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Biology of Reproduction

Fei Wang, Weihua Liu, Qian Jiang, Maolei Gong, Ran Chen, Han Wu, Ruiqin Han, Yongmei Chen, Daishu Han
Systemic inflammation may impair male fertility, and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study investigates the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation on the testis and epididymis in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS significantly impaired testicular functions, including testosterone production, spermatogenesis, and blood-testis barrier permeability. The epididymitis characterized by leukocyte infiltration and fibrosis was observed in the cauda epididymis after LPS injection...
November 6, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Romana A Nowak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Julieta Laura Rojo, Juan Pablo Jaworski, Marina Cinthia Peluffo
Studies were designed to a) evaluate the mRNA expression of the C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and its chemokine ligands, as well as genes related to periovulatory events, within the cumulus oocyte complex (COC) and follicle wall after a luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulus in cultured feline antral follicles; b) assess the immunolocalization of CCR2 and its main ligand (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, MCP1) within the feline COC; and c) examine the direct effects of exogenous recombinant MCP1 on mRNA expression of the CCR2 receptor and MCP1 as well as key periovulatory genes in the COC, using a feline COC culture system...
November 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Longfei Jia, Yaqiong Zeng, Yu Hu, Jie Liu, Chao Yin, Yingjie Niu, Chenfei Wang, Juan Li, Yimin Jia, Jian Hong, Ruqian Zhao
Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate in the one-carbon metabolism that donates methyl groups for methylation processes involved in epigenetic gene regulation. Although poor oocyte quality in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients is associated with elevated Hcy concentration in serum and follicular fluid, whether Hcy directly affects oocyte quality and its mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that Hcy treatment impaired oocyte quality and developmental competence, indicated by significantly reduced survival rate, polar body extrusion rate and cleavage rate...
November 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Rohan Chodankar, Hilary O D Critchley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Constantine A Simintiras, Jose M Sanchez, Michael McDonald, Thiago Martins, Mario Binelli, Pat Lonergan
Pregnancy establishment in cattle is contingent on conceptus elongation-a fundamental developmental event coinciding with the time during which most pregnancies fail. Elongation in vivo is directly driven by uterine secretions, indirectly influenced by systemic progesterone concentrations, and has yet to be recapitulated in vitro. To better understand the microenvironment evolved to facilitate this phenomenon, the amino acid and carbohydrate composition of uterine fluid was interrogated using high-throughput metabolomics on Days 12, 13, and 14 of the estrous cycle from heifers with normal and high circulating progesterone...
November 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Danielle L Peecher, April K Binder, Kara I Gabriel
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, with phenotypes including ovarian and metabolic dysfunction. Women with PCOS also show increased rates of mental illness, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and altered responsiveness to stressors that may contribute to the higher rates of mental illness, specifically depression and anxiety. Animal models of PCOS have provided insight into the ovarian and metabolic mechanisms that underlie the syndrome and several models have been used to study the behavioral consequences associated with PCOS in the laboratory...
November 1, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tejasvi Dudiki, Nidaa Joudeh, Nilam Sinha, Suranjana Goswami, Alaa Eisa, Douglas Kline, Srinivasan Vijayaraghavan
Four isoforms of serine/threonine phosphatase type I, PP1α, PP1β, PP1γ1 and PP1γ2, are derived from three genes. The PP1γ1 and PP1γ2 isoforms are alternately spliced transcripts of the Ppp1cc gene. While PP1γ1 is ubiquitous in somatic cells, PP1γ2 expressed exclusively in testicular germ cells and sperm. Ppp1cc knockout male mice (-/-), lacking both PP1γ1 and PP1γ2 are sterile due to impaired sperm morphogenesis. Fertility and normal sperm function can be restored by transgenic expression of PP1γ2 alone in testis of Ppp1cc (-/-) mice...
October 30, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Yui Satoh, Natsumi Takei, Shohei Kawamura, Nobuhiko Takahashi, Tomoya Kotani, Atsushi P Kimura
The progression of spermatogenesis is precisely controlled by meiotic stage-specific genes, but the molecular mechanism for activation of such genes is still elusive. Here we found a novel testis-specific long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), Tesra, that was specifically expressed in the mouse testis at the Prss/Tessp gene cluster on chromosome 9. Tesra was transcribed downstream of Prss44/Tessp-4, starting within the gene, as a 4,435-nucleotide transcript and developmentally activated at a stage similar to that for Prss/Tessp genes...
October 30, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Kelycia B Leimert, Angela Messer, Theora Gray, Xin Fang, Sylvain Chemtob, David M Olson
Birth is a complex biological event requiring genetic, cellular and physiological changes to the uterus, resulting in a uterus activated for completing the physiological processes of labor. We define the change from the state of pregnancy to the state of parturition as uterine transitioning, which requires the actions of inflammatory mediators and localized paracrine interactions between intrauterine tissues. Few studies have examined the in vitro interactions between fetal and maternal gestational tissues within this pro-inflammatory environment...
October 30, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Peter Palma, Josephine Nocillado, Joshua Superio, Evelyn Grace de Jesus Ayson, Felix Ayson, Ido Bar, Abigail Elizur
The role of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the gonadal development of protogynous hermaphroditic grouper (E. fuscoguttatus) was investigated. Recombinant giant grouper (E. lanceolatus) FSH (rggFSH) was produced in yeast. Its receptor binding capacity and steroidogenic potency were confirmed in vitro. Weekly injections of rggFSH to juvenile tiger grouper for 8 weeks (100 μg/kg body weight, BW) resulted in significantly larger and more advanced oocytes (cortical alveolar stage vs. primary growth stage in control)...
October 27, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Bo Huang, Xinling Ren, Lixia Zhu, Li Wu, Huiping Tan, Na Guo, Yulan Wei, Juan Hu, Qun Liu, Wen Chen, Jing Liu, Dan Li, Shujie Liao, Lei Jin
To date, very few studies have reported on the relationship between live birth gender and embryo development kinetics. This study included 1,735 women undergoing IVF or ICSI by using a time-lapse system. Finally, a total of 228 qualified patients with 100% implantation and known live birth information were included in the analysis. There were 174 male live births and 134 female live births. The time to 3 (t3), 4 (t4) and 5 (t5) cell development of male embryos was significantly shorter/earlier than female embryos (P < 0...
October 26, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Cinta Zapater, Gregorio Molés, Iciar Muñoz, Patricia I S Pinto, Adelino V M Canario, Ana Gómez
Estrogens are involved in a wide range of processes in vertebrate reproduction through ligand-activation of their specific cognate receptors. In most teleosts, three nuclear estrogen receptor subtypes have been identified (Esr1, Esr2a and Esr2b). Differences in ligand binding affinity and seasonal expression patterns in reproductive tissues among these Esr subtypes suggest distinct roles during oogenesis, vitellogenesis and spermatogenesis. This study focuses on the role of the Esr subtypes in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) oogenesis and their endocrine regulation...
October 26, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Wenlong Zhang, Jinxuan Chen, Yongxin Zhao, Zhi Zheng, Yanliang Song, Hao Wang, Dewen Tong
The direct role of melatonin in mammary glands of dairy goats has remained obscure. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of melatonin membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the pituitary and mammary glands of dairy goats during lactation, and to investigate the role of melatonin in mammary function. Both MT1 and MT2 were consistently expressed in the pituitary and mammary glands throughout the lactation period, and their levels were lower in March (group I), June (group III), and September (group V) than in May (group II) and August (group IV)...
October 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Laila A Ibrahim, Jason A Rizo, Pedro L P Fontes, G Cliff Lamb, John J Bromfield
Seminal plasma has conventionally been viewed as a transport and survival medium for mammalian sperm; however, its role now extends beyond this process to actively targeting female tissues. Studies in rodents, swine and humans demonstrate that seminal plasma induces molecular and cellular changes within the endometrium or cervix following insemination. Seminal plasma induced alterations to the maternal environment have been theorized to facilitate embryo development, modulate maternal immunity toward the conceptus and potentially improve pregnancy success...
October 17, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Nikola Sekulovski, Allison E Whorton, Mingxin Shi, James A MacLean Ii, Kanako Hayashi
Endometriosis causes severe chronic pelvic pain and infertility. We have recently reported that niclosamide treatment reduces growth and progression of endometriosis-like lesions and inflammatory signaling (NFĸB and STAT3) in a mouse model. In the present study, we examined further inhibitory mechanisms by which niclosamide affects endometriotic lesions using an endometriotic epithelial cell line, 12Z, and macrophages differentiated from a monocytic THP-1 cell line. Niclosamide dose dependently reduced 12Z viability, reduced STAT3 and NFĸB activity, and increased both cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP...
October 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Aya Tal, Reshef Tal, Shafiq Shaikh, Stephanie Gidicsin, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Hugh S Taylor
Cell fusion is involved in the development of some adult organs, is implicated in the pathogenesis of specific types of cancer, and is known to participate in repair/regeneration processes mediated by bone-marrow derived cells (BMDCs). Endometriosis is a disease characterized by growth of functional endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis shares some molecular properties with cancer and BMDCs home to endometriosis lesions in a mouse model. Our objective was to determine if cell fusion can occur in endometriosis and establish whether bone marrow derived cells participate in cell fusion events in lesions...
October 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Fenfen Chen, Hemin Lu, Panpan Chen, Xingxing Zhao, Xiaojui Guan, Qingquan Liang, Barry Zirkin, Leping Ye, Haolin Chen
We reported that FGIN-1-27 (N, N-dihexyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide, FGIN), a synthetic ligand for translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa), increased serum testosterone levels in young and aged Brown Norway rats after its administration daily for 10 days. It is not known, however, how soon after treatment with FGIN serum testosterone rises, how long levels remain elevated after cessation of treatment, or whether the drug acts solely through TSPO. Adult Sprague Dawley male rats received a single ip dose of FGIN (1mg/kg BW)...
October 8, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Yue He, Yu Lin, Yu Zhu, Ping Ping, Guishuan Wang, Fei Sun
The expression of many genes during the post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis is largely regulated by germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins at the level of post-transcription. One of these RNA binding proteins, YBX2, participates in mRNA storage and regulation of translation in haploid spermatids. How YBX2-stored mRNAs become translationally competent during spermiogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we report for the first time that YBX2 interacts with PAIP1, a protein translation enhancer, in vitro and in vivo...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Elusa Cristina Oliveira, Carina Leonelli, Oduvaldo Cm Pereira, Jackson C Bittencourt, Hernandes F Carvalho
Neonatal exposure to high dose 17β-estradiol (E2) affects the morphology and physiology of sex and accessory sex organs in the long term. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 imprinting on male sexual behavior, fertility and the number of androgen receptor (AR) expressing cells in the hypothalamus. E2-treated males showed copulatory behavior represented by mounts and/or intromissions, demonstrating the preservation of aspects of male behavior. They had slightly increased latency for first intromission and a reduced number of ejaculations, associated with a 50% reduction in the fertility index...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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