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Biology of Reproduction

Paul S Miller, Janice P Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Chathura Priyadarshana, Atsushi Tajima, Naoto Ishikawa, Atsushi Asano
Both transcriptionally and translationally inactive sperm need preassembled pathways into specific cellular compartments to function. Although initiation of the acrosome reaction (AR) involves several signaling pathways including protein kinase A (PKA) activation, how these are regulated remains poorly understood in avian sperm. Membrane rafts are specific membrane regions enriched in sterols and functional proteins and play important roles in diverse cellular processes, including signal transduction. Our recent studies on chicken sperm demonstrated that membrane rafts exist and play a role in multistage fertilization...
May 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
P Phillips, M B Brown, A Progulske-Fox, X J Wu, L Reyes
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), is an important periodontal pathogen that is also implicated in pregnancy complications involving defective deep placentation (DDP). We hypothesized that Pg invasion of the placental bed promotes DDP. Pregnant rats were intravenously inoculated with sterile vehicle, Pg strain W83, or A7436 at gestation day (GD) 14 (acute cohort). Non-pregnant rats received repeated oral inoculations for 3 months before breeding (chronic cohort). Tissues and/or sera were collected at GD18 for analysis...
May 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jason R Herrick, Sarah M Lyons, Alison F Greene-Ermisch, Corey D Broeckling, William B Schoolcraft, Rebecca L Krisher
Carnivores are an interesting model for studies of embryonic amino acid metabolism and ammonium (NH4+) toxicity given the high protein content of their diets. Our objectives were to examine concentration- and stage-specific effects of essential amino acids (EAA; 0x, 0.125x, 0.25x, 0.5x, or 1.0x the concentrations in Minimum Essential Medium) and NH4+ (0, 300, or 600 μM) on the development and metabolism of feline embryos. The presence of EAA, regardless of concentration, during days 3 to 7 of culture increased (P < 0...
May 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Mingtian Deng, Yongjie Wan, Zifei Liu, Caifang Ren, Guomin Zhang, Jing Pang, Yanli Zhang, Feng Wang
In mammals, their proper development during the early cleavage stages strongly relies on the gene products newly transcribed by zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been characterized as key regulators of the ZGA process in mice and human. However, the ZGA stage has not yet been identified and epigenetic regulations of the ZGA process remain largely unknown in goats. Here, we show that ZGA occurred at the 8-cell stage in goats. During ZGA, tri-methylation of H3K9 was dynamically changed but maintained strong staining in development arrested embryos...
May 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Li Meng, Sabrina Z Jan, Geert Hamer, Ans M van Pelt, Inge van der Stelt, Jaap Keijer, Katja J Teerds
There is general agreement that granulosa cell apoptosis is the cause of antral follicle attrition. Less clear is whether this pathway is also activated in case of preantral follicle degeneration, as several reports mention that the incidence of granulosa cell apoptosis in preantral follicles is negligible. Our objective is therefore to determine which cell-death pathways are involved in preantral and antral follicular degeneration.Atretic preantal and antral follicles were investigated using immunohistochemistry and laser-capture micro-dissection followed by qRT-PCR...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Juneo F Silva, Natália M Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides
Thyroid hormones are vital for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system, since they modulate the metabolism and development of ovarian, uterine and placental tissues. Therefore, hypo- and hyperthyroidism may result in subfertility or infertility in both women and animals. Other well-documented sequelae of maternal thyroid dysfunctions include menstrual/estral irregularity, anovulation, abortion, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, postpartum thyroiditis, and mental retardation in children...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Minako Ogawa-Tominaga, Tomohiro Umezu, Tadaaki Nakajima, Yasuhiro Tomooka
The mouse vagina consists of stratified squamous epithelium and stroma and is regulated by ovarian hormones. Vaginal epithelial cells do not stratify, but rather form a monolayer and show an inconsistent responsiveness to ovarian hormones when cultured on plastic dish or matrix. To address the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro observations, 3 dimensional (3D) co-culture models are developed with clonal vaginal epithelial and stromal cell lines; stromal cells are embedded in collagen gel and epithelial cells are seeded on the gel...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Rikako Takashina, Tadaaki Nakajima, Tomohiro Umezu, Kiyohiko Komatsu, Tatsuro Banba, Taichi Asada, Kensuke Ohse, Yasufumi Murakami, Yasuhiro Tomooka
Stratification of the vaginal epithelium is regulated by stromal factors. To analyze the mechanisms of stratification in vitro, 3 dimensional (3D) co-culture models were established with clonal cell lines. In the models, stromal cells were embedded in collagen gel and epithelial cells were seeded on the gel. In the 3D co-culture, stromal SV-6c4a1b cells induced epithelial stratification but stromal MV-1e6g1a cells did not, suggesting that SV-6c4a1b cells secrete molecules to induce stratification. Microarray analyses of these stromal cell lines identified Chrdl1 and Wisp2 as candidate genes inducing stratification...
May 11, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Whitney Edwards, Lori T Raetzman
The coordination of pituitary development is complicated and requires input from multiple cellular processes. Recent research has provided insight into key molecular determinants that govern cell fate specification in the pituitary. Moreover, increasing research aimed to identify, characterize and functionally describe the presumptive pituitary stem cell population has allowed for a better understanding of the processes that govern endocrine cell differentiation in the developing pituitary. The culmination of this research has led to the ability of investigators to recapitulate some of embryonic pituitary development in vitro, the first steps to developing novel regenerative therapies for pituitary diseases...
May 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tianbing Ding, Shilpa Mokshagundam, Paolo F Rinaudo, Kevin G Osteen, Kaylon L Bruner-Tran
Preterm birth (PTB), parturition prior to 37 weeks gestation, is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. The causes of spontaneous PTB are poorly understood; however, recent studies suggest this condition may arise as a consequence of the parental fetal environment. Specifically, we previously demonstrated that developmental exposure of male mice (F1 animals) to the environmental endocrine disruptor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with reduced sperm quantity/quality in adulthood and control female partners frequently delivered preterm...
May 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Dawn R Sessions-Bresnahan, Adam L Heuberger, Elaine M Carnevale
Maternal body composition can be an important determinant for development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Obesity-related outcomes in offspring may include epigenetic alterations; however, mechanisms of fetal programming remain to be fully elucidated. This study was conducted to determine the impact of maternal obesity in the absence of a high fat diet on equine endometrium and preimplantation embryos. Embryos were collected from normal and obese mares at 8 and 16 d and a uterine biopsy at 16 d (0 d = ovulation)...
May 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jane C Fenelon, Marilyn B Renfree
The first incidence of embryonic diapause in mammals was observed in the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus in 1854 and confirmed in the early 1900s. Since then scientists have been fascinated by this phenomenon which allows a growing embryo to become arrested for up to 11 months and then reactivate and continue development with no ill effects. The study of diapause has required unravelling basic reproductive processes we now take for granted and has spanned some of the major checkpoints of reproductive biology from the identification of the sex hormones to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to microRNA and exosomes...
May 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
M B Evans, M W Healy, A H DeCherney, M J Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Yu H Sun, Feng Jiang, Xin Zhiguo Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Ronald McCarthy, Carmel Martin-Fairey, Dorothy K Sojka, Erik D Herzog, Emily S Jungheim, Molly J Stout, Justin C Fay, Mala Mahendroo, Jeff Reese, Jennifer L Herington, Erin J Plosa, Elaine L Shelton, Sarah K England
Preterm birth affects approximately 1 out of every 10 births in the United States, leading to high rates of mortality and long-term negative health consequences. To investigate the mechanisms leading to preterm birth so as to develop prevention strategies, researchers have developed numerous mouse models of preterm birth. However, the lack of standard definitions for preterm birth in mice limits our field's ability to compare models and make inferences about preterm birth in humans. In this review, we discuss numerous mouse preterm birth models, propose guidelines for experiments and reporting, and suggest markers that can be used to assess whether pups are premature or mature...
May 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Melissa K Jungnickel, Keith A Sutton, Mark A Baker, Michael G Cohen, Michael J Sanderson, Harvey M Florman
Enkurin was identified initially in mouse sperm where it was suggested to act as an intracellular adaptor protein linking membrane calcium influx to intracellular signaling pathways. In order to examine the function of this protein a targeted mutation was introduced into the mouse Enkurin gene. Males that were homozygous for this mutated allele were subfertile. This was associated with lower rates of sperm transport in the female reproductive tract, including reduced entry into the oviduct and slower migration to the site of fertilization in the distal oviduct, and with poor progressive motility in vitro...
May 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tongtong Wang, Qianqian Yin, Xuehao Ma, Ming-Han Tong, Yuchuan Zhou
Male infertility has become an increasingly common health concern in recent years. Apart from environmental factors, nutrition, lifestyle, and sexually transmitted diseases, genetic defects are important causes of male infertility. Many genes have been demonstrated to be associated with male infertility. However, the roles of some functional genes in infertility, especially those that are specifically expressed in the reproductive system, remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the testis-specific gene coiled-coil domain-containing 87 (Ccdc87) is critical for male fertility...
May 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Jiyeon Leem, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Su Oh
Maternal DNA damage during meiosis causes genetic abnormalities that can lead to infertility, birth defects, and abortion. While DNA damage can rapidly halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair in somatic cells, mammalian oocytes are unable to mount a robust G2/prophase arrest in response to DNA damage unless damage levels are severe. Here we show that inhibition of WIP1 phosphatase enhances the ability of oocytes to respond to DNA damage. We found that WIP1 was expressed constantly during meiotic maturation, and that inhibition of WIP1 activity did not impair meiotic maturation...
May 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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