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Biology of Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806943/hmgb1-induces-an-inflammatory-response-in-the-chorioamniotic-membranes-that-is-partially-mediated-by-the-inflammasome
#1
Olesya Plazyo, Roberto Romero, Ronald Unkel, Amapola Balancio, Tara N Mial, Yi Xu, Zhong Dong, Sonia S Hassan, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Spontaneous preterm labor occurs in two subsets of patients with sterile intra-amniotic inflammation, which is induced by alarmins such as high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Inflammasomes are also implicated in the process of spontaneous preterm labor with acute chorioamnionitis. Therefore, we investigated whether HMGB1 initiates an inflammasome-associated inflammatory response in the chorioamniotic membranes. Incubation of the chorioamniotic membranes with HMGB1: 1) induced the release of mature IL-1beta and IL-6; 2) upregulated the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators NFKB1, IL6, TNF, IL1A, IFNG, and HMGB1 receptors RAGE and TLR2; 3) upregulated the mRNA expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and AIM2, and NOD proteins (NOD1 and NOD2); 4) increased the protein concentrations of NLRP3 and NOD2; 5) increased the concentration of caspase-1 and the quantity of its active form (p20); and 6) upregulated the mRNA expression and active form of MMP-9...
November 2, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806942/placental-hypoxia-during-early-pregnancy-causes-maternal-hypertension-and-placental-insufficiency-in-the-hypoxic-guinea-pig-model
#2
Loren P Thompson, Laramie Pence, Gerard Pinkas, Hong Song, Bhanu P Telugu
Chronic placental hypoxia is one of the root causes of placental insufficiencies that result in preeclampsia and maternal hypertension. Chronic hypoxia causes disruption of trophoblast (TB) development, invasion into maternal decidua, and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries. The pregnant guinea pig shares several characteristics with humans such as hemomonochorial placenta, villous subplacenta, deep TB invasion and remodeling of maternal arteries, and is an ideal animal model to study placental development...
November 2, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784654/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-rescues-proximity-associations-of-its-receptor-components-calcitonin-receptor-like-receptor-and-receptor-activity-modifying-protein1-in-rat-uterine-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-exposed-to-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha
#3
Yuanlin Dong, Madhu Chauhan, Michael Belfort, Chandra Yallampalli
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CALCB), adrenomedullin (ADM) and adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2)/intermedin (IMD) play critical roles in vascular adaptation during pregnancy through calcitonin-receptor-like-receptor (CALCRL) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). This study was designed to assess the predominant RAMP that associates with CALCRL to form a functional receptor in the rat uterine artery smooth muscle (RUASM). We also determined if these receptor component associations are decreased by TNF-α and if CALCB, ADM or ADM2 can rescue CRLR/RAMP associations...
October 26, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760752/ectopic-trophoblast-allografts-in-the-horse-resist-destruction-by-secondary-immune-responses
#4
Margaret M Brosnahan, Emily J Silvela, Jessica Crumb, Donald C Miller, Hollis N Erb, Douglas F Antczak
Invasive trophoblast from Day-34 horse conceptuses survives in extra-uterine sites in allogeneic recipients that are immunologically naïve to donor major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. The ectopic trophoblast retains its in utero characteristics, including similar lifespan, physiologic effect of its secreted product (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) upon the recipient's ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not been considered previously in this experimental system...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760751/phospholipid-profile-and-distribution-in-the-receptive-oviduct-and-uterus-during-early-diestrus-in-cattle
#5
Katia Roberta A Belaz, Alessandra Tata, Moana R França, Maressa I Santos da Silva, Pedro Henrique Vendramini, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Fábio L D'Alexandri, Marcos N Eberlin, Mario Binelli
Phospholipid metabolism and signaling influences on early pregnancy events in cattle are unknown. This study aimed to characterize global phospholipid composition of oviduct and uterus during early diestrus in a model of contrasting embryo receptivity. Beef cows were treated to ovulate a larger (LF-LCL group, associated with greater receptivity) or smaller follicle (SF-SCL group) and, consequently, to present greater or smaller plasma concentrations of estradiol during proestrus-estrus as well as progesterone during early diestrus...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760750/random-allocation-of-blastomere-descendants-to-the-trophectoderm-and-icm-of-the-bovine-blastocyst
#6
Lessly P Sepulveda-Rincon, Delphine Dube, Pierre Adenot, Ludivine Laffont, Sylvie Ruffini, Laurence Gall, Bruce K Campbell, Veronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean, Walid E Maalouf
The first lineage specification during mammalian embryo development can be visually distinguished at blastocyst stage. Two cell lineages are observed on the embryonic/abembryonic axis of the blastocyst: the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. The timing and mechanisms driving this process are still not fully understood. In mouse embryos, cells seem pre-patterned to become certain cell lineage; as the first cleavage plane has been related with further embryonic-abembryonic axis at blastocyst stage. Nevertheless, this possibility has been very debatable...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760749/circulating-mirnas-as-potential-alternative-cell-signaling-associated-with-maternal-recognition-of-pregnancy-in-the-mare
#7
Kristin M Klohonatz, Ashley D Cameron, Joanna R Hergenreder, Juliano C da Silveira, Aeriel D Belk, D N R Veeramachaneni, Gerrit J Bouma, Jason E Bruemmer
During early pregnancy the conceptus and mare communicate to establish pregnancy. Cell-secreted vesicles (e.g. exosomes) have been reported in serum. Exosomes contain bioactive materials, such as miRNA, that can mediate cell responses. We hypothesized that (i) exosomes are present in mare circulation and quantity varies with pregnancy status, (ii) exosomes contain miRNAs unique to pregnancy status, and (iii) miRNAs target pathways in endometrium based upon pregnancy status of the mare. First, serum samples were obtained from mares in a crossover design, with each mare providing samples from a pregnant and non-mated control cycle (n = 3/sample day) on Days 12, 14, 16, and 18 post-ovulation...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760748/the-local-and-systemic-immune-response-to-intrauterine-lps-in-the-prepartum-mouse
#8
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation induced complications of pregnancy including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 µg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733380/the-unfolded-protein-response-regulates-uterine-myocyte-anti-oxidant-responsiveness-during-pregnancy
#9
Saiprasad Ramnarayanan, Chandrashekara Kyathanahalli, Judith Ingles, Miejung Park-York, Pancharatnam Jeyasuria, Jennifer C Condon
There is considerable evidence that implicates oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of human pregnancy complications. However the role and the mechanism of maintaining an anti-oxidant pro-survival uterine environment during normal pregnancy is largely unresolved. Herein we report the highly active uterine unfolded protein response plays a key role in promoting anti-oxidant activity in the uterine myocyte across gestation. The unfolded protein response senses the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activates a signaling network that consists of the transmembrane protein kinase eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3/PKR-like-ER kinase (EIF2AK3), which acts to decrease protein translation levels allowing for a lowered need for protein folding during periods of ER stress...
October 12, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733378/function-and-hormonal-regulation-of-gata3-in-human-first-trimester-placentation
#10
Bora Lee, Lindsay L Kroener, Ning Xu, Erica T Wang, Alexandra Banks, John Williams, Mark O Goodarzi, Yii-der I Chen, Jie Tang, Yizhou Wang, Vineela Gangalapudi, Margareta D Pisarska
Pregnancies resulting from fresh in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles exposed to supra-physiologic estrogen levels have been associated with higher rates of low birth weight and small for gestational age babies. We identified GATA3, a transcription factor selectively expressed in the trophectoderm during the blastocyst stage of embryo development, in an upstream analysis of genes that were differentially methylated in chorionic villus samples between IVF and non-IVF infertility treatment (NIFT) pregnancies. In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that GATA3 is hormonally regulated and plays an important functional role in trophoblast migration, invasion and placentation...
October 12, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707713/cauda-epididymis-specific-beta-defensin-126-promotes-sperm-motility-but-not-fertilizing-ability-in-cattle
#11
Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Fernando Narciandi, Cliona O'Farrelly, Alan K Kelly, Sean Fair, Kieran G Meade, Patrick Lonergan
Bovine beta-defensin 126 (BBD126) exhibits preferential expression for the cauda epididymis of males, where it is absorbed onto the tail and post acrosomal region of sperm. The aim of this study was to examine the role of BBD126 in bull sperm function. Fresh and frozen-thawed semen were incubated in the presence of different capacitating agents, as well as with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. These treatments, which have been successful in releasing beta-defensin 126 from macaque sperm, proved to be ineffective in bull sperm...
October 5, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707712/sperm-coating-beta-defensin-126-is-a-dissociation-resistant-dimer-produced-by-epididymal-epithelium-in-the-bovine-reproductive-tract
#12
Fernando Narciandi, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Ilaina Khairulzaman, Hanne Jahns, Deirdre King, Emma K Finlay, Ken H Mok, Sean Fair, Pat Lonergan, Cliona O'Farrelly, Kieran G Meade
β-Defensins are innate immune molecules, often described as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) because of their bactericidal activity and are now known to have diverse additional functions including in cell signalling, chemoattraction, immunoregulation and reproduction. In humans and primates, β-defensin (BD) 126 has been shown to regulate the ability of sperm to swim through cervical mucus and to protect sperm from attack by the female immune system during transit towards the oviduct. Bovine β-defensin 126 (BBD126) is the ortholog of human defensin 126, and here, computational analysis revealed significant conservation between BBD126 and other mammalian orthologs at the N-terminus, although extensive sequence differences were detected at the C-terminus, implying possible species-specific roles for this β-defensin in reproduction...
October 5, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707711/embryo-mortality-around-the-period-of-maintenance-of-the-corpus-luteum-causes-alterations-to-the-ovarian-function-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#13
Robert Wijma, Matias L Stangaferro, Manasi M Kamat, Sreelakshmi Vasudevan, Troy L Ott, Julio O Giordano
Objectives were to identify cows with embryo mortality (EM) around the period of corpus luteum (CL) maintenance by Interferon tau (IFNT) and characterize ovarian function in cows that underwent EM. Lactating Holstein cows received AI (Day = 0) with semen or extender only. From Day 14 to 42 transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily to monitor ovarian dynamics and uterine contents whereas blood was collected every 48 h to determine ISG15 and MX2 mRNA abundance in blood mononuclear cells (Day 14 to 22 only) and determination of hormone concentrations...
October 5, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683266/rosiglitazone-improves-stallion-sperm-motility-atp-content-and-mitochondrial-function
#14
Aleona Swegen, Sarah Renay Lambourne, R John Aitken, Zamira Gibb
Media used for equine sperm storage often contain relatively high concentrations of glucose, even though stallion spermatozoa preferentially utilize oxidative phosphorylation over glycolysis to generate ATP and support motility. Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic compound that enhances metabolic flexibility and glucose utilization in various cell types, but its effects on sperm metabolism are unknown. This study investigated the effects of rosiglitazone on stallion sperm function in vitro, along with the possible role of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in mediating these effects...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683265/spatial-characterization-of-bioenergetics-and-metabolism-of-primordial-to-preovulatory-follicles-in-whole-ex-vivo-murine-ovary
#15
Rachel Cinco, Michelle A Digman, Enrico Gratton, Ulrike Luderer
Previous work characterizing ovarian bioenergetics has defined follicular metabolism by measuring metabolic byproducts in culture media. However, culture conditions perturb the native state of the follicle, and these methods do not distinguish between metabolism occurring within oocytes or granulosa cells. We applied the phasor approach to fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (Phasor FLIM) at 740 nm 2-photon excitation to examine the spatial distribution of free and protein-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) during primordial through preovulatory stages of follicular development in fresh ex vivo murine neonatal and gonadotropin stimulated pre-pubertal ovaries...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683264/apelin-apln-and-apelin-receptor-aplnr-in-human-ovary-expression-signaling-and-regulation-of-steroidogenesis-in-primary-human-luteinized-granulosa-cells
#16
Jennifer Roche, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Reverchon, Namya Mellouk, Marion Cornuau, Fabrice Guerif, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Apelin (APLN) is a recently discovered adipokine involved in the regulation of various metabolic functions. Its receptor, APLNR, is expressed in reproductive tissues, however, its role in human ovarian cells is unknown. In this study we identified APLN and APLNR in human ovarian follicles and analyzed their expression in granulosa cells and follicular fluid obtained from obese and non-obese patients, with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We also investigated the effect of APLN on steroidogenesis in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hGCs) from non-obese patients without PCOS...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683263/smad3-activation-a-converging-point-of-dysregulated-tgf-beta-superfamily-signaling-and-genetic-aberrations-in-granulosa-cell-tumor-development
#17
Xin Fang, Yang Gao, Qinglei Li
Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare gynecologic tumors in women. Due to the rarity and limited research efforts invested, the etiology of GCTs remains poorly defined. A landmark study has discovered the mutation of forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) as a genetic hallmark of adult GCTs in the human. However, our understanding of the role of cell signaling in GCT development is far from complete. Increasing lines of evidence highlight the importance of TGF-beta (TGFB) superfamily signaling in the pathogenesis of GCTs...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683262/hypoxic-stress-forces-irreversible-differentiation-of-a-majority-of-mouse-trophoblast-stem-cells-to-giant-cell-fate-despite-fgf4
#18
Yu Yang, Marcia Arenas-Hernandez, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Jing Dai, Graham C Parker, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
Hypoxic, hyperosmotic, and genotoxic stress slow mouse trophoblast stem cell (mTSC) proliferation, decrease potency/stemness and increase differentiation. Previous reports suggest a period of reversibility in stress-induced mTSC differentiation. Here we show that hypoxic stress at 0.5% O2 decreased potency factor protein by ~60-90% and reduced growth to nil. Hypoxia caused a 35-fold increase in apoptosis at Day 3 and a 2-fold increase at Day 6 above baseline. The baseline apoptosis rate was only 0.3%. Total protein was never less than baseline during hypoxic treatment, suggesting 0...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655786/mutations-in-the-mov10l1-atp-hydrolysis-motif-cause-pirna-biogenesis-failure-and-male-sterility-in-mice
#19
Qi Fu, Radha Raman Pandey, N Adrian Leu, Ramesh S Pillai, P Jeremy Wang
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs. piRNAs protect the genome integrity of the germline by silencing active transposable elements and are essential for germ cell development. Most piRNA pathway proteins are evolutionarily conserved. MOV10L1, a testis-specific RNA helicase, binds to piRNA precursors and is a master regulator of piRNA biogenesis in mouse. Here we report that mutation of the MOV10L1 ATP hydrolysis site leads to depletion of piRNAs on Piwi proteins, de-repression of transposable elements, and conglomeration of piRNA pathway proteins into polar granules...
September 21, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27655785/functional-roles-of-fructose-crosstalk-between-o-linked-glycosylation-and-phosphorylation-of-akt-tsc2-mtor-cell-signaling-cascade-in-ovine-trophectoderm-cells
#20
Xiaoqiu Wang, Defa Li, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
During pregnancy, the placentae of ungulate mammals (e.g., cows, sheep, and pigs) convert glucose into fructose which is the most abundant hexose sugar in fetal fluids and blood. However, the role of fructose, the most enigmatic component of carbohydrate metabolism in fetal-placental tissues, is largely ignored since it is not metabolized via the glycolytic pathway or the Krebs cycle as an energy source. Here we provided evidence for biological functions of fructose that affect proliferative behavior of the conceptus trophectoderm/chorion via activation of the Akt-TSC2-MTOR signaling cascade...
September 21, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
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