena T Matos
This study evaluated the receptor- and/or antioxidant stress-mediated mechanisms by which melatonin prevents the ovarian toxicity of cisplatin treatment. The expression of the MT1 receptor in mouse ovaries was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with melatonin (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) before cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) was administered to mice once daily for three days (phase I). The pharmacological modulation via melatonin type 1 and/or 2 receptors was analyzed by administration of receptor antagonists (luzindole: non selective MT1/MT2 antagonist; 5 mg/kg body weight or 4-PPDOT: selective MT2 antagonist; 4 mg/kg body weight) once daily for three days, 15 min before the treatment with melatonin and cisplatin (phase II)...
June 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595264/male-infertility-caused-by-dominant-point-mutations-in-the-d-box-domain-reveals-a-novel-role-of-murine-and-human-piwi-proteins
#11
Wei Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575196/changes-in-immune-cell-distribution-and-their-cytokine-chemokine-production-during-regression-of-the-rhesus-macaque-corpus-luteum
#12
Cecily V Bishop, Fuhua Xu, Rosemary Steinbach, Ellie Ficco, Jeffrey Hyzer, Steven Blue, Richard L Stouffer, Jon D Hennebold
Our previous flow cytometry results demonstrated a significant increase in neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells in dispersed rhesus monkey corpora lutea (CL) after progesterone (P4) levels had fallen below 0.3 ng/ml for ≥ 3 days during the natural menstrual cycle. In the present study, immunohistochemistry revealed the CD11b+ cells (neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes) present in the CL after luteal P4 synthesis ceased were distributed throughout the tissue. CD16+ cells (presumptive NK cells) were observed mainly near the vasculature in functional CL, until their numbers increased and they became widely distributed in regressing CL...
June 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575288/maternal-rna-regulates-aurora-c-kinase-during-mouse-oocyte-maturation-in-a-translation-independent-fashion
#13
Ahmed Z Balboula, Cecilia S Blengini, Amanda S Gentilello, Masashi Takahashi, Karen Schindler
During oocyte meiotic maturation, Aurora kinase C (AURKC) is required to accomplish many critical functions including destabilizing erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments (K-MT) and regulating bipolar spindle assembly. How localized activity of AURKC is regulated in mammalian oocytes, however, is not fully understood. Female gametes from many species, including mouse, contain stores of maternal transcripts that are required for downstream developmental events. We show here that depletion of maternal RNA in mouse oocytes resulted in impaired meiotic progression, increased incidence of chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle formation at metaphase I (Met I), and cytokinesis defects...
May 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575233/stem-cell-activity-of-type-a-spermatogonia-is-seasonally-regulated-in-rainbow-trout
#14
Mana Sato, Makoto Hayashi, Goro Yoshizaki
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) support continuous production of sperm throughout the male's life. However, the biological characteristics of SSCs are poorly understood in animals exhibiting seasonal reproduction, even though most wild animals are seasonal breeders. During the spermiation season in rainbow trout, the lumen of the testes contain only spermatozoa and scattered type A spermatogonia (ASG) along the walls of the testicular lobules. These few remaining ASG, designated "residual ASG," are the only germ cells capable of supporting the next spermatogenesis, suggesting that the residual ASG are true SSCs...
May 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575176/global-oncofertility-index-data-gap-slows-progress
#15
Saskia F de Roo, Alexandra S Rashedi, Catharina C M Beerendonk, Antoinette Anazodo, Anne Marie de Man, Willianne L D M Nelen, Teresa K Woodruff
The number of pediatric and young adult cancer survivors is increasing globally due to earlier diagnostics and expansion of targeted chemo- and biologic-based therapeutics. As a consequence, cancer-related infertility and reproductive hormone loss is of increasing concern for both male and female survivors. We attempted to estimate the reproductive loss in oncofertility-practicing countries and to develop a global oncofertility index (OFI). This would allow an accounting of the level of urgency of the issue and would provide national comparisons of fertility loss, which differ based on the prevalence and/or diagnosis frequency and treatment variables by countries or region...
May 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575156/consequences-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-wnt-signaling-for-development-in-the-preimplantation-bovine-embryo%C3%A2
#16
Paula Tribulo, Beatriz Caetano da Silva Leão, Khoboso C Lehloenya, Gisele Zoccal Mingoti, Peter J Hansen
Although WNT signaling regulates several developmental processes, its specific role during preimplantation development remains unclear. The present aim was to evaluate the consequences of activation and inhibition of β-catenin (CTNNB1) dependent and -independent WNT signaling in the bovine preimplantation embryo. Activation of CTNNB1 mediated WNT signaling by the agonist 2-amino-4-(3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (AMBMP) and a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor reduced development to the blastocyst stage...
May 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575154/effects-of-propylene-glycol-or-elevated-lh-during-follicle-development-on-ovulation-fertilization-and-early-embryo-development
#17
Katherine S Hackbart, Robb W Bender, Paulo D Carvalho, Lais M Vieira, Ana R Dresch, Jerry N Guenther, Hidir Gencoglu, Anibal B Nascimento, Randy D Shaver, Milo C Wiltbank
Seventeen non-lactating Holstein cows were superovulated in a Latin-square designed experiment to determine effects of increased propylene glycol (PROP) and LH during antral follicle development on ovarian function, fertilization, and early embryo quality. PROP was orally drenched every 4 h for 7d to induce hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic changes. LH concentrations were altered by increasing LH (3-fold) during last 2 d of superovulation. Treatment groups were: 1) Control-oral drenching with water plus low-LH preparation; 2) HLH-water plus high-LH preparation; 3) PROP-drenching with PROP plus low-LH; 4) PROP/HLH-PROP plus high-LH...
May 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520915/ovary-specific-depletion-of-the-nuclear-receptor-nr5a2-compromises-expansion-of-the-cumulus-oophorus-but-not-fertilization-by-icsi
#18
Kalyne Bertolin, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, João Suzuki, Jan Gossen, Kristina Schoonjans, Rajesha Duggavathi, Bruce D Murphy
The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1 (Nr5a2) is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, its ovarian expression is restricted to granulosa cells of activated follicles. We employed the floxed Nr5a2 (Nr5a2f/f) mutant mouse line and two granulosa-specific Cre lines, Amhr2Cre and tgCyp19Cre, to develop two tissue- and time-specific Nr5a2 depletion models, Nr5a2Amhr2-/- and Nr5a2Cyp19-/-. In the Nr5a2Cyp19-/- ovaries, Nr5a2 was depleted in mural granulosa, but not cumulus cells. We induced follicular development in mutant and wild type (control, CON) mice with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed 44h later treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce ovulation...
May 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520897/alpha-linolenic-acid-protects-the-developmental-capacity-of-bovine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-matured-under-lipotoxic-conditions-in-vitro
#19
W F A Marei, J De Bie, O Mohey-Elsaeed, E Wydooghe, P E J Bols, J L M R Leroy
Elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs), predominantly palmitic, stearic and oleic acids (PSO), exert detrimental effects on oocyte developmental competence. This study examined the effects of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) in the presence of PSO on subsequent embryo development and quality, and the cellular mechanisms that might be involved. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were supplemented during IVM with ALA (50 μM), PSO (425 μM), or PSO+ALA...
May 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486699/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-activity-in-bovine-cumulus-cells-protects-the-oocyte-against-saturated-fatty-acid-stress
#20
Hilde Aardema, Helena T A van Tol, Richard W Wubbolts, Jos F H M Brouwers, Bart M Gadella, Bernard A J Roelen
Metabolic rich and poor conditions are both characterized by elevated free fatty acid levels and have been associated with impaired female fertility. In particular, saturated free fatty acids have a dose-dependent negative impact on oocyte developmental competence, while mono-unsaturated free fatty acids appear less harmful. Cumulus cells seem to protect the oocyte against free fatty acids and the aim of this study was to determine the mechanism behind this protection In particular the role of the enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) that converts saturated into mono-unsaturated fatty acids was investigated...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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