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Biology of Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30649216/reducing-time-to-pregnancy-and-facilitating-the-birth-of-healthy-children-through-functional-analysis-of-embryo-physiology
#1
Laura Ferrick, Yee Shan Lisa Lee, David K Gardner
An ever-increasing number of couples rely on assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in order to conceive a child. Although advances in embryo culture have led to increases in the success rates of clinical ART, it often takes more than one treatment cycle to conceive a child. Ensuring patients conceive as soon as possible with a healthy embryo is a priority for reproductive medicine. Currently, selection of embryos for transfer relies predominantly on the morphological assessment of the preimplantation embryo, however, morphology is not an absolute link to embryo physiology, nor the health of the resulting child...
January 16, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30649198/rnf216-is-essential-for-spermatogenesis-and-male-fertility
#2
Ashley F Melnick, Yuen Gao, Jiali Liu, Deqiang Ding, Alicia Predom, Catherine Kelly, Rex A Hess, Chen Chen
Ring finger protein 216 (RNF216) belongs to the RING family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that are involved in cellular protein degradation. Mutations in human Rnf216 gene have been identified in Gordon Holmes syndrome, which is defined by ataxia, dementia and hypogonadotropism. However, the gene function of Rnf216 in mammalian species remains unknown. Here, we show that targeted deletion of Rnf216 in mice results in disruption in spermatogenesis and male infertility. RNF216 is not required for female fertility. These findings reveal an essential function of RNF216 in spermatogenesis and male fertility and suggest a critical role for RNF216 in human gonadal development...
January 15, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30649202/the-orientation-of-a-decellularized-uterine-scaffold-determines-the-tissue-topology-and-architecture-of-the-regenerated-uterus-in-rats
#3
Fumie Miki, Tetsuo Maruyama, Kaoru Miyazaki, Tomoka Takao, Yushi Yoshimasa, Satomi Katakura, Hanako Hihara, Sayaka Uchida, Hirotaka Masuda, Hiroshi Uchida, Toshihiro Nagai, Shinsuke Shibata, Mamoru Tanaka
A decellularized uterine scaffold (DUS) prepared from rats permits recellularization and regeneration of uterine tissues when placed onto a partially excised uterus and supports pregnancy in a fashion comparable to the intact uterus. The underlying extracellular matrix (ECM) together with an acellular, perfusable vascular architecture preserved in DUS is thought to be responsible for appropriate regeneration of the uterus. To investigate this concept, we examined the effect of the orientation of the DUS-preserving ECM and the vascular architecture on uterine regeneration through placement of a DUS onto a partially defective uterine area in the reversed orientation such that the luminal face of the DUS was outside and the serosal face was inside...
January 14, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30649196/the-wilms-tumor-gene-wt1-kts-isoforms-regulate-steroidogenesis-by-modulating-the-pi3k-akt-and-erk1-2-pathways-in-bovine-granulosa-cells
#4
Kai Meng, Xiaomei Wang, Yuanyuan He, Jiashu Yang, Hengqin Wang, Yong Zhang, Fusheng Quan
The Wilms' tumor (WT) gene WT1 encodes the splicing variants WT1(+ KTS) and WT1(- KTS). Recent data suggest that WT1 plays an important role in the development of mice follicles. However, the mechanism through which WT1 influences ovarian steroidogenesis remains unknown. This study identified WT1 and evaluated the impact of splicing variants WT1(+ KTS) and WT1(- KTS) on steroidogenesis using adult bovine granulosa cells (GCs). Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, we found that the ratio between WT1(+ KTS) and WT1(- KTS) was stabilized...
January 14, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30649195/atrx-is-downstream-of-pka-in-the-meiotic-cell-cycle-signaling-cascade-in-xenopus-oocytes-and-is-dynamically-regulated-in-response-to-dna-damage
#5
Lynne C O'Shea, Trudee Fair, Carmel Hensey
ATRX is a chromatin remodeling protein that belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 family of helicase/ATPases. During meiosis ATRX is necessary for heterochromatin formation and maintenance of chromosome stability in order to ensure proper assembly of the metaphase II spindle. Previously we established ATRX as a novel progesterone regulated protein during bovine meiotic maturation, in addition to being dynamically regulated in response to DNA damage in oocytes. In the present study we utilize the Xenopus laevis model system to further elucidate the signaling pathways regulating ATRX expression within the oocyte...
January 14, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30629144/effects-of-macrophage-depletion-on-characteristics-of-cervix-remodeling-and-pregnancy-in-cd11b-dtr-mice
#6
S M Yellon, E Greaves, A C Heuerman, A E Dobyns, J E Norman
To test the hypothesis that macrophages are essential for remodeling the cervix in preparation for birth, pregnant homozygous CD11b-dtr mice were injected with diphtheria toxin (DT) on days 14 and 16 postbreeding. On day 15 postbreeding, macrophages (F4/80 + ) were depleted in cervix, kidney, but not liver, ovary, or other non-reproductive tissues in DT- compared to saline-treated dtr mice or wildtype controls given DT or saline. Within 24h of DT-treatment, the density of cell nuclei and macrophages declined in cervix stroma in dtr mice versus controls, but birefringence of collagen, as an indication of extracellular cross-linked structure, remained unchanged...
January 9, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30601943/bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cells-contribute-to-vasculogenesis-of-pregnant-mouse-uterus
#7
Reshef Tal, Dirong Dong, Shafiq Shaikh, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Hugh S Taylor
Angiogenesis is essential for cyclic endometrial growth, implantation and pregnancy maintenance. Vasculogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels by bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), has been shown to contribute to endometrial vasculature. However, it is unknown whether vasculogenesis occurs in neovascularization of the decidua during pregnancy. To investigate the contribution of BM-derived EPCs to vascularization of the pregnant uterus, we induced non-gonadotoxic submyeloablation by 5-fluorouracil administration to wild-type FVB/N female mice recipients followed by BM transplantation from transgenic mice expressing GFP under regulation of Tie2 endothelial-specific promoter...
January 2, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596891/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-endometrial-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-embryo-yield-and-quality-in-an-aged-murine-model
#8
Federica Marinaro, Beatriz Macías-García, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Rebeca Blázquez, Verónica Álvarez, Elvira Matilla, Nuria Hernández, María Gómez-Serrano, Inmaculada Jorge, Jesús Vázquez, Lauro González-Fernández, Eva Pericuesta, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Javier G Casado
Advanced age is a risk factor undermining women´s fertility. Hence, the optimization of assisted reproduction techniques is an interdisciplinary challenge that requires the improvement of in vitro culture systems. Here, we hypothesize that supplementation of embryo culture medium with extracellular vesicles from endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EV-endMSCs) may have a positive impact on the embryo competence of aged oocytes. In this work, 24 weeks old B6D2 female mice were used as egg donors and in vitro fertilization assays were performed using males from the same strain (8-12 weeks); the presumptive zygotes were incubated in the presence of 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml of EV-endMSCs...
December 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596890/maternal-high-fat-diet-alters-angiotensin-ii-receptors-and-causes-changes-in-fetal-and-neonatal-rats
#9
Qin Xue, Fangyuan Chen, Haichuan Zhang, Yinghua Liu, Pinxian Chen, Andrew J Patterson, Jiandong Luo
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy is linked to cardiovascular diseases in postnatal life. The current study tested the hypothesis that maternal HFD causes myocardial changes through angiotensin II receptor (AGTR) expression modulation in fetal and neonatal rat hearts. The control group of pregnant rats were fed a normal diet and the treatment group of pregnant rats was on a HFD (60% kcal fat). Hearts were isolated from embryonic day 21 fetuses (E21) and postnatal day 7 pups (PD7). Maternal HFD decreased the body weight of the offspring in both E21 and PD7...
December 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30596885/inhibition-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-can-prevent-sterile-intra-amniotic-inflammation-preterm-labor-birth-and-adverse-neonatal-outcomes
#10
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Yaozhu Leng, Derek Miller, Sonia S Hassan, Chaur-Dong Hsu, Bogdan Panaitescu
Preterm labor is a syndrome of multiple pathological processes that commonly leads to preterm birth, the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation is commonly observed in patients with preterm labor. However, the mechanisms that lead to sterile intra-amniotic inflammation are poorly understood and there is no treatment for this clinical condition. Herein, we investigated whether the alarmin S100B could induce sterile intra-amniotic inflammation by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome, and whether the inhibition of such a pathway could prevent preterm labor and birth and adverse neonatal outcomes...
December 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30590393/inflammation-induced-intra-amniotic-inflammation-induces-preterm-birth-by-activating-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#11
Jonathan Faro, Roberto Romero, George Schwenkel, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Marcia Arenas-Hernandez, Yaozhu Leng, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Sonia S Hassan, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Intra-amniotic inflammation/infection is strongly associated with spontaneous preterm labor and birth, the leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Previous studies have suggested a role for the NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome in the mechanisms that lead to preterm labor and birth. However, a causal link between the NLRP3 inflammasome and preterm labor/birth induced by intra-amniotic inflammation has not been established. Herein, using an animal model of lipopolysaccharide-induced intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI), we demonstrated that there was priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome 1) at the transcriptional level, indicated by enhanced mRNA expression of inflammasome-related genes (Nlrp3, Casp1, Il1b); and 2) at the protein level, indicated by greater protein concentrations of NLRP3, in both the fetal membranes and decidua basalis prior to preterm birth...
December 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30561524/disruption-of-usp26-gene-causes-male-subfertility-associated-with-spermatogenesis-defects-in-mice
#12
Hong Tian, Yongwei Huo, Jie Zhang, Shangshu Ding, Zhiyong Wang, Hecheng Li, Lirong Wang, Ming Lu, Sen Liu, Shudong Qiu, Qiuyang Zhang
Ubiquitin-specific protease 26 (USP26) is an X-linked gene exclusively expressed in the testis and codes for the USP26, a peptidase enzyme that belongs to the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) family. Recent studies have indicated that mutations in USP26 affect spermatogenesis and are associated with male infertility in humans and mice. However, the exact role of USP26 in spermatogenesis and how it affects male reproduction remains unknown. In this study, we generated a conventional Usp26 knockout (KO) mouse model and found that deletion of Usp26 in male mice (Usp26-/Y) leads to significantly reduced pup numbers per litter and significantly increased intervals between two consecutive offspring...
December 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30561512/heterosis-extends-the-reproductive-ability-in-aged-female-mice
#13
Yusuke Ozawa, Kenji Watanabe, Toshihiko Toda, Shuichi Shibuya, Nobuaki Okumura, Naoki Okamoto, Yorino Sato, Ikko Kawashima, Kazuhiro Kawamura, Takahiko Shimizu
Heterosis is the beneficial effect of genetical heterozygosity in animals and plants. Although heterosis induces changes in the cells and individual abilities, few reports have described the effect of heterosis on the female reproductive ability during aging. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive capability of genetically heterozygous (HET) mice established by the four-way crossing of C57BL/6N, BALB/c, C3H/He, and DBA/2. We found the HET females naturally and repeatedly produced offspring, even in old age (14-18 months of age)...
December 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30561525/chemotherapeutic-agent-doxorubicin-alters-uterine-gene-expression-in-response-to-estrogen-in-ovariectomized-cd-1-adult-mice
#14
Christian Lee Andersen, Mingjun Liu, Zidao Wang, Xiaoqin Ye, Shuo Xiao
Chemotherapy can potentially impair fertility in premenopausal cancer patients. Female fertility preservation has been mainly focused on the ovarian aspects and benefited greatly from assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). The rate-limiting step for the success of IVF is embryo implantation in the uterus. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with ovarian toxicity. It remains unknown if the uterus is a direct target of DOX. To circumvent the indirect uterine effect from ovarian toxicity of DOX and to investigate potential long-term impact of DOX on the uterus, young adult ovariectomized CD-1 mice were given an intraperitoneal injection once with PBS or DOX (10 mg/kg, a human relevant chemotherapeutic dose), and 30 days later, each set of mice was randomly assigned into three groups and subcutaneously injected with oil, 17β-estradiol (E2, for 6 hours), and progesterone (P4, for 54 hours), respectively...
December 17, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551176/in-vitro-breeding-application-of-embryonic-stem-cells-to-animal-production
#15
Daniel E Goszczynski, Hao Cheng, Sebastian Demyda-Peyrás, Juan F Medrano, Jun Wu, Pablo J Ross
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation blastocysts. For decades, attempts to efficiently derive ESCs in animal livestock species have been unsuccessful, but this goal has recently been achieved in cattle. Together with the recent reconstitution of the germ cell differentiation processes from ESCs in mice, these achievements open new avenues for the development of promising technologies oriented toward improving health, animal production and the environment. In this article, we present a strategy that will notably accelerate genetic improvement in livestock populations by reducing the generational interval, namely in vitro breeding (IVB)...
December 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544156/uterine-microbiome-low-biomass-and-high-expectations
#16
Iolanda Garcia-Grau, Carlos Simon, Inmaculada Moreno
The existence of different bacterial communities throughout the female reproductive tract has challenged the traditional view of human fetal development as a sterile event. There is still no consensus on what physiological microbiota exists in the upper reproductive tract of the vast majority of women who are not in periods of infection or pregnancy, and the role of bacteria that colonize the upper reproductive tract in uterine diseases or pregnancy outcomes is not well established. Despite published studies and advances in uterine microbiome sequencing, some study aspects-such as study design, sampling method, DNA extraction, sequencing methods, downstream analysis, and assignment of taxa-have not yet been improved and standardized...
December 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541061/dna-demethylation-facilitates-the-specific-transcription-of-the-mouse-x-linked-tsga8-gene-in-round-spermatids
#17
Yongjie Lu, Shunyao Liao, Wenling Tu, Bo Yang, Shasha Liu, Xue Pei, Dachang Tao, Yilu Lu, Yongxin Ma, Yuan Yang, Yunqiang Liu
Some X-linked genes necessary for spermiogenesis are specifically activated in the post-meiotic germ cells. However, the regulatory mechanism about this activation is not clearly understood. Here, we examined the potential mechanism controlling the transcriptional activation of the mouse testis specific gene A8 (Tsga8) gene in round spermatids. We observed that the Tsga8 expression was negatively correlated with the methylation level of the CpG sites in its core promoter. During spermatogenesis, the Tsga8 promoter was methylated in spermatogonia, and then demethylated in spermatocytes...
December 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535233/inhibition-of-scf-complexes-during-bovine-oocyte-maturation-and-preimplantation-development-leads-to-delayed-development-of-embryos
#18
Veronika Kinterova, Jiri Kanka, Petruskova Veronika, Tereza Toralova
The mechanism of maternal protein degradation during preimplantation development has not been clarified yet. It is thought that a lot of maternal proteins are degraded by ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this study, we focused on the role of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box) complexes during early bovine embryogenesis. We inhibited it using MLN4924, an inhibitor of SCF complex ligases controlled by neddylation. Oocytes maturated in MLN4924 could be fertilized, but we found no cumulus cells expansion and a high number of polyspermy after in vitro fertilization...
December 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517597/expression-profiles-and-characteristics-of-human-lncrna-in-normal-and-asthenozoospermia-sperm
#19
Xiaoning Zhang, Peng Zhang, Dandan Song, Suping Xiong, Hongyan Zhang, Jianbo Fu, Fengxin Gao, Houyang Chen, Xuhui Zeng
Increasing studies have shown that specific mRNAs and miRNAs expressed in mature sperm may be related to sperm motility. However, the expression profiles and roles of lncRNAs in sperm remain unknown. In the present study, numerous lncRNAs were identified in human sperm, and some lncRNAs were expressed exclusively in sperm and testis. Compared with normal sperm, the lncRNA expression profiles in asthenozoospermia (AZS) sperm showed significant differences. Gene ontology and pathway analyses showed that function of differentially expressed lncRNA targets and mRNAs between AZS and normal sperm were closely-linked with many processes involved in spermatogenesis and sperm function...
December 4, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496353/recombinant-adiponectin-alleviates-abortion-in-mice-by-regulating-th17-treg-imbalance-via-p38mapk-stat5-pathway
#20
Weihong Li, Lihong Geng, Xiru Liu, Wenwu Gui, Hongbo Qi
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is associated with abnormal maternal tolerance to the semi-allogenic fetus, wherein the Th17/Treg axis plays a crucial role. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocytokine that is shown to be a novel negative T-cell regulator and induce immune tolerance. The CBA/J × DBA/2 mating was used as an abortion-prone model to investigate whether the addition of recombinant adiponectin (rAPN) improves the pregnancy outcome. rAPN therapy reduced the abortion rate in abortion-prone model...
November 28, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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