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Biology of Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161347/pharmacological-blockage-of-the-cxcr4-cxcl12-axis-in-endometriosis-leads-to-contrasting-effects-in-proliferation-migration-and-invasion
#1
Abigail Ruiz, Lynnette Ruiz, Mariano Colón-Caraballo, Bryan J Torres-Collazo, Janice B Monteiro, Manuel Bayona, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Idhaliz Flores
High levels of inflammatory factors including chemokines have been reported in peritoneal fluid and blood of women with endometriosis. CXCL12 mediates its action by interaction with its specific receptor, CXCR4, which has been reported to be elevated in human endometriosis lesions and in the rat model of endometriosis. Activation of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis increases cell proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. To obtain insights into the CXCR4 expression profile in lesions and endometrium, as well as functionality of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis in endometriosis we analysed the expression of CXCR4 in tissues on a human tissue array and studied CXCL12-mediated activation of proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro...
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161345/an-interview-with-dr-sudhansu-k-dey
#2
Romana A Nowak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161344/nuclear-localization-of-eif4g3-suggests-a-role-for-the-xy-body-in-translational-regulation-during-spermatogenesis-in-mice
#3
Jianjun Hu, Fengyun Sun, Mary Ann Handel
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (EIF4G) is an important scaffold protein in the translation initiation complex. In mice mutation of the Eif4g3 gene causes male infertility, with arrest of meiosis at the end of meiotic prophase. This study documents features of the developmental expression and sub-cellular localization of EIF4G3 that might contribute to its highly specific role in meiosis and spermatogenesis. Quite unexpectedly, EIF4G3 is located in the nucleus of spermatocytes, where it is highly enriched in the XY body, the chromatin domain formed by the transcriptionally inactive sex chromosomes...
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161343/distinct-reorganization-of-collagen-architecture-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-premature-cervical-remodeling
#4
Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy, Meredith Akins, Breanna Tetreault, Kate Luby-Phelps, Mala Mahendroo
Previous work has identified divergent mechanisms by which cervical remodeling is achieved in preterm birth (PTB) induced by hormone withdrawal (mifepristone) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our current study aims to document how collagen architecture is modified to achieve premature cervical remodeling in mice treated with LPS as a model of infection induced inflammation. Cervices were collected on gestation day (d) 15 from mice with premature cervical ripening induced by LPS and compared to d15 and d18 controls as well as a hormone withdrawal preterm birth model...
November 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155939/group-b-streptococcus-activates-transcriptomic-pathways-related-to-premature-birth-in-human-extraplacental-membranes-in-vitro
#5
Hae-Ryung Park, Sean M Harris, Erica Boldenow, Richard C McEachin, Maureen Sartor, Mark Chames, Rita Loch-Caruso
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) infection in pregnant women is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although inflammation during infection has been associated with preterm birth, the contribution of GBS to preterm birth is less certain. Moreover, the early mechanisms by which GBS interacts with the gestational tissue to affect adverse pregnancy outcomes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that short term GBS inoculation activates pathways related to inflammation and premature birth in human extraplacental membranes...
November 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149247/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-bovine-follicular-fluid-during-follicle-development
#6
Rodrigo de Andrade Ferrazza, Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos Schmidt, Monika Mihm Carmichael, Fabiana Ferreira de Souza, Richard Burchmore, Roberto Sartori, Peter David Eckersall, João Carlos Pinheiro Ferreira
Bovine follicular fluid (FF) constitutes the microenvironment of follicles and includes various biologically active proteins. We performed a study involving 18 healthy non-lactating Holstein cows to determine the protein expression profile of FF at key-stages of follicular development. Follicles were individually aspirated in vivo at pre-deviation (F1∼7.0mm); deviation (F1∼8.5mm); post-deviation (F1∼12.0mm); and pre-ovulatory stages of follicle development, which were confirmed by measurement of follicular estradiol and progesterone concentrations...
November 15, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145579/progesterone-the-maternal-immune-system-and-the-onset-of-parturition-in-the-mouse
#7
Lydia F Edey, Hector Georgiou, Kieran P O'Dea, Sam Mesiano, Bronwen R Herbert, Kaiyu Lei, Renyi Hua, Danijela Markovic, Simon N Waddington, David MacIntyre, Philip Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
The role of progesterone (P4) in the regulation of the local (uterine) and systemic innate immune system, myometrial expression of connexin 43 (Cx-43) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the onset of parturition was examined in: 1) naïve mice delivering at term; 2) E16 mice treated with RU486 (P4-antagonist) to induce preterm parturition; and 3) in mice treated with P4 to prevent term parturition.In naïve mice, myometrial neutrophil and monocyte numbers peaked at E18 and declined with the onset of parturition...
November 14, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136085/tgf-beta1-from-endometriomas-promotes-fibrosis-in-surrounding-ovarian-tissues-via-smad2-3-signaling
#8
Li Bing Shi, Feng Zhou, Hai Yan Zhu, Dong Huang, Xiao Ying Jin, Chao Li, Yongdong Dai, Yi Bin Pan, Song Ying Zhang
To elucidate whether the endometriotic cells of endometriomas synthesize transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and understand how it affects surrounding ovarian tissue. We collected biopsies of the cystic walls from 42 endometriomas and 29 mature teratomas and compared mRNA and protein expression of fibrosis-related factors between the cystic walls. Then we detected TGFB1 mRNA synthesis in endometriomas, and tested TGF-beta1 fibrotic effect in vitro. Moreover, we verified the expression of Smad2/3 Signaling components in the endometriotic cystic wall in order to understand whether TGF-beta1/Smad signaling is involved in fibrosis formation of the tissue surrounding endometriomas...
November 10, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136097/nonrandom-contribution-of-left-and-right-testes-to-germline-transmission-from-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#9
Mito Kanastu-Shinohara, Honda Naoki, Takashi Shinohara
Vast amounts of sperm are produced from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which continuously undergo self-renewal. We examined the possible effect of laterality in male germline transmission efficiency of SSCs using a spermatogonial transplantation technique. We transplanted the same number of wild-type and Egfp transgenic SSCs in the same or different testes of individual recipient mice and compared the fertility of each type of recipient by natural mating. Transgenic mice were born within 3 months after transplantation regardless of the transplantation pattern...
November 9, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126187/med12-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-uterine-development-and-maternal-effects-in-the-mammalian-egg
#10
Xinye Wang, Priya Mittal, Carlos A Castro, Gabriel Rajkovic, Aleksandar Rajkovic
The transcriptional factor MED12 is part of the essential mediator transcriptional complex that acts as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes. Missense gain of function mutations in human MED12 are associated with uterine leiomyomas, yet the role of MED12 deficiency in tumorigenesis and reproductive biology has not been fully explored. We generated a Med12 reproductive conditional knockout mouse model to evaluate its role in uterine mesenchyme, granulosa cells, and oocytes. Mice heterozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/+ Amhr2-Cre) were subfertile, while mice homozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/fl Amhr2-Cre) were infertile...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126179/dimethyl-sulfoxide-and-quercetin-prolong-the-survival-motility-and-fertility-of-cold-stored-mouse-sperm-for-10-days
#11
Hidetaka Yoshimoto, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata
Technology for preserving sperm is useful for disseminating valuable male genetic traits. Cold storage is suitable for easily transporting sperm as an alternative to the shipment of live animals. However, there is a technical limitation in that the fertility of cold-stored sperm declines within 3 days. To overcome this problem, we examined the protective effects of quercetin and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO and quercetin maintained the fertility and motility of cold-stored sperm for 10 days. In addition, quercetin attenuated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential of cold-stored sperm during sperm preincubation, allowing the induction of capacitation, and it localized to the midpiece of sperm...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121172/freezing-induced-uptake-of-disaccharides-for-preservation-of-chromatin-in-freeze-dried-stallion-sperm-during-accelerated-aging
#12
Harriëtte Oldenhof, Miao Zhang, Katharina Narten, Judith Bigalk, Bulat Sydykov, Willem F Wolkers, Harald Sieme
Non-viable freeze-dried sperm have intact chromatin and can be used for fertilization via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Freeze-dried sperm preferably should be stored at 4°C or lower, because DNA damage accumulates during storage at room temperature. Disaccharides are known to protect biomolecules both during freezing and drying, by forming a highly viscous glassy state. Their use for intracellular protection is challenging because cellular membranes are normally impermeable for disaccharides. In the current study, we demonstrate that membrane impermeable compounds, including lucifer yellow and trehalose, are taken up by stallion sperm when exposed to freezing...
November 7, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106468/endometrial-organoids-in-vitro-models-for-endometrial-research-and-personalised-medicine
#13
James A Deane, Fiona L Cousins, Caroline E Gargett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099948/heritable-sperm-chromatin-epigenetics-a-break-to-remember
#14
Ralph G Meyer, Chelsea Ketchum, Mirella L Meyer-Ficca
Sperm chromatin not only has a unique structure to condense and protect the paternal DNA in transit, but also provides epigenetic information that supports embryonic development. Most of the unique sperm nuclear architecture is formed during the sweeping postmeiotic chromatin remodeling events in spermiogenesis, where the majority of nucleosomes are removed and replaced by protamines. The remaining histones and other chromatin proteins are located in structurally and transcriptionally relevant positions in the genome and carry diverse posttranslational modifications relevant to the control of embryonic gene expression...
November 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092018/the-function-of-hdl-and-ldl-in-the-maintenance-of-mouse-ovarian-steroid-balance
#15
Xin-Lian Chang, Lisheng Liu, Naiqiang Wang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Cong Zhang
The membrane proteins, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI, gene name Scarb1), are lipoprotein receptors that play central roles in lipoprotein metabolism. Cholesterol bound in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL is transported into cells mainly by SR-BI and LDLR. The relative contribution of LDL and HDL to the steroidogenic cholesterol pool varies among species and may vary among tissues within one species. To investigate which of these pathways is more important in the supply of cholesterol in mouse ovary, we utilized immunohistochemistry, western blotting, RNAi and RT-PCR as well as Ldlr-/- mice to explore the uptake of HDL and LDL in the ovary...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091993/germline-competency-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-depends-on-eomesodermin
#16
Di Chen, Wanlu Liu, Anastasia Lukianchikov, Grace Hancock, Jill Zimmerman, Matthew Lowe, Rachel Kim, Zoran Galic, Naoko Irie, M Azim Surani, Steven E Jacobsen, Amander T Clark
In humans, germline competency and the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) are thought to occur in a restricted developmental window during early embryogenesis. Despite the importance of specifying the appropriate number of PGCs for human reproduction, the molecular mechanisms governing PGC formation remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared PGC-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation from eighteen independently derived human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, and discovered that the expression of primitive streak genes were positively associated with hESC germline competency...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091992/transcriptome-wide-analysis-suggests-that-temporal-changes-in-the-relative-contributions-of-hyperplasia-hypertrophy-and-apoptosis-underlie-liver-growth-in-pregnant-mice
#17
Leonie R Price, Karen A Lillycrop, Nicola A Irvine, Mark A Hanson, Graham C Burdge
Maternal liver undergoes structural and metabolic changes during pregnancy to meet the demands of the developing fetus. In rodents, this involves increased liver weight, but the mechanism remains unclear. To address this, we analysed the histology, gene expression and DNA methylation of livers of non-pregnant and pregnant C57/BL6 mice. Gestational liver growth in pregnant mice was accompanied by increased hepatocyte area and lower cell density (days 14,18). Expression of cell proliferation markers was increased on days 14 and 18...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088317/trio-a-novel-high-fecundity-allele-i-transcriptome-analysis-of-granulosa-cells-from-carriers-and-non-carriers-of-a-major-gene-for-bovine-ovulation-rate
#18
Mamat H Kamalludin, Alvaro Garcia Guerra, Milo Wiltbank, Brian W Kirkpatrick
A major gene for bovine ovulation rate has been mapped to a 1.2 Mb region of chromosome 10. Screening of coding regions of positional candidate genes within this region failed to reveal a causative polymorphism, leading to the hypothesis that the phenotype results from differences in candidate gene expression rather than alteration of gene structure. This study tested differences in expression of positional candidate genes in granulosa cells between carriers and non-carriers of the high fecundity allele, as well as characterizing differences in the transcriptomic profile between genotypes...
October 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088315/effect-of-lactation-on-conceptus-maternal-interactions-at-the-initiation-of-implantation-in-cattle-i-effects-on-the-conceptus-transcriptome-and-amino-acid-composition-of-the-uterine-luminal-fluid
#19
Niamh Forde, Constantine A Simintiras, Roger G Sturmey, Alexander Graf, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Blum, Pat Lonergan
Approximately 65-75 days post-partum (dpp), the estrous cycles of non-lactating (dried off immediately post partum: n = 12) and lactating (n = 13) Holstein Friesian cows were synchronized and on Day 7 a single blastocyst derived from superovulated nulliparous Holstein Friesian heifers was transferred to each cow. A control group of nulliparous heifers (n = 8) were synchronized, inseminated to a standing heat and slaughtered on the same day as non-lactating and lactating recipients (Day 19; estrus = Day 0)...
October 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069289/distinct-dynorphin-expression-patterns-with-low-and-high-dose-estrogen-treatment-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-female-rats
#20
Moeko Kanaya, Kinuyo Iwata, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin (KISS1; encoded by Kiss1 ) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) co-express tachykinin 3 (TAC3; also known as neurokinin B) and dynorphin A (PDYN). Accordingly, they are termed KNDy neurons and considered to be crucial in generating pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Accumulating evidence suggests that Kiss1 and Tac3 are negatively regulated by estrogen. However it has not been fully determined whether and how estrogen modulates Pdyn and PDYN. Here, we examined the expression of Pdyn mRNA and PDYN by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in the ARC of female rats after ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus low or high-dose beta-estradiol (E 2 ) replacement...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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