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Biology of Reproduction

Lan Hai, Maria M Szwarc, Bin He, David M Lonard, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Speckle-type poz protein (SPOP) is an E3-ubiquitin ligase adaptor for turnover of a diverse number of proteins involved in key cellular processes from chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation to cell signaling. Genomic analysis revealed that SPOP somatic mutations are found in a subset of endometrial cancers, suggesting that these mutations act as oncogenic drivers of this gynecologic malignancy. These studies also raise the question as to the role of wild type SPOP in normal uterine function. To address this question, we generated a mouse model (Spopd/d) in which SPOP is ablated in uterine cells that express the PGR...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Matthew R Marcello, Marina Druzhinina, Andrew Singson
The interaction and organization of proteins in the sperm membrane are important for all aspects of sperm function. We have determined the interactions between twelve known mutationally defined and cloned sperm membrane proteins in a model system for reproduction, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Identification of the interactions between sperm membrane proteins will improve our understanding of and ability to characterize defects in sperm function. To identify interacting proteins, we conducted a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) analysis of gene products identified through genetic screens that are necessary for sperm function and predicted to encode transmembrane proteins...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jilong Zhou, Chengyu Li, Wang Yao, Alsiddig M A, Lijun Huo, Honglin Liu, Yi-Liang Miao
Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Here we showed that autophagy was essential for the glycolysis switch and energy homeostasis in mouse granulosa cells (MGCs) under hypoxic condition. Our data indicated that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) could be largely increased in developing follicles and this remarkable upregulation of HIF-1α triggered cell autophagy and glucose uptake. We found that blocking autophagy by Atg7 knockdown and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment affected the glucose metabolism, with increased glycolytic enzyme activity and decreased ATP production...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Harriet C Fitzgerald, Jemma Evans, Nicholas Johnson, Giuseppe Infusini, Andrew Webb, Luk J R Rombauts, Beverley J Vollenhoven, Lois A Salamonsen, Tracey A Edgell
The regenerative, proliferative phase of a woman's menstrual cycle is a critical period which lays the foundation for the subsequent, receptive secretory phase. Although endometrial glands and their secretions are essential for embryo implantation and survival, the proliferative phase, when these glands form, has been rarely examined. We hypothesized that alterations in the secreted proteome of the endometrium of idiopathic infertile women would reflect a disturbance in proliferative phase endometrial regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Qingqing Wei, Ruiqi Li, Liang Zhong, Haiyuan Mu, Shaopeng Zhang, Liang Yue, Jinzhu Xiang, Enhong Li, Minglei Zhi, Suying Cao, Jianyong Han
After zygotic genome activation and lineage specification, zygotes develop into late blastocysts comprising three distinct cell types. The molecular mechanisms underlying this progress are largely unknown in pigs. Here, we intended to analyze an extensive set of regulators at the single-cell level to define the events involved in the development of the porcine blastocysts. Using a quantitative microfluidics approach in single cells, we detected mRNA levels of 96 genes known to function in early embryonic development and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency simultaneously in 480 individual cells derived from porcine preimplantation embryos...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Haiying Rao, Yuxiang Bai, Qingshu Li, Baimei Zhuang, Yu Yuan, Yamin Liu, Wei Peng, Philip N Baker, Chao Tong, Xin Luo, Hongbo Qi
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy. Adequate migration and invasion of trophoblasts into the uterine wall and spiral arteries to form a functional maternal-fetal interface are pivotal for normal placentation, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Growing evidence has revealed that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a tumor promoter that participates in cancer cell migration and invasion. However, the expression and function of SATB1 in trophoblasts is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jessica L H Walters, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Matthew D Dun, Robert John Aitken, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield
One of the leading causes of male infertility is defective sperm function, a pathology that commonly arises from oxidative stress in the germline. Lipid peroxidation events in the sperm plasma membrane result in the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), which accentuate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cellular damage. One of the key enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids to 4HNE in somatic cells is arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15)...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Werner Giehl Glanzner, Vitor Braga Rissi, Mariana Priotto de Macedo, Lady Katerine Serrano Mujica, Karina Gutierrez, Alessandra Bridi, João Ricardo Malheiros de Souza, Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves, Vilceu Bordignon
Epigenetic modifications in the C-terminal domain of histones coordinate important events during early development including embryo genome activation (EGA) and cell differentiation. In this study, the mRNA expression profile of the main lysine demethylases (KDMs) acting on the lysine 4 (H3K4), 9 (H3K9) and 27 (H3K27) of the histone H3 was determined at pre-, during and post- EGA stages of bovine and porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In IVF embryos, mRNA abundance of most KDMs revealed a bell-shaped profile with peak expression around the EGA period, i...
March 8, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Buigues A, Ferrero H, Martínez J, Pellicer N, Pellicer A, Gómez R
To analyze the role of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) in endometriotic lesion growth, we studied the effect of PAI-1 inhibition by PAI-039 using a homologous mouse model of endometriosis that allows non-invasive monitoring. Endometrial tissue from donor mice was collected, labeled with mCherry adenovirus, and implanted into a subcutaneous pocket on the ventral abdomen of recipient mice. Seven days after transplantation, mice were randomly allocated in two groups and treated once daily for two weeks with either vehicle (control group) or PAI-1 inhibitor (PAI-039 group)...
March 6, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jeremy W Martin, Joseph C Chen, Jason Neidleman, Keiji Tatsumi, James Hu, Linda C Giudice, Warner C Greene, Nadia R Roan
Seminal plasma (SP), the liquid fraction of semen, is not mandatory for conception, but clinical studies suggest that SP improves implantation rates. Prior in vitro studies examining the effects of SP on the endometrium, the site of implantation, surprisingly revealed that SP induces transcriptional profiles associated with neurogenesis. We investigated the presence and activity of neurogenesis pathways in the endometrium, focusing on TrkA, one of the canonical receptors associated with neurotrophic signaling...
March 6, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Marta Gòdia, Grace Swanson, Stephen A Krawetz
Having been debated for many years, the presence and role of spermatozoal RNAs is resolving, and their contribution to development is now appreciated. Data from different species continues to show that sperm contain a complex suite of coding and non-coding RNAs that play a role in an individual's life course. Mature sperm RNAs provide a retrospective of spermatogenesis, with their presence and abundance reflecting sperm maturation, fertility potential, and the paternal contribution to the developmental path the offspring may follow...
March 4, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Shelby Wilson, Edward Dere, David Klein, Christoph Schorl, Susan Hall, Kim Boekelheide
We examined the precise localization of dimethylated histone three lysine four (H3K4me2) in mature rat sperm. Within non-intergenic enriched regions, half of the DNA peaks associated with H3K4me2 retention fell in gene bodies and the other half in promoter regions. The most significant peaks near annotated DNA regions in the composite data included loci known to be associated with RNA metabolism, cell cycle regulation and spermatogenesis. Regions associated with differential retention of H3K4me2 within gene bodies were significantly enriched for housekeeping gene and cell-cycle functionality...
February 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jinzhi Lei, Qing Nie, Dong-Bao Chen
Experimental evidence shows that parental psychological stress affects the long-term health of offspring in an inheritable fashion. Although epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, miRNA, and histone modifications, are involved in transgenerational programming, the underlining mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance remain unsolved. Here, we present a single-cell based computational model for transgenerational inheritance for investigating the long-term dynamics of phenotype changes in response to parental stress...
February 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Bai Yuxiang, Rao Haiying, Chen Wei, Luo Xin, Tong Chao, Qi Hongbo
To identify the profiles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in human placental tissues and to explore the potential roles of dysregulated circRNAs in the pathological genesis of preeclampsia, expression profiles of circRNAs in human placentas were performed in this study. Utilizing high-throughput technology, based on fold changes and P values, 300 circRNAs that are differentially expressed between preeclampsia and normal placental tissues were identified. Among them, hg38_circ_0014736 and hsa_circ_0015382 were validated as significantly upregulated by real-time quantitative PCR with divergent primers...
February 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Mariana Weigel Muñoz, A María Battistone, Guillermo Carvajal, Julieta A Maldera, Ludmila Curci, Pablo Torres, Daniel Lombardo, Omar P Pignataro, Vanina G Da Ros, Patricia S Cuasnicu
Epididymal sperm protein CRISP1 has the ability to both regulate murine CatSper, a key sperm calcium channel, and interact with egg-binding sites during fertilization. In spite of its relevance for sperm function, Crisp1-/- mice are fertile. Considering that phenotypes can be influenced by the genetic background, in the present work mice from the original mixed Crisp1-/- colony (129/SvEv*C57BL/6) were backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 strain for subsequent analysis of their reproductive phenotype. Whereas fertility and fertilization rates of C57BL/6 Crisp1-/- males did not differ from those reported for mice from the mixed background, several sperm functional parameters were clearly affected by the genetic background...
February 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Michael J Soares, Kaela Varberg, Khursheed Iqbal
Placentation is a reproductive adaptation that permits fetal growth and development within the protected confines of the female reproductive tract. Through this important role, the placenta also determines postnatal health and susceptibility to disease. The hemochorial placenta is prominent feature in primate and rodent development. This review offers an overview of the basics of hemochorial placental development and function, provides perspective on major discoveries that have shaped placental research, and thoughts on strategies for future investigation...
February 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Noritaka Hirohashi, Ryuzo Yanagimachi
Manner and roles of sperm acrosome reaction in a variety of animals were compared.
February 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Fuller W Bazer, Robert C Burghardt, Gregory A Johnson, Thomas E Spencer, Guoyao Wu
Research on the functions of interferon tau (IFNT) at Texas A&M University led to the theory of pregnancy recognition signaling in ruminant species. But, IFNT does much more as it induces expression of interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) in uterine luminal (LE), superficial glandular (sGE), but not glandular (GE) epithelia. First, IRF2 silences transcription of the estrogen receptor alpha gene and, indirectly, transcription of the oxytocin receptor gene to abrogate development of the luteolytic mechanism to prevent regression of the corpus luteum and its production of progesterone for establishing and maintaining pregnancy...
February 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jennifer M SanMiguel, Marisa S Bartolomei
DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark crucial for normal mammalian development. This modification controls the expression of a unique class of genes, designated as imprinted, which are expressed monoallelically and in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. Proper parental allele-specific DNA methylation at imprinting control regions (ICRs) is necessary for appropriate imprinting. Processes that deregulate DNA methylation of imprinted loci cause disease in humans. DNA methylation patterns dramatically change during mammalian development: first, the majority of the genome, with the exception of ICRs, is demethylated after fertilization, and subsequently undergoes genome-wide de novo DNA methylation...
February 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
T Rajendra Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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