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Biology of Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007696/a-new-window-into-ovarian-follicle-development
#1
Jeremy Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007695/mapping-the-origin-of-the-testis
#2
Katie Gerhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007694/recreating-the-female-germline-in-vitro
#3
Katie Gerhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007693/pad4-deficiency-decreases-inflammation-and-susceptibility-to-pregnancy-loss-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Luise Erpenbeck, Chanchal Sur Chowdhury, Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér, Maureen Gallant, Suzanne D Burke, Stephen Cifuni, Sinuhe Hahn, Denisa D Wagner, S Ananth Karumanchi
Inflammation is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of placentation disorders such as recurrent miscarriages, growth restriction, and preeclampsia. Recently, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have emerged as a potential mechanism for promoting inflammation in both infectious and noninfectious disorders. To investigate a pathogenic role for NETs in placentation disorders, we studied a model of antiangiogenic factor-mediated pregnancy loss in wild-type (WT) mice and in mice deficient in peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (Padi4(-/-)) that are unable to form NETs...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007692/micrornas-are-stored-in-human-mii-oocyte-and-their-expression-profile-changes-in-reproductive-aging
#5
Rosalia Battaglia, Maria Elena Vento, Marco Ragusa, Davide Barbagallo, Alessandro La Ferlita, Giovanna Di Emidio, Placido Borzí, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Paolo Scollo, Carla Tatone, Michele Purrello, Cinzia Di Pietro
Maternal RNAs are synthesized by the oocyte during its growth; some of them are utilized for oocyte-specific processes and metabolism, others are stored and used during early development before embryonic genome activation. The appropriate expression of complex sets of genes is needed for oocyte maturation and early embryo development. In spite of the basic role of noncoding RNAs in the regulation of gene expression, few studies have analyzed their role in human oocytes. In this study, we identified the microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in human metaphase II stage oocytes, and found that some of them are able to control pluripotency, chromatin remodeling, and early embryo development...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932348/toggling-the-egfr-signaling-pathway
#6
Katie Gerhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908878/rhox10-spurs-on-spermatogonial-stem-cell-establishment
#7
Katie Gerhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908877/the-placenta-a-bridge-between-mother-and-baby
#8
Katie Gerhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806943/hmgb1-induces-an-inflammatory-response-in-the-chorioamniotic-membranes-that-is-partially-mediated-by-the-inflammasome
#9
Olesya Plazyo, Roberto Romero, Ronald Unkel, Amapola Balancio, Tara N Mial, Yi Xu, Zhong Dong, Sonia S Hassan, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Spontaneous preterm labor occurs in two subsets of patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation, a process induced by alarmins such as high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Inflammasomes are implicated in the process of spontaneous preterm labor. Therefore, we investigated whether HMGB1 initiates an inflammasome-associated inflammatory response in the chorioamniotic membranes. Incubation of the chorioamniotic membranes with HMGB1 1) induced the release of mature IL-1beta and IL-6; 2) upregulated the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators NFKB1, IL6, TNF, IL1A, IFNG, and HMGB1 receptors RAGE and TLR2; 3) upregulated the mRNA expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and AIM2 as well as NOD proteins (NOD1 and NOD2); 4) increased the protein concentrations of NLRP3 and NOD2; 5) increased the concentration of caspase-1 and the quantity of its active form (p20); and 6) upregulated the mRNA expression and active form of MMP-9...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806942/placental-hypoxia-during-early-pregnancy-causes-maternal-hypertension-and-placental-insufficiency-in-the-hypoxic-guinea-pig-model
#10
Loren P Thompson, Laramie Pence, Gerald Pinkas, Hong Song, Bhanu P Telugu
Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in pre-eclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans such as hemomonochorial placenta, villous subplacenta, deep TB invasion, and remodeling of maternal arteries, and is an ideal animal model to study placental development...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784654/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-rescues-proximity-associations-of-its-receptor-components-calcitonin-receptor-like-receptor-and-receptor-activity-modifying-protein-1-in-rat-uterine-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-exposed-to-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha
#11
Yuanlin Dong, Madhu Chauhan, Michael Belfort, Chandra Yallampalli
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CALCB), adrenomedullin (ADM), and ADM2/intermedin play critical roles in vascular adaptation during pregnancy through calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). This study was designed to assess the predominant RAMP that associates with CALCRL to form a functional receptor in the rat uterine artery smooth muscle (RUASM). We also determined if these receptor component associations are decreased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and if CALCB, ADM, or ADM2 can rescue CALCRL/RAMP associations...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760752/ectopic-trophoblast-allografts-in-the-horse-resist-destruction-by-secondary-immune-responses
#12
Margaret M Brosnahan, Emily J Silvela, Jessica Crumb, Donald C Miller, Hollis N Erb, Douglas F Antczak
Invasive trophoblast from Day 34 horse conceptuses survives in extrauterine sites in allogeneic recipients that are immunologically naive to donor major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. The ectopic trophoblast retains its in utero characteristics, including similar lifespan, physiologic effect of its secreted product (equine chorionic gonadotropin) upon the recipient's ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not been considered previously in this experimental system...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760751/phospholipid-profile-and-distribution-in-the-receptive-oviduct-and-uterus-during-early-diestrus-in-cattle
#13
Katia Roberta A Belaz, Alessandra Tata, Moana R França, Maressa I Santos da Silva, Pedro Henrique Vendramini, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Fábio L D'Alexandri, Marcos N Eberlin, Mario Binelli
Phospholipid metabolism and signaling influences on early pregnancy events in cattle are unknown. This study aimed to characterize global phospholipid composition of oviduct and uterus during early diestrus in a model of contrasting embryo receptivity. Beef cows were treated to ovulate a larger (LF-LCL group, associated with greater receptivity) or smaller (SF-SCL group) follicle and, consequently, to present greater or smaller plasma concentrations of estradiol during proestrus-estrus, as well as progesterone during early diestrus...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760750/random-allocation-of-blastomere-descendants-to-the-trophectoderm-and-icm-of-the-bovine-blastocyst
#14
Lessly P Sepulveda-Rincon, Delphine Dube, Pierre Adenot, Ludivine Laffont, Sylvie Ruffini, Laurence Gall, Bruce K Campbell, Veronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean, Walid E Maalouf
The first lineage specification during mammalian embryo development can be visually distinguished at the blastocyst stage. Two cell lineages are observed on the embryonic-abembryonic axis of the blastocyst: the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. The timing and mechanisms driving this process are still not fully understood. In mouse embryos, cells seem prepatterned to become certain cell lineage because the first cleavage plane has been related with further embryonic-abembryonic axis at the blastocyst stage...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760749/circulating-mirnas-as-potential-alternative-cell-signaling-associated-with-maternal-recognition-of-pregnancy-in-the-mare
#15
Kristin M Klohonatz, Ashely D Cameron, Joanna R Hergenreder, Juliano C da Silveira, Aeriel D Belk, D N R Veeramachaneni, Gerrit J Bouma, Jason E Bruemmer
During early pregnancy, the conceptus and mare communicate to establish pregnancy. Cell-secreted vesicles (e.g., exosomes) have been reported in serum. Exosomes contain bioactive materials, such as miRNA, that can mediate cell responses. We hypothesized that a) exosomes are present in mare circulation and quantity varies with pregnancy status, b) exosomes contain miRNAs unique to pregnancy status, and c) miRNAs target pathways in endometrium based upon pregnancy status of the mare. First, serum samples were obtained from mares in a crossover design, with each mare providing samples from a pregnant and nonmated control cycle (n = 3/sample day) on Days 12, 14, 16, and 18 postovulation...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760748/the-local-and-systemic-immune-response-to-intrauterine-lps-in-the-prepartum-mouse
#16
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation-induced complications of pregnancy, including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 μg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733380/the-unfolded-protein-response-regulates-uterine-myocyte-antioxidant-responsiveness-during-pregnancy
#17
Saiprasad Ramnarayanan, Chandrashekara Kyathanahalli, Judith Ingles, MieJung Park-York, Pancharatnam Jeyasuria, Jennifer C Condon
There is considerable evidence that implicates oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of human pregnancy complications. However, the role and the mechanism of maintaining an antioxidant prosurvival uterine environment during normal pregnancy is largely unresolved. Herein we report that the highly active uterine unfolded protein response plays a key role in promoting antioxidant activity in the uterine myocyte across gestation. The unfolded protein response (UPR) senses the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activates a signaling network that consists of the transmembrane protein kinase eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3/PKR-like-ER kinase (EIF2AK3), which acts to decrease protein translation levels, allowing for a lowered need for protein folding during periods of ER stress...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733379/tspan8-expression-distinguishes-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-the-prepubertal-mouse-testis
#18
Kazadi Mutoji, Anukriti Singh, Thu Nguyen, Heidi Gildersleeve, Amy V Kaucher, Melissa J Oatley, Jon M Oatley, Ellen K Velte, Christopher B Geyer, Keren Cheng, John R McCarrey, Brian P Hermann
Precise separation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from progenitor spermatogonia that lack stem cell activity and are committed to differentiation remains a challenge. To distinguish between these spermatogonial subtypes, we identified genes that exhibited bimodal mRNA levels at the single-cell level among undifferentiated spermatogonia from Postnatal Day 6 mouse testes, including Tspan8, Epha2, and Pvr, each of which encode cell surface proteins useful for cell selection. Transplantation studies provided definitive evidence that a TSPAN8-high subpopulation is enriched for SSCs...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707713/cauda-epididymis-specific-beta-defensin-126-promotes-sperm-motility-but-not-fertilizing-ability-in-cattle
#19
Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Fernando Narciandi, Cliona O'Farrelly, Alan K Kelly, Sean Fair, Kieran G Meade, Patrick Lonergan
Bovine beta-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression for the cauda epididymis of males, where it is absorbed onto the tail and postacrosomal region of the sperm. The aim of this study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm function. Fresh and frozen-thawed semen were incubated in the presence of different capacitating agents as well as with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These treatments, which have been successful in releasing beta-defensin 126 from macaque sperm, proved to be ineffective in bull sperm...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707712/sperm-coating-beta-defensin-126-is-a-dissociation-resistant-dimer-produced-by-epididymal-epithelium-in-the-bovine-reproductive-tract
#20
Fernando Narciandi, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Ilaina Khairulzaman, Hanne Jahns, Deirdre King, Emma K Finlay, Ken H Mok, Sean Fair, Patrick Lonergan, Cliona O' Farrelly, Kieran G Meade
Beta-defensins are innate immune molecules, often described as antimicrobial peptides because of their bactericidal activity and are now known to have diverse additional functions, including cell signaling, chemoattraction, immunoregulation, and reproduction. In humans and primates, beta-defensin 126 has been shown to regulate the ability of sperm to swim through cervical mucus and to protect sperm from attack by the female immune system during transit toward the oviduct. Bovine beta-defensin 126 (BBD126) is the ortholog of human defensin 126, and computational analysis here revealed significant conservation between BBD126 and other mammalian orthologs at the N-terminus, although extensive sequence differences were detected at the C-terminus, implying possible species-specific roles for this beta-defensin in reproduction...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
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