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Biology of Reproduction

Qijing Wang, Yue Zhang, Fang Le, Ning Wang, Fan Zhang, Yuqin Luo, Yiyun Lou, Minhao Hu, Liya Wang, Lisa M Thurston, Xiangrong Xu, Fan Jin
Epidemiological studies have revealed that offspring conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) have an elevated risk of cardiovascular malformations at birth, and are more predisposed to cardiovascular diseases in late childhood. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms influencing compromised cardiovascular function in IVF-conceived children remain unclear. Moreover, the continuing implications for the cardiovascular health of these children as they move into adulthood and old age, have yet to be determined...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Guillaume St-Jean, Alexandre Boyer, Gustavo Zamberlam, Philippe Godin, Marilène Paquet, Derek Boerboom
Both Wnt4 and Wnt5a have well-established roles in the embryonic development of the female reproductive tract, as well as in implantation, decidualization and ovarian function in adult mice. Although these roles appear to overlap, whether Wnt5a and Wnt4 are functionally redundant in these tissues has not been determined. Here, we addressed this by concomitantly inactivating Wnt4 and Wnt5a in the Müllerian mesenchyme and in ovarian granulosa cells by crossing mice bearing floxed alleles to the Amhr2cre strain...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Xing Duan, Shao-Chen Sun
During mitosis, cells undergo symmetrical cell division, while oocyte meiotic maturation undergoes two consecutive, asymmetric divisions that generate a totipotent haploid oocyte and two small polar bodies not involved in DNA replication. This specialized division allows most maternal components be maintained in the oocytes for early embryo development. Nuclear positioning, germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle migration, spindle rotation, chromosome segregation, and polar body extrusion are the most critical cellular processes during oocyte meiosis I and II, and a growing number of studies primarily using the mouse oocyte model revealed that actin filaments were critical for these processes, especially for spindle migration...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Yulong Han, Cheng Peng, Le Wang, Jiani Guo, Mingwei Lu, Jiaxin Chen, Yun Liu, Shuisheng Li, Mi Zhao, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin
A variety of mechanisms are involved in sex determination in vertebrates. The orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a teleost fish, functions first as females and later as a male and is an ideal model to investigate the regulation of sexual fate. Here, we report female-to-male sex reversal in juvenile orange-spotted groupers caused by over-expressing anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh). Tissue distribution analyses showed that amh and amhrII primarily expressed in the gonad, and expression level in the testis was much higher than that in the ovary...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tingting Liu, Feng Yue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Maya Kimura, Misawa Niki Ishii, Nobuyuki Seki, Yumi Sakai, Teruyoshi Yamashita, Hirofumi Awatsuji, Kazuo Kanda, Kiyoshi Matsumoto, Hisanori Matsui
Atrazine, a commonly used herbicide, suppresses the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in female rats, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, is a hypothalamic peptide that controls gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the GnRH neurons. Kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) are involved in regulating pre-ovulatory GnRH and LH surge. To clarify the effect of atrazine on the LH surge in female rats, we investigated its effects on hypothalamic GnRH and kisspeptin...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Marie-Eve Brien, Ines Boufaied, Dorothée Dal Soglio, Evelyne Rey, Line Leduc, Sylvie Girard
Preeclampsia (PE) is a poorly understood pregnancy complication. It has been suggested that changes in the maternal immune system may contribute to PE, but evidence of this remains scarce. Whilst PE is commonly experienced pre-partum, it can also occur in the postpartum period (postpartum PE-PPPE), and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether changes occur in the maternal immune system and placenta in pregnancies complicated with PE and PPPE, compared to normal term pregnancies...
July 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Gláucia E M L Siervo, Fernanda M Ogo, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernando Q Cunha, Rubens Cecchini, Flávia A Guarnier, Waldiceu A Verri, Glaura S A Fernandes
Spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis are not fully established during puberty. Children and adolescents may be chronically sleep deprived due to early school hours and constant exposure to artificial light and interactive activities. We have previously shown that sleep restriction during peripuberty impairs sperm motility and has consequences on epididymal development. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep restriction (SR) during peripuberty on sexual hormones and its impact on testicular tissue. Rats were subjected to 18 hours of SR per day for 21 days or were maintained as controls (C) in the same room...
July 11, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Matthew D Hale, Jessica A McCoy, Brenna M Doheny, Thomas M Galligan, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
Estrogens regulate key aspects of sexual determination and differentiation, and exposure to exogenous estrogens can alter ovarian development. Alligators inhabiting Lake Apopka, FL are historically exposed to estrogenic endocrine disrupting contaminants and are characterized by a suite of reproductive abnormalities, including altered ovarian gene expression and abated transcriptional responses to follicle stimulating hormone. Here, we test the hypothesis that disrupting estrogen signaling during gonadal differentiation results in persistent alterations to ovarian gene expression that mirror alterations observed in alligators from Lake Apopka...
July 11, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Lauren E Hamilton, Joao Suzuki, Genevieve Acteau, Mengqi Shi, Wei Xu, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, Peter Sutovsky, Richard Oko
The sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor (SOAF) resides in the sperm perinuclear theca (PT). A consensus has been reached that SOAF most likely resides in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS), which is the first region of the PT to solubilize upon sperm-oocyte fusion. There are two SOAF candidates under consideration: PLCZ1 and WBP2NL. A mouse gene germline ablation of the latter showed that mice remain fertile with no observable phenotype despite the fact that a competitive inhibitor of WBP2NL, derived from its PPXY motif, blocks oocyte activation when co-injected with WBP2NL or spermatozoa...
July 11, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tingting Li, Bo Liu, Hong Guan, Wei Mao, Lingrui Wang, Chao Zhang, Lili Hai, Kun Liu, Jinshan Cao
Endometritis is the most common bovine uterine disease following parturition. The role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the regulation of endometrial inflammation and repair is well understood. Excess PGE2 is also generated in multiple inflammatory diseases, including endometritis. However, it remains unclear whether PGE2 is associated with pathogen-induced inflammatory damage to the endometrium. To clarify the role of PGE2 in pathogen-induced inflammatory damage, this study evaluated the production of PGE2, inflammatory factors, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in cultured Escherichia coli-infected bovine endometrial tissue...
July 11, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Nadia Y Edelsztein, Chrystèle Racine, Nathalie di Clemente, Helena F Schteingart, Rodolfo A Rey
Testicular anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) production is inhibited by androgens around pubertal onset, as observed under normal physiological conditions and in patients with precocious puberty. In agreement, AMH downregulation is absent in patients with androgen insensitivity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the negative regulation of AMH by androgens remain unknown. Our aim was to elucidate the mechanisms through which androgens downregulate AMH expression in the testis. A direct negative effect of androgens on the transcriptional activity of the AMH promoter was found using luciferase reporter assays in the mouse prepubertal Sertoli cell line SMAT1...
July 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jingjing Qian, Yunfang Zhang, Yongcun Qu, Liwen Zhang, Junchao Shi, Xudong Zhang, Shichao Liu, Bo Hyun Kim, Sung Jin Hwang, Tong Zhou, Qi Chen, Sean M Ward, Enkui Duan, Ying Zhang
Caffeine consumption has been widely used as a central nervous system stimulant. Epidemiological studies, however, have suggested that maternal caffeine exposure during pregnancy is associated with increased abnormalities, including decreased fertility, delayed conception, early spontaneous abortions and low birth weight. The mechanisms underlying the negative outcomes of caffeine consumption, particularly during early pregnancy, remain unclear. In present study, we found that pregnant mice treated with moderate (5mg/kg) or high (30mg/kg) dosage of caffeine (intraperitoneally or orally) during preimplantation resulted in retention of early embryos in the oviduct, defective embryonic development and impaired embryo implantation...
July 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Orleigh A Bogle, Rodrigo A Carrasco, Marcelo H Ratto, Jaswant Singh, Gregg P Adams
The objectives of the study were to compare the presence and localization of OIF/NGF in male reproductive organs and determine the abundance in ejaculates of species representative of both spontaneous- and induced-ovulators. We hypothesized that the protein is a widely conserved component of semen among mammals, but is most abundant in camelids. Immuno-histochemical analysis was performed on tissues from the male reproductive system of llamas, rats, cattle, bison, elk, and white-tailed deer (n = 2 males/species), and the abundance of OIF/NGF in the seminal plasma of camelids (llamas and alpacas), cattle, horses and pigs (n = 69, 53, 24 and 16 ejaculates, respectively) were quantified by radioimmunoassay...
July 2, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Yue Liu, Henrique Cheng, Terrence R Tiersch
Mechanisms regulating sperm motility activation are generally known in oviparous fishes, but are poorly understood in viviparous species. The mechanism of osmotic-shock induced signaling for oviparous fishes is not suitable for viviparous fishes which activate sperm motility within an isotonic environment. In addition, the presence of sperm bundles in viviparous fishes further complicates study of sperm activation mechanisms. The goal of this study was to establish methodologies to detect intracellular Ca2+ signals from sperm cells within bundles, and to investigate the signaling mechanism of sperm activation of viviparous fish using Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model...
June 30, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
O J Ginther
Selection of a dominant follicle from a wave of follicles is manifested by diameter deviation between future dominant (F1) and largest subordinate (F2) follicles. On day-1 or 0 (day 0 = beginning of deviation) growth rate of F1 continues and growth rate of F2 decreases. Deviation occurs during the decline in the wave stimulating FSH surge when F1 reaches means of 8.5, 10.5, and 22.5 mm in heifers, women, and mares, respectively. Diameter of F1 at the FSH peak vs at deviation is proportionally similar among these monovular species...
June 30, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tuvshintugs Tumurbaatar, Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tomomi Hara, Hiroe Okada, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Satoru Kyo
The recently established immortalized hypothalamic cell model mHypoA-55 possesses characteristics similar to those of Kiss-1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) region of the hypothalamus. Here, we show that Kiss-1 gene expression in these cells was downregulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) under certain conditions. Both neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were expressed in these cells and upregulated by E2. Stimulation of mHypoA-55 cells with NT and CRH significantly decreased Kiss-1 mRNA expression...
June 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Vimal Selvaraj, Prasanthi P Koganti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Enrico Sertoli, Christopher B Geyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Zhi Xiong, Caixia Wang, Zilong Wang, Huaiqian Dai, Qiancheng Song, Zhipeng Zou, Bo Xiao, Allen Zijian Zhao, Xiaochun Bai, Zhenguo Chen
Sertoli cells (SCs) play a central role in testis development, and their normal number and functions are required for spermatogenesis. Although the canonical tuberous sclerosis complex-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(TSC-mTORC1) pathway is critical for testis development and spermatogenesis, the signaling mechanisms governing SC functions remain unclear. In this study, we generated two SC-specific mouse mutants using the Cre-LoxP system. Loss of Raptor (a key component of mTORC1) caused severe tubular degeneration in the neonatal testis and adult mice displayed azoospermia, while adult Rheb (an upstream activator for mTORC1) mutant mice had intact tubules and many sperm in their epididymides...
June 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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