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Biology of Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239614/sperm-capacitation-is-associated-with-phosphorylation-of-the-testis-specific-radial-spoke-protein-rsph6a
#1
Bidur Paudel, María Gracia Gervasi, James Porambo, Diego Caraballo, Darya Tourzani, Jesse Mager, Mark D Platt, Ana María Salicioni, Pablo E Visconti
Mammalian sperm undergo a series of biochemical and physiological changes collectively known as capacitation in order to acquire the ability to fertilize. Although the increase in phosphorylation associated with mouse sperm capacitation is well established, the identity of the proteins involved in this signaling cascade remain largely unknown. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been used to identify the exact sites of phosphorylation and to compare the relative extent of phosphorylation at these sites. In the present work, we find that a novel site of phosphorylation on a peptide derived from the radial spoke protein Rsph6a is more phosphorylated in capacitated mouse sperm...
September 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203065/faster-and-more-efficient-swimming-energy-consumption-of-murine-spermatozoa-under-sperm-competition
#2
Maximiliano Tourmente, María Varea-Sánchez, Eduardo R S Roldan
ATP supply is essential for sperm performance and increases in ATP content coevolve with enhanced sperm swimming velocity as a response to sperm competition in rodents. ATP content is the balance between production and consumption but, although ATP production has received much attention, little is known about ATP consumption. The rate of ATP consumption is crucial for the propagation of the flagellar wave, becoming a main determinant of the time and distance sperm could move before exhausting their reserves...
September 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203055/title-interferon-tau-dependent-and-independent-effects-of-the-bovine-conceptus-on-the-endometrial-transcriptome
#3
Daniel J Mathew, José M Sánchez, Claudia Passaro, Gilles Charpigny, Susanta K Behura, Thomas E Spencer, Patrick Lonergan
This study investigated bovine conceptus-induced modifications to the endometrial transcriptome related to effects of interferon tau (IFNT), conceptus origin (in vivo vs. in vitro) and conceptus sex. In vitro (IVF) or in vivo (superovulation and artificial insemination, AI) produced blastocysts were transferred into recipient heifers on Day 7 of the estrous cycle. On Day 15, IVF- or AI-derived conceptuses were obtained by uterine flushing and individually placed on endometrial explants in media for 6 h. Explants were also cultured with media alone as a control or media containing 100 ng/mL IFNT...
September 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202948/the-mtorc1-component-rptor-is-required-for-maintenance-of-the-foundational-spermatogonial-stem-cell-pool-in-mice
#4
Nicholas Serra, Ellen K Velte, Bryan A Niedenberger, Oleksander Kirsanov, Christopher B Geyer
The self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of the spermatogonial populations must be finely coordinated in the mammalian testis, as dysregulation of these processes can lead to subfertility, infertility, or the formation of tumors. There are wide gaps in our understanding of how these spermatogonial populations are formed and maintained, and our laboratory has focused on identifying the molecular and cellular pathways that direct their development. Others and we have shown, using a combination of pharmacologic inhibitors and genetic models, that activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is important for spermatogonial differentiation in vivo...
September 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188986/glucocorticoid-receptor-isoforms-and-effects-of-glucocorticoids-in-ovulated-mouse-oocytes-and-preimplantation-embryos
#5
Štefan Cikoš, Janka Babelová, Alexandra Špirková, Ján Burkuš, Veronika Kovaríková, Zuzana Šefcíková, Dušan Fabian, Juraj Koppel
To investigate possible involvement of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in mediating effects of maternal stress or therapeutically administered glucocorticoids on early embryo we analyzed the expression of GR subtypes in ovulated mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. RT-PCR analysis results showed that GRα and GRγ transcripts are relatively highly expressed in mouse oocytes, and both transcripts are present at lower amounts in preimplantation embryos. We also detected low expression of two other splice variants, GRβ and a transcript orthologous to the human GR-P subtype, mainly at the blastocyst stage...
September 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184111/molecular-differential-diagnosis-of-uterine-leiomyomas-and-leiomyosarcomas
#6
A Mas, C Simón
Uterine leiomyomas (LM) and leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are considered biologically unrelated tumors due to their cytogenetic and molecular disparity. Yet, these tumors share morphological and molecular characteristics that cannot be differentiated through current clinical diagnostic tests, and thus cannot be definitively classified as benign or malignant until surgery. Newer approaches are needed for the identification of these tumors, as has been done for other tissues. The application of next generation sequencing (NGS) enables the detection of new mutations that, when coupled to machine learning bioinformatic tools, advances our understanding of chromosomal instability...
September 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184105/effects-of-letrozole-and-clomiphene-citrate-on-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-endometrium-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-healthy-women
#7
Shayesteh Mehdinejadiani, Fardin Amidi, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mahmood Barati, Azar Pazhohan, Ashraf Alyasin, Kobra Mehdinejadiani, Aligholi Sobhani
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. In addition to anovulation, endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS. The cyclical changes of endometrium are controlled by estrogen and progesterone via modulating Wnt/B-catenin pathway. Clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole are used to induce ovulation; unlike letrozole, there is a discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rates in CC-treated cycles. Because of the anti-estrogenic effects of CC on endometrium, we compared the expression of the key molecules of Wnt/B-catenin pathway in the endometrium of women taking CC and letrozole...
September 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184059/rapid-onset-of-severe-septic-shock-in-the-pregnant-mouse
#8
Julia Zöllner, Simon Lambden, Noor Mohd Nasri, James Leiper, Mark R Johnson
Aims: Globally, sepsis is a major cause of mortality through the combination of cardiovascular collapse and multi-organ dysfunction. Pregnancy appears to increase the risk of death in sepsis, but the exact reason for the greater severity is unclear. In this study, we used polymicrobial sepsis induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and high-dose intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 or 40mg, serotype 0111: B4) to test the hypotheses that pregnant mice are more susceptible to sepsis and that this susceptibility was mediated through an excessive innate response causing a more severe cardiovascular collapse rather than a reduction in microbe killing...
September 3, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165428/the-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-in-bovine-in-vitro-fertilized-embryos-is-associated-with-marked-changes-in-small-non-coding-rnas
#9
Jocelyn M Cuthbert, Stewart J Russell, Kenneth L White, Abby D Benninghoff
In mammals, small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been reported to be important during early embryo development. However, a comprehensive assessment of the inventory of sncRNAs during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) has not been performed in an animal model that better represents the sncRNAs biogenesis pathway in human oocytes and embryos. The objective of this study was to examine dynamic changes in expression of sncRNAs during the MZT in bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), which occurs at the 8-cell stage...
August 25, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165393/sendai-virus-mediated-transduction-of-mammalian-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#10
Satoshi Watanabe, Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Takashi Shinohara
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provide the foundation of spermatogenesis. However, because of their small number and slow self-renewal, transfection of SSCs has met with limited success. Although several viral vectors can infect SSCs, genome integration and an inability to maintain long-term gene expression have hampered studies on SSCs. Here we report successful SSC infection by Sendai virus (SV), an RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae. The SV efficiently transduced germline stem (GS) cells, cultured spermatogonia with enriched SSC activity, and maintained gene expression for at least 5 months...
August 25, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137221/structural-analysis-of-estrogen-receptors-interaction-between-estrogen-receptors-and-cav-1-within-the-caveolae
#11
Mayra B Pastore, Rosalina Villalon Landeros, Jayanth Ramadoss, Ronald R Magness
Pregnancy is a physiologic state of elevated estrogen biosynthesis, that maintains vasodilator production by uterine artery endothelial cells (UAECs) and thus uterine perfusion. Estrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β) stimulate non-genomic rapid vasodilatory responses partly through activation of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS). Rapid estrogenic responses are initiated by the ∼4% ERs localized to the plasmalemma of endothelial cells. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) interactions within the caveolae are theorized to influence estrogenic effects mediated by one or both ERs...
August 23, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137224/a-novel-noncoding-rna-mediated-post-transcriptional-mechanism-of-amh-regulation-by-the-h19-let-7-axis
#12
Chunrong Qin, Xi Xia, Yanhong Fan, Ying Jiang, Yong Chen, Na Zhang, Bahar Uslu, Joshua Johnson, Amanda N Kallen
In reproductive age women, the pool of primordial follicles is continuously depleted through the process of cyclic recruitment. AMH both inhibits the initial recruitment of primordial follicles into the growing pool and modulates the sensitivity of growing follicles to FSH. Thus, AMH may be an important modulator of female infertility and ovarian reserve; however, the mechanisms regulating AMH remain unclear.To evaluate AMH levels in the absence of H19 lncRNA, H19 knockout (H19KO) mice were evaluated for analysis of ovarian AMH gene expression, protein production, and reproductive function, including assessment of follicle numbers and litter size analysis...
August 21, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137229/associations-between-fetal-size-sex-and-placental-angiogenesis-in-the-pig%C3%A2
#13
Claire Stenhouse, Charis O Hogg, Cheryl J Ashworth
Inadequate fetal growth cannot be remedied postnatally, leading to severe consequences for neonatal and adult development. It is hypothesized that growth restriction occurs due to inadequate placental vascularization. This study investigated the relationship between porcine fetal size, sex and placental angiogenesis at multiple gestational days (GD).Placental samples supplying the lightest and closest to mean litter weight (CTMLW), male and female Large White X Landrace fetuses were obtained at GD30, 45, 60 and 90...
August 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137227/cadmium-induces-ovarian-granulosa-cell-damage-by-activating-perk-eif2%C3%AE-atf4-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress%C3%A2
#14
Jin Liu, Ling-Feng Luo, Dong-Liang Wang, Wen-Xiang Wang, Jian-Lin Zhu, Yu-Chen Li, Neng-Zhou Chen, Hui-Ling Huang, Wen-Chang Zhang
This study aimed to investigate whether cadmium induces ovarian granulosa cell damage by activating PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and to elucidate the underlying regulation mechanism. Two models of cadmium exposure were established. In one model, ovarian granulosa cells isolated from 21-day-old female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were cultured in vitro for 36 h and exposed to CdCl2 (0, 5, 10, and 20 μM), and in another model, a human ovarian granulosa tumor cell line (COV434) was used to construct the BIP- knockdown cell line sh-BIP and exposed to 0 and 20 μM CdCl2...
August 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137220/rosiglitazone-augments-antioxidant-response-in-the-human-trophoblast-and-prevents-apoptosis
#15
Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Brian A Kilburn, Leena Kadam, Eugenia Johnson, Bradley L Kolb, Javier Rodriguez-Kovacs, Michael Hertz, D Randall Armant, Sascha Drewlo
Insufficient perfusion of the trophoblast by maternal blood is associated with an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and complications of the placenta. In this study, we first examined whether rosiglitazone, an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), protects the human trophoblast from oxidative injury by regulating key antioxidant proteins, catalase (CAT) and the superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2). In first trimester placental explants, localization of CAT was limited to cytotrophoblasts, whereas SOD1 was expressed in both the cyto- and syncytiotrophoblasts...
August 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137219/a-rapidly-evolved-domain-the-scml2-dna-binding-sdb-repeats-contributes-to-chromatin-binding-of-mouse-scml2
#16
So Maezawa, Kris G Alavattam, Mayu Tatara, Rika Nagai, Artem Barski, Satoshi H Namekawa
Genes involved in sexual reproduction diverge rapidly as a result of reproductive fitness. Here, we identify a novel protein domain in the germline-specific Polycomb protein SCML2 that is required for the establishment of unique gene expression programs after the mitosis-to-meiosis transition in spermatogenesis. We term this novel domain, which is comprised of rapidly evolved, DNA-binding repeat units of 28 amino acids, the SCML2 DNA-binding (SDB) repeats. These repeats are acquired in a specific subgroup of the rodent lineage, having been subjected to positive selection in the course of evolution...
August 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137215/do-differences-in-the-endometrial-transcriptome-between-uterine-horns-ipsilateral-and-contralateral-to-the-corpus-luteum-influence-conceptus-growth-to-day-14-in-cattle-%C3%A2
#17
José María Sánchez, Claudia Passaro, Niamh Forde, John A Browne, Susanta K Behura, Beatriz Fernández-Fuertes, Daniel J Mathew, Alan K Kelly, Stephen T Butler, Thomas E Spencer, Pat Lonergan
Embryo transfer to the uterine horn contralateral to the ovary containing the corpus luteum (CL) negatively impacts pregnancy establishment in cattle. Our aim was to compare the transcriptome and ability of the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns to support preimplantation conceptus survival and growth to Day 14. In Experiment 1, endometrial samples from both horns were collected from synchronized heifers slaughtered on Day 5, 7, 13 or 16 post-estrus (n = 5 per time) and subjected to RNA sequencing...
August 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30137214/hmga2-is-regulated-by-lin28-and-brca1-in-human-placental-cells%C3%A2
#18
R C West, E S McWhorter, A Ali, L N Goetzman, J E Russ, R V Anthony, G J Bouma, Q A Winger
The chromatin associated transcription factor HMGA2 is a downstream target of let-7 miRNAs and binds to chromatin to regulate gene expression. Inhibition of let-7 miRNAs by RNA binding proteins LIN28A and LIN28B is necessary during early embryogenesis to ensure stable expression of HMGA2. In addition to LIN28, HMGA2 is regulated by a BRCA1/ZNF350/CtIP repressor complex. In normal tissues, the BRCA1/ZNF350/CtIP complex binds to the HMGA2 promoter to prevent transcription. However, in many cancers the oncomiR miR-182 targets BRCA1, preventing BRCA1 translation and allowing for increased HMGA2...
August 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107478/neonatal-lactocrine-deficiency-affects-the-adult-porcine-endometrial-transcriptome-at-pregnancy-day-13
#19
Ashley F George, Teh-Yuan Ho, Nripesh Prasad, Brittney N Keel, Jeremy R Miles, Jeffrey L Vallet, Frank F Bartol, Carol A Bagnell
Reproductive performance of female pigs that do not receive sufficient colostrum from birth is permanently impaired. Whether lactocrine deficiency, reflected by low serum immunoglobulin immunocrit (iCrit), affects patterns of endometrial gene expression during the periattachment period of early pregnancy is unknown. Here, objectives were to determine effects of low iCrit at birth on the adult endometrial transcriptome on pregnancy day (PxD) 13. On the first day of postnatal life, gilts were assigned to high or low iCrit groups...
August 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102356/testosterone-plays-a-permissive-role-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-and-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-male-rats
#20
Jay S Mishra, Amar S More, Kathirvel Gopalakrishnan, Sathish Kumar
Sex hormone-dependent vascular reactivity is an underlying factor contributing to sex differences in blood pressure. Inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in vascular dysfunction and hypertension. This study evaluated the role of androgens (testosterone) in angiotensin II (Ang II) -induced increase in blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. Eight weeks-old male Wistar rats underwent sham operation, castration, or castration with testosterone replacement...
August 8, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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